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Sexual assault
Classification and external resources

Konstantin Makovsky, The Bulgarian martyresses, a painting depicting the atrocities of bashibazouks in Bulgaria during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)
ICD-9 E960.1
MedlinePlus 001955
eMedicine article/806120
MeSH D011902
Sex and the law
Social Issues
Rights · Ethics
Pornography · Censorship
Miscegenation (interracial relations)
Same-sex marriage · Homophobia
Red-light district
Age of consent · Essentialism
Objectification · Antisexualism
Violence · Slavery
Public morality · Norms
Specific Offences
May vary according to Jurisdiction
Adultery · Incest
Sexting · Seduction
Deviant sexual intercourse
Sodomy · Buggery · Zoophilia
Criminal transmission of HIV
Circumcision · Female Genital Cutting
Sexual harassment · Public indecency
Extreme pornography · Child pornography
Sexual assault · Rape · Statutory rape
Sexual abuse (Child)
Child grooming · Prostitution of children
Prostitution and Pimping
Portals: Sexuality · Law · Criminal justice

Sexual assault is an assault of a sexual nature on another person. Although sexual assaults most frequently are by a man on a woman, it may be by a man on a man, woman on a man or woman on a woman,[1] or adult on a child. Approximately one in six American women will be a victim of a sexual assault in their lifetime.[2] Largely because of child rape and prison rape approximately ten percent of rape victims are males.[3]

While sexual assaults are associated with the crime of rape, it may cover assaults which would not be considered rape.[4] What constitutes a sexual assault is determined by the laws of the jurisdiction where the assault takes place, which vary considerably, and are influenced by local social and cultural attitudes.

Depending on jurisdiction, sexual assault may include rape, forced vaginal, anal or oral penetration, forced sexual intercourse, inappropriate touching, forced kissing, Child sexual abuse, or the torture of the victim in a sexual manner.[5]

Contents

Definition

In the United Kingdom the Sexual Offences Act 2003 defines "sexual assualt" as when a person (A)

  1. intentionally touches another person (B),
  2. the touching is sexual,
  3. B does not consent to the touching, and
  4. A does not reasonably believe that B consents.

In the United States the definition of sexual assault varies widely between the individual states. The Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network defines "sexual assault" as

unwanted sexual contact that stops short of rape or attempted rape. This includes sexual touching and fondling.[6]

Rape

Perpetrators of rape may include, but are not limited to, strangers, acquaintances, neighbors, superiors, legal entities (as in the case of torture), or family members. Abbey et al. state that female victims are much more likely to be assaulted by an acquaintance (such as a friend or co-worker), a dating partner, an ex-boyfriend or an intimate partner than by a complete stranger.[7] In a study of hospital emergency room treatments for rape, Kaufman et al. state that the male victims as a group sustained more physical trauma, were more likely to have been a victim of multiple assaults from multiple assailants, and were more likely to have been held captive longer.[8]

Attempted rape

Attempted rape is a failed attempt to force sexual intercourse with someone without their consent.

Prevalence

A United Nations report compiled from government sources showed that more than 250,000 cases of rape or attempted rape were recorded by police annually. The reported data covered 65 countries.[9]

Child sexual abuse

Sexual assaults on children are normally viewed far more seriously than those on an adult. This is because of the innocence of the child victim, and also because of the long-term psychological impact that such assaults have on the child.

Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation.[10][11] Forms of CSA include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure of the genitals to a child, displaying pornography to a child, actual sexual contact against a child, physical contact with the child's genitals, viewing of the child's genitalia without physical contact, or using a child to produce child pornography.[10][12][13]

The effects of child sexual abuse include depression,[14] post-traumatic stress disorder,[15] anxiety,[16] propensity to re-victimization in adulthood,[17] and physical injury to the child, among other problems.[18] Sexual abuse by a family member is a form of incest, and can result in more serious and long-term psychological trauma, especially in the case of parental incest.[19]

Approximately 15% to 25% of women and 5% to 15% of men were sexually abused when they were children.[20][21][22][23][24] Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims; approximately 30% are relatives of the child, most often brothers, fathers, uncles or cousins; around 60% are other acquaintances such as friends of the family, babysitters, or neighbors; strangers are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases.[20]

Studies have shown that the psychological damage is often particularly severe when sexual assault is committed by parents against children due to the incestuous nature of the assault.[19] Incest between a child or adolescent and a related adult has been identified as the most widespread form of child sexual abuse with a huge capacity for damage to a child.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ Chapter 6: Female Sex Offenders, All about Female Offenders, by Katherine Ramsland.
  2. ^ Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes (1998). "Prevalence, Incidence and Consequences of Violence Against Women Survey". National Institute of Justice & Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/172837.pdf. 
  3. ^ cf. U.S. Department of Justice. 2003 National Crime Victimization Survey. 2003.
  4. ^ Assault, Black's Law Dictionary, 8th Edition. See also Ibbs v The Queen, High Court of Australia, 61 ALJR 525, 1987 WL 714908 (sexual assault defined as sexual penetration without consent); Sexual Offences Act 2003 Chapter 42 s 3 Sexual assault (United Kingdom), (sexual assault defined as sexual contact without consent), and Chase v. R. 1987 CarswellNB 25 (Supreme Court of Canada) (sexual assault defined as force without consent of a sexual nature)
  5. ^ Frequently Asked Questions About Women's Health: Sexual Assault, The National Women's Health Information Center, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
  6. ^ "Was I Raped?". Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network. http://www.rainn.org/get-information/types-of-sexual-assault/was-it-rape. Retrieved 18 January 2010. 
  7. ^ Abbey, A., BeShears, R., Clinton-Sherrod, A. M., & McAuslan, P. (2004). Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 323-332."Similarities and differences in women's sexual assault experiences based on tactics used by the perpetrator". Accessed 9 July 2008.
  8. ^ Kaufman, A; P Divasto, R Jackson, D Voorhees, J Christy (1980). "Male rape victims: noninstitutionalized assault". American Journal of Psychiatry 1980 (137): 221–223. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/137/2/221. Retrieved 2008-11-06. 
  9. ^ The Eighth United Nations Survey on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001 - 2002) - Table 02.08 Total recorded rapes
  10. ^ a b "Child Sexual Abuse". Medline Plus. U.S. National Library of Medicine,. 2008-04-02. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/childsexualabuse.html. 
  11. ^ Committee on Professional Practice and Standards (COPPS), Board of Professional Affairs (BPA), American Psychological Association (APA); Catherine Acuff, Ph.D.; Steven Bisbing, Ph.D.; Michael Gottlieb, Ph.D.; Lisa Grossman, Ph.D.; Jody Porter, Ph.D.; Richard Reichbart, Ph.D.; Steven Sparta, Ph.D.; and C. Eugene Walker, Ph.D (August 1999). "Guidelines for Psychological Evaluations in Child Protection Matters". American Psychologist 54 (8): 586–593. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.54.8.586. http://www.apa.org/practice/childprotection.html. Retrieved 2008-05-07. Lay summary – APA PsycNET (2008-05-07). "Abuse, sexual (child): generally defined as contacts between a child and an adult or other person significantly older or in a position of power or control over the child, where the child is being used for sexual stimulation of the adult or other person.". 
  12. ^ Martin, J., Anderson, J., Romans, S., et al. (1993). Asking about child sexual abuse: methodological implications of a two-stage survey, Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 383-392.
  13. ^ Child sexual abuse definition from the NSPCC
  14. ^ Roosa M.W., Reinholtz C., Angelini P.J. (1999). "The relation of child sexual abuse and depression in young women: comparisons across four ethnic groups," Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 27(1):65-76.
  15. ^ Widom C.S. (1999). "Post-traumatic stress disorder in abused and neglected children grown up," American Journal of Psychiatry; 156(8):1223-1229.
  16. ^ Levitan, R. D., N. A. Rector, Sheldon, T., & Goering, P. (2003). "Childhood adversities associated with major depression and/or anxiety disorders in a community sample of Ontario: Issues of co-morbidity and specificity," Depression & Anxiety; 17, 34-42.
  17. ^ Terri L. Messman-Moore & Patricia J. Long, "Child Sexual Abuse and Revictimization in the Form of Adult Sexual Abuse, Adult Physical Abuse, and Adult Psychological Maltreatment," 15 Journal of Interpersonal Violence 489 (2000).
  18. ^ Dinwiddie S, Heath AC, Dunne MP, et al. (2000). "Early sexual abuse and lifetime psychopathology: a co-twin-control study." Psychological Medicine, 30:41–52
  19. ^ a b c Courtois, Christine A. (1988). Healing the Incest Wound: Adult Survivors in Therapy. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 208. ISBN 0393313565. 
  20. ^ a b Julia Whealin, Ph.D. (2007-05-22). "Child Sexual Abuse". National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, US Department of Veterans Affairs. http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/child-sexual-abuse.asp. 
  21. ^ David Finkelhor (summer/fall 1994). "Current Information on the Scope and Nature of Child Sexual Abuse" (PDF). The Future of Children (1994) 4(2): 31-53. http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/VS75.pdf. 
  22. ^ Crimes against Children Research Center
  23. ^ Family Research Laboratory
  24. ^ Kevin M. Gorey and Donald R. Leslie (April 1997). "The prevalence of child sexual abuse: Integrative review adjustment for potential response and measurement biases". Child Abuse & Neglect (Elsevier Science Ltd.) 21 (4): 391–398. doi:10.1016/S0145-2134(96)00180-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V7N-3SWVJJ8-6&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=3bf4125ab05f663f306a1ca792f43398. 

Further reading

  • Wishart, G.D. (2003). "The Sexual Abuse of People with Learning Difficulties: Do We Need A Social Model Approach To Vulnerability?", Journal of Adult Protection, Volume 5 (Issue 3).

External links

National organizations

Support and healing organizations

Research and information


Simple English

Sexual assault is when two people come in contact of a sexual nature, but one of the two people does not want this contact to happen. In some cases, one of the people involved may also be unable to consent to the contact. Rape is one form of sexual assault, but not the only one.

Different countries have different definitions of this.









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