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Successful reproductive sex in animals results in the fusion of a sperm and egg cell.
In biology, sex is a process of combining and mixing genetic traits, often resulting in the specialization of organisms into a male or female variety (known as a sex). Sexual reproduction involves combining specialized cells (gametes) to form offspring that inherit traits from both parents. Gametes can be identical in form and function (known as isogametes), but in many cases an asymmetry has evolved such that two sex-specific types of gametes (heterogametes) exist: male gametes are small, motile, and optimized to transport their genetic information over a distance, while female gametes are large, non-motile and contain the nutrients necessary for the early development of the young organism.
An organism's sex is defined by the gametes it produces: males produce male gametes (spermatozoa, or sperm) while females produce female gametes (ova, or egg cells); individual organisms which produce both male and female gametes are termed hermaphroditic. .Frequently, physical differences are associated with the different sexes of an organism; these sexual dimorphisms can reflect the different reproductive pressures the sexes experience.^ Gender Differences in Risk Behaviors Associated With Forced or Pressured Sex , January 1998 This article determines whether gender-specific patterns of risk behaviors are associated with a self-reported history of ever having been forced or pressured to have sexual intercourse among sexually active adolescents.
  • http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/sci_cult/mentalhealth/gender.html 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The assignment of a male and female sex is only biologically meaningful in sexually reproducing species where organisms produce two different characteristic gametes (germ cells or sex cells made through meiosis, these are haploid, meaning they only possess half of the genetic complement).
  • GSTU 101-- On Biology 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.math.uchicago.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The roles prescribed for each sex are based on physical abilities and properties of that sex, such as intelligence, brain lateralization, and differing hormone levels.
  • Biological and Sociocultural Views and Consequences of Gender Stereotyping 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Sexual reproduction

The life cycle of sexually reproducing organisms cycles through haploid and diploid stages.
.Sexual reproduction is a process where organisms form offspring that combine genetic traits from both parents.^ Predict the phenotypes of offspring resulting from a set of human parents with known traits.

^ An organism whose cells vary in effective gene content and hence in the expression of a trait, is called a genetic mosaic .
  • Sex Chromosomes 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some of the forms of life, the two principles are combined in one organism.

.Chromosomes are passed on from one parent to another in this process.^ And by these means, cells shall be able to send messages to one another, allowing growth to be initiated or causing metabolic processes to speed up or slow down.

.Each cell has half the chromosomes of the mother and half of the father.^ In a given cell, which of a female's X chromosomes becomes inactivated and converted into a Barr body is a matter of chance (except in marsupials like the kangaroo, where it is always the father's X chromosome that is inactivated).
  • Sex Chromosomes 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the first cell divisions of the female mouse zygote , the XIST locus on the father's X chromosome is expressed so most of his X-linked genes are silent.
  • Sex Chromosomes 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Amram Scheinfeld notes in Your Heredity and Environment, these differences between men and women are evident in the chromosomes which carry inherited traits from the father and mother.
  • Gender Differences Are Real 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.narth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] Genetic traits are contained within the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of chromosomes — by combining one of each type of chromosomes from each parent, an organism is formed containing a doubled set of chromosomes. .This double-chromosome stage is called "diploid", while the single-chromosome stage is "haploid". Diploid organisms can, in turn, form haploid cells (gametes) that randomly contain one of each of the chromosome pairs, via a process called meiosis.^ The assignment of a male and female sex is only biologically meaningful in sexually reproducing species where organisms produce two different characteristic gametes (germ cells or sex cells made through meiosis, these are haploid, meaning they only possess half of the genetic complement).
  • GSTU 101-- On Biology 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.math.uchicago.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes within each cell; twenty-two of these are alike in both males and females.
  • Gender Differences Are Real 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.narth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The answer is no, because females have only a single active X chromosome in each cell.
  • Sex Chromosomes 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .Meiosis also involves a stage of chromosomal crossover, in which regions of DNA are exchanged between matched types of chromosomes, to form a new pair of mixed chromosomes.^ Although 95% of the Y chromosome lies between the pseudoautosomal regions, fewer than 80 genes have been found here.
  • Sex Chromosomes 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This image, courtesy of C. Tease, shows synapsis of the X and Y chromosomes of a mouse during prophase of meiosis I. Crossing over occurs in two regions of pairing, called the pseudoautosomal regions .
  • Sex Chromosomes 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This occurs without a problem because, like homologous autosomes, the X and Y chromosome synapse during prophase of meiosis I. There is a small region of homology shared by the X and Y chromosome and synapsis occurs at that region.
  • Sex Chromosomes 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Crossing over and fertilization (the recombining of single sets of chromosomes to make a new diploid) result in the new organism containing a different set of genetic traits from either parent.
In many organisms, the haploid stage has been reduced to just gametes specialized to recombine and form a new diploid organism; in others, the gametes are capable of undergoing cell division to produce multicellular haploid organisms. In either case, gametes may be externally similar, particularly in size (isogamy), or may have evolved an asymmetry such that the gametes are different in size and other aspects (anisogamy).[3] By convention, the larger gamete (called an ovum, or egg cell) is considered female, while the smaller gamete (called a spermatozoon, or sperm cell) is considered male. An individual that produces exclusively large gametes is female, and one that produces exclusively small gametes is male. An individual that produces both types of gametes is a hermaphrodite; in some cases hermaphrodites are able to self-fertilize and produce offspring on their own, without a second organism.[4]

Animals

.Most sexually reproducing animals spend their lives as diploid organisms, with the haploid stage reduced to single cell gametes.^ In such species, the female is the organism which produces the larger sex cell, while the male 's is smaller This means that for species which don't reproduce by combining gametes, or those for which the gametes are mainly identical (isogamous species), male and female are not defined.
  • GSTU 101-- On Biology 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.math.uchicago.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The assignment of a male and female sex is only biologically meaningful in sexually reproducing species where organisms produce two different characteristic gametes (germ cells or sex cells made through meiosis, these are haploid, meaning they only possess half of the genetic complement).
  • GSTU 101-- On Biology 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.math.uchicago.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An amoeba shall be an animal consisting of a single cell.

[5] The gametes of animals have male and female forms—spermatozoa and egg cells. .These gametes combine to form embryos which develop into a new organism.^ These persons never enter into the opposite-sex attracted, reproductive phase of their species’ development.
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then these two new strands shall combine with the old strands to produce two helix structures.

^ If a boy sees his father helping to take care of the new baby, he will integrate this image of "daddy as care giver" into his developing definition of masculinity.
  • Gender roles, Information about Gender roles 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The male gamete, a spermatozoan (produced within a testicle), is a small cell containing a single long flagellum which propels it.[6] Spermatozoa are extremely reduced cells, lacking many cellular components that would be necessary for embryonic development. They are specialized for motility, seeking out an egg cell and fusing with it in a process called fertilization.
Female gametes are egg cells (produced within ovaries), large immobile cells that contain the nutrients and cellular components necessary for a developing embryo.[7] Egg cells are often associated with other cells which support the development of the embryo, forming an egg. .In mammals, the fertilized embryo instead develops within the female, receiving nutrition directly from its mother.^ The embryos' development is regulated by the reproduction hormone prolactin (also found in female mammals).
  • GSTU 101-- On Biology 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.math.uchicago.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sweden has both a high female labor force participation rate , and a total fertility rate that’s high by developed world standards .

^ Sex differentiation takes place immediately as the male or female begins to develop within the womb.
  • Gender Differences Are Real 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.narth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Animals are usually mobile and seek out a partner of the opposite sex for mating. Animals which live in the water can mate using external fertilization, where the eggs and sperm are released into and combine within the surrounding water.[8] .Most animals that live outside of water, however, must transfer sperm from male to female to achieve internal fertilization.^ A Female Candidate in Armenia Must Be Three Times Smarter Than a Male Candidate.
  • Gender Equality 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In most birds, both excretion and reproduction is done through a single posterior opening, called the cloaca—male and female birds touch cloaca to transfer sperm, a process called "cloacal kissing".[9] In many other terrestrial animals, males use specialized sex organs to assist the transport of sperm—these male sex organs are called intromittent organs.^ Meanwhile, according to psychologist Naira Sahakyan, both in the animal world and in human society, in crisis situations women take over the reins of government, because females are more adjustable than males.
  • Gender Equality 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In humans and other mammals this male organ is the penis, which enters the female reproductive tract (called the vagina) to achieve insemination—a process called sexual intercourse. .The penis contains a tube through which semen (a fluid containing sperm) travels.^ Lymph , a clear watery fluid containing white cells, shall be transported through lymphatic vessels, thereby connecting certain tissues with the bloodstream.

^ The heart shall pump blood , a cell-containing fluid, through the arteries and veins as follows.

In female mammals the vagina connects with the uterus, an organ which directly supports the development of a fertilized embryo within (a process called gestation).
Because of their motility, animal sexual behavior can involve coercive sex. Traumatic insemination, for example, is used by some insect species to inseminate females through a wound in the abdominal cavity - a process detrimental to the female's health.

Plants

Flowers are the sexual organs of flowering plants, usually containing both male and female parts.
Like animals, plants have developed specialized male and female gametes.[10] Within most familiar plants, male gametes are contained within hard coats, forming pollen. The female gametes of plants are contained within ovules; once fertilized by pollen these form seeds which, like eggs, contain the nutrients necessary for the development of the embryonic plant.
Pinus nigra cone.jpg Pine cones, immature male.jpg
Female (left) and male (right) cones are the sex organs of pines and other conifers.
Many plants have flowers and these are the sexual organs of those plants. Flowers are usually hermaphroditic, producing both male and female gametes. The female parts, in the center of a flower, are the carpels—one or more of these may be merged to form a single pistil. Within carpels are ovules which develop into seeds after fertilization. The male parts of the flower are the stamens: these long filamentous organs are arranged between the pistil and the petals and produce pollen at their tips. When a pollen grain lands upon the top of a carpel, the tissues of the plant react to transport the grain down into the carpel to merge with an ovule, eventually forming seeds.
In pines and other conifers the sex organs are conifer cones and have male and female forms. The more familiar female cones are typically more durable, containing ovules within them. Male cones are smaller and produce pollen which is transported by wind to land in female cones. As with flowers, seeds form within the female cone after pollination.
Because plants are immobile, they depend upon passive methods for transporting pollen grains to other plants. Many plants, including conifers and grasses, produce lightweight pollen which is carried by wind to neighboring plants. Other plants have heavier, sticky pollen that is specialized for transportation by insects. The plants attract these insects with nectar-containing flowers. Insects transport the pollen as they move to other flowers, which also contain female reproductive organs, resulting in pollination.
Mushrooms are produced as part of fungal sexual reproduction.

Fungi

Most fungi reproduce sexually, having both a haploid and diploid stage in their life cycles. These fungi are typically isogamous, lacking male and female specialization: haploid fungi grow into contact with each other and then fuse their cells. In some of these cases the fusion is asymmetric, and the cell which donates only a nucleus (and not accompanying cellular material) could arguably be considered "male".[11]
Some fungi, including baker's yeast, have mating types that create a duality similar to male and female roles. Yeast with the same mating type will not fuse with each other to form diploid cells, only with yeast carrying the other mating type.[12]
Fungi produce mushrooms as part of their sexual reproduction. Within the mushroom diploid cells are formed, later dividing into haploid spores—the height of the mushroom aids the dispersal of these sexually produced offspring.
Sex helps the spread of advantageous traits through recombination. The diagrams compare evolution of allele frequency in a sexual population (a) and an asexual population (b). The vertical axis shows frequency and the horizontal axis shows time. The alleles a/A and b/B occur at random. The advantageous combination AB arises rapidly with recombination (a), but must arise independently in (b).

Evolution

.Sexual reproduction first appeared about a billion years ago, evolved within ancestral single-celled eukaryotes.^ At the Chicago-Kent College of Law, Dr. Rashad Zayadan spoke about the situation in Iraq since the US-led invasion over three years ago.
  • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Wafa Idris blew herself up in Jerusalem two years ago, she immediately gained iconic status as the intifada's first female martyr.
  • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

[13] The reason for the initial evolution of sex, and the reason it has survived to the present, are still matters of debate. .Some of the many plausible theories include: that sex creates variation among offspring, sex helps in the spread of advantageous traits, and that sex helps in the removal of disadvantageous traits.^ Many "random" magic effects in D&D include involuntary sex change as one possible result.
  • Gender Bender - Television Tropes & Idioms 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there is endless variety in human sexuality, there are also some rather common variant syndromes of sex differentiation, which are recognizable across time and cultures.
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the past, almost unequivocally, one sex was chosen for rearing, with all the advantages and disadvantages brought on by that process.
  • Sexuality, Gender Identity: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Sexual reproduction is a process specific to eukaryotes, organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and mitochondria.^ Now the nucleus shall contain the genetic information – it shall be a cell’s "brain."

^ Now every cell of a particular living organism shall contain the selfsame DNA. However, in a given cell, some genes shall be inactive , while others shall be active .

^ To exploit the energy contained in lipids, living organism shall first store the energy in fatty acids in ATP, and later, they shall liberate this energy in metabolic processes.

In addition to animals, plants, and fungi, other eukaryotes (e.g. the .malaria parasite) also engage in sexual reproduction.^ Is it always necessary or desirable for every member of human society to engage in sexual reproduction?
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

Some bacteria use conjugation to transfer genetic material between bacteria; while not the same as sexual reproduction, this also results in the mixture of genetic traits.
.What is considered defining of sexual reproduction is the difference between the gametes and the binary nature of fertilization.^ BIOL 108 Evolution and Human Behavior (3) NW Introduction to evolution by natural selection, examining the light it can throw on human biology and behavior in such areas a s the nature of sex differences, sexual conflict, and conflict between parents and children.

^ It is, after all, how our own sexuality is defined/assigned that determines whether our inherent sexual attraction will be considered “same sex” or not!
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nerve Magazin Quite different people present their opinions on and experiences with sexuality, body and our ‘verocious’ ‘natural’ thrives.
  • SocioSite: SEX-GENDER and QUEER 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Multiplicity of gamete types within a species would still be considered a form of sexual reproduction.^ Rutgers Nisso Groep stands for equal sexual treatment, the protection and improvement of sexual and reproductive health and rights, as well as emancipation of special groups.
  • SocioSite: SEX-GENDER and QUEER 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, no third gamete is known in multicellular animals.[14][15][16]

Human reproduction

.This article is intended to focus on the biological aspects of sex.^ Each week a fresh article on a special aspect of sexuality, and a sex tip of the week.
  • SocioSite: SEX-GENDER and QUEER 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you are interested in articles specifically related to humans and sexuality please see the above links.^ Even if you decide the minor is not for you, you might be interested in some of the courses or in checking out our brown bag talks on gender related issues.
  • Gender Studies Minor at UNC Pembroke 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.uncp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ See Key Concept 3.4 on page 42 - teaching 5 year olds about consensual and forced sexual relations.
  • Documents Tagged with gender | Scribd 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

^ Following Karla's work means that, in your Academia.edu News Feed, you will see Karla's: status updates new papers new research interests and other research updates.
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Gender and Sexuality as a research interest (240) 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

Sex determination

.The most basic sexual system is one in which all organisms are hermaphrodites, producing both male and female gametes—this is true of some animals (e.g.^ Meanwhile, according to psychologist Naira Sahakyan, both in the animal world and in human society, in crisis situations women take over the reins of government, because females are more adjustable than males.
  • Gender Equality 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

snails) and the majority of flowering plants.[17] In many cases, however, specialization of sex has evolved such that some organisms produce only male or only female gametes. The biological cause for an organism developing into one sex or the other is called sex determination.
In the majority of species with sex specialization organisms are either male (producing only male gametes) or female (producing only female gametes). A few exceptions exist—for example, in the roundworm C. elegans the two sexes are hermaphrodite and male (a system called androdioecy).
Sometimes an organism's development is intermediate between male and female, a condition called intersex. Sometimes intersex individuals are called "hermaphrodite" but, unlike biological hermaphrodites, intersex individuals are unusual cases and are not typically fertile in both male and female aspects.

Genetic

Like humans and other mammals, the common fruit fly has an XY sex determination system.
In genetic sex determination systems, an organism's sex is determined by the genome it inherits. .Genetic sex determination usually depends on asymmetrically inherited sex chromosomes which carry genetic features that influence development; sex may be determined either by the presence of a sex chromosome or by how many the organism has.^ This thinking holds, for example, that we are drawn to physical features that tell us our partner is healthy and will give us a fighting chance to carry on our genetic lineage.
  • Evolution » Gender 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC gregladen.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A complete CAH person may be considered “sex reversed” in that they have a normal external male anatomy despite their XX-female chromosomes.
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The inherent brain bias toward one sex may be discordant with the genetic makeup of a fetus, or even with its external anatomic presentation.
  • Sexuality, Gender Identity: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Genetic sex determination, because it is determined by chromosome assortment, usually results in a 1:1 ratio of male and female offspring.^ Sex, male or female.
  • Gender@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ratio of male to female animals was 95:1.
  • Chapter 9:  Gender Inequality 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.delmar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ratio of male pictures to female pictures was 11:1.
  • Chapter 9:  Gender Inequality 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.delmar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Humans and other mammals have an XY sex determination system: the Y chromosome carries factors responsible for triggering male development. .The default sex, in the absence of a Y chromosome, is female.^ A complete CAH person may be considered “sex reversed” in that they have a normal external male anatomy despite their XX-female chromosomes.
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Initially, all human fetuses are primed to have a female sex, in that the default pathway for development is toward female anatomy.
  • Sexuality, Gender Identity: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, XX mammals are female and XY are male.^ In fact, among intersexed persons some of the most common forms are almost biologically opposite syndromes (C-AIS XY-females and C-CAH XX-males).
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A complete CAH person may be considered “sex reversed” in that they have a normal external male anatomy despite their XX-female chromosomes.
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They can’t figure out how to keep the games strictly XY-male and XX-female because there are so many intersex athletes in the games presenting exceptions to this rule!
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

XY sex determination is found in other organisms, including the common fruit fly and some plants.[17] .In some cases, including in the fruit fly, it is the number of X chromosomes that determines sex rather than the presence of a Y chromosome.^ Bisexuality means sexual or romantic attraction or behavior directed towards some members of more than one sex (though not necessarily at the same time).
  • SocioSite: SEX-GENDER and QUEER 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there is endless variety in human sexuality, there are also some rather common variant syndromes of sex differentiation, which are recognizable across time and cultures.
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Klinefelter syndrome Klinefelter syndrome occurs when the fetus possesses a sex karyotype of XXY. Because of the presence of the Y chromosome and its components, fetal development is that of a normal male.
  • Sexuality, Gender Identity: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

In birds, which have a ZW sex-determination system, the opposite is true: the W chromosome carries factors responsible for female development, and default development is male.[18] .In this case ZZ individuals are male and ZW are female.^ Neurologically Feminized Males and Masculinized Females In biology it is well established that fetal hormones determine the outcome in terms of masculinization and feminization of the individual.
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the case of Dallas it is clear that the programme meant something different for female viewers compared with male viewers.
  • Television and Gender Roles 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.aber.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ By contrast, in experiments with hyper-androgenized XX-female apes, these individuals sometimes actually became the dominant “males” of the group despite their XX-female chromosomes and infertility!
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

The majority of butterflies and moths also have a ZW sex-determination system. .In both XY and ZW sex determination systems the sex chromosome carrying the critical factors is often significantly smaller, carrying little more than the genes necessary for triggering the development of a given sex.^ Bisexuality means sexual or romantic attraction or behavior directed towards some members of more than one sex (though not necessarily at the same time).
  • SocioSite: SEX-GENDER and QUEER 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One inevitable consequence of the omission is the tendency to aggregate development data for both sexes, often concealing important gender issues.
  • OneWorld Gender Guide 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC uk.oneworld.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Teachers also call on boys more often and give them more positive feedback than girls.
  • Chapter 9:  Gender Inequality 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.delmar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
Many insects use a sex determination system based on the number of sex chromosomes. This is called XX/XO sex determination—the O indicates the absence of the sex chromosome. .All other chromosomes in these organisms are diploid, but organisms may inherit one or two X chromosomes.^ One who belongs to more than one of these communities may feel welcome in both, but usually neither addresses all one’s needs or the way that one’s needs from different communities overlap or interact.
  • Gender & Sexuality 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC saswat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These writers are specific to the area you are in...and clicking one will display content from him or her in the two column viewing area.
  • ZNet - Feminism/Gender 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

^ Majors may also complete one of two specialization tracks, in Gender, Sexuality, and Public Health or Social Movements.
  • Women's/Gender Studies Appointments 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.nwsa.org [Source type: Academic]

In field crickets, for example, insects with a single X chromosome develop as male, while those with two develop as female.[20] In the nematode C. elegans most worms are self-fertilizing XX hermaphrodites, but occasionally abnormalities in chromosome inheritance regularly give rise to individuals with only one X chromosome—these XO individuals are fertile males (and half their offspring are male).[21]
Other insects, including honey bees and ants, use a haplodiploid sex-determination system.[22] .In this case diploid individuals are generally female, and haploid individuals (which develop from unfertilized eggs) are male.^ Soaps in general have a predominantly female audience, although prime-time soaps such as Dallas are deliberately aimed at a wider audience, and in fact at least 30% of the audience for this soap was male.
  • Television and Gender Roles 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.aber.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ Teachers can apply these different preferences in their teaching methods by assigning the female students to assignment that require cooperation and the male students to individual assignments.
  • Gender Differences - WikEd 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC wik.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In littermates, the males and females next to each other in the womb can hormonally modify each other’s development.
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

.This sex-determination system results in highly biased sex ratios, as the sex of offspring is determined by fertilization rather than the assortment of chromosomes during meiosis.^ Only in spiritual life do we find this system reversed, when the competition is to serve rather than to lord it over others.
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During this phase, children seem pay more attention to same-sex figures than to other-sex figures on the screen.
  • Television and Gender Roles 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.aber.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ Two very well-described syndromes involving sex and gender, Turner syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome, result from chromosomal abnormalities.
  • Sexuality, Gender Identity: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Clownfish are initially male; the largest fish in a group becomes female.

Nongenetic

.For many species sex is not determined by inherited traits, but instead by environmental factors experienced during development or later in life.^ Gender-variant behavior occurs when gender identity manifests itself in later life and is at odds with the child's sex.
  • Sexuality, Gender Identity: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During the eighth week of gestation, fetuses with a Y chromosome and a functional locus for the SRY gene product, also called the testes determining factor (TDF), undergo testicular development.
  • Sexuality, Gender Identity: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These persons never enter into the opposite-sex attracted, reproductive phase of their species’ development.
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

Many reptiles have temperature-dependent sex determination: the temperature embryos experience during their development determines the sex of the organism. In some turtles, for example, males are produced at lower incubation temperatures than females; this difference in critical temperatures can be as little as 1-2°C.
Many fish change sex over the course of their lifespan, a phenomenon called sequential hermaphroditism. In clownfish, smaller fish are male, and the dominant and largest fish in a group becomes female. In many wrasses the opposite is true—most fish are initially female and become male when they reach a certain size. .Sequential hermaphrodites may produce both types of gametes over the course of their lifetime, but at any given point they are either female or male.^ A complete CAH person may be considered “sex reversed” in that they have a normal external male anatomy despite their XX-female chromosomes.
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He assumes whatever form the person viewing him would find most attractive, which means that he can either be a fully functioning male, female, hermaphrodite or whatever else a person finds attractive at the time at any given time.
  • Gender Bender - Television Tropes & Idioms 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gender identity and gender role Gender identity is defined as a personal conception of oneself as male or female (or rarely, both or neither).
  • Sexuality, Gender Identity: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

In some ferns the default sex is hermaphrodite, but ferns which grow in soil that has previously supported hermaphrodites are influenced by residual hormones to instead develop as male.[23]

Sexual dimorphism

Common pheasants are sexually dimorphic in both size and appearance.
.Many animals have differences between the male and female sexes in size and appearance, a phenomenon called sexual dimorphism.^ The male and female human brains are different.
  • Evolution » Gender 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC gregladen.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Males and females are different from the moment of conception.
  • Chapter 9:  Gender Inequality 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.delmar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ratio of male to female animals was 95:1.
  • Chapter 9:  Gender Inequality 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.delmar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sexual dimorphisms are often associated with sexual selection - the competition between individuals of one sex to mate with the opposite sex.^ Bisexuality means sexual or romantic attraction or behavior directed towards some members of more than one sex (though not necessarily at the same time).
  • SocioSite: SEX-GENDER and QUEER 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the continuum of sex differentiation and sex-dimorphic behavior variations, sex object attraction or “partner preference” in animals and comparable “sexual orientation” in humans demonstrably have biological determinatives.
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When an intersex condition is noted in a newborn, one sex is often chosen with the intention of simplifying social interactions and rearing.
  • Sexuality, Gender Identity: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[24] .Antlers in male deer, for example, are used in combat between males to win reproductive access to female deer.^ A gender gap exists between males and females in the use of technology.
  • Gender issues 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lack of strong female role models is believed by some experts to be yet another reason for the gender gap in technology use between males and females.
  • Gender issues 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This article explores the differences between male and female internet advertising beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors.

In many cases the male of a species is larger in size; in mammals species with high sexual size dimorphism tend to have highly polygynous mating systems—presumably due to selection for success in competition with other males.
.Other animals, including most insects and many fish, have larger females.^ Of those souls who most want to dominate and force others into submission, the alpha males and alpha females are the most successful.
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most researchers in this and other studies have found that boys get more attention whether the teachers are male or female.
  • Chapter 9:  Gender Inequality 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.delmar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is eventually turned back after many trials, tribulations and being snarked at by most of the other party members.
  • Gender Bender - Television Tropes & Idioms 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This may be associated with the cost of producing egg cells, which requires more nutrition than producing sperm—larger females are able to produce more eggs.^ In recent years, male-to-female sex ratios at birth and among children in India have increased much more than can be explained solely by discrimination against girls.
  • Gender - Population Reference Bureau 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.prb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 'realist' soaps female characters are portrayed as more central than in action drama, as ordinary people coping with everyday problems.
  • Television and Gender Roles 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.aber.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ George Bush and Robert Mugabe may have a lot more in common than they think, homosexuality being just one of them.
  • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

[25] Occasionally this dimorphism is extreme, with males reduced to living as parasites dependent on the female.
.In birds, males often have a more colourful appearance and may have features (like the long tail of male peacocks) that would seem to put the organism at a disadvantage (e.g.^ It has been noted that gay male couples seem to do a much better job at raising young than heterosexual couples (and possibly gay female couples) in birds.
  • Evolution » Gender 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC gregladen.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As long as they are putting out the testosterone smells that trigger violent “rival” aggression in the alpha male, they will be in danger.
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association, Inc: Hinduism, HareKrishna, Homosexuality 19 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.galva108.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I believe that People of Color would change their physical appearance to match a more “White” standard of beauty if they could.
  • Gender & Sexuality 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC saswat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

bright colors would seem to make a bird more visible to predators). One proposed explanation for this is the handicap principle.[26] This hypothesis says that, by demonstrating he can survive with such handicaps, the male is advertising his genetic fitness to females—traits that will benefit daughters as well, who will not be encumbered with such handicaps.
.Sex differences in humans include, generally, a larger size and more body hair in men; women have breasts, wider hips, and a higher body fat percentage.^ He added that the unemployment rate is higher among women than among men, and that women make up 60% of the unemployed population of the republic.
  • Gender Equality 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Men give up more easily and lose courage, where women are genetically stronger.
  • Gender Equality 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He said the ratification will mean that Armenia wishes to observe the principle of men's and women's equality as it is spelled out in the UN Declaration of Basic Human Rights.
  • Gender Equality 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

  1. ^ Alberts et al. (2002), U.S. National Institutes of Health, "V. 20. The Benefits of Sex".
  2. ^ Alberts et al. (2002), "V. 20. Meiosis", U.S. NIH, webpage: V. 20. Meiosis.
  3. ^ Gilbert (2000), "1.2. Multicellularity: Evolution of Differentiation", NIH, webpage:1.2.Mul.
  4. ^ Alberts et al. (2002), "V. 21. Caenorhabditis Elegans: Development as Indiv. Cell", U.S. NIH, webpage: V. 21. Caenorhabditis.
  5. ^ Alberts et al. (2002), "3. Mendelian genetics in eukaryotic life cycles", U.S. NIH, webpage: 3. Mendelian/eukaryotic.
  6. ^ Alberts et al. (2002), "V.20. Sperm", U.S. NIH, webpage: V.20. Sperm.
  7. ^ Alberts et al. (2002), "V.20. Eggs", U.S. NIH, webpage: V.20. Eggs.
  8. ^ Alberts et al. (2002), "V.20. Fertilization", U.S. NIH, webpage: V.20. Fertilization.
  9. ^ Ritchison G. "Avian Reproduction". Eastern Kentucky University. http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/avianreproduction.html. Retrieved 2008-04-03. 
  10. ^ Gilbert (2000), "4.20. Gamete Production in Angiosperms", U.S. NIH, webpage: 4.20. Gamete/Angio..
  11. ^ Nick Lane (2005). Power, Sex, Suicide: Mitochondria and the Meaning of Life. Oxford University Press. pp. 236–237. ISBN 0192804812. 
  12. ^ Matthew P Scott, Paul Matsudaira, Harvey Lodish, James Darnell, Lawrence Zipursky, Chris A Kaiser, Arnold Berk, Monty Krieger (2000). Molecular Cell Biology (Fourth ed.). WH Freeman and Co. ISBN 0-7167-4366-3. 14.1. Cell-Type Specification and Mating-Type Conversion in Yeast
  13. ^ "Book Review for Life: A Natural History of the First Four Billion Years of Life on Earth". Jupiter Scientific. http://jupiterscientific.org/review/life.html. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  14. ^ Amanda Schaffer, "Pas de Deux: Why Are There Only Two Sexes?", Slate, updated 2007-09-27.
  15. ^ Laurence D. Hurst, "Why are There Only Two Sexes?", Proceedings: Biological Sciences, 263 (1996): 415-422.
  16. ^ ES Haag, "Why two sexes? Sex determination in multicellular organisms and protistan mating types", Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 18 (2007): 348-9.
  17. ^ a b Dellaporta SL, Calderon-Urrea A (1993). "Sex Determination in Flowering Plants". The Plant Cell 5: 1241–1251. doi:10.2307/3869777. 
  18. ^ Smith CA, Katza M, Sinclair AH (2003). "DMRT1 Is Upregulated in the Gonads During Female-to-Male Sex Reversal in ZW Chicken Embryos". Biology of Reproduction 68: 560–570. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.102.007294. PMID 12533420. 
  19. ^ "Evolution of the Y Chromosome". Annenberg Media. http://www.learner.org/channel/courses/biology/textbook/gender/gender_4.html. Retrieved 2008-04-01. 
  20. ^ Yoshimura A (2005). "Karyotypes of two American field crickets: Gryllus rubens and Gryllus sp. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)". Entomological Science 8 (3): 219–222. doi:10.1111/j.1479-8298.2005.00118.x. 
  21. ^ Riddle DL, Blumenthal T, Meyer BJ, Priess JR (1997). C. Elegans II. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 0-87969-532-3. 9.II. Sexual Dimorphism
  22. ^ Charlesworth B (2003). "Sex Determination in the Honeybee". Cell 114 (4): 397–398. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00610-X. 
  23. ^ Tanurdzic M and Banks JA (2004). "Sex-Determining Mechanisms in Land Plants". The Plant Cell 16: S61–S71. doi:10.1105/tpc.016667. PMID 15084718. 
  24. ^ Darwin C (1871). The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. Murray, London. 
  25. ^ Stuart-Smith J, Swain R, Stuart-Smith R, Wapstra E (2007). "Is fecundity the ultimate cause of female-biased size dimorphism in a dragon lizard?". Journal of Zoology 273 (3): 266–272. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2007.00324.x. 
  26. ^ Zahavi, A. and Zahavi, A. (1997) The handicap principle: a missing piece of Darwin's puzzle. Oxford University Press. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-510035-2

Further reading

  • Arnqvist, G. & Rowe, L. (2005) Sexual conflict. Princeton University Press, Princeton. ISBN 0691122172
  • Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, and Walter P (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.). New York: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-3218-1. 
  • Gilbert SF (2000). Developmental Biology (6th ed.). Sinauer Associates, Inc.. ISBN 0-87893-243-7. 
  • Maynard-Smith, J. The Evolution of Sex. Cambridge University Press, 1978.

External links and


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Quotes about sexual intercourse.

Contents

Sourced

.
  • If you give a man a hammer, he thinks he can solve all problems by pounding.^ Don’t all you think this it's showing or impelling that women society is not capable/eligible for protecting herself and she always needs a help.
    • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

    Well, God gave men penises....
  • "Natural" is a very dangerous word to use about sexuality ... Our society's notions of normality are completely fake and meta-trendy, since they rely on the changing standards of superstition, religion, Christianity and gender bias to define themselves. .Americans, in particular, exhibit very childish reactions to sexual practices that are new to them, much like little kids who are offered a vegetable they haven't seen before: "That's disgusting!"^ Called 'Kishori Sabhas' or 'Samuhs' these groups are so popular that they have even managed to do away with practices like child labor and child marriage in the villages .
    • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

    "But darling, you haven't even tried it!" "I don't care, I hate it, I hate it!" .
  • Once you've gotten two hands up somebody's ass, you aren't likely to feel jealous of a penis.^ You've got your mother in a whirl She's not sure if you're a boy or a girl - David Bowie , "Rebel Rebel" .
    • Gender Bender - Television Tropes & Idioms 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You can roll up the submenu, for those who feel no need to use it - the link is off to the right side.
    • ZNet - Feminism/Gender 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

  • Coition is a slight attack of apoplexy. For man gushes forth from man, and is separated by being torn apart with a kind of blow.
  • "Can a woman not keep her lover without she study to always please him with pleasure? Pew! then let her give up the game. Or shall my lover think with pleasing of me to win me indeed? Faugh! he payeth me then; doth he think I am for hire?"
  • When authorities warn you of the sinfulness of sex, there is an important lesson to be learned. Do not have sex with the authorities.
  • Give pleasure. Accept pleasure. It's that easy. .
    • Kenneth Hanes, The Gay Guy's Guide to Life
  • Happy family: The existence and maintenance of [this] is thought to make a politician fit for public office.^ CUTE x GUY follows the life of Sumi Takaoko, a girl whose father promises her a serum he concocted will make her mature looking and sexy.
    • Gender Bender - Television Tropes & Idioms 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    According to this theory, the public are less concerned by whether or not they are effectively represented than by the need to be assured that the penises and hairy vaginas of public officials are only used in legally sanctioned circumstances.
  • Venereal: From Venus, the goddess of love, this word refers to the reality of desire. With the rise of Protestantism and science, the word "disease" was tacked on in a revealing combination of categorization and moralizing. "Which disease?" "The disease of love."
  • "I honestly don't understand the big fuss made over nudity and sex in films. It's silly. .On TV, the children can watch people murdering each other, which is a very unnatural thing, but they can't watch two people in the very natural process of making love.^ Things get complicated when Martin falls in love with Hlose, and when Hlose gets out and sleeps with other men.
    • Gender Bender - Television Tropes & Idioms 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In parts of North India, if two young people, especially from different communities, hope to build a life together, they are hunted down for daring to think that they can .
    • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

    Now, really, that doesn't make any sense, does it?"
    • Sharon Tate as quoted in Sharon Tate and the Manson Murders (2000) by Greg King
  • All this fuss about sleeping together. For physical pleasure I'd sooner go to my dentist any day.
  • There are two kinds of sex, classical and baroque. Classical sex is romantic, profound, serious, emotional, moral, mysterious, spontaneous, abandoned, focused on a particular person, and stereotypically feminine. Baroque sex is pop, playful, funny, experimental, conscious, deliberate, amoral, anonymous, focused on sensation for sensation's sake, and stereotypically masculine. The classical mentality taken to an extreme is sentimental and finally puritanical; the baroque mentality taken to an extreme is pornographic and finally obscene. Ideally, a sexual relation ought to create a satisfying tension between the two modes (a baroque idea, particularly if the tension is ironic) or else blend them so well that the distinction disappears (a classical aspiration). .
    • Ellen Willis, "Classical and Baroque Sex in Everyday Life" (1979), Beginning To See the Light: Pieces of a Decade (1981)
  • Nothing is better than sex and anyone who says so has never had a good woman.^ As India and Pakistan are battling it out on the cricket field, does anyone think of the girls who are never given a level playing field in life?
    • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Those who oppose same-sex marriage say that it would undermine the institution of marriage.
    • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Roger Daltry, The Mirror, Saturday 15th July 2000
  • Yes, I haven't had enough sex.
    • Sir John Betjeman, British poet laureate. He had been asked whether he had any regrets, in an interview for the television documentary Time With Betjeman (February 1983).
  • I'm saving myself for marriage. Or at least consent.
    • Xavier from Xavier: Renegade Angel, episode "Escape From Squatopian Freedom" by John Lee and Vernon Chatman, 2007.

Dialogue

Lucia DeLury: Honey, I don't understand sex. I don't get it, get it? It's just, it seems like, uh… a lot of trouble for not much. Am I the only one that thinks this?
.Bill Truit: I don't think you're the tip of an iceberg, frankly.^ Don’t all you think this it's showing or impelling that women society is not capable/eligible for protecting herself and she always needs a help.
  • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If you're Roman Polanski, world-famous director, a lot of famous and gifted people think the...
  • ZNet - Feminism/Gender 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

Lucia DeLury: Well, I- I would rather have a bathrobe. You know, it lasts longer, and there's no fluids. You know, what's so great about that? That's like, "Hi! I'd like to blow my nose on your face."
The Opposite of Sex (1998), with Lisa Kudrow (Lucia) and Martin Donovan (Bill)

Verse

Unsourced

A-C

  • A hooker is like a really good date, only cheaper and without the 3 hours of bullshit before the sex. ~ Richard Kohut
  • A lover always thinks of his mistress first and himself second; with a husband it runs the other way. ~ .Honore de Balzac
  • A promiscuous person is someone who is getting more sex than you are.^ All religions have had a problem with women and sex - and Christianity more than most .
    • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

    ~ Victor Lownes
  • A woman makes a guy come, it's standard. A guy makes a woman come, it's talent. ~ Dante Hicks
  • An orgasm a day keeps the doctor away. ~ Mae West
  • Chastity always takes its toll. In some it produces pimples; in others, sex laws. ~ Karl Kraus
  • Chastity...the most unnatural of all the sexual perversions. ~ Aldous Huxley
  • Civilized people cannot fully satisfy their sexual instinct without love. ~ Bertrand Russell

D-H

  • Don't knock masturbation — it's sex with someone I love. ~ Woody Allen
  • Ducking for apples - change one letter and it's the story of my life. ~ Dorothy Parker
  • Fifty percent of the women in this country are not having orgasms. If that were true of the male population, it would be declared a national emergency. ~ Margo St. James
  • Fuckin' is good for you, Jack. Gettin some pussy beats having a war. ~ Richard Pryor
  • Great lovers are made, not born. ~ Variant of “Christians are made, not born” (Latin: fiunt non nascuntur Christiani, by Tertullian, Apologeticus, xviii, in the year 197).

I

  • I found the fountain of youth and it was between a woman's legs. ~ Thomas Geraghty
  • I consider sex a misdemeanor; the more I miss, de meaner I get. ~ Mae West
  • I do all my best work in bed. ~ Mae West
  • I don't know whether it's normal or not, but sex has always been something I take seriously. I would put it higher than tennis on my list of constructive things to do. ~ Art Buchwald
  • I feel like a million tonight. But one at a time. ~ Mae West
  • I generally avoid temptation unless I can't resist it. ~ Mae West
  • I need sex for a clear complexion, but I'd rather do it for love. ~ Joan Crawford
  • I would like to outlaw contraception...contraception is disgusting — people using each other for pleasure. ~ .Joseph Scheidler, Pro-Life Action League
  • If our sex life were determined by our first youthful experiments, most of the world would be doomed to celibacy.^ Since the late 1970s when the technology for sex determination first came into being, sex selective abortion has unleashed a saga of horror.
    • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

    .In no area of human experience are human beings more convinced that something better can be had if only they persevere.^ George Bush and Robert Mugabe may have a lot more in common than they think, homosexuality being just one of them.
    • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Can Indian women dream of a day when they will be treated with the same respect and rights as men, in fact as all human beings, men and women, should?
    • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

    ~ P. D. James
  • If they laid all the coeds from Yale end to end...I wouldn't be surprised. ~ Dorothy Parker
  • In America sex is an obsession; in other parts of the world it is a fact. ~ Marlene Dietrich
  • It doesn't matter if you fuck someone or get fucked - the main thing is to have sex.^ A hard truth to learn - feminist speak doesn't matter much when you're living hand-to-mouth .
    • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

    ~ .Bulgarian proverb
  • It is essential that we realize once and for all that man is much more of a sex creature than a moral creature.^ All religions have had a problem with women and sex - and Christianity more than most .
    • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For a much more in depth introduction to all the parts of Z communications, please just click the New Uers link to the left.
    • ZNet - Feminism/Gender 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

    The former is inherent, the other is grafted on. ~ Emma Goldman
  • It is not sex that gives us pleasure, but the lover. ~ Marge Piercy
  • It is one of the superstitions of the human mind to have imagined that virginity could be a virtue. ~ Voltaire
  • It is significant that whenever the public mind is to be diverted from great social wrong, a crusade is inaugurated against indecency. ~ Emma Goldman
  • It's hard for me to get used to these changing times. I can remember when the air was clean and sex was dirty. ~ George Burns
  • It's just that it's been my experience in having sex with some straight men that the sex is over when he gets off. And I don't accept that. I want to have an orgasm. ...Not right now! This is the Isaac Stern Auditorium!... No. I want to have one. I will put a chalk board over the bed. One... one. ~ Margaret Cho
  • It's not the men in my life, but the life in my men. ~ .Mae West
  • It's not true that the more sex that you have, the more it interferes with your work.^ Again we think having this feature on is vastly better for rapid navigation, once you get used to it, but you do have to get used to how it works and to handling your mouse a bit more carefully than usual for it to be advantageous.
    • ZNet - Feminism/Gender 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

    ^ You can also upload quotes, lyrics, graphics, poetry, and articles, a bio, your photo, and one or more photo albums.
    • ZNet - Feminism/Gender 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

    .I find that the more sex you have, the better work you do.^ Again we think having this feature on is vastly better for rapid navigation, once you get used to it, but you do have to get used to how it works and to handling your mouse a bit more carefully than usual for it to be advantageous.
    • ZNet - Feminism/Gender 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

    ~ H. G. Wells
  • I've been around so long, I knew Doris Day before she was a virgin. ~ George Burns
  • I've been in more laps than a napkin. ~ Mae West

J-L

  • Joan is as good as my lady in the dark. ~ English proverb (17th Century)
  • Life in Lubbock, Texas, taught me two things: One is that God loves you and you’re going to burn in hell. The other is that sex is the most awful, filthy thing on earth and you should save it for someone you love. ~Butch Hancock
  • Life without sex might be safer but it would be unbearably dull. ~ H. L. Mencken
  • Looking for sex can lead to misfortune, and if you get "lucky" and find it, it can leave you maimed, infected, or dead. Other than that, it's swell. ~ Edna Buchanan
  • Lord, grant me chastity and continence... but not yet. ~ St. Augustine
  • Love and sex are the things that give life some value, some zest. Miserable as flesh and blood is, it is still the best you can get. ~ Unknown
  • Love and sex can go together, and sex and unlove can go together, and love and unsex can go together. But personal love and personal sex is bad. ~ Andy Warhol
  • Love is just a system for getting someone to call you "darling" after sex. ~ Julian Barnes
  • Love is not the dying moan of a distant violin, it's the triumphant twang of a bedspring. ~ S. J. Perelman
  • Love is the answer, but while you're waiting for the answer, sex raises some pretty interesting questions. ~ Woody Allen
  • Love is the name, sex is the game, forget the name and play the game! ~ Unknown

M-R

  • Men ought to be more conscious of their bodies as an object of delight. ~ Germaine Greer
  • Much more genius is needed to make love than to command armies. ~ Ninon de Lenclos
  • Never have sex for a relationship and never have a relationship for sex; let the two seperate paths intertwine as they may. ~ Anonymous
  • Nobody dies from lack of sex. It's lack of love we die from. ~ Margaret Atwood
  • Of all the sexual aberrations, perhaps the most peculiar is chastity. ~ Remy de Gourmont
  • One should never be sexually involved with anyone one genuinely cares for. A sexual relationship guarantees a loss. ~ Mary Gordon
  • Our sexual self is a complex combination of our social, cultural, and biological inheritance. ~ Pepper Schwartz
  • People are supposed to fuck. It is our main purpose in life, and all those other activities—playing the trumpet, vacuuming carpets, reading mystery novels, eating chocolate mousse—are just ways of passing the time until you can fuck again. ~ Cynthia Heimel
  • Physics is like sex. Sure, it may give some practical results, but that's not why we do it. ~ Richard Feynman
  • Men always pay for sex. The only question is how much and in what currency. John Pritchard

S

  • Sex, is a thing that everyone has on their mind, whether they like it or not. ~ Unknown
  • Sex, a great and mysterious motive force in human life, has indisputably been a subject of absorbing interest to mankind through the ages. ~ William J. Brennan Jr.
  • Sex alleviates tension. Love causes it. ~ Woody Allen
  • Sex and laughter do go very well together, and I wondered — and still do — which is the more important. ~ Hermione Gingold
  • Sex between 2 people is a beautiful thing; between 5 it's fantastic ... ~ Woody Allen
  • Sex education classes in our public schools are promoting incest. ~ Jimmy Swaggart
  • Sex is a conversation carried out by other means. ~ Peter Ustinov
  • Sex is a game, a weapon, a toy, a joy, a trance, an enlightenment, a loss, a hope. ~ Sallie Tisdale
  • Sex is an emotion in motion. ~ Mae West
  • "Sex" is as important as eating or drinking and we ought to allow the one appetite to be satisfied with as little restraint or false modesty as the other. ~ Marquis De Sade
  • Sex is hardly ever just about sex. ~ Shirley MacLane
  • Sex is like air: it's no big deal unless you're not getting any. -Unknown
  • .
  • Sex is like the game of bridge: if you don't have a good partner, you need a good hand.^ Don’t all you think this it's showing or impelling that women society is not capable/eligible for protecting herself and she always needs a help.
    • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

    ~ Woody Allen
  • Sex is more exciting on the screen and between the pages than between the sheets.^ All religions have had a problem with women and sex - and Christianity more than most .
    • CounterCurrents.org Gender/Feminism Home Page 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

    ~ Andy Warhol
  • Sex is one of the nine reasons for reincarnation. The other eight are unimportant. ~ Henry Miller
  • Sex lashes out against counterfeit emotion, and is ruthless, devastating against false love. ~ D. H. Lawrence
  • Sex stops when you pull up your pants, love never lets you go. ~ Kingsley Amis
  • Sex: the thing that takes up the least amount of time and causes the most amount of trouble. ~ John Barrymore
  • Sex with love is the greatest thing in life. But sex without love — that's not so bad either. ~ Mae West
  • Sex without love is an empty experience, but as empty experiences go it's one of the best. ~ Woody Allen
  • Sexuality is lovely, there cannot be too much of it, it is self-limiting if satisfactory, and satisfaction diminishes tension and clears the mind for attention and learning. ~ Paul Goodman
  • Satisfying sex is like a game of chess. Its hard to win, but the feeling afterwards is the greatest thing known to man ~ Unknown
  • Some things are better than sex, and some are worse, but there's nothing exactly like it. ~ W. C. Fields

T

  • There are two things that rise in the morning and one is the sun. ~ Thomas Geraghty
  • Take off all your clothes and walk down the street waving a machete and firing an Uzi, and terrified citizens will phone the police and report: "There's a naked person outside!" ~ Mike Nichols
  • The Christian view that all intercourse outside marriage is immoral was, as we see in the above passages from St. Paul, based upon the view that all sexual intercourse, even within marriage, is regrettable. A view of this sort, which goes against biological facts, can only be regarded by sane people as a morbid aberration. The fact that it is embedded in Christian ethics has made Christianity throughout its whole history a force tending towards mental disorders and unwholesome views of life. ~ Bertrand Russell
  • The difference between love and sex is the difference between lightning and a lightning bug. ~ Dan Rather
  • The difference between men and women, as regards to sex, is like the relationship between the candlestick and the candleholder—the candleholder is always there. - Mark Twain
  • The only thing more fun than sex is spending someone else's money. ~ George F. Will
  • The pleasure is momentary, the position ridiculous, and the expense damnable. ~ Lord Chesterfield
  • The prerequisite for making love is liking someone enormously. ~ Helen Gurley Brown
  • The prison psychiatrist asked me if I thought sex was dirty. I told him only when it's done right. ~ Woody Allen
  • The safeword is the word you use in S/M sex that means "stop"; ... it's something innocuous, like "red", "blue", "tree", "table", whatever, so I said to my friend Bucky, who was teaching me about safewords, "But Bucky, what happens if you forget the safeword? Red, blue, green, yellow, onomatopoeia, front-loading dishwasher, what?!" She said, "Maggie, you say 'I forgot the safeword, you idiot!'" ~ Maggie Cassella
  • The sex relation is not personal relation. It can be irresistibly desired and rapturously consummated between persons who could not endure one another for a day in any other relation. ~ George Bernard Shaw
  • There's no place for the state in the bedrooms of the nation. ~ Pierre Trudeau
  • Thunder and lightning is crazy sex between Heaven and Earth. - Leonid S. Sukhorukov

U-Z

  • Very few lasting relationships are made in bed. Fantasies may begin and end there; true love does not. ~ Dr. Harold Bessell
  • We may eventually come to realize that chastity is no more a virtue than malnutrition. ~ Alexander Comfort
  • What about love? It's defective! It's always breaking in half. What about sex? It's defective! It's never built to really last.
    • Jim Steinman, "Life Is a Lemon and I Want My Money Back"
    • sung by Meat Loaf, from Bat out of Hell II: Back Into Hell (1993)
  • When I'm good, I'm very good, but when I'm bad, I'm better. ~ Mae West
  • When things don't work well in the bedroom, they don't work well in the living room, either. ~ Dr. William H. Masters
  • When women go wrong, men go right after them. ~ Mae West
  • You have to be brave in this culture to say, "This turns me on." ~ Rufus Wainwright
  • You may think you're in love when the passions of sex get hold of you, but if you didn't love the man before, you won't love him after. Like him, maybe—but not love him. ~ Mae West
  • You mustn't force sex to do the work of love or love to do the work of sex. ~ Mary McCarthy
  • Your general subject love is minimal, it's sex for profit. ~ Chuck D

Verse

  • Sex contains all, bodies, souls
    Meanings, proofs, purities, delicacies, results,
    promulgations,
    Songs, commands, health, pride, the maternal
    mystery, the seminal milk,
    All hopes, benefactions, bestowals, all the
    passions, loves, beauties,
    delights of the earth.
  • The path of true love isn't smooth,
    the ruffled feathers sex can soothe,
    soon ruffle again—for couples never
    spend all their lives in bed together.

References

  • Marianne Hunter (ed.), Sex: A Book of Quotations, Barnes & Noble Books, 2003. ISBN 0-7607-4072-0.

See also

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Sex: Avoided subjects Discussed in Plain English
by Henry Stanton
Information about this edition
Published 1922. See talk page for difficulties.
SEX
AVOIDED SUBJECTS DISCUSSED IN PLAIN ENGLISH
By
HENRY STANTON
SOCIAL CULTURE PUBLICATIONS
151 FIFTH AVENUE · NEW YORK
Copyright, 1922
SOCIAL CULTURE PUBLICATIONS
MANUFACTURED IN U. S. A.

Contents

PD-icon.svg This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923. It may be copyrighted outside the U.S. (see Help:Public domain). Flag of the United States.svg

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also sex, sex-, and Sex.

German

Wikipedia-logo.png
German Wikipedia has an article on:
Sex
Wikipedia de

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /zɛks/, /sɛks/

Noun

Sex m.
  1. sex (sexual intercourse)
This German entry was created from the translations listed at sex. .It may be less reliable than other entries, and may be missing parts of speech or additional senses.^ The Part-time Workers Regulations 2000 It is unlawful for a part-time worker to be treated less favourably than a comparable full-time worker.
  • Birmingham Professional Divercity - Opening Minds, Opening Doors 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC www.birminghamdivercity.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But while men may be less inclined to DISCLOSE or to expose their problems to others (the macho-man factor) it does not necessarily imply that they are less prone to admit it to themselves.
  • Female Narcissists - Gender and the Narcissist 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC samvak.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this view the body is instrumentalized to create a sense of identity and the splitting symbolized in the hiatus between the rejected body-self and other parts of the self is more between good and bad objects than between masculine and feminine."
  • Sex or Gender 9 January 2010 12:38 UTC samvak.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Please also see
Sex in the German Wiktionary. This notice will be removed when the entry is checked. (more information) February 2008

Simple English

For the article about the act of "sex", see sexual intercourse.
File:Mating
Butterflies are among those animals that reproduce sexually

Sex is a type of reproduction common among living things. It always needs two individuals, usually of the same species. Sex is used by plants and animals, and also by fungi and various single-celled organisms. It works by combining genes from more than one source.[1]

Contents

Biological type

Organisms may have more than one kind of reproduction:

  1. Asexual reproduction: an example is the binary fission of an amoeba. Sometimes jellyfish, and many insects split or produce eggs without fertilisation. These are all methods of asexual reproduction.
  2. Sexual reproduction: most plants and animals reproduce by a union of two different sexes. Each sex makes the special cells used for reproduction. The new organism is made when both types of cells are united in a fertilised egg or zygote. Organisms that can make both kinds of cells for reproduction are called hermaphrodites. For example, most snails are hermaphrodite.[2]
    • Those organisms that produce sperm are called male, those that produce ova (eggs) are called female.
  3. Some animals and plants are capable of reproducing either sexually or asexually.

Benefits and drawbacks

[[File:|left|thumb|Spider plants with small Stolons. They are a way of asexual reproduction]] Asexual reproduction is easier than sexual reproduction, but there are benefits and drawbacks to both:

  • Offspring produced asexually are genetically identical to their parents.
  • Offspring produced sexually are genetically somewhat different from either parent. They inherit genes from both parents.

Humans

File:Human
Human female and male

A person's sex is either male or female. For example: John's sex is male. Jane's sex is female. This difference is sometimes called gender.

In humans, the sex of a person depends on what sex chromosomes that person has in his or her sex cells (gametes). A woman's ovum (egg cell) contains one X chromosome. A man's sperm contains either an X or a Y chromosome. When a sperm and ova combine to form a fertilised egg, the baby may get either of these chromosomes from its father. If the baby gets two X chromosomes, it will develop into a girl. If the baby gets one X and one Y, it will develop into a boy.

There are occasional exceptions to this rule: the process of meiosis which makes the sex cells can go wrong. This results in an individual having 3 X chromosomes, or 2 Y chromosomes or XXY instead of XY. Such people may get physical or mental defects which require treatment. Examples of such defects are: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), mental retardation, or schizophrenia. These people may also have a weaker immune system, and might not be fertile.

Before babies are born, they grow either male sex parts or female sex parts.

Evolution

Sexual reproduction first appeared about a billion years ago. It evolved within single-celled eukaryotes.[3] The scientific community still discusses why it appeared, and why it still exists. Reasons commonly given include:

  • Sex creates variation in offspring. If there are traits that give an advantage to the organism, they spread more easily. Traits that give a disadvantage tend to be removed quickly.

Sexual reproduction is a process that can only be found in eukaryotes. These cells have a nucleus and mitochondria. There are other kinds of organisms (other than animals, plants and fungi), the other eukaryotes – such as the malaria parasite – that also engage in sexual reproduction. Some bacteria use conjugation to transfer genetic material between bacteria. This is not the same as sexual reproduction, but it also results in the mixture of genetic traits.

In sexual reproduction the cells used for reproduction, called gametes, are either eggs or sperms. Fertilisation needs two different such cells. The mechanism of cell division only works when one sperm alone enters the egg. Once it is in, a fast reaction goes through the egg cell wall to shut off all other sperm.[4][5][6]

Sex determination

Sex determination in biology is about the function of sex, not what individuals look like. In humans, males and females usually look different. In many species they do not, except for the sex organs. Sex can be determined in different ways:

  • Hermaphrodites produce both male and female gametes. This system can be found in some animals, for example snails, and in most flowering plants.[7]
  • In most cases there are separate sexes. This means that an organism either produces male gametes or eggs, but not both at the same time. The biological cause for an organism developing into one sex or the other is called sex determination.
  • As a result of sex determination, the organism is either male, or female.

When there is sex determination there are basically two cases:

  • The sex is determined through the genes the organism inherits from its parents.
  • The sex is determined through the environment.

Genetic

File:Drosophila XY
Like humans and other mammals, the common fruit fly has an XY sex determination system.

Usually, sex is determined by an organism's genes. With genetic sex determination, most alleles or genes that influence sexual development are on the same chromosome. That chromosome is then called the sex chromosome. Because genetic sex determination is controlled by a pair of sex chromosomes (or by the presence or absence of one of the chromosomes), there are usually the same number of male and female offspring. In humans, for instance, sperms carry either an X or a Y chromosome, and they occur in roughly equal numbers.

File:Ocellaris
Clownfish are initially male; the largest fish in a group becomes female.

Nongenetic

For some species sex is not determined by inheritance, but instead by environmental factors experienced during development or later in life. Many reptiles have temperature-dependent sex determination: the temperature embryos experience during their development determines the sex of the organism. In some turtles, for example, males are produced at lower incubation temperatures than females; this difference in critical temperatures can be as little as 1-2 °C.

Some fish change sex over the course of their life. This phenomenon is called sequential hermaphroditism.[8] In clownfish, smaller fish are male, and the dominant and largest fish in a group becomes female. In many wrasse the opposite is true—most fish are female at birth and become male when they reach a certain size. Sequential hermaphrodites may produce both types of gametes over the course of their lifetime, but at any given point they are either female or male.

In some ferns the default sex is hermaphrodite. Ferns which grow in soil which has previously supported hermaphrodites are influenced by hormones remaining to develop as male.[9]

References

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Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  1. King R.C. Stansfield W.D. & Mulligan P.K. 2006. A dictionary of genetics, 7th ed. Oxford.
  2. "Common snail, garden snail". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/wildfacts/factfiles/415.shtml. Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  3. "Book Review for Life: A Natural History of the First Four Billion Years of Life on Earth". Jupiter Scientific. http://jupiterscientific.org/review/life.html. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  4. Amanda Schaffer, "Pas de Deux: why are there only two sexes?", Slate, updated 2007-09-27.
  5. Laurence D. Hurst, "Why are there only two sexes?", Proceedings: Biological Sciences, 263 (1996): 415-422.
  6. ES Haag, "Why two sexes? Sex determination in multicellular organisms and protistan mating types", Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 18 (2007): 348-9.
  7. Dellaporta SL, Calderon-Urrea A (1993). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Sex Determination in Flowering Plants"]. The Plant Cell 5: 1241–1251. doi:10.2307/3869777. 
  8. Phliip L. Munday et al. (February 2006). "Diversity and flexibility of sex change strategies in animals" (pdf). Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21 (1). http://faculty.bennington.edu/~sherman/coral%20reef%20bio/cayman%20course%202007/cayman%20papers/sex%20changes%20fish.pdf. 
  9. Tanurdzic M and Banks JA (2004). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Sex-determining mechanisms in land plants"]. The Plant Cell 16: S61–S71. doi:10.1105/tpc.016667. PMID 15084718. 

Citable sentences

Up to date as of November 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Sex, which are similar to those in the above article.








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