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Self-actualization is a term that has been used in various psychology theories, often in slightly different ways (e.g., Goldstein, Maslow, Rogers). The term was originally introduced by the organismic theorist Kurt Goldstein for the motive to realize all of one's potentialities. In his view, it is the master motive—indeed, the only real motive a person has, all others being merely manifestations of it. However, the concept was brought to prominence in Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory as the final level of psychological development that can be achieved when all basic and mental needs are fulfilled and the "actualisation" of the full personal potential takes place.

Contents

Self-actualization in Goldstein's Theory

According to Kurt Goldstein's book The Organism: A Holistic Approach to Biology Derived from Pathological Data in Man, self-actualization is "the tendency to actualize, as little as possible, [the organism's] individual capacities" in the world. The tendency to self-actualization is "the only drive by which the life of an organism is determined."[1] Goldstein defined self-actualization as a driving life force that will ultimately lead to maximizing one's abilities and determine the path of one's life; compare will to power.

Self-actualization and Maslow's Hierarchy

The term was later used by Abraham Maslow in his article, A Theory of Human Motivation. Maslow explicitly defines self-actualization to be "the desire for self-fulfillment, namely the tendency for him [the individual] to become actualized in what he is potentially. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming."[2] Maslow used the term self-actualization to describe a desire, not a driving force, that could lead to realizing one's capabilities. Maslow did not feel that self-actualization determined one's life; rather, he felt that it gave the individual a desire, or motivation to achieve budding ambitions.[3] Maslow's usage of the term is now popular in modern psychology when discussing personality from the humanistic approach.

A basic definition from a typical college text book defines self-actualization according to Maslow simply as "the full realization of one's potential" without any mention of Goldstein.[3]

A more explicit definition of self-actualization according to Maslow is "intrinsic growth of what is already in the organism, or more accurately of what is the organism itself...self-actualization is growth-motivated rather than deficiency-motivated."[4] This explanation emphasizes the fact that self-actualization can not normally be reached until other lower order necessities of Maslow's hierarchy of needs are satisfied. While Goldstein defined self-actualization as a driving force, Maslow uses the term to describe personal growth that takes place once lower order needs have been met.

Common traits amongst people who have reached self-actualization are: [5]

  • They embrace reality and facts rather than denying truth.
  • They are spontaneous.
  • They are interested in solving problems.
  • They are accepting of themselves and others and lack prejudice.

For Goldstein, it was a motive and, for Maslow, a level of development; for both, however, roughly the same kinds of qualities were expressed: independence, autonomy, a tendency to form few but deep friendships, a "philosophical" sense of humor, a tendency to resist outside pressures and a general transcendence of the environment rather than "coping" with it.[6]

Self-actualization has been discussed by Schott in connection with Transpersonal business studies.

Self Actualization in Psychology

Self actualization resides at the top of Maslow's hierarchy of needs and is considered a part of the humanistic approach to personality. The humanistic approach is one of several methods used in psychology for studying, understanding, and evaluating personality. The humanistic approach was developed because other approaches, such as the psychodynamic approach made famous by Sigmund Freud, focused on unhealthy individuals that exhibited disturbed behavior.[3]

The humanistic approach focuses on healthy, motivated people and tries to determine how they define the self while maximizing their potential.[3]

Stemming from this branch of psychology is Maslow's hierarchy of needs. According to Maslow, people have lower order needs that in general must be fulfilled before high order needs can be satisfied. As a person moves up Maslow's hierarchy of needs, eventually they will reach the summit—self actualization.[3] Maslow's hierarchy of needs begins with the most basic necessities deemed "the physiological needs" in which the individual will seek out items like food and water, and must be able to perform basic functions such as breathing and sleeping.[7] Once these needs have been met, a person can move on to fulfilling the "the safety needs", where they will attempt to obtain a sense of security, physical comforts and shelter, employment, and property.[8]

The next level is "the belongingness and love needs", where people will strive for social acceptance, affiliations, a sense of belongingness and being welcome, sexual intimacy, and perhaps a family.[9] Next are "the esteem needs", where the individual will desire a sense of competence, recognition of achievement by peers, and respect from others.[10] Some argue that once these needs are met, an individual is primed for self actualization. Others argue that there are two more phases an individual must progress through before self actualization can take place. These include "the cognitive needs", where a person will desire knowledge and an understanding of the world around them, and "the aesthetic needs" which include a need for "symmetry, order, and beauty".[3] Once all these needs have been satisfied, the final stage of Maslow's hierarchy—self actualization—can take place.[11] Classical Adlerian psychotherapy promotes this level of psychological development, utilizing the foundation of a 12-stage therapeutic model to realistically satisfy the basic needs, leading to an advanced stage of "meta-therapy," creative living, and self/other/task-actualization. Maslow's writings are used as inspirational resources. The key to Maslows writings is understanding that there are no keys. Self Actualization is predicated on the individual having their lower deficiency needs met. Once a person has moved through feeling and believing that they are deficient, they naturally seek to grow into who they are, that is self-actualize.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Goldstein 1995
  2. ^ Maslow, 2006 Theories of Human Motivation
  3. ^ a b c d e f Gleitman and Reisberg
  4. ^ Maslow 1987
  5. ^ Gleitman and Reisberg 2004 and Maslow, 1969
  6. ^ Reber
  7. ^ Gleitman and Reisberg 2004 and Maslow 1969
  8. ^ Gleitman and Reisberg 2004 and Maslow 1969
  9. ^ Gleitman and Reisberg 2004 and Maslow 1969
  10. ^ Gleitman and Reisberg 2004 and Maslow 1969
  11. ^ Gleitman and Reisberg 2004 and Maslow 1969

References

  1. Gleitman, Henry; Fridlund, Alan J. and Reisberg Daniel. Psychology. 6th ed. New York: Norton & Company, 2004.
  2. Goldstein, Kurt. The Organism: A Holistic Approach to Biology Derived from Pathological Data in Man. 1934. New York: Zone Books, 1995.
  3. Maslow, Abraham H. Motivation and Personality. 1954. Ed. Cynthia McReynolds. 3rd ed. New York: Harper and Row, Inc., 1987.
  4. Maslow, Abraham H. The Psychology of Science. Gateway Edition 1.95 ed. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1969.
  5. Maslow, Abraham H. "A Theory of Human Motivation." Psychological Review 50 (1943): 370-396. advancedhiring.com. 17 Oct. 2006 <http://www.advancedhiring.com/docs/theory_of_human_motivation.pdf>.
  6. Reber, Arthur S. The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology. 2nd ed. London: Penguin, 1995.
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