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State of Sergipe
Flag of State of Sergipe Coat of arms of State of Sergipe
Location of State of Sergipe in Brazil
Capital
(and largest city)
Aracaju
Demonym Sergipano
Government
 -  Governor Marcelo Déda
 -  Vice Governor Belivaldo Chagas
Area
 -  Total 21,910.348 km2 (8,459.633 sq mi) (26th)
Population
 -  2006 estimate 2,000,738 (22nd)
 -  2005 census 1,970,371 
 -  Density 91.3 /km2 (236 /sq mi) (5th)
GDP 2006 estimate
 -  Total R$ 15,126,000,000 (21st)
 -  Per capita R$ 7,560 (16th)
HDI (2005) 0.742 (medium) (19th)
Abbreviation BR-SE
Time zone BRT (UTC-3)
 -  Summer (DST) BRST (UTC-2)
Website se.gov.br

Sergipe (Portuguese pronunciation: [sɛʁˈʒipi]) (officially the State of Sergipe), is the smallest state of the Brazilian Federation, located on the northeastern Atlantic coast of the country. It borders on two other states, Bahia in the south and west and Alagoas in the north, and in the east on the Atlantic Ocean. Aracaju is the capital and the largest city of the state.

Contents

Geography

As with most of the states in northeastern Brazil, inland Sergipe is almost entirely savanna (caatinga), and its coastline is characterised by mangroves, swamps and sandy beaches. A small strip of tropical rainforest runs down the coast.

Aerial tramway in Aracaju.

The São Francisco River forms its northern boundary, and the drainage of the northern part of the state is northward and eastward to that river. The southern half of the state slopes eastward and is drained directly into the Atlantic through a number of small rivers, the largest of which are the Irapiranga (whose source in the state of Bahia is called Vasa Barris at its mouth), the Real and the Cotinguiba. These streams are navigable for short distances, but are obstructed by sand bars at their mouths, that of Cotinguiba being especially dangerous. The surface of the state resembles in part that of Bahia, with a zone of forested lands near the coast and back of this a higher zone of rough open country, called agreste. There is a sandy belt along the coast, and the western frontier is slightly mountainous. The intermediate lands are highly fertile, especially in the forested region where the rainfall is abundant. Further inland the year is divided into wet and dry seasons with occasional prolonged droughts. These districts are pastoral, and the lower fertile lands are cultivated. There are no good ports on the coast because of the bars at the mouths of the rivers.

The capital of the state is Aracaju (pop. 479 767 in 2003), on the lower course or estuary of the Cotinguiba River, near the coast. The sandbar at the entrance to this river is exceptionally dangerous, and the port is frequented only by coasting vessels of light draught. The town stands on a sandy plain, and there are sand dunes within the city limits. The public buildings are a large plain church with unfinished twin towers, the government palace, the legislative halls, a public school and public hospital.

The other principal towns are Estância (pop. 62,218 in 2005) on the Rio Real in the southern part of the state, with manufacture of cotton textiles, cigars and cigarettes and soap and an active trade; Laranjeiras (pop. 26,452 in 2005), in a highly productive sugar district north of the capital; Capela (pop. 27,403 in 2005); Simão Dias (pop. 39,706 in 2005); Lagarto (pop. 90,345 in 2005); São Cristóvão, formerly Sergipe d'el-Rey (pop. 75,353 in 2005), the old colonial capital near the mouth of the Irapiranga; and Maruim (pop. 15,937 in 2005).

See also List of municipalities in Sergipe (SE), Brazil.

History

Downtown Aracaju.

São Cristóvão was the site of the first settlement by the Portuguese, in 1591 at Sergipe D'El-Rey, what is today Sergipe (the name Sergipe is actually a Tupi word, meaning river of "crab"), becoming the state's capital.

Aracaju-Barra Bridge at night.

As with other states in the northeast, Sergipe was invaded numerous times by the Dutch, and frequently raided by French buccaneers. During the 1600s, the state was known throughout the Americas for its king-wood, a prized commodity that was the primary attraction in the buccaneer raids, and probably a factor in Dutch military expeditions. From 1641 to 1645, the territory belonged to Dutch controlled Brazil (New Holland). The Dutch built a fort (the first one in the region) between the rivers São Francisco and Sergipe. In 1645, the Portuguese regained control. By the 1700s, the Portuguese military had driven off the pirates permanently.

In 1855, under the administration of provincial president Inácio Joaquim Barbosa, the capital was moved to Aracaju.

In the 1930s Sergipe became notorious for its outlaws, including Virgolino Ferreira da Silva, - better known as Lampião, the "King of Bandits", who terrorised the state for almost a decade until his beheading by the Brazilian police in 1938. His head was later displayed on a pole in a village square.

Demographics

Aracaju is the largest city of the state.

According to the IBGE of 2007, there were 2,007,000 people residing in the state. The population density was 91.3 inh./km².

Urbanization: 82.2% (2006); Population growth: 2% (1991-2000); Houses: 569,000 (2006).[1]

The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 1,280,000 Brown (Multiracial) people (63.8%), 602,000 White people (30.0%), 114,000 Black people (5.7%), 10,000 Asian or Amerindian people (0.5%).[2]

Economy

Aracaju at night.

The industrial sector is the largest component of GDP at 53.9%, followed by the service sector at 39.1%. Agriculture represents 7% of GDP (2004). Sergipe exports: orange juice 66.1%, urea 20.8%, leather and footweares 4.6%, woven 2.3%, others juices 2% (2002).

Share of the Brazilian economy: 0.7% (2004).[3]

Sergipe's economy is focused around the production of sugarcane, and the enormous cane fields, taking advantage of the wet and fertile soil, produce over 1.4 million tons of sugar annually. Unlike in many Brazilian states, cattle is not a major industry, as the land area of the state prevents large scale grazing. Along with sugarcane, cassava (617,400 tons annually) and oranges (14.4 million oranges annually) are grown. A small-scale leather and textiles industry also exists.

The Brazilian federal government is also encouraging the development of a fledgling petroleum and natural gas industry.

Interesting facts

Vehicles: 249,700 (jan./2006); Mobile phones: 754 thousand (2006); Telephones: 273 thousand (2006); Cities: 75 (2006).[4]

Education

Aracaju is the most important educational centre of the state.

Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.

Educational institutions

  • Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS) (Federal University of Sergipe);
  • Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia (IFSE)
  • Universidade Tiradentes (Unit) (Tiradentes University);
  • Faculdade de Sergipe (FaSe) (Sergipe College);
  • Faculdade São Luís (FSL) (São Luís College);
  • Sociedade de Ensino Superior de Sergipe;
  • and many others.

Infrastructure

International Airport of Aracaju.

National Airport

Aracaju International Airport. It was inaugurated on October 30 1952 with runway only 1200 metres long; the airport did not have an access road until 1958, so after that operating efficiency increased. In 1961 the runway was extende to 1500 metres and a passenger terminal was built in 1962. At the time, Sergipe capital had the most modern airport of the northeastern region of Brazil. In February 1975 the airport was handed over to the authority of Infraero.

Highways

BR-101 and BR-235.

Tourism and recreation

São Cristóvão

São Cristóvão is the fourth oldest town in the country, and Sergipe's state capital until 1855. It is located some 25 km (15.53 mi.) from the current capital Aracaju.

As a planned urban settlement, the town contains churches and religious ensembles dating back to the colonial period. Most of these monuments are concentrated around the São Francisco Square.

In 1939, São Cristóvão was designated as a National Treasure by the Instituto do Patrimônio histórico e Artístico Nacional - IPHAN (The Brazilian National Historical and Artistical Heritage Institute).

Xingó Canyon

Xingó Canyon.
São Francisco river.

Landscape, rocky formations, crystal clear waters, ecological trails, Caatinga Theme Park, exuberant vegetation and diversified fauna and flora: this is Xingó, located in Canindé do São Francisco – on the banks of the lengthy and well-known São Francisco river. To navigate between the rocks of this gigantic cliff embedded in the middle of Sergipe’s Alto Sertão is an unforgettable experience. There are imposing valleys forming a 50 m-high canyon, surrounding a lake that, in certain points, reaches a depth of 190 m. Nests of herons and fluvial islands complete the spectacle. The rocks guard traces of the area’s first inhabitants who lived there more than 8,000 years ago. There are also traces of Lampião’s stay there with his gang of outlaws in less remote times. Angico trail, in Poço Redondo, leads to the cavern of the same name, where Lampião, Maria Bonita and nine other outlaws lost their lives. Located in the town of Canindé do São Francisco, 213 km (132 miles) from Aracaju, Xingó Canyon is one of the most famous rocky formations in the area, embellishing the landscape of the dry Northeastern backwoods. It is hot all year round, but the strong wind blowing from December to January keeps temperatures at a very comfortable level. Between May and August, it rains frequently.

Flag

The stars on the flag of Sergipe represent the number of river estuaries in the state, and the green and yellow stripes represent Sergipe's union with the rest of Brazil. It was designed by José Rodrigues Bastos Coelho, a businessman who felt that Brazilian ships should carry flags to identify their state of origin. It was officially adopted on October 19, 1920.

In 1937, dictator Getúlio Vargas abolished all state flags and symbols, but they were allowed again in 1946. In 1951, when the Sergipe legislature began to consider restoring the state flag, it decided to change the number of stars, so that there would be one for every municipality in the state. In 1952, this new design was scrapped and replaced by the original 5 star design.

References

  1. ^ Source: PNAD.
  2. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF) Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2007. Sergipe, Brazil: IBGE. 2007. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. ftp://ftp.ibge.gov.br/Indicadores_Sociais/Sintese_de_Indicadores_Sociais_2007/Tabelas. Retrieved 2007-07-18.  
  3. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF) List of Brazilian states by GDP. Sergipe, Brazil: IBGE. 2004. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Brazilian_states_by_GDP_participation. Retrieved 2007-07-18.  
  4. ^ Source: IBGE.

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Sergipe[1], on the coast of Northeast Brazil, is the country's smallest state.

  • Aracaju
  • Laranjeiras - the state's first capital
  • São Cristóvão - nice colonial town by the river, is the country's 4th oldest city and has been nominated for the World Heritage List
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SERGIPE (originally Sergipe D'El-Rey), a small Atlantic state of Brazil, bounded N. by Alagoas, E. by the Atlantic, and S. and W. by Bahia. Area, 15,093 sq. m. Pop. (1900) 356,264, three-fourths half-castes and negroes. The Sao Francisco forms its northern boundary, and the drainage of the northern part of the state is northward and eastward to that river. The southern half of the state, however, slopes eastward and is drained directly into the Atlantic through a number of small rivers, the largest of which are the Irapiranga (whose source is in the state of Bahia and which is called Vasa Barris at its mouth), the Real, and the Cotinguiba. These streams are navigable for short distances, but are obstructed by sand-bars at their mouths, that of Cotinguiba being especially dangerous. The surface of the state resembles in part that of Bahia, with a zone of forested lands near the coast, and back of this a higher zone of rough open country, called agrestes. There is a sandy belt along the coast, and the western frontier is slightly mountainous. The intermediate lands are highly fertile, especially in the forested region, where the rainfall is abundant. Further inland the year is divided into wet and dry seasons with occasional prolonged droughts. These districts are pastoral, and the lower fertile lands are cultivated for sugar, cotton, maize, tobacco, rice, beans, and mandioca - sugar being the principal product.

Rubber and some other natural products are exported. There is only one railway in the state, which runs from Aracaju northward to Capella, with a branch running westward to Simao Dias. The only manufacturing industries of importance are cotton mills, sugar factories and distilleries, one of the largest sugar usines in Brazil being located at Riachuelo near Larangeiras. There are no good ports on the coast because of the bars at the mouths of the rivers.

The capital of the state is Aracaju (pop. 1890, 16,336; 1906 estimate, 25,000), on the lower course, or estuary, of the Cotinguiba river, near the coast. The bar at the entrance to this river is exceptionally dangerous, and the port is frequented only by coasting vessels of light draught. The town stands on a sandy plain, and there are sand dunes within the city limits. The public buildings are a large plain church with unfinished twin towers, the government palace, the legislative halls, a normal school and public hospital. The other principal towns are Estancia (pop. 1890, 14,555) on the Rio Real in the southern part of the state, with manufactures of cotton textiles, cigars and cigarettes, and soap, and an active trade; Laranjeiras (11,350), in a highly productive sugar district N. of the capital; Capella (11,034); Simao Dias (10, 9 84); Lagarto (10,473); Sao Christovao, formerly Sergipe d'el-Rey (8793), the old capital, near the mouth of the Irapiranga, and Maroim (7851).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

Sergipe

  1. State in north-eastern Brazil which has Aracaju as its capital.

See also

w:Sergipe


Simple English

Sergipe
[[File:|200px| ]]
Flag of Sergipe
File:Brazil State
See other Brazilian States
Capital Aracaju
Largest City Aracaju
Area 21,994 km²
Population
  - Total
  - Density

1,712,786
77.9 inh./km²
Governor João Alves
Demonym Sergipano
HDI (2000) 0.682 – medium
Timezone GMT-3
ISO 3166-2 BR-SE

Sergipe is the smallest state in Brazil. Aracaju is the capital and largest city. Sergipe borders two other states, Bahia and Alagoas.

Geography

Sergipe's land is mostly caatinga. A strip of rainforest runs down the Atlantic coast. There are also swamps near the coast.

Economy

Sergipe's main crop is sugarcane. Cassava is also grown. There is a small petoleum industry.

History

The first people to live in Sergipe were from the Tupi Tribe. The name "Sergipe" is the Tupi word for crab.

The Portugal took over the area, and made a settlement at São Cristóvão. Later, French pirates invaded Sergipe, but they left soon after.

Now, Sergipe is part of free Brazil.


States of Brazil
Acre | Alagoas | Amapá | Amazonas | Bahia | Ceará | Espírito Santo | Goiás | Maranhão | Mato Grosso | Mato Grosso do Sul | Minas Gerais | Pará | Paraíba | Paraná | Pernambuco | Piauí | Rio de Janeiro | Rio Grande do Norte | Rio Grande do Sul | Rondônia | Roraima | Santa Catarina | São Paulo | Sergipe | Tocantins
Federal District: Brazilian Federal District








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