Seven virtues: Wikis

  

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In Catholic catechism, the seven virtues refers to one of two lists of virtues, most commonly referring to the 4 Cardinal virtues of Prudence, Justice, Restraint or Temperance, and Courage or Fortitude, and the 3 Theological virtues of Faith, Hope, and Love or Charity; these were adopted by the Church Fathers.

An alternative list is the Seven heavenly virtues, opposed to the Seven deadly sins, and consisting of Chastity, Temperance, Charity, Diligence, Patience, Kindness, and Humility.

Contents

History

The seven heavenly virtues were first penned by the Greek philosophers, Aristotle and Plato. However, when they first came into being, there were not seven of them as we know them now, but four. These four initial virtues Temperance, Wisdom, Justice, and Courage were seen as the main attributes for a person to have. It was not until the New Testament began to be more extensively studied that the other three virtues of faith, hope, and charity were joined with the initial four virtues. Because of this difference of birth, the initial four virtues are widely referred to as the four Cardinal Virtues while the latter three are referred to as the three Theological virtues. In his book The Seven Cardinal Virtues Stalker mentions that. [1]

Seven heavenly virtues

There is another list of the seven virtues to oppose the seven deadly sins. The "Seven heavenly virtues" were derived from the Psychomachia ("Contest of the Soul"), an epic poem written by Aurelius Clemens Prudentius (c. AD 410) entailing the battle of good virtues and evil vices. The intense popularity of this work in the Middle Ages helped to spread the concept of holy virtue throughout Europe. Practicing these virtues is considered to protect one against temptation from the seven deadly sins, with each one having its counterpart. Due to this they are sometimes referred to as the contrary virtues. Each of the seven heavenly virtues matches a corresponding deadly sin.

Virtue Latin Gloss (Vice) (Latin) Virtue's Meaning
Chastity Castitas Purity, Knowledge, Honesty Lust Luxuria Abstaining from sexual conduct according to one's state in life; the practice of Courtly love and Romantic friendship. Embracing of moral wholesomeness and achieving purity of thought through education and betterment. The ability to refrain from being distracted and influenced by hostility, temptation or corruption.
Temperance Temperantia Self-Control, Justice, Abstention Gluttony Gula Restraint. Temperance. Justice. Constant mindfulness of others and one's surroundings; practicing self-control, abstention, and moderation. Prudence to judge between actions with regard to appropriate actions at a given time. Proper moderation between self-interest, versus public-interest, and against the rights and needs of others.
Charity Caritas Will, Generosity, Sacrifice Greed Avaritia Generosity. Charity. Self-sacrifice. The willingness to give away wealth and material good. The energy to devote attention and personal service. The knowledge to promote wisdom and mutual prosperity. The Social Responsibility to create a strong, rich and diverse community, especially in the interests of the impoverished. A nobility of thought or actions.
Diligence Industria Persistence, Effort, Ethics Sloth Acedia

Tristitia

A zealous and careful nature in one's actions and work. Decisive work ethic. Steadfastness in belief. Fortitude and the capability of not giving up. Budgeting one's time; monitoring one's own activities to guard against laziness. Upholding one’s convictions at all times, especially when no one else is watching.

(The Vice "Acedia" is more commonly known as "Sloth".)

Patience Patientia Peace, Mercy, Sufferance Wrath Ira Forbearance and endurance through moderation. Resolving conflicts and injustice peacefully, as opposed to resorting to violence. The ability to forgive; to show mercy to sinners. Creating a sense of peaceful stability and community, rather than engendering suffering, hostility and antagonism.
Kindness Humanitas Satisfaction, Compassion, Integrity Envy Invidia Charity, compassion and friendship for its own sake. Empathy and trust without prejudice or resentment. Unconditional love and voluntary kindness without bias or spite. Having positive outlook and cheerful demeanor; to inspire kindness in others.
Humility Humilitas Bravery, Modesty, Selflessness Pride Superbia Modest behavior, selflessness, and the giving of respect. The courage of the heart necessary to undertake tasks which are difficult, tedious or unglamorous, and to graciously accept the sacrifices involved. Giving credit where credit is due; not unfairly glorifying one's own self. Being faithful to promises, no matter how big or small they may be. Refraining from despair and the ability to confront fear and uncertainty, or intimidation.

Theology

Restraint is the keystone of the seven holy virtues. The other holy virtues are created through selfless pursuits:

  • Valour: Pursuit of Courage and Knowledge
  • Generosity: Pursuit of Giving
  • Liberality: Pursuit of Will
  • Diligence: Pursuit of Ethics
  • Patience: Pursuit of Peace
  • Kindness: Pursuit of Charity
  • Humility: Pursuit of Modesty

Popular Culture

In the Dungeons & Dragons third-edition fantasy role-playing game, the Seven deadly sins and the Seven heavenly virtues each made an appearance as the philosophical Cleric Domains, providing the option to exemplify the moral/ethical conflict of these ideals, rather then abstract ideology or tenets of a deity. They were originally featured in two separate issues of the Dragon Magazine (Issue #323 & Issue #355), but later on were collected and released in Dragon Compendium (-Volume 1-) hard-cover anniversary-edition published by Piazo Publishing.

In the video game Bayonetta, the seven virtues are the names of the primary angelic antagonists whom Bayonetta confronts and ultimately sends each one to Hell after they are nearly killed. Only four of the cardinal virtues (Temperance, Valor, Charity, and Justice) appear in the game in the forms of giant, angelic monsters however.

In the popular manga Ultimo, two forces of mechanical boys fight, featuring the 7 virtues as well as the 7 deadly sins.

See also

External links

[2]

  1. ^ "...it is of distinct advantage to be reminded that Christian character has a natural foundation...but certainly the latter are cardinal also--that is hinge virtues; and it is convenient to have a single adjective for designating the whole seven" (p.10).
  2. ^ The Seven Cardinal Virtues by James Stalker © 1819

In Catholic catechism, the seven virtues refer to one of two lists of virtues, most commonly referring to the 4 cardinal virtues of prudence, justice, restraint or temperance, and courage or fortitude, and the 3 theological virtues of faith, hope, and love or charity; these were adopted by the Church Fathers.

An alternative list, the seven heavenly virtues, is opposed to the seven deadly sins, and consists of chastity, temperance, charity, diligence, patience, kindness, and humility.

Contents

History

The seven virtues were first penned by the Greek philosophers, Aristotle and Plato. However, when they first came into being, there were not seven of them as we know them now, but four. These four initial virtues--temperance, wisdom, justice, and courage--were seen as the main attributes for a person to have. It was not until the New Testament began to be more extensively studied that the other three virtues of faith, hope, and charity were joined with the initial four virtues. Because of this difference of birth, the initial four virtues are widely referred to as the four cardinal virtues while the latter three are referred to as the three theological virtues. In his book The Seven Cardinal Virtues, Stalker mentions that. [1]

Seven Catholic Virtues

There is another list of the seven virtues to oppose the seven deadly sins. The seven heavenly virtues were derived from the Psychomachia ("Contest of the Soul"), an epic poem written by Aurelius Clemens Prudentius (c. AD 410) entailing the battle of good virtues and evil vices. The intense popularity of this work in the Middle Ages helped to spread the concept of holy virtue throughout Europe. Practicing these virtues is considered to protect one against temptation from the seven deadly sins, with each one having its counterpart. Due to this they are sometimes referred to as the contrary virtues. Each of the seven heavenly virtues matches a corresponding deadly sin.

Virtue Latin Gloss (Vice) (Latin) Virtue's Meaning
Chastity Castitas Purity, knowledge, honesty, wisdom Lust Luxuria Abstaining from sexual conduct according to one's state in life; the practice of courtly love and romantic friendship. Cleanliness through cultivated good health and hygiene, and maintained by refraining from intoxicants. To be honest with oneself, one's family, one's friends, and to all of humanity. Embracing of moral wholesomeness and achieving purity of thought-through education and betterment. The ability to refrain from being distracted and influenced by hostility, temptation or corruption.
Temperance Temperantia Self-Control, justice, honour, abstention Gluttony Gula Restraint, temperance, justice. Constant mindfulness of others and one's surroundings; practicing self-control, abstention, moderation, zero-sum and deferred gratification. Prudence to judge between actions with regard to appropriate actions at a given time. Proper moderation between self-interest, versus public-interest, and against the rights and needs of others.
Charity Caritas Will, benevolence, generosity, sacrifice Greed Avaritia Generosity, charity, self-sacrifice; the term should not be confused with the more restricted modern use of the word charity to mean benevolent giving. In Christian theology, charity -- or love (agäpé) -- is the greatest of the three theological virtues.

Love, in the sense of an unlimited loving kindness towards all others, is held to be the ultimate perfection of the human spirit, because it is said to both glorify and reflect the nature of God. In its most extreme form, such love can be self-sacrificial. Confusion can arise from the multiple meanings of the English word "love". The love that is "caritas" is distinguished by its origin – being divinely infused into the soul – and by its residing in the will rather than emotions, regardless of what emotions it stirs up. This love is necessary for salvation, and with it no one can be lost.

Diligence Industria Persistence, effort, ethics, rectitude Sloth Acedia

Tristitia

A zealous and careful nature in one's actions and work; decisive work ethic, steadfastness in belief, fortitude, and the capability of not giving up. Budgeting one's time; monitoring one's own activities to guard against laziness. Upholding one's convictions at all times, especially when no one else is watching (integrity).

(The vice "acedia" is more commonly known as "sloth".)

Patience Patientia Peace, mercy, ahimsa, sufferance Wrath Ira Forbearance and endurance through moderation. Resolving conflicts and injustice peacefully, as opposed to resorting to violence. The ability to forgive; to show mercy to sinners. Not killing or being violent in any way to any life form or sentient being; to practice moderation of meat consumption and consistent life ethic. Creating a sense of peaceful stability and community, rather than engendering suffering, hostility and antagonism.
Kindness Humanitas Satisfaction, loyalty, compassion, integrity Envy Invidia Charity, compassion and friendship for its own sake. Empathy and trust without prejudice or resentment. Unconditional love and voluntary kindness without bias or spite. Having positive outlooks and cheerful demeanor; to inspire kindness in others.
Humility Humilitas Bravery, modesty, reverence, altruism Pride Superbia Modest behavior, selflessness, and the giving of respect. The courage of the heart necessary to undertake tasks which are difficult, tedious or unglamorous, and to graciously accept the sacrifices involved. Reverence for those who have wisdom and those who selflessly teach in love. Giving credit where credit is due; not unfairly glorifying one's own self. Being faithful to promises, no matter how big or small they may be. Refraining from despair and the ability to confront fear and uncertainty, or intimidation.

Theology

Restraint is the keystone of the seven holy virtues. The other holy virtues are created through selfless pursuits:

  • Valour: Pursuit of Courage and Knowledge
  • Generosity: Pursuit of Giving
  • Liberality: Pursuit of Will
  • Diligence: Pursuit of Ethics
  • Patience: Pursuit of Peace
  • Kindness: Pursuit of Charity
  • Humility: Pursuit of Modesty

Popular culture

In the Dungeons & Dragons third-edition fantasy role-playing game, the Seven deadly sins and the Seven heavenly virtues each made an appearance as the philosophical Cleric Domains, providing the option to exemplify the moral/ethical conflict of these ideals, rather than abstract ideology or tenets of a deity. They were originally featured in two separate issues of the Dragon Magazine (Issue #323 & Issue #355), but later on were collected and released in Dragon Compendium (-Volume 1-) hard-cover anniversary-edition published by Piazo Publishing.

In the video game Bayonetta, the four Cardinal Virtues are the names of the primary angelic antagonists whom Bayonetta confronts and ultimately sends each one to Hell after they are nearly killed. The Cardinal Virtues (Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence and Justice) appear in the game in the forms of giant, angelic monsters.

In the popular manga Ultimo, two forces of mechanical boys fight, featuring the 7 virtues as well as the 7 deadly sins.

In the fantasy book series the Keys to the Kingdom, the seven virtues are used as the personality of each part of the Will. The Will is divided into seven, and each personality opposes the Trustee afflicted with a deadly sin

See also

External links

[2]
  1. ^ "It is of distinct advantage to be reminded that the Christian character has a natural foundation... but certainly the latter are cardinal also--that is hinge virtues; and it is convenient to have a single adjective for designating the whole seven"The Seven Cardinal Virtues (p.10)
  2. ^ The Seven Cardinal Virtues by James Stalker © 1819







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