Seoul, South Korea: Wikis

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—  Special City  —
Seoul Special City
 - Hangul 서울특별시
 - Hanja 서울
Clockwise from top left: N Seoul Tower, Banpo Bridge over Han River, Namdaemun, Gangnam, 63 Building and Samsung Tower Palace


Emblem of Seoul
Map of South Korea with Seoul highlighted
Coordinates: 37°34′08″N 126°58′36″E / 37.56889°N 126.97667°E / 37.56889; 126.97667
Country  South Korea
Region Seoul National Capital Area
 - Type Seoul Metropolitan Government
 - Mayor Oh Se-hoon
 - Special City 605.25 km2 (233.7 sq mi)
Population (2007)
 - Special City 10,421,782
 Density 17,219/km2 (44,597/sq mi)
 Metro 24,472,063
 - Demonym Seoulite,서울시민(Seoul Shee-Min)
 - Dialect Seoul
Flower Forsythia
Tree Ginkgo
Bird Magpie

Seoul (Korean pronunciation: [sʌ.ul]  ( listen)), officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest city of Republic of Korea. With a population of over 10 million, it is one of the world's largest cities.[1] The Seoul National Capital Area, which includes the Incheon metropolis and most of Gyeonggi province, has 24.5 million inhabitants,[2] and is the world's second largest metropolitan area.[3] Almost half of South Korea's population live in the Seoul National Capital Area, and nearly a quarter in Seoul itself, making it the country's foremost economic, political, and cultural center.

Seoul is located on the Han River in the center of the Korean Peninsula, and historically was settled in 18 B.C. when Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, established its capital in what is now south-east Seoul. The city then became the capital of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty and the Korean Empire. As the center of Korean history over the past millennia, the Seoul National Capital Area is home to four UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeokgung, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty.[4]

Seoul's influence in business, international trade, politics, technology, education and entertainment all contribute to its role as a prominent global city.[5] It is considered to be an Alpha World City, ranking 9th in the 2008 Global Cities Index. Seoul is the iconic city of the Miracle on the Han River and hosted landmark international events such as the 1988 Summer Olympics and the 2002 FIFA World Cup and will be the host city of the November 2010 G-20 Summit. It is one of the world's top ten financial and commercial centers,[6] home to some of the world's largest conglomerates[7] such as Samsung, LG and Hyundai-Kia. Seoul was Asia's most expensive city to live in 2007, and the third most expensive city worldwide.[8] In 2008, Seoul was named the world's sixth most economically powerful city by, ahead of Paris and Los Angeles.[9]

Seoul is the 2010 World Design Capital and has one of the world's most technologically advanced infrastructures.[10][11] Ranked first on the Digital Opportunity Index,[12] its Digital Media City is the world's first complex for high-tech technologies and a test-bed for futuristic IT and multimedia applications.[13] Seoul is the world's first city to feature DMB, a digital mobile TV technology and WiBro, a wireless high-speed mobile internet service, as well as the world's fastest, most penetrated 100Mbps fibre-optic broadband network, which is being upgraded to 1Gbps by 2012.[14] Seoul Station houses the 350 km/h KTX bullet train and the Seoul Subway is the third largest in the world, with over 2 billion passengers every year.[15] Seoul is connected via AREX to Incheon International Airport, which has been rated as the world's best airport since 2005.[16]



The city has been known in the past by the names Wirye-seong (위례성; 慰禮城, Baekje era), Hanju (한주; 漢州, Silla era), Namgyeong (남경; 南京, Goryeo era), Hanseong (한성; 漢城, Baekje and Joseon era), Hanyang (한양; 漢陽, Joseon era), Gyeongseong (경성; 京城, Japanese occupation era).[17] Its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city," which is believed to be derived from Seorabeol (서라벌; 徐羅伐), which originally referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.[18]

Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja (Chinese characters used in the Korean language). The recently chosen Chinese name for Seoul is 首尔 (simplified), 首爾 (traditional) (Shǒuěr), which sounds somewhat similar to "Seoul" when pronounced in Mandarin Chinese.[19]


Gyeongbokgung palace.

The history of Seoul can be traced back as far as 18 BC, when it was established as a settlement in Baekje, Wirye-seong. It's believed that the Wirye-seong site is in the boundaries of modern day Seoul and Present Pungnap Toseong or Mongchon Toseong remains believed as the site. It has thereafter been the capital of the Joseon Dynasty. Seoul as a capital city of South Korea has a history of more 610 years since 1394, the year it was designated as the capital city of Joseon Dynasty. In the Japanese colonization period in the early 20th century, during which time the city was called Gyeongseong (경성; 京城; Japanese: Keijō), many historical and traditional parts of Seoul were changed[citation needed]. The city was almost entirely destroyed in the Korean War, but a series of the Korean government's economic development programs helped rebuild the city very rapidly. In the 1990s, some important historical buildings were restored, including Gyeongbokgung, one of the most royal and powerful palaces and the ruler's dwelling of the Joseon dynasty.


Climate chart (explanation)
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
Namsan mountain and Seoul Tower.

Seoul is in the northwest of South Korea. Seoul proper comprises 605.39 km², roughly bisected into northern and southern halves by the Han River. The Han River and its surrounding area played an important role in Korean history. The Three Kingdoms of Korea strove to take control of this land, where the river was used as a trade route to China (via the Yellow Sea). However, the river is no longer actively used for navigation, because its estuary is located at the borders of the two Koreas, with civilian entry barred. The city is bordered by eight mountains, as well as the more level lands of the Han River plain and western areas.


In common with the rest of South Korea, Seoul has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwa), despite the fact that the country is surrounded on three sides by water.[20] Summers are generally hot and humid, with East Asian monsoon taking place from June until July. August, the hottest month, has an average temperature of 22°C to 30°C (72 °F to 86 °F) with higher temperatures possible. Winters are often relatively cold with an average January temperature of -7°C to 1°C (19 °F to 33 °F) and are generally much drier than summers, with an average of 28 days of snow annually.

Climate data for Seoul (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1.6
Daily mean °C (°F) -2.3
Average low °C (°F) -6.1
Precipitation mm (inches) 21.6
Sunshine hours 158.4 163.3 197.5 210.7 224.3 187.8 130.7 155.3 184.5 200.5 151.3 149.9 2,114.1
% Humidity 62.6 61.0 61.2 59.3 64.1 71.0 79.8 77.4 71.0 66.2 64.6 63.8 66.9
Source: [2] 2009-09-16

Administrative divisions

Seoul is divided into 25 gu (구; ) (district).[21] The gu vary greatly in area (from 10 to 47 km²) and population (from less than 140,000 to 630,000). Songpa has the most people, while Seocho, the largest area. The government of each gu handles many of the functions that are handled by city governments in other jurisdictions. Each gu is divided into "dong" (동; ) or neighbourhoods. Some gu have only a few dong while others like Jongno-gu have a very large number of distinct neighborhoods. Gu of Seoul consist of 522 administrative dongs (행정동) in total.[21] Dong are also sub-divided into 13,787 tong (통; ), which are further divided into 102,796 ban in total.

Seoul Districts


Nearly all of Seoul's residents are Korean, with some small Chinese and Japanese minorities. A rapidly growing population of international residents now represent about 2% of the total population.[22] The city’s population surpassed 10,421,000 at the end of 2007, with the number of foreigners at 229,000, constituting 2.2 percent of the population.[23]

The two major religions in Seoul are Buddhism and Christianity. Other religions include Shamanism and Confucianism, the latter seen more as a pervasive social philosophy rather than a religion.


Samsung Headquarters

As the headquarters for Samsung, LG, Hyundai, Kia and SK, Seoul has become a major business hub in Asia. Although it accounts for only 0.6 percent of South Korea's land area, Seoul generates 21 percent of the country's entire GDP[24].

With a GDP per capita of $31,095 in 2007, the standard of living in Seoul is comparable to France and Italy.[25][26][27]

Financial hub

As a major business and financial center, Seoul ranks sixth in the world in the number of transnational companies headquartered there.[28] Many international banks have branches in Seoul, including Citigroup, Deutsche Bank and HSBC. One of the largest exchange banks, the Korea Exchange Bank, is also headquartered in Seoul.


Myeongdong Shopping District

Since Seoul is the center of commerce in South Korea, there are many notable shopping areas. The largest market in South Korea, the Dongdaemun Market, is located in Seoul. Myeongdong is a shopping and entertainment area in downtown Seoul which contains some of the city's top stores and fashion boutiques. It has mid to high priced retail stores and international brand outlets. Nearby is the Namdaemun Market named after the Namdaemun Gate, which is the oldest continually running and the largest retail market in Seoul. Sinchon is a shopping area that caters mainly to a younger and university student crowd.

Insadong is the cultural art market of Seoul, where traditional and modern Korean artworks, such as paintings, sculptures and calligraphy are sold. Hwanghak-dong Flea Market and Janganpyeong Antique Market also offer antique products. Some shops for local designers have opened in Samcheong-dong, where numerous small art galleries are located. Itaewon is another notable shopping district in the city lined with boutiques and stores, catering mainly to foreign tourists and American soldiers based in the city. The Gangnam district is one of the most affluent areas in Seoul and has popular modern shopping spots such as the fashionable and upscale Apgujeong-dong and Cheongdam-dong areas and the COEX Mall. As for wholesale markets, there are Noryangjin Fisheries Wholesale Market, Garak Market and many others. Yongsan Electronics Market is the largest electronics market in Asia. Gasan Digital Complex also has an extensive variety of electronic products.


The traditional heart of Seoul is the old Joseon Dynasty city, now the downtown area, where most palaces, government offices, corporate headquarters, hotels, and traditional markets are located. Cheonggyecheon, a stream that runs from west to east through the valley before emptying into the Han River, was for many years covered by concrete, but was recently restored through an urban revival project. The most historically significant street in Seoul is Jongno, meaning "Bell Street," on which one can find Bosingak, a pavilion containing a large bell. The bell signaled the different times of the day and therefore controlled the four major gates to the city. The only time it is usually rung now is at midnight on New Year's Eve, when it is rung thirty-three times. It was, however, rung on the day that President Kim Dae-jung took office. To the north of downtown is Bukhan Mountain, and to the south is the smaller Namsan. Further south are the old suburbs of Yongsan-gu and Mapo-gu. Across the Han River are the newer and wealthier areas of Gangnam-gu, Seocho-gu and surrounding neighborhoods.

Historical architecture

Seoul has many historical and cultural landmarks. In Amsa-dong Preshistoric Settlement Site, Gangdong-gu, neolithic remains were excavated and accidentally discovered by a flood in 1925.

Urban and civil planning was a key concept when Seoul was first designed to serve as a capital in the late 14th century. The Joseon Dynasty built "Five Grand Palaces" in Seoul: Changdeokgung, Changgyeonggung, Deoksugung, Gyeongbokgung and Gyeonghuigung, all of which are located in the district of Jongno-gu and Jung-gu. Among them, Changdeokgung was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1997 as an "outstanding example of Far Eastern palace architecture and garden design". The main palace, Gyeongbokgung. is currently being restored to its original form. The palaces are considered exemplary architecture of the Joseon period. Beside the palaces, Unhyeongung is known for being the royal residence of Regent Daewongun, the father of Emperor Gojong at the end of the Joseon Dynasty.

Seoul has been surrounded by walls that were built to regulate visitors from other regions and protect the city in case of invasion. Pungnap Toseong is a flat earthen wall built at the edge of the Han River which is widely believed to be the site of Wiryeseong. Mongchon Toseong (몽촌토성; 蒙村土城) is another earthen wall built during the Baekje period which is now located inside the Olympic Park. The Castle Walls of Seoul (서울성곽; 서울城郭) are the remaining walls of Seoul from the Joseon Dynasty.

Although many walls and fortresses were demolished, some palace and fortress gates have played a role in the city's heart such as Sungnyemun and Heunginjimun. The gates are more commonly known as Namdaemun (South Great Gate) and Dongdaemun (East Great Gate). Namdaemun was the oldest wooden gate until a 2008 fire, and is currently undergoing reconstruction. Situated near the gates are the traditional markets and largest shopping center, Namdaemun Market and Dongdaemun Market.

There are also many buildings constructed with international styles in the late-19th and early-20th centuries. The Independence Gate was built in 1897 to inspire an independent spirit from Sinosphere. Seoul Station was opened in 1900 as Gyeongseong Station.

Modern architecture

Street in Seoul
Gangnam district in Seoul

Major modern landmarks in Seoul include the Korea Finance Building, N Seoul Tower, the World Trade Center, the 63 Building and the six-skyscraper residence Tower Palace. These and various high-rise office buildings, like the Seoul Star Tower and Jongno Tower, dominate the city's skyline. Due to its high density, Seoul has a vast array of skyscrapers; the city council is now planning a series of new highrises, including a 640-meter business center in Sangam Digital Media City district and the 523-meter Lotte World 2 Tower in the Jamsil (pronounced "Jam-shil") district of Songpa-gu and Gangdong-gu.

The World Trade Center of Korea, located in Gangnam-gu, hosts various expositions and conferences. Also in Gangnam-gu is the COEX Mall, a large indoor shopping and entertainment complex. Downstream from Gangnam-gu is Yeouido, a large island that is home to the National Assembly, major broadcasting studios, and a number of large office buildings, as well as the Korea Finance Building and the world's largest Pentecostal church. The Olympic Stadium, Olympic Park, and Lotte World are located in Songpa-gu, on the south side of the Han River, upstream from Gangnam-gu.

In 2010, the Dongdaemun Design Plaza & Park, designed by Zaha Hadid, is scheduled to open. This will coincide with Seoul's designation as World Design Capital that year.



Seoul is home to over 100 museums including three national and nine official municipal museums. The National Museum of Korea is the most representative of museums in not only Seoul but all of South Korea. Since its establishment in 1945, the museum has built a collection of 150,000 artifacts. In October 2005, the museum moved to a new building in Yongsan Family Park. The National Folk Museum is situated on the grounds of the Gyeongbokgung Palace in the district of Jongno-gu and uses replicas of historical objects to illustrate the folk history of the Korean people. Bukchon Hanok Village and Namsangol Hanok Village are old residential districts consisting of hanok Korean traditional houses, parks, and museums that allows visitors to experience traditional Korean culture. The War Memorial, one of nine municipal museums in Seoul, offers visitors an educational and emotional experience of various wars in which Korea was involved including Korean War themes. The Seodaemun Prison is a former prison built during the Japanese occupation and is currently used as a history museum.

The Seoul Museum of Art and Ilmin Museum of Art have preserved the appearance of the old building that is visually unique from the neighboring tall, modern buildings. The former is operated by Seoul City Council and sits adjacent to Gyeonghuigung Palace, a Joseon dynasty royal palace. For many Korean film lovers from all over the world, the Korean Film Archive is running the Korean Film Museum and Cinematheque KOFA in its main center located in Digital Media City(DMC), Sangam-dong. The Tteok & Kitchen Utensil Museum and Kimchi Field Museum provide information regarding Korean culinary history.


There are also religious buildings that take important roles in Korean society and politics. The Wongudan altar was a sacrificial place where Korean rulers held heavenly rituals since the Three Kingdoms period. Since the Joseon Dynasty adopted Confucianism as its national ideology in the 14th century, the state built many Confucian shrines. The descendants of the Joseon royal family still continue to hold ceremonies to commemorate ancestors at Jongmyo. It is the oldest royal Confucian shrine preserved and the ritual ceremonies continue a tradition established in the 14th century. Munmyo and Dongmyo were built during the same period. Although Buddhism was suppressed by the Joseon state, it has continued its existence. Jogyesa is the headquarters of the Jogyeo Order of Korean Buddhism. Hwagyesa and Bongeunsa are also major Buddhist temples in Seoul.

The Myeongdong Cathedral is a landmark of the Myeongdong district and was the first Catholic church established in Korea. It is a symbol of Christianity in Korea as well as political dissidents in the late-20th century.


Seoul Olympic Park

Namsan Park offers hiking, recreation and views of the downtown Seoul skyline. The N Seoul Tower is located here. Seoul Olympic Park is located in Songpa-gu and was built to host the 1988 Summer Olympics. The Wongaksa Pagoda 10 tier pagoda is situated In Tapgol Park, a small public park with an area of 19,599 m². Areas around streams serve as public places for relaxation and recreation. Tancheon stream and the nearby area serve as a large park with paths for both walkers and cyclists. Cheonggyecheon, a stream that runs nearly 6km through downtown Seoul, is popular among both Seoul residents and tourists. The Seoul metropolitan area accommodates six major parks, including the Seoul Forest, which opened in mid-2005. The Seoul National Capital Area also contains a green belt aimed at preventing the city from sprawling out into neighboring Gyeonggi Province. These areas are frequently sought after by people looking to escape from urban life on weekends and during vacations.

In addition, Seoul is also home to the world's largest indoor amusement park, Lotte World. Other recreation centers include the former Olympic and World Cup stadiums and the City Hall public lawn.


International competition

Seoul hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. It also served as one of the host cities of the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Seoul World Cup Stadium hosted the opening ceremony and first game of the tournament.

Taekwondo is Korea's national sport and Seoul is the location of the Kukkiwon, also known as the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF), the world headquarters of taekwondo.

Domestic sports clubs


  • Men's football
Level League Club Home Stadium
Top tier K-League FC Seoul Seoul World Cup Stadium, North Seoul
2nd tier National League N/A N/A
3rd tier K3 League Seoul United Jamsil Olympic Stadium, South Seoul
Seoul FC Martyrs Gangbuk-gu Public Stadium, North Seoul
  • Women's football
Level League Club Home Stadium
Top tier WK-League Seoul City Women's FC To be determined

Other sports

Seoul has three baseball teams in the KBO: LG Twins, Doosan Bears and NEXEN Heroes. Seoul is also home to two basketball clubs in the KBL: Seoul Samsung Thunders and Seoul SK Knights.

Seoul's professional volleyball club, Seoul Woori Capital Dream Six, debuted in the 2009-2010 season.

Seoul is also home to Seoul Race Park, a thoroughbred racetrack which hosts the Korean Derby and other big races.


The Banpo Bridge, a gigantic rainbow fountain with nearly 10,000 LEDs.

Seoul's transportation system dates back to the era of the Korean Empire, when the first streetcar lines were laid and a railroad linking Seoul and Incheon was completed. Seoul's most important streetcar line ran along Jongno until it was replaced by Line 1 of the subway system in the early 1970s. Other notable streets in downtown Seoul include Euljiro, Teheranno, Sejongno, Chungmuro, Yulgongno, and Toegyero. There are eight major subway lines stretching for more than 250 kilometers, with two additional lines planned.

Seoul has more than three million registered vehicles and suffers from widespread traffic congestion.


Seoul's bus system is operated by the Seoul Metropolitan Government, with four primary bus configurations available servicing most of the city. Seoul has many large intercity/express bus terminals. These buses connect Seoul with cities throughout South Korea. The Seoul Express Bus Terminal, Central City Terminal and Seoul Nambu Terminal are located in the district of Seocho-gu. In addition, East Seoul Bus Terminal in Gwangjin-gu and Sangbong Terminal in Jungnang-gu operate in the east of the city. To reduce air pollution in the metropolitan area, the municipal government is planning to convert over seven thousand of Seoul's diesel engine buses to natural gas by 2010.[29]


Seoul has a comprehensive subway network that interconnects every district of the city and the surrounding areas. With more than 8 million passengers per day, Seoul has one of the busiest subway systems in the world. The Seoul Metropolitan Subway has 12 lines which serve Seoul, Incheon, Gyeonggi province and northern Chungnam province. In addition, in order to cope with the various modes of transport, Seoul's metropolitan government employs several mathematicians to coordinate the subway, bus, and traffic schedules into one timetable. The various lines are run by Korail, Seoul Metro and Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation.


Seoul is connected to every major city in Korea by rail. Seoul is also linked to most major Korean cities by the KTX high-speed train, which has a normal operation speed of more than 300 km/h (186 mph). Major railroad stations include:


Two international airports serve Seoul. Gimpo International Airport, formerly in Gimpo but annexed to Seoul in 1963, was for many years (since its original construction during the Korean War) the only international airport serving Seoul. Other domestic airports were also built around the time of the war, including Yeouido.

When it opened in March 2001, Incheon International Airport on Yeongjong island in Incheon changed the role of Gimpo Airport significantly. Incheon is now responsible for almost all international flights and some domestic flights, while Gimpo serves only domestic flights with the exception of flights to Tokyo International Airport (Haneda) in Tokyo, Osaka Kansai International Airport and Hongqiao Airport in Shanghai. This has led to a significant drop in flights from Gimpo Airport.

Meanwhile, Incheon International Airport has become, along with Hong Kong and Singapore, a major transportation center for East Asia. The 2005 AETRA passenger survey, jointly administered by the IATA and Airports Council International, voted it the best airport in the world.[30] It was named by Skytrax as the world's 5th best airport for 2006.[31]

Incheon and Gimpo are linked to Seoul by highways, and to each other by the Incheon International Airport Railroad, which is also linked to Incheon line #1. Gimpo is also linked by subway (line #5 and #9). The Incheon International Airport Railroad, currently under construction, is planned to connect the airport directly to Seoul Station in central Seoul but will not be completed for several years. Shuttle buses also transfer passengers between Incheon and Gimpo airports.


See also: Education in South Korea, List of universities in Seoul

There are a large number of universities in Seoul, including the majority of the South Korea's most prestigious universities. Most high school students in Korea hope to go to universities in Seoul.[citation needed] The top three[citation needed] universities are Seoul National University (SNU), Yonsei University, and Korea University. High school senior students take the test called Soo-neung, (similar to the United States' SAT) at the end of their senior year. If they fail the test, they have to wait another year before trying again.[citation needed]

Korean citizens have the right to education up to the high school level. Students spend six years in elementary school, three years in middle school, and three years in high school. Students have to wear school uniforms every day and many schools have restrictions on hair length, style, colour etc.[citation needed] Some middle schools and high schools are sex-segregated.[citation needed]

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Seoul has many twin towns and sister cities around the world:[in chronological order][32]

Independent cities in South Korea

See also


  1. ^ Thomas Brinkhoff,; South Korea, The registered population of the South Korean provinces and urban municipalities Registered population 2007-12-31. Retrieved on 2008-12-31.
  2. ^ 나라지표:수도권 인구 집중 현황
  3. ^ R.L. Forstall, R.P. Greene, and J.B. Pick, "Which are the largest? Why published populations for major world urban areas vary so greatly", City Futures Conference, (University of Illinois at Chicago, July 2004)– Table 5 (p.34)
  4. ^ "Lists: Republic of Korea". UNESCO. Retrieved 2008-12-27. 
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ See List of companies by revenue.
  8. ^ See List of most expensive cities for expatriate employees.
  9. ^
  10. ^ "KOREA: Future is now for Korean info-tech". AsiaMedia (Regents of the University of California). 14 June 2005. Retrieved 2009-02-24. 
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ See Metro systems by annual passenger rides.
  16. ^ "Airport Service Excellence Awards". ACI website. 2008-02-27. Retrieved 2008-09-24. 
  17. ^ "Seoul". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Retrieved September 06, 2009. "The city was popularly called Seoul in Korean during both the Chosŏn (Yi) dynasty (1392–1910) and the period of Japanese rule (1910–45), although the official names in those periods were Hansŏng (Hanseong) and Kyŏngsŏng (Gyeongseong), respectively.." 
  18. ^ yahoo
  19. ^
  20. ^ BBC Weather - Country Guide
  21. ^ a b "Administrative Districts". Seoul Metropolitan Government. Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  22. ^ Park, Chung-a (2007-07-24). "Foreign Population in Seoul Stands at 175,000". Korea Times. Retrieved 2008-01-06. 
  23. ^ [1]
  24. ^ Welcome to KTC
  25. ^
  26. ^ World Economic Outlook Database-October 2009, International Monetary Fund. Implied PPP conversion rate(2008). Accessed on December 23, 2009.
  27. ^ World Economic Outlook Database-October 2009, International Monetary Fund. GDP(PPP) per capita(2008). Accessed on December 23, 2009.
  28. ^
  29. ^ "Seoul More Enjoyable For a Day" accessed 2008-07-30
  30. ^ "Airport Service Excellence Awards for 2005". ACI. 2006-03-07. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  31. ^ "Airport of the Year 2006". World Airport Awards. Skytrax. Retrieved 2007-02-25. 
  32. ^ Seul Metropolitan Government. "International Cooperation: Sister Cities". 
  33. ^ Prefeitura.Sp - Descentralized Cooperation
  34. ^ International Relations - São Paulo City Hall - Official Sister Cities
  35. ^ The Many Lives of Tehran Road
  36. ^ "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". Biuro Promocji Miasta. 2005-05-04. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  37. ^ International Relations of Tirana

External links

Official sites

Tourism and living information


Preceded by
Capital of Baekje
18 BC–475 AD
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Capital of Korea
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Capital of South Korea
Succeeded by

Simple English

Redirecting to Seoul

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