Seychelles community in EU: Wikis

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The Seychelles community in the EU [1] are nationals of the Republic of Seychelles who have returned or migrated to Europe since 1900 for various reasons.

They are descendants of French, British, other European, Creole, Chinese, Indian and African. Like the French colonists of North Africa they are called Pieds-Noirs in France, Belgium, Luxembourg, French-speaking Switzerland, Andorra and Monaco.

They mostly consist of the descendants of French who did not like British colonial rule. There are a number of Seychelles then French or British citizens who migrated to Europe during and after the Second World War. Then students sent to study in Britain, forming the first Seychelles Student Association.

Seychelles nationals, known as Seychellois, who had lived in East Africa as there was a modest community in Kenya [2], Tanganika, Uganda and Zanzibar also in Congo and Rhodesia who were compelled to leave after Independence. They migrated mostly to Britain, Canada and Australia. The next category are Seychelles nationals who came to Britain under a special Colonial work quota agreement because of the economic situation in Seychelles - the British Colonies then; they worked in catering, hotels and hospitals. A large number went to Italy. About the same time a program was set up to recruit young Seychellois [3] for the British Army.

The next most important migration of Seychelles people to Europe was after the coup-d'etat on 5 June 1977, when many families had to flee the Seychelles and go into exile across the European Union mostly in Britain, France, Holland and Germany. This continued until 1991 when multi-party government returned to Seychelles.

Also a significant number of students who came to Europe to study do not want to return to Seychelles after their studies, having found employment and made their homes in the EU.

Because of the tourism industry many Seychelles nationals have married EU nationals and have come to live in the EU.

In spite of political and economic change many young Seychelles nationals choose to migrate to the EU for economic reasons.

It is estimated they number 15,000 - 17,000. The communities are in Germany, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, France, Britain, Holland, Scandinavia, Spain, Belgium, also some of the new member state of the EU.

They also have a pan-European organization, through which their affairs are looked after by leading families and unofficially elected representatives. They have a portal where some information and history can be researched.[1]

Under the Treaty of Rome they lobbied with important support from President François Mitterrand, and other European heads of state, that they be given the rights to be responsible for their French, European archaic, heritage and other rights due under the EU Human Rights Charter.

They have contributed very importantly that political and democratic change came to Seychelles under a joint exile return program started in 1986/7 started under the name SIROP, including most of the exiled political faction.

They continue to play a very important role to support democracy and economic progress in Seychelles. They are very active in EU to promote their history, culture and community needs. They have made many efforts to acquire voting rights like Mauritius nationals - this has not happened. They also support a political party of their choosing and fly to Seychelles for important election.

Under the Schengen agreement Seychelles nationals do not require visas to visit or enter the EU up to six months. It is yet to become official.

Contents

Exodus

The French Wars of Religion began with a massacre at Vassy on March 1, 1562, when 23 (some sympathetic sources say hundreds) of the Huguenots (French Protestants) were killed, and about 200 were wounded.

The Huguenots transformed themselves into a definitive political movement thereafter. Protestant preachers rallied a considerable army and a formidable cavalry, which came under the leadership of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny. Henry of Navarre and the House of Bourbon allied themselves to the Huguenots, adding wealth and holdings to the Protestant strength, which at its height grew to sixty fortified cities, and posed a serious threat to the Catholic crown and Paris over the next three decades.

Protestantism spread throughout France in the 16th century and led to civil wars. Henry IV, of the Bourbon dynasty, issued the Edict of Nantes (1598), granting religious tolerance to the Huguenots.

They were forced into exile and fled, mainly to Britain and North America. A large community found their way to South Africa, Mauritius, Réunion and thence to Seychelles.

Indian Ocean early discovery

Louis XVI, King of France and Navarre
Marie Jean Hérault de Séchelles

The early (pre-European colonisation) history of Isle [de Séchelles] [4] Seychelles, Isle D'abondance, Isle Labourdonais is unknown. Polynesians, who eventually settled in Madagascar, perhaps lingered here, circa 200-300 BC. Arab navigators on trading voyages across the Indian Ocean were probably aware of the islands, although they did not settle them. A manuscript dated AD 851, written by an Arab merchant, refers to the Maldives and higher islands beyond them, possibly Seychelles. Arabs were trading coco de mer nuts, found only in Seychelles, long before European discovery of the islands. The nuts sink in water, so it is unlikely they were found, as the Arabs claimed, washed ashore in the Maldives. The Chinese is also noted, (recent documentary) to have come across the islands, during the Tang Dynasty.

In 1502, Vasco da Gama, crossing from India to East Africa, sighted islands which became known as the Amirantes. The granitic islands began to appear on Portuguese charts as the Seven Sisters.

In March 1608, a trading fleet of the English East India Company set sail for India. Lost in a storm, the Ascension's crew saw "high land" on 19 January 1609 and headed for it. They anchored "as in a pond". They found plentiful fresh water, fish, coconuts, birds, turtles and giant tortoises with which to replenish their stores. The Ascension sailed, and reported what they had found, but the British took no action.

Towards the end of the 17th century, pirates arrived in the Indian Ocean from the Caribbean and made a base in Madagascar, from where they preyed upon vessels approaching and leaving the Red Sea and the Gulf.

The French had occupied the Ile de France (renamed Mauritius by the British in 1810) since 1710. This colony was growing in importance, and in 1735 an energetic administrator, Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais (1699–1723) was appointed. His brief was to protect the French sea route to India. La Bourdonnais, himself a sailor, turned his attention to making a speedier passage from Mauritius to India. To this end, in 1742, he sent an expedition under the command of Lazare Picault to accurately chart the islands northeast of Madagascar.

On 21 November 1742, the Elisabeth and the Charles anchored off Mahé at Anse Boileau (not Baie Lazare, later mistakenly named as Picault's landing place). They found a land of plenty. In fact, Picault named the island Île d’Abondance. Picault's mapping was poor, so in 1744 he was sent back and renamed the main island Mahé, and the group the Iles de la Bourdonnais. He had high hopes for the Iles de la Bourdonnais. However the islands were once more forgotten when La Bourdonnais was replaced in 1746.

The outbreak of war between England and France reminded the authorities on Mauritius about the islands. Two ships were sent to claim them, commanded by Corneille Nicholas Morphey. He renamed the largest island Isle de Séchelles in honour of Viscount Jean Moreau de Séchelles, Minister of Finance during the reign of Louis XV. The name was later anglicised to Seychelles. This was later used for the island group, whilst Mahé was again used for the largest granitic island. Morphey took possession for his king and the French East India Company on 1 November 1756.

The end of the Seven Years War, France's loss of Canada and its status in India, caused the decline of the French East India Company, which had formerly controlled Mauritius. This settlement, and thus Seychelles, now came under direct royal authority. The new intendant of Mauritius, Pierre Poivre (1719–1786), was determined to break the Dutch monopoly of the lucrative spice trade. He thought Mahé would be perfect for spice cultivation.

In 1768, Nicolas Dufresne arranged a commercial venture, sending ships to collect timber and tortoises from the Seychelles. During this expedition, French sovereignty was extended to cover all the islands of the granitic group on Christmas Day.

In 1769, the navigators Rochon and Grenier proved that a faster route to India could safely be taken via the Seychelles and thus the importance of Seychelles' strategic position became realised. Meanwhile, Poivre had finally obtained seedlings of nutmeg and clove, and 10,000 nutmeg seeds. His attempts to propagate them on Mauritius and Bourbon (later Réunion) met with little success and he thought again of Seychelles. It was considered fortuitous when Brayer du Barré (unknown-1777), arrived on Mauritius with royal permission to run a settlement on St Anne at his own expense.

On 12 August 1770, 15 white colonists, seven slaves, five Indians and one negress settled on St Anne. Du Barré stayed in Mauritius seeking funds. After reports of initial success, he begged the government for more money. However, reports reached the authorities that ship captains could get no supplies of fresh produce from the islands. Du Barré's appeals for help to Mauritius and Versailles fell on deaf ears. In desperation, he went to the Seychelles to try and rescue the situation, but to no avail. A ruined man, he left for India and died there shortly afterwards.

In 1771, Poivre sent Antoine Gillot to Seychelles to establish a spice garden. By August 1772, Du Barré's people had abandoned St Anne and moved to Mahé or returned home. Gillot worked on at Anse Royale, establishing nutmeg, clove, cinnamon and black pepper plants.

When British ships were seen around Seychelles, the authorities were spurred into action, dispatching a garrison under Lieutenant Charles Routier de Romainville,[5] also a cartographer. In October 1778, they built L'Etablissement du Roi [6](Royal Settlement) on the site of modern Victoria. Gillot was nominally in charge of the civilian colonists, but had no real authority over them. Mauritius sent as replacement a man of stronger mettle, Jean Baptiste Philogene de Malavois. He drew up 30 decrees which protected the timber and tortoises. In future, only sound farming techniques and careful husbanding of resources would be tolerated. He assumed command of the settlement in 1788.

In 1790, as a result of the French Revolution, the settlers formed a Colonial Assembly, and decided they would run their colony themselves, according to their own constitution. Land in Seychelles should only go to the children of existing colonists, who should dispose of the colony's produce as they chose, not as Mauritius dictated. The abolition of slavery was impossible. They believed that without free labour, they could not survive.

Jean-Baptiste Queau de Quinssy (1748–1827), whose name was later anglicised to Quincy, took command of the colony in 1794. A wily man, used skill and expediency to steer Seychelles through the years of war ahead. Seychelles acted as a haven for French corsairs (pirates carrying lettres de marque entitling them to prey legally on enemy shipping). Quincy hoped this might go unnoticed, but in 1794 a squadron of three British ships arrived. The British commodore, Henry Newcome, gave Quincy an hour in which to surrender. Through skillful negotiations, Quincy obtained a guarantee of his honour and property and surrendered.

The British made no effort to take over the Seychelles; it was considered a waste of resources. The settlers decided that unless they were sent a garrison, they could not be expected to defend the French flag. Therefore they would remain neutral, supplying all comers. The strategy worked. The colony flourished. Quincy's favourable terms of capitulation were renewed seven times during the visits of British ships.

On 11 July 1801 the French frigate Chiffonne arrived with a cargo of French prisoners sent into exile by Napoleon. Then HMS Sybille arrived. Quincy had to try to defend the Chiffonne, but after a brief battle, the Chiffonne was taken. Captain Adam of the Sybille wanted to know why Quincy had interfered, in contravention of his capitulation terms. Quincy managed to talk his way out of the difficulty, and even persuaded Adam to agree to Seychelles' vessels flying a flag bearing the words Seychelles Capitulation, allowing them to pass through the British blockade of Mauritius unmolested.

Napoleon in his study by Jacques-Louis David (1812)

The 15 September 1801 was the date of a memorable sea battle just off the settlement. The British ship Victor was seriously disabled by damage to her rigging, but she was able to manoeuvre broadside to the French vessel La Flêche and rake her with incessant fire. La Flêche began to sink. Rather than surrender her, her captain ran her aground, torching her before abandoning ship. The opposing commanders met ashore afterwards, the Englishman warmly congratulating his French counterpart on his courage and skill during the battle.

The British tightened the blockade on the French Indian Ocean colonies. Réunion surrendered, followed in December 1810 by Mauritius. In April 1811, Captain Beaver arrived in Seychelles on the Nisus to announce the preferential terms of Quincy's capitulation should stand, but Seychelles must recognise the terms of the Mauritian surrender. Beaver left behind a Royal Marine lieutenant, Bartholomew Sullivan, to monitor the Seychelles situation.

There was little Sullivan could do alone to stop the settlers continuing to provision French frigates and slavers. Slave ownership was not then against British law, although slave trading was. Sullivan, later given the title of Civil Agent, played cat and mouse with the pro-slaver colonists. Once, acting on a tip-off, Sullivan was rowed over to Praslin and was able to confiscate a cargo of newly-landed slaves. It was but a small triumph amidst many frustrations, and Sullivan, complaining that the Seychellois had "no sense of honour, shame or honesty", resigned.

The first civilian administrator of the British regime was Edward Madge. He had a bitter feud with Quincy, who remained in the administration as Justice of the Peace. In the following years, the islands became a backwater ticking over quietly. Seychellois landowners had a pleasant life, though making ends meet given the fickle markets for their produce was not always easy. The British had allowed all customary French practices to remain in place. The administrator may have been British, reporting to London, but he governed according to French rules. The biggest grievance the colonists had with their new masters was the colony's dependence on Mauritius.

The other cloud on the planters' horizon was British anti-slavery legislation. In 1835, slavery was completely abolished. The plantations were already in decline, their soils exhausted by years of cultivation without investment in renewing fertility. The plantocracy believed they could not farm without free labour. Some planters took their slaves and left. The liberated slaves had no land, and most squatted on the estates they had tended in bondage, working sporadically to keep themselves from starvation, but generally refusing to work at all. It was a poor sort of freedom, and the colony entered a period of stagnation. There were no exports, and no money to pay for new infrastructure.

The situation was only improved when planters realised they could grow coconuts with less labour and more profit than the traditional crops of cotton, sugar, rice, and maize. Soon, they also had a source of virtually free labour once again. The British took their anti-slavery stance seriously, and operated patrols along the East African coast, raiding Arab dhows transporting slaves to the Middle East. Slaves liberated south of the Equator were brought to Seychelles, and apprenticed to plantation owners. They worked the land in return for rations and wages. Over a period of thirteen years from 1861, around 2,400 men, women and children were brought to Seychelles.

The town, called Victoria since 1841, began to grow. Licences granted in 1879 give some idea of the range of businesses in the town. There was a druggist, two auctioneers, five retailers, four liquor stores, a notary, an attorney]], a jeweller, and a watchmaker.

There was a disaster on 12 October 1862, when torrential rain and strong winds hit Mahé. An avalanche of mud and rocks fell on the town from the hills. It has been estimated that over 70 persons lost their lives.

Seychelles yearned to be a colony in its own right. The authorities in the mother colony supported them. Sir Arthur Gordon, the Mauritian governor, sent a petition on their behalf to London. Concessions were made, but Seychelles did not become a Crown Colony in its own right until 1903, when its first Governor, Sir Ernest Bickham Sweet-Escott took office. Befitting its new status, the colony acquired a botanical gardens, and a clock tower in the heart of Victoria.

The British, like the French before them, saw Seychelles as a useful place to exile troublesome political prisoners. Over the years, Seychelles became a home to prisoners from Zanzibar, Egypt, Cyprus and Palestine, to name but a few. The first in the line of exiles was the ex-Sultan of Perak who arrived in 1875 after his implication in the murder of the British Resident of Perak. Like many of the exiles who followed, he settled well into Seychelles life and became genuinely fond of the islands. He took home with him one of the popular local tunes, and incorporated it into the national anthem of his country. With new words, it later became the national anthem of Malaysia.

Perhaps the most famous of the political prisoners was Archbishop Makarios, who arrived in 1956. He likewise fell in love with his prison. "When our ship leaves harbour", he wrote, "we shall take with us many good and kindly memories of the Seychelles...may God bless them all."

Colonial oppression

religion,economy,culture and language

Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom, Empress of India

Super Power involvement challenges

USA, USSR, China, France, Britain

Independence 1962 - 1976

political system and democracy 1962 - 1976

Historic coup d'etat

One party state era 1977 onward

Widespread involvement of Seychellois in their own political affairs began in 1948 after World War II, when Britain granted suffrage to approximately 2,000 adult male property owners, who then elected four members to the Legislative Council that advised the governor. The winning candidates were drawn from a group known as the Seychelles Taxpayers' and Producers' Association (STPA), which represented the landed strata of society — known colloquially as the grands blancs (great whites). The STPA defended its members' interest in matters of crop marketing and other issues and was the principal political force in the nation until the early 1960s, when representatives of the small new urban professional and middle class began to win seats. The principal voice and personality Mr Henri Gonthier, Mr Westergreen, Mr Harry Savy, Mr Paul Mouniner, Mr Delorie, Mrs, Masserieu, Dr Tony D'offay and Mr Paul D'Offay, Mr Joseph Albert, Mr Hodoul, Mr Dauban, Mr Duglas Baily, Mr St Ange, Mr Tino Nageon Des Lestemp, Mrs/ Dr Hilda Stevenson -Delhomme, Mr Raoul Nageon des Lestemp, Mr De Cauvin, Mr Frichot, Mr Daddy Michel, Mr Adam, Mr Dingwall, Mr Morel du Boil, Mr France Bontard, Mr Boule, Mr Rasool (Lawyer Collet) The political part he started - movement, which FA Rene absorbed in his own movement later.

Over the past 25 years our EU community have presented briefly the issues and reasons why those that had formed the Planters Association – Grand Blanc had wanted to charter, plan a different course of history for Seychelles then under British Colonial Rule.

They involved the elite of Seychelles of French decent, in the many British government Colonial Administration], the Police, the Public Work Department, Treasury, the Local Banks, Cable and Wireles, the Hospital, the Harbour and Agriculture Department.

We believe that for Seychelles Planters Association – the Grand Blanc one of the most important historic and political event was the Algeria debacle. They had long been betrayed by France, under the Monarchy, the French Revolution, then the 1st Republic of Bonaparte. Algeria proximity to Seychelles the Indian Ocean, the Suez Canal issues. The First and Second World War epoch, the ensuing economic and political development.[7]

Two parties emerged to represent Seychelles interest and workers interest: the DP, led by James Mancham, and the SPUP, led by France Albert René. Both men were London-educated lawyers who had returned to Seychelles determined to improve local conditions and to develop popularly based local politics.

Although community rivalries and the differing styles of the two leaders were important in attracting followers, the two parties also differed in substantive ways. The SPUP called itself socialist, favored worker-oriented policies, and pressed for complete independence from Britain and a nonaligned foreign policy. The pressure for independence was intensified after Britain in 1965 removed Île Desroches, the Aldabra Islands, and the Farquhar Islands from Seychelles and made them part of the British Indian Ocean Territory. The DP took a more laissez-faire capitalist approach and wanted to continue the association with Britain and to allow British and United States bases on the islands.

Steps Toward Independence, 1967-76

Continuous and mounting demands for an increased share in running the colony's affairs prompted Britain to enact a series of constitutions for Seychelles, each of which granted important new concessions. In 1967 Britain extended universal suffrage to the colony and established a governing council to run it, the majority of whose members for the first time were elected. That year almost 18,000 Seychellois voted, and the DP emerged in control of the council. In 1970 Britain set up a ministerial form of government and gave Seychellois the responsibility to administer all but external affairs, internal security, the civil service, and the government's broadcasting service and newspaper. The DP won ten seats, and the SPUP won five in the Legislative Assembly. Mancham became the islands' chief minister and René, the leader of the opposition.

The opening of an international airport on the east coast of Mahé in 1971 improved contact with the outside world. Before this most journeys to and from Seychelles had involved long voyages on bimonthly steamers running between East Africa and India and often required inconvenient transits in Mombasa and Bombay. Air service had been available only on a restricted basis at an airstrip used by the United States in building a satellite station on Mahé. The end of the islands' relative isolation triggered tourism and concomitant booms in foreign capital investment and the domestic construction industry. The construction of the international airport changed the economy from a traditional agricultural and fishing one within a few years into one where services accounted for the major portion of employment and gross domestic product (GDP). The two parties differed on the ways to manage the new tourist industry and to apportion its benefits. The SPUP favored controlling the growth of tourism and at the same time developing the entire economy, whereas the SDP wanted to stimulate the rapid growth of tourism and to establish the islands as an international financial center.

Independence from Britain was the dominant issue between the two parties in the early 1970s, however. The SPUP insisted on cutting the colony's ties with Britain, whereas Mancham argued for even closer association. But when it became plain that the independence issue was popular and Britain showed no interest in retaining close relations, the SDP also shifted to a proindependence policy. Moreover, the disfavor with which African and Asian nations viewed colonialism had put the SDP into disrepute in the region. The SDP won the election campaign in 1974 but the election provoked angry controversy. The SPUP charged that the results had been rigged; because of the way constituencies had been demarcated, the SDP won thirteen of the fifteen seats with only 52.4 percent of the vote, lending credibility to the charges. Thereafter, relations between the two parties, already personalized and bitter, worsened steadily.

Despite their differences, the two parties formed a coalition under Mancham to lead Seychelles to independence. Five members from each party were added to the Legislative Assembly in an attempt to equalize political representation. One year later, Britain granted the colony complete independence, and on June 29, 1976, the Republic of Seychelles became a sovereign nation, with Mancham as president and René as vice president. As a gesture of goodwill, Britain returned Île Desroches, the Aldabra Islands, and the Farquhar Islands. In addition, Britain made a series of grants to the new nation to smooth the transition to an independent economy. Both parties agreed to support the coalition government until elections were held in 1979.

Coup by René Supporters, 1977

On June 4-5 June 1977, sixty supporters of the SPUP who had been training in Tanzania staged a coup and overthrew Mancham while he was in London. René, who denied knowing of the plan, was then sworn in as president and formed a new government.[8]

A year later, the SPUP combined with several smaller parties and redesignated itself the Seychelles People's Progressive Front (SPPF), or simply the Front. A new constitution adopted in 1979 stipulated that the SPPF be the sole recognized party. The constitution provided for a strong executive headed by the president and a legislature of twenty-three elected and two appointed members.

In the first election, held in June 1979, René was the single candidate for president. He won with 98 percent of the vote. The results were viewed as a popular endorsement of the socialist policies pursued by the government in the two years following the coup. The SPPF proceeded with its program to set minimum wage levels, raise government salaries, improve housing and health facilities, broaden educational opportunities, increase social security coverage, and generate employment in agriculture and fisheries. The lives of most Seychellois were enhanced, and most citizens appeared to favor the government's policies.

The decision to turn the nation into a one-party state based on socialist ideology, as well as certain initiatives of the government, caused some bitterness, especially among the upper and middle classes. Censorship of the media and control over public expression were unpopular. A number of groups attempted to oust the René government between 1978 and 1987. The most notable was a group of mercenaries who tried to enter the country in 1981 disguised as tourists from South Africa. The mercenaries were exposed as they came through customs at the international airport but most of them, including their leader, Colonel Michael "Mad Mike" Hoare, escaped after commandeering an Air India passenger plane to South Africa. Although the South African government prosecuted and jailed some of the mercenaries for aircraft hijacking, Hoare testified that South African military and intelligence officials were involved in the coup attempt. During this period, the Seychelles government received support from Tanzania, which deployed troops to the islands to strengthen the government's hand.

Some of the devastating outcome, the many leading original settlers Seychelles families imprisoned, persecuted, forced into exile, their properties confiscated. The process of purging the Seychelles of its rich colonial heritage, history and archaic heritage. As well as European of other nationalities, German, British, Italian, Austrian, Australian.

It also created the situation that Seychelles exile/refugee in EU very often were confronted aggressively by supporters, agents of FA Rene Socialist Party, Black and Arab, COMECON, Latin American supporters, as they went about their existence, educating their children and rebuilding their lives.

Hence began also the situation of black Seychellois controlling and dictating vast array of national issues, their efforts to purge Seychelles of its rich history and heritage, resulting to some of today's political problems and grave undercurrents.

Non-aligned nations & Asian nations involvement

Historic exodus to Europe

suffering, oppression and diaspora

The role of OAU

League of Arab Nations, India and Pakistan

United Nation involvement engagement

The Formation of distinctive Seychelles Community

The Formation of a community, distinctive Seychelles community characteristic in Europe began 30 years ago shortly after the 5th June revolution 1977 historic and important events which followed.

In Britain because Seychelles had been a British colony there had existed a small number of families of French and British decent who had adapted to the British colonial system and way of life, language, and religion, having the means to migrate for various reason, mostly economic.

The next most important category were economic migrants of the 1960s who like other British colony practice and politic, to alleviate the unemployment, economic situation under quotas were allowed to migrate to UK to work in various sector of the British economy like the West Indian, Caribbean communities.

A similar program in Italy made it possible for a number of Seychelles national mostly of Creole black descent to go and work in Italy and become citizens.

Another distinctive category and group, with their very cultural uniqueness were the many families of Seychelles origin who had gone to work and live in East Africa, Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda and Zanzibar under Britain colonial rule and Seychelles proximity. After the coming of independence to East African countries from the 1950s they were forced to migrate to Britain. They are known as the Kenya born and East African Seychelles. They also influenced events and affairs at Home.

In France before 1976, families had been returning since 1900 mostly because of the British colonial practice, favoritism and economic reasons. There were issues related also to the 1914 and 1944 war. They were first, second or third generation French colonial decent they chose to integrate - were able to integrate easily. There is no statistic in France or Seychelles. Unlike the situation in Algeria where they were confronted by the Native Algerian population[2]. They maintained contact with families and acquaintances in Seychelles, Reunion, Mauritius and Madagascar, East Africa and had their distinctive circles. They also exerted their distinctive French colonial influence on Seychelles and affairs of the Indian Ocean region - South Africa, Australia and India. They maintained contacts with families in Canada, and the United States.

There were other small group, Seychelles families of either French, mix blood creole in most part of Europe - Scandinavia.

Our community have made important effort to get funds to collect statistics, enrolled the help of voluntary organizations in Europe to address the issues with poor response.

Historic events of 5 June 1977 radically changed how they had lived and functioned till then. In spite of the very important Seychelles colonial history, the exodus from France, exile, Napoleonic wars, the first and second world wars, Independence of India, the Suez crisis, crises in former Somali, the Mau Mau uprising, revolution in Congo, East Africa independence, the bloody revolution in Zanzibar, and Rhodesian independence, they had not expected it to happen in Seychelles. The shock that engulfed not only Seychelles, the groups, communities and families in Europe. There was the camp who were for and opposed what happened.

This was followed by the first government in Exile of the Seychelles headed by Sir James Mancham and his former Cabinet Ministers. Supported by the West; Britain, USA, France, South Africa, Australia, Israel and Kenya. The media coverage and attention Seychelles received. Our community in Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Holland and Italy have their fair share of oppression, exclusion, racist motivated attack, persecutions, nightmare of trying to establish itself in Europe and looking after its interest. Our community have drawn strength from the North African French colonial community to battle and the Irish.

Among the most important challenges was basic: to find a place to stay in London, Paris, Amsterdam, Germany – to get a roof over our heads. The struggle to survive, money for food and very basic needs. The need to send the children to school and their education. Beside the skills, education to work and get employment – the constant fear of the situation in Seychelles and those involved making life very difficult for those who opposed or had opposed FA Rene government.

In Seychelles after event of 5 June 1977, the very important exodus of Seychelles families had begun, those who opposed FA Rene, the expatriate community given their marching orders - deported.

In 1978, Seychelles exiles in South Africa, acting in behalf of ex-president James Mancham, discussed with South African Government officials launching a coup d'etat against the new president France-Albert René. The military option had been decided in Washington, D.C., after concerns for United States access to its new military base in Diego Garcia island, and the determination that René was not corruptible in favour of the Americans.[2][3]

Associates of Mancham contacted Mike Hoare, then in South Africa as a civilian resident, to fight alongside fifty-three other mercenary soldiers, including South African special forces (Recces), former Rhodesian soldiers, and ex-Congo mercenaries[4]. Hoare agreed to fight for Mancham.

After the failed attempted coup Mike Hoare, the Seychelles exile made up of a number of leading Seychelles nationals formed the first important opposition party in exile namely MPR and SNM under the leadership of Mr Gérard Hoarau, another government in exile was formed - to became the principal opposition force and voice, the British and international media attention and involvement. Most important issues and events of the Cold War, Seychelles' strategic position in the Indian Ocean, [he [[Eastern Bloc involvement, China, OAU, the USSR, the COMECON - Warsaw Pact, Arab State, Cuba and Latin America. Our community in Europe found itself in a terrible situation for all the media, dirty politics, fiasco and issues involving our community.

===1981=== [9] Failed coup in Seychelles led by Mike Hoare, the Italian Secret Service involvement, USA, aspect of the France involvement - our community.

A third government in exile was put together involving former Cabinet ministers, Executives of MPR/SNM and other exile factions. It also involved France leading French mercenary [10] - Bod Denard [11] They later would configured in as the leadership and eventual individual who would get involved in a successful peaceful exile/refugee return program - SIROP.

With these above international issues and events though the call from the former President of Seychelles, Sir James Mancham - his ministers, the Leader of opposition Mr Gérard Hoarau and the MPR/SNM executive to concentrate our community efforts in fighting to depose FA Rene government. It was decided after consultation with our European continental community, UN agency and other caritative, voluntary agency] to consider very importantly to building long term grass root structures and supporting bodies for our community in EU. A number of the exile factions and long establish community members had endeavoured to establish such working body and structures.

We also introduced the concept advocated, adopted by the United Nations and other leading international institutions, governments as well as our economic contribution in the EU the country of our adoption, exile, to lend, use our expertise, connections and good will to contribute to the building of Seychelles. Helping to establish NGO in Seychelles.

The most important was UKSCA with a charity registration and supported by several London Councils. It became the first Seychelles NGO in EU to build net work with London very many ethnic and exile communities and emphasized it. Taking into consideration the role of the Seychelles exile political parties. It became involved in local, national and international political issues of interest to our community. This approach was expanded across the EU. The very important recognitions the Seychelles community in EU began to acquire and good will upon which it implemented the SIROP - CDU, Alliance, DP, SNP, SNM exile return program. This radically changed for ever the way the community would be looked at in EU by the public, the establishment, both media and relevant institutions. A pan European structure, organization was also chartered for the future of our EU community in the eventuality that most of the Leadership return to Seychelles and the future of the community in the EU – named FECAS ECSVS. The community had studied closely other communities with similar interests, cultural back ground, history.[12]

Given the colonial life it had had, and its ancestors, the community worked to include the church and their benevolent in its work and community across the EU.

This was not an easy task, it had to meet and discuss with Seychelles individuals across the community, learn to listen their advice, aspiration and needs. It also took onboard how other communities worked and had establish them self, the Mauritius, the Greek, Zanzibar - Ismaili, Lebanese, the Irish, the Jews, the Armenians, the Turks and several communities from former COMECON, including the many Latin American communities in Britain and EU. In France the excellent rapprochement with the many North African communities of Maghreb, and importantly the former Algerian colony, the Harkis, Madagascar, Comores.

International Syndicate

Cartel other Important Net work involvement

Important influentials role of EU

in affecting political changes, support of democracy

Community Important international scientific involvement

Struggle historic exile return program 1986/87

- COMECON, Warsaw Pact collapse, Changes in South Africa.

The BIOT Diego Garcia nightmare

For our communities, repercussion, political fall out.

Beside those monitoring progress with this Wikipedia project at our forums, the officials in EU, United States and Russia approach.

The problematic of BIOT, Diego Garcia is an issues with all its complexities and taboos, is very important to our community. For the past 50 years in Europe effort to build democratic consensus with each other to avert war and enable its citizen to live a peaceful life.

We have endeavoured to underline importantly the past 30 years the relevancy, importance of our community European heritage. We started this important process over 30 years ago, the many evolution of the EU institutions and politic to what it is today. Our community is governed by laws of EU - the very vast majority of members of our community are EU citizens. It is inevitable that our view are influence by EU foreign policy and politics.

We are a unique community in the EU, beside Réunion, they form part of France in relation of Indian Ocean regional and economic concern for the EU.

The Seychelles and we are not only Seychelles citizens and former citizens, we have come to take over the major and principal responsibilities, rights of our French and other European ancestors as much as the laws, institutions, culture - history will allow. From this prospective we see the problematic in other prospectives.[13]

Being a European community within the norms of democratic responsibilities and practices, we find ourself confronted with important responsibilities. We have endeavoured to explain this burden to those we have been in contact with in Mauritius, Reunion as well as our respective communities Canada, South Africa, Australia and USA. In the EU the democratic practice, civil practice is to allow communities influence by a given issues have as much say, engage and become democratic involve in the debate and outcome.

Beside the debate, Court issues in Britain and the outcome. Our community in Britain in particular have paid and is paying a price for what was started 40 years ago.

At the time for those who can remember, the so-called Grand Blanc, plantation owners, members of the Victoria District Council, did not want to entertain the notion at all. Beside their vested economic interest.

Unlike the Chagossians they were educated and articulate. They have had three or four generation of colonial British oppression. They knew what had taken place in Mauritius, Reunion, the Chagoss Group. They have experienced, their fathers the many exodus they have made from France from 1000AD. It was with those experience they addressed their concern then.

For the past 30 years our community in Britain, EU have suffered directly. Because we live in a world of corruption those officials and their institutions who have created a wall, barrier. They have created excuse to damage our interest, punish us, oppress, curtail certain rights, monitor our activities and mount propaganda action to discredit us in the eye of EU and the world. In spite of living in EU with all its democratic institutions and protection we have suffered and continue to suffer - our children.

There have been four important wars during the past 30 years associated with Diego Garcia. The situation which exist in EU among the government to exclude its citizen from active democratic participation and due process because of the status - war, military modalities that have been put into place.

What must be said and not forgotten, it was the reason for our community engagement in the issues of the global arms race and nuclear weapon debate. For this reason we were instrumental in contributing that the process was started in Poland, lending to radical political thinking and the short lived peaceful existence of West and East, changes in Indian Ocean and Africa. It is and was because we understood the history our European ancestors had experienced and suffered. As such it must be seen as very important contribution to the EU.

Also from the same prospective how African Union debate, on going process, discussions with regard to BIOT, Diego Garcia. Our community have gain, endeavoured to follow the great African Union debate - in past years OAU. They view it as an African Union issue.

Where lies the problem is that AU do not function like EU democratic debates. Had the EU lend us, help us to record the many issues our community have contributed to the past 30 years. The AU head of state, institutions would have stood to benefit importantly - because we formed part of the original issue.

In Africa today given the democratic institutions they are endeavouring to promote, the situation concerning our community in EU vis a vis EU laws, of constant oppression, exclusion, marginalize because of the importance of Diego Garcia would have resulted into over flow. They cannot understand this practice by EU law makers.

Birth of Seychelles 3rd Republic

constitution & democracy 1991

Seychelles Community situation in EU today

integration politic, EU institutions

Seychelles government diplomatic & economic representation

in EU

The Francophone

The Commonwealth

Creation of African Union

& Seychelles EU Community contribution

The Indian Ocean regional nations

organizations & institutions

Seychelles Communities world wide none EU

USA:

There have been the odd migrant going to the USA from across Seychelles late history.

The community or communities of Seychelles in the USA is to be found mostly concentrated in the Sun belt - Florida. In the 1960s, 70's because of the strategic and excellent location of Seychelles, no volcano, hurricane, earthquake - the USA had build a - one of their satellite tracking facilities on Mahe at La Miseair, which was nicknamed "the golf ball" because of its unique dome shape. There were several leading USAF contractors, Philco Ford, Pan Am, Nasa, Loral Corporation and Johnson Instruments, IBM, including base defense, military, intelligence personal.

They numbered some 250 including Voluntary Corps. The vast majority were bachelors - this resulting in marrying and partnering some of the daughter of the elite Seychellois families, after their term of Service in Seychelles migrated with their families to the USA. In turn their children and grand children.

After the historic revolution - coup d'état of 5 June 1977 a number of families migrated and seek refuge in the USA. It is estimated there are some 1500 Seychellois in the USA meanwhile.

Australia

The migration of Seychelles families to Australia is as old as the white Mauritian migration to Australia. The terrible economic situation, poor horizon - lack opportunity to better them self, the socio political conflict i.e British colonial rule, favoritism they have been migrating since the 1800s.

After the independence of East Africa, Rhodesia a number of Seychelles families were compelled to leave those countries and migrate to Australia to seek a lively hood and new future. Because of their skill, education and abilities they were welcomed.

The second most important wave of migration,[14] exile took place after 5 June 1977 Historic coup d'état and the abolition of Multiparty democracy. They lost their lands, properties handed down generation, business,lively hood. They were also persecuted and some imprisoned.

Since 1991 after the establishment of the Third Republic a number of Seychelles individuals have been migrating to Australia for economic, educational, vocational and political reason.

They are situation in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide, Perth, Brisbane, Canberra and in Queensland.

It is estimated there are some 12,000 Seychelles nationals settled in Australia.

They have their community associations.[15] grouping.

Canada

Due to its great possibilities, virgin country some of the more affluent Seychelles families started migrating in the early 1800, the French families, distant relatives who had gone to settle their from Mauritius, Reunion and France. They were dissatisfied with colonial life, opportunity and prospect. The colonial favoritism which existed.

After the independence of East Africa, Rhodesia a number of Seychelles families were compelled to leave those countries and migrate to Australia. Because of their skill, qualifications, education and abilities they were welcomed.

This continued until 1977 when there was a sudden large group of migration, exile, refugee fleeing Seychelles after 5 June 1977 historic revolution coup d'état.

After the Third Republic being called, there are still those who want to see better opportunity from Seychelles with their education and qualification - they choose to migrate and settle in Canada.

It is estimated there is some 4,500 Seychellois in Canada as they are called. Unlike their Mauritius or Reunionais counterpart who are better organized and represented.

South Africa

Prior to the establishment of apartheid there have been Seychellois of white, French, British - other European migrating to South Africa. This continued until event of 5 June 1977, the coup d'état. A number of leading Seychelles individuals attended schools, higher training in South Africa.

After Independence in Rhodesia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika some of those Seychelles families who migrated to South Africa to restart their lives and rebuild their families. Because of their skill, education and abilities they were welcomed.

History repeated itself over from East Africa, historic events of 5 June 1977, the Seychelles families who fled to South Africa, seek exile there, they had been persecuted, imprisoned, they had lost their properties, among them the family of the leader of the exile Opposition Mr Gérard Hoarau.

It is estimated there are some 750 Seychellois in South Africa. They are to be found in Cape Town, Johannesburg, Pretoria.

East Africa

Seychelles individuals and families started migrating to East Africa in the early late 1800 - 1900. With the event of the first world war and the shipping connection those settled in Mombasa, Nairobi, Kampala, then Zanzibar - the Sultanate, Dar-es-Salaam in Tanganyika then British Colonies. The went to work for British established colonial companies, many getting got very high position and recognitions. They were regarded in high esteem by the colonial communities, British, Italians, Germans, Greeks, Belgian, French, Australian and Portuguese.

With the opening of the Kilembe copper mine, the processing plant at Jinja the need for skilled, responsible workers some 200 Seychellois were employed in various work/position.

A large numbers of them intermarried, took up the national citizenship after Independence - because they had/faced no alternatives. The Seychelles community in Uganda was hit most under Idi Amin and the wars which followed; they fled to Britain, France, Canada, Australia, South African and Seychelles.

Equally in Tanganyika upon independence and the introduction of one party system, some had worked for the large Greek sisal plantations in high positions.

In Kenya they fared better, scattered across, they had adopted their cross culture between Colonial life and East African life and became known as "Kenya born". However many choose to migrate as life and economic existence became more pressing and difficult.

The situation in Zanzibar was far worse - many had very important and respectable position and work. With independence, the brief new government and finally the Zanzibar Revolution with cost some estimated 25,000 lives most left, had to flee for their lives to Seychelles, later Australia, Canada, South Africa and Britain.

From EU, Canada, Australia and South Africa they lent their support to help - contribute to the dream of African Union - the AU today and the future.

It is estimated there are some 1500 Seychellois (as they are known in East African today) across Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania.

Gulf Cooperation Council

From the early 1960 a community from Seychelles have been building in what is today known as the Gulf Coorporation Council. These have been maids, domestic for rich and affluent Arab families as the oil boom began. Seychelles being close, the word that they were honest and reliable, concencious workers they were welcome by the families they went to work for, their good reputation spread.

It must be remembered that there was severe economic recession in Colonial Seychelles in the 60s those who went to East Africa, Britain, Canada, France and Australia seeking employment. The two major political parties SDP and SPUP their Trade Union involved. Their Leader ship Mr James R Mancham, Mr David Joubert and Mr F A Rene]] & Mr Guy Sinon. Dr Hilda Stevenson - Delhomme, VDC, Victoria District Council, Alliance Francais Seychelles, Seychelles Red Cross, the Roman Catholic Church, Caritas and Church of England - Protestant. Mr Finlay Rosalie - Mr Adam, their Political party.

Nearly 50 years on, those who have married and started their families in that region, unlike say East Africa where all the hard work and toil was destroyed overnight with independence, these families have build their economic base, they have acquired education, skills and professions.

They originally went to Bahrain, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar. Some have move on to Canada, Britain, France, Italy, Australia, USA after their contract was completed. It is estimated there are some 350 Seychellois there including their respective families. Other members of their families from Seychelles who have gone to join them.

From Britain, Canada, USA, Australia after the late 1980s those man and woman who have acquired necessary qualification and knowledge to form part of the thousands other workers/work force from around the world who have gone to work and help build those Gulf countries, turn their wealth to the magic cities they are today, the booming construction industry and other sectors. Some of them have made it their home. From the ugly maid, the importance of their community as the Gulf Coorporation Council[3] economic and wealth over take the region. The wealth they have shared with their families in Seychelles - Seychelles special geopolitical relation with that region today and the future.

A number of former expats who had lived in Seychelles, also set up their Home in the Gulf Coorporation Council region.

Else where

Today, in many other countries of the world a Seychelles individual or families can be found, Latin America, the Caribbean and Asia importantly.

Note: Many families to migrate would mortgage their properties, borrow money from some of the then rich merchant families, Temoolghi (Oliaji Trade Center) who acted as bankers, Adam Moosa, Chaka Brothers, Jivan Jetha, Richard Mancham & Julien Parcou. The two leading Notary, Maitre R Nageon des L'Estang and Maitre Morel Du Boil, Hunt Deltel & Co, Harry Savy & Co, Mahe Trading Ltd and Moulinier & Co. Mr Gustave de Commarmond - owner and Editor of Le Seychellois, First President of RSPCA Seychelles and Seychelles Football Association. Auctioneer - Mr Sadec Rasool, Mr Corgat and Estate Agent Mr Tobby Murray. MP or VDC Council officials - Mr Henri Gonthier, Old Maitre Loiseau, Lawyer R Frichot, Mr Louis D'Offay, Mr Paul Chenard, The Two Albert family, Mr Pana of Market Str, Mr Paul Pillay, Mr A Appassamy JP, Choppy family, the two Stravens family, Mr Norman Mancienne, Mrs Jourdan, Mr Maxime Laure, Mr Lablach of ULC, Mr Phillipe Mondon, the distiller Mr Ti Mondon, Mr Dolfus Delorier, Captain Michel – their spirit of benevolence, charity traditional values, which have always existed in the Seychelles nation.

Seychelles community International & EU Network

The notion – concept of networking in the Seychelles community in EU, is as old as the origin of our European ancestors. In prehistoric times, across their evolution – progress, to contemporary, modern Europe of the Gaul, Viking, Norman, Celt and Teutonic races. The wars and conquest of old Europe – migration of nations to the Roman expansion and empire to 280 AD. The disintegration of the Roman Empire – the warring factions of the new heads of clans, kings, prince, nobility and lords - kingdoms to 1100 AD.

In Europe 300 years ago the notion which existed of networking – networks, be it the many French duchy - kingdoms, Holy Roman, Italian, Dutch, Portuguese, Anglo-Saxon-speaking countries, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, England, the Spanish kingdoms.

On account of the search for new land, colonies, wealth, intermixing with the Chinese, the Indians, the Africans – their respective ancient values, heritage – network – networking, its origin, process and evolution. The clash, development as they came to the Indian Ocean and the culture merged. How this affected their culture, development and nation building process – how this is and have been seen by history, the world and their region.

The nations of the Indian Ocean of European descent are some 300 years old. They had to recreate, rebuild new network for specific objective and purpose, whilst maintaining their links with their ancestral traditions, values. Similarly the Chinese, Indians and the African.

Some of the most important network were that of the Monarchy, the Colonial Empire, their merchant navy, military, hunting, sports, business, trade interest, heraldic, archaic/fraternal, philanthropic, religious, medical, intellectual, scientific, the arts, literature, discovery, botany, wildlife, native science, archaeology, photography, languages, calamity, benevolent, charitable, locomotive, cartology and a vast array of others.

Then came the British colonial important influence, their concept, approach – attitude, its influence on Mauritius, Seychelles, Diego Garcia. How a great deal of their French, Dutch, Portuguese, Italian network got eroded, trampled upon or jettisoned. Equally the Chinese, Indian and African.

The three Great Wars had their important impacts on changing and forging new networks.

Of notable importance – issues which affected these networks, Africa continent, Asia and the Arab region.

The advent of colonial independence again saw great changes in these networks, many were made absolute and the need to forge – put in place new ones and be part of them.

Most important in our history - the changes from multi party to one party state shortly after independence, the many new nations, people, culture, economic, political affiliation, military, education, scientific, religion, arts, music, sports of the Communist, Socialist world, we had become part of. The jettisoning of a vast array of our ancient cultural network – those our ancestors had founded the nation with and their children had natured, taking great pain to promote them. The next 25 years the vast network of the Socialist, Communist nation across the world we have/had become part of.

It is due to the early Seychelles national of French descent 1800 who began returning to Europe or colonial Britain, who came to resettle in Europe, their being compelled to re adapt, begin the rebuilding process of today's Seychelles community network in Europe. Those network which were linked with colonial France, Britain, Dutch, Portugal, Italy, Austria and Germany. The advent of independence they had to jettison, rebuild new networks. Again the difference of approach between the French, British, Italian, German networking, building concept.

One of the most important aspect, which influence our network was the mass exodus of the opposition and very many leading families into exile across the 5 corners of the globe after events of 5 June 1977. In those capitals they had to build networks with the destitute, the exile, refugees, the oppressed, persecuted, minorities, dispossed, religious, charitable organizations, those rejected by society, the very many networks across the EU and the world and those of the international institutions. They have been challenged by the Seychelles then government, other government in the Indian Ocean, international organizations and agencies it belonged to – equally in EU the nations, where they had found refuge, their criticism, media, nation and politicians as to their rights to belong or become affiliated to some of these networks and their relevancy.

On account of their vast richness, history of understanding – being able to network, their very important contribution to what took place in the COMECON, USSR, German Reunification, changes in the Communist world, Asia, Africa, the Arab world and Latin America – very importantly EU and the Indian Ocean leading to multi party being reintroduced and gradually many of the rich networkings of their European ancestors being reintroduced. The rebuilding of Seychelles.

The advent of the WWW have brought its challenge too – the need for our community to understand the complexity of network building - communication, in those spheres today and the future. How they were able to network with the best of their ancestral values and contribute to the setting up of the WWW and the unimaginable change, process the world and society will go through, the very important benefit to mankind.

It is thanks to their understanding of networking that they are able to play a unique role which saw in the years 2000 in EU, today's EU, the respective member state they are to be found, their institutions and the future. That of African Union, the Arab region, Asian Sub continent, Russia, China, USA, Canada, Australia, Latin American and many other small nation of the world like themselves, the complexities of networking. Including the vast array of international networks of the world and those to follow.

EU Network:

When one research the very many Minorities, Ethnic Wikipedia page, very few will provide, make available their Network. Two reason we have provided some extra information, because of the historic importance of the issues they were involved, made possible. Secondly the political ongoing misconception of those Network, the mass media giving them bad reputation. Finally given the diversity in EU today and Europe past 2000 years of such method for Communities to work, exist, promote and defend their interest, make alliances, exist similarly our Sechelles – Seychelles EU community needs. Beside the greater statement the world is a global village.

We have listed the more important one: Pied Noirs, Francophone, Mascareigne network. Creole French speaking, Malagasy, Comoro, Zanzibar, Sir Lanka, Maldives network. Our French corporate. French Colonial – Royal nobility. The Church,Fraternal, Archaic, Heraldic, Philanthropic, Scientific, Cultural. Refugee, Exile, migrants. Our Italian corporate. Our Italian Church, Fraternal, Archaic, heraldic. Our very important community EU Royal Network. Across the Old and New EU where we have a given community, there - that country very many network which lend support – their support to their cause, integration process and daily existence. Those nations network which had claimed colonies in Indian Ocean, Dutch, Portuguese, Arab, French, British, German. East Africa Seychelles. Commonwealth, Seychelles British colonial – expats. Army, Nurses, Students. The Church, Fraternal, Archaic, Heraldic English speaking, Philanthropic, Scientific, Cultural. Irish complex network, Scott similar - ' -, Welsh similar - ' -, Former COMECON nations exile in across Europe and their new Network today. Solidarnos, Charter 77. Former USSR nation’s exile, migrant in Europe, their new network. Our Latin American network in and across the EU. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. Middle East. North African French speaking.Muslims, Jewish. Asian, Philippine, Vietnamese, Malaysian, and others Chinese. South Africa. Political network of the nation the community lives in and their EU and International network. EU pan European Voluntary network – meaning those voluntary agencies and their quangos that support our communities working and existence. The Trade Union’s across the EU. Then of course our African Union very many inter linking network because we come from the Indian Ocean. Small Island nation solidarity. None Aligned. Extensive, EU None Government Organization network.

Notes

  1. ^ a b Seyeu
  2. ^ Eusauo
  3. ^ Seynews
  4. ^ tyreldepoix
  5. ^ CGB Reunion
  6. ^ Nation
  7. ^ SIROP
  8. ^ Virtual Seychelles
  9. ^ List of coups d'état and coup attempts
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ Acid
  12. ^ Riots France
  13. ^ iloistrust
  14. ^ womenaustralia
  15. ^ Geocities

References

Source

External links

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