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Queen of the Night
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Cactaceae
Subfamily: Cactoideae
Tribe: Hylocereeae
Genus: Selenicereus
Species: S. grandiflorus
Binomial name
Selenicereus grandiflorus
(L.) Britton & Rose, (1909) Contr. US Nat. Herb. 2:430
Synonyms


Cactus grandiflorus L. (1753) Sp. Pl. 467

Cereus donkelaarii Salm-Dyck Allg. Gartenz. xiii.

Cereus grandiflorus (L.) Mill. (1768) Gard. Dict. ed. 8, no 11

Cereus grandiflorus affinis Salm-Dyck (1850) Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849:51, 216

Cereus grandiflorus var. spectabilis Karwinsky in Förster (1846) Handb.Cact. 415

Cereus scandens minor Boerhaave in Arendt (1891) Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 1:82

Cereus schmidtii (1894) Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4:189

Cereus grandiflorus var. minor Salm-Dyck

Cereus tellii hort. in Hildmann (1895) Monatsschr. Kakt. 5:43

Cereus grandiflorus var. haitiensis (1903) Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 13:183

Cereus hondurensis K. Schumann in Weingart (1904) Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14:147

Cereus grandiflorus uranos Riccobono (1909) Boo. R. Ort. Bot. Palermo 8:249

Selenicereus donkelaarii (Salm-Dyck) Britton & Rose (1917) Standard Cycl. Hortic. 3141

Selenicereus grandiflorus var. affinis (Salm-Dyck) Borg (1951) Cacti 206

Selenicereus grandiflorus var. tellii (hort. ex Riccobono) Borg (1951) Cacti 206

Selenicereus grandiflorus var. uranos (Riccobono) Borg (1951) 206

Cereus uranos hort.

Selenicereus hondurensis (K. Schumann) Britton & Rose (1909) Contr. US. Nat Herb. 12:430

Selenicereus grandiflorus is a cactus species originating from the Antilles, Mexico and Central America. The species is commonly referred to as Nightblooming Cereus, Queen of the Night (though these two terms are also used for other species), Large-flowered Cactus, Sweet-Scented Cactus or Vanilla Cactus. The true species is extremely rare in cultivation. Most of the plants under this name belong to other species or hybrids.

Contents

Common names

  • Afrikaans: Koningin van die Nag
  • Chinese:Tan Hua (昙花)
  • Danish: Nattens Dronning
  • Dutch: Koningin van de Nacht
  • English: Queen of the Night, Night-blooming Cereus, Large-flowering Cactus, Sweet-scented Cactus, Vanilla Cactus, Large Blooming Cereus, Large flowered torch thistle, Large-flowered Night Cactus
  • Estonian: Öökuninganna
  • Finnish: Yön Kuningatar
  • French: reine de la nuit, princesse de la nuit, cierge a grande fleurs, vierge a grandes fleurs, Cierge rampant à grandes fleurs, Fleur d'amour
  • German: Königin der Nacht, Schlangencereus, Schlangenkaktus
  • Italian: cacto grandifloro, regina della notte
  • Japanese: Gekka Bijin (Beautiful woman under the moon)
  • Malayalam: Nisha Ghanthi(Fragrance of the Night)
  • Portuguese: flor-de-baile, cardeiro trepador
  • Română: Cactus din Antilele Olandeze
  • Spanish: Reina de las Flores, Reina Gigante, Cardon, Gigante, Organillo, Reina de la noche.
  • Swedish: nattens drottning
  • Tamil/Telugu  : Brahma Kamalam (Lord Bhrahma's Flower)
  • Kannada: Brahma Kamala

Etymology

Grandiflorus (Lat.) = large flowered. When Carl von Linné descripted this cacti in 1753 it was the largest flowered species of cacti known. Paradoxally, are moderate in size compared with several other Selenicereus species.

History

The first species to be brought into cultivation. Linné (Linnaeus) descripted it in 1753, but it was known long before. Records from Hortus Kewensis gives that the species was grown at Royal Gardens at Hampton Court before 1700. There has been doubt about which plant was available to Linné when he drew up his description, but this is solved and both the plates on this side show the authentic species.

Origin and habitat

Greater Antilles (Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica & Haiti), Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, and a few other locations in South and Central America. Climbing on trees and on rocks. 700m alt. Extremely variable, especially in Jamaica, stems with slightly wavy to strongly knobby margins occurs in the same plant. Much confused in cultivation. Many species of Selenicereus should be reduced to synonyms of subspecies of this species, differing merely in degree rather than in kind.

Cultivation

An easily cultivated, fast growing epiphyte or lithophytic plant. Needs a compost containing plenty of humus and sufficient moisture in summer. Should not be kept under 5°C (41°F) in winter. Perform best if grown in full sun. Extra light in the early spring will stimulate budding. Flowers in late spring or early summer, only blooms one night a year or several years and withers within hours.

Description

Koenigin der Nacht Der Film wikipediaversion.ogg
The bloom and wither of a Selenicereus grandiflorus (time-lapse)

Stems scandent, clambering or sprawling, branching, sometimes forming tangles, producing aerial roots, stiff, to 10m long or more, (10)15-25(-30)mm thick; ribs (4-)7-8(-10), low, less so on older branches, separated by broad, rounded intervals, slightly wavy to strongly knobby; areoles small, wool white or greyish white, internodes (6-)12-20mm; spines 5-18, to 4,5-12mm, basally ca 0,25mm in Ø, acicular, elliptic or circular in cross section, bulbous basally, spreading, yellowish brown to brownish or yellow, grey in age, eventually deciduous]]; hairs from lower part of areole ± numerous white or brownish, mature vegetative areoles usually lacking hairs, juveline plants have spines shorter and fewer; epidermis glaucous green or bluish green, often ± purplish, smooth. Flowers 17-22,5 cm long, fragrant reminding or vanilla and orange-flower; pericarpel 25mm long, with bracteoles 5mm, strap-shaped and yellowish, covered with nearly white or tawny hairs and sharp bristles; receptacle 7,5-8,7 cm, bracteoles 5-14mm, strap-shaped to linear, yellowish with long, nearly white or tawny, wavy hairs and sharp bristles in their axils, ca 25mm long; outer tepals 7,5–10 cm long, averaging 4,5mm wide, linear-attenuate, light brown, salmon to pink buff, yellowish adaxially; inner tepals 7,5–10 cm long, 9- 12(-15)mm, shorter than outer tepals, wide, lanceolate, gradually narrowed into a pointed or acute apex, white; stamens 38-50mm long, delinate, white, anthers 1,5mm long, yellowish; style 15–20 cm long, often longer than inner tepals, 1,5mm greatest Ø, stigma lobes 7-12, ca 7,5mm long, slender. Fruit ovoid, 5–9 cm long, 4,5–7 cm thick, whitish, partly pink, pink, yellow or orange, covered with clusters of spines and hairs which soon drop off, juicy, the imbilicus small and inconspicuous. Four subspecies are recognized:

    • ssp. donkelaarii (Salm-Dyck) Ralf Bauer
    • ssp. grandiflorus
    • ssp. hondurensis (K.Schum. ex Weing.) Ralf Bauer
    • ssp. lautneri Ralf Bauer

Hybrids

Selenicereus ×callianthus (Gaillard) Lindinger (1942). This is a hybrid between this species and Selenicereus pteranthus. Many plants under the name Selenicereus grandiflorus may belong to this cross. It is very similar to Selenicereus pteranthus, but stems more slender and spines, longer and yellowish.

See also

External links

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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Unassigned core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales
Familia: Cactaceae
Subfamilia: Cactoideae
Tribus: Hylocereeae
Genus: Selenicereus
Species: Selenicereus grandiflorus
Subspecies: S. g. subsp. donkelaarii - S. g. subsp.  grandiflorus - S. g. subsp. hondurensis - S. g. subsp. lautneri

Name

Selenicereus grandiflorus (L.) Britton & Rose, 1909.

Lectotypus: JAMAICA/MEXICO: Without data, Herb. Clifford 182 (Cactus 10) (lectotype: BM). Lectotypified by Lourteig, Bradea 5: 406. 1991.

Basionym

  • Cactus grandiflorus L. (1753) Sp. Pl. 467

Synonyms

Homotypic
  • Cereus grandiflorus (L.) Mill. (1768) Gard. Dict. ed. 8, no 11

References

Britton, N.L. & Rose, J.N. 1909. Contr. US Nat. Herb. 2:430.


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