Severodvinsk: Wikis

  
  

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Severodvinsk (English)
Северодвинск (Russian)
—  Inhabited locality  —
Lomonosova st..jpg
Map of Russia - Arkhangelsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Arkhangelsk Oblast on the map of Russia
Severodvinsk is located in Arkhangelsk Oblast
Location of Severodvinsk on the map of Arkhangelsk Oblast
Coordinates: 64°34′N 39°49′E / 64.567°N 39.817°E / 64.567; 39.817Coordinates: 64°34′N 39°49′E / 64.567°N 39.817°E / 64.567; 39.817
Coat of Arms of Severodvinsk.svg
Coat of arms
Holiday Last Sunday of June
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Arkhangelsk Oblast
In administrative jurisdiction of Arkhangelsk Oblast
Administrative center of Primorsky District
Municipal status
Municipal Status Urban okrug
Mayor Alexander Belyaev
Representative body City Council of Deputies]]
Statistics
Area 120.51 km2 (46.5 sq mi)
Population (2002 Census) 201,551 inhabitants[1]
Rank 91st
- Density 1,672 /km2 (4,300/sq mi)[2]
Time zone MSK/MSD (UTC+3/+4)
Founded 1936
Postal code(s) 164500, 164525 - 164528
Dialing code(s) +7 +7 (8184) (6 Numerals) (81842) (5 Numerals)
Official website Site

Severodvinsk (Russian: Северодви́нск) is a city in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located in the delta of the Northern Dvina, 35 kilometers (22 mi) west of Arkhangelsk. The town was founded as Sudostroy (Судострой). Population has declined in recent years (201,551 (2002 Census);[3] 248,670 (1989 Census).[4]).

Contents

History

View of the Karelian Monastery of St. Nicholas in the early 20th century

The territories around the North Dvina were discovered at the start of the first millennium by Vikings. British and Norman[5]. ships came to these places for mining, fur and fishing before the 13th century, but later the climate became colder and access to the northern seas became closed.

The settlement on the site of modern Severodvinsk was first mentioned in 1419, when the Swedes sailed into the bay and burnt down the Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery that stood by the shore. This monastery is believed to have been founded by St. Euphemius, an Orthodox missionary in Karelia. The abbey stood in ruins until 1471, when two sons of Marfa Boretskaya died in a vicious storm; their bodies were recovered on the beach near the monastery twelve days later. At the urging of Boretskaya, the monastery was restored and her sons were buried there.

On August 24, 1553, a ship of Richard Chancellor reached the salt-mining settlement of Nenoksa, which is still famous for its traditional wooden architecture. The British sailors visited the Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery, where they were surprised to find a community of "sailors in soutanes" and a pier large enough to accommodate several ships. The main church of this extraordinary establishment was dedicated to Saint Nicholas, the holy patron of sailors; hence, the whole White Sea became known in 16th-century English maps as "St. Nicholas Bay".

The Nikolo-Karelsky Monastery flourished after the establishment of the Muscovy Company, as the bulk of their trade passed through the local harbour. In August 1618, the harbour was visited by John Tradescant the elder, who conducted a survey of an island situated opposite the monastery. This island became known to the British as "Rose Island", because it was there that Tradescant found an exceedingly rare plant which he named "Rosa moscovita" and brought back to London[6].

The surviving buildings of the monastery were constructed at the close of the Muscovite period. The five-domed cathedral of St. Nicholas was built in 1670-74, preceded by the Assumption church (1664-67), to which it is joined by a gallery. Several decades later, the walls and towers were built of timber; the best preserved of these towers was transported by the Soviets to Kolomenskoye, Moscow, where it still remains.

Severodvinsk is the second largest city in Arkhangelsk Oblast. Its main industry remains defense related — the construction and repair of submarines at the huge Northern Machinebuilding Enterprise-SEVMASH (Северное Машиностроительное Предприятие-СЕВМАШ). The Soviet Union's first nuclear submarine Leninsky Komsomol was built here in 1957 and at the beginning of the 1980s, the world's largest submarine, Typhoon class submarine, was also built here, and it was later recorded in the Guinness Book of World Records.

Modern city

The modern city of Severodvinsk was developed in the Soviet period. As it began to be built it was called Sudostroy (Судострой)[5]. It received town status in 1938 and until 1957 was named Molotovsk (Мо́лотовск), after Vyacheslav Molotov. On 12 September 1957 it was renamed Severodvinsk.

During World War II, a significant portion of the materials delivered to Russia by the Arctic Convoys to Murmansk and Arkhangelsk were unloaded in Severodvinsk. For example, the Empire Elgar, a British heavy lift ship that arrived in Arkhangelsk with convoy PQ16 and subsequently spent eight weeks unloading ships from the ill-fated convoy PQ17.

A Russian naval base supports the sea trials of nuclear submarines from the major submarine construction (64.5817 N, 39.8307 E) and repair facilities located in the area. The 17th-century buildings of the Nikolo-Korelsky monastery were adapted and are still used for shipbuilding purposes[7].

Population

From 1950 until 1990, high-tech industries generated demand for a considerable quantity of suitably qualified experts and workers which prompted growth in population. Since 1992, the population has declined due to economic crises and unemployment that has provoked significant migration from the city.

Year 1939 1948 1959 1962 1967 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1986 1989 1992 1996 1998 2003 2005 2007 2008
Thous. pers. 21 32.9 78.7 97 121 144.7 160 177 197.2 214 234 248.7 249.8 238.7 233.8 201.6 197.4 193.2 191.3

Economy and industry

The main role of the city has been, and remains, the production and repair of the submarines and military ships. During the Cold War, the city prospered, but with the decline and break-up of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War the city has declined. High-tech enterprises by a narrow margin changed industry under new necessities. The city's large military enterprises have survived the economic crises of the 1990s and have adjusted to new economic conditions. Severodvinsk now has the largest shipbuilding yard in Russia for large ships (tankers, cargo ships).

Large and military factories

  • "SevMash"(СевМаш) or Northern Machine-building Enterprise (Северное машиностроительное предприятие)
core line of business is the construction and repair of submarines and other naval ships, as well as civilian vessels and oil platforms
  • "Zvyozdochka" (Звёздочка)
Repair of submarines, military and civil ships, construction of oil platforms and faceting of diamonds.
  • "Severny Reyd" (Северный рейд)
Manufacture of marine equipment.
  • "Arktika" (Арктика)
Manufacture of automated equipment
  • "SevDorMash" (СевДорМаш)
manufacture of road-building equipment and snow-ploughs.

Social sphere

Education

In the city there are 32 schools, a school for handicapped children, school for orphans, legal school.

Higher education institutions

The city hosts branches of the following institutions:

  • M.V.Lomonosov Pomorian state university.
  • St. Petersburg State Maritime Technical University
  • International Institute of Management (Arkhangelsk)
  • Moscow Modern Humanitarian Academy
  • Northwest Academy of the State Service (St. Petersburg)

Monument

City Gate

There are approximately twenty monuments and memorial complexes in the city, including:

  • a monument honoring the city founders on Shipbuilder Square (a 30-metre sculpture);
  • a monument to the famous Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov, who was born in the region - one of the city's central streets is named after him;
  • the city gate, on the road from Arkhangelsk; and
  • a monument to the support workers of World War II.

City in culture

  • K-19: The Widowmaker
  • Nuclear underwater epic, film of Discovery Channel
  • Documentary film of Alexandr Ipatov, "Severodvinsk, a bird's-eye view" (Russian "Северодвинск, вид с высоты птичьего полёта")

Notable natives and residents

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Severodvinsk is twinned with:

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_04_1.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-19.  
  2. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the Census (2002).
  3. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2008-07-25.  
  4. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. (All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers.)" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1989. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg2.php. Retrieved 2007-12-13.  
  5. ^ a b Severodvinsk - test of strength (Russian), "Pravda Severa" publishing house, 1998
  6. ^ Hamel, Joseph. England and Russia: Comprising the Voyages of John Tradescant, the Elder .... Adamant Media Corporation. pp. 282. ISBN 1402184271.  
  7. ^ [1]

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Severodvinsk is a city on the White Sea in Arkhangelsk Oblast and is a major base and construction site for Russian nuclear submarines.

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