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Red
Color icon red.svg
 — Spectral coordinates —
Wavelength ~630–740[1].[2] nm
Frequency ~480–405 THz
 — Common connotations —
passion, aggression, courage, energy, guilt, love, anger, hatred, pain, socialism, fire, heat, sacrifice, violence, bullfighting, emergency, danger, sin, negativity, blood, devils, lust, communism, stop, exit, honor, leadership, Valentine's Day, yield sign, blushing, Christmas, purity, attraction, beauty, error, failure, wrong way, conservatism (US), happiness (China), good luck (China), HIV/AIDS awareness and drug intolerance
About these coordinates About these coordinates
— Color coordinates —
Hex triplet #FF0000
sRGBB (r, g, b) (255, 0, 0)
HSV (h, s, v) (0° or 360°, 100%, 100%)
Source Visible spectrum[3]
HTML/CSS[4]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Red is any of a number of similar colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of light discernible by the human eye, in the wavelength range of roughly 630–740 nm.[2] Longer wavelengths than this are called infrared (below red), and cannot be seen by the naked human eye. Red is used as one of the additive primary colors of light, complementary to cyan, in RGB color systems. Red is also one of the subtractive primary colors of RYB color space but not CMYK color space.

In human color psychology, red is associated with bravery, purity, happiness, good luck, heat/fire, energy, and blood, and emotions that "stir the blood", including anger, passion, love, pain, and sacrifice.[5]

Contents

Etymology and definitions

The word red comes from the Old English rēad.[6] Further back, the word can be traced to the Proto-Germanic rauthaz and the Proto-Indo European root reudh-. This is the only color word which has been traced to an Indo-European root.[7] In Sanskrit, the word rudhira means red or blood. In the English language, the word red is associated with the color of blood, certain flowers (e.g. roses), and ripe fruits (e.g. apples, cherries). Fire is also strongly connected, as is the sun and the sky at sunset. Healthy light-skinned people are sometimes said to have a "ruddy" complexion (as opposed to appearing pale). After the rise of socialism in the mid-19th century, red was to describe revolutionary movements. The word is also obviously associated with anything of the color occupying the lower end of the visible light spectrum, such as red hair or red soil. Red is mostly used by African tribes to show power.

In science

Artificial red poppies
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Colorimetry, color science, vision, and photography

Red is any of a number of similar colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of light discernible by the human eye, in the wavelength range of approximately 630–700 nm.[2] Longer wavelengths than this are called infrared, or below red and cannot be seen by human eyes.[8] Red's wavelength has been an important factor in laser technologies as red lasers, used in early compact disc technologies, are being replaced by blue lasers, as red's longer wavelength causes the laser's recordings to take up more space on the disc than blue lasers.[9] Red light is also used to preserve night vision in low-light or night-time situations, as the rod cells in the human eye aren't sensitive to red.[10] Red is used as one of the additive primary colors of light, complementary to cyan, in RGB color systems. Red is also one of the subtractive primary colors of RYB color space but not CMYK color space.[11]

One common use of red as an additive primary color is in the RGB color model. Because "red" is not by itself standardized, color mixtures based on red are not exact specifications of color either. In order to produce exact colors the color red needs to be defined in terms of an absolute color space such as sRGB. As used in computer monitors and television screens, red is very variable, but some systems may apply color correction (so that a standardized "red" is produced that is not in fact full intensity of only the red colorant).

A red filter used in black-and-white photography increases contrast in most scenes. For example, combined with a polarizer, it can turn the sky black. Films simulating the effects of infrared film (such as Ilford's SFX 200) do so by being much more sensitive to red than to other colors. Red illumination was (and sometimes still is) used as a "safelight" while working in a darkroom, as it does not expose most photographic paper and some films. Though many more modern darkrooms use an amber safelight, red illumination is closely associated with the darkroom in the public mind.

In nature

Betelgeuse, a star of spectral type M

In astronomy, stars of spectral type M (the stars with the coolest temperature) are classified as red stars. Mars is called the Red Planet because of the reddish color imparted to its surface by the abundant iron oxide present there. Astronomical objects which are moving away from the observer exhibit a red shift. Jupiter's surface displays a Great Red Spot, a football-shaped area south of the planet's equator. Astronomers believe the spot to be some kind of storm.

Red blood cells on agar plates

Oxygenated blood is red due to the presence of oxygenated hemoglobin. Red light is the first to be absorbed by sea water, so that many fish and marine invertebrates that appear bright red are black in their native habitat. When used about animal coloration red usually refers to a brownish, reddish-brown or ginger color. In this sense it is used to describe coat colors of reddish-brown cattle and dogs, and in the names of various animal species or breeds such as red fox, red squirrel, red deer, Robin Redbreast, Red Grouse, Red Knot, Redstart, Redwing, Red Setter, Red Devon cattle etc. The usage for animal color appears similar to that for red ochre, red hair and Red Indian. Interestingly red appears to be rarely used in names of animals which are a brighter blood-red or scarlet color, for instance the carmine bee-eater, the scarlet tanager and the cardinal. When used for flowers, red often refers to purplish (red deadnettle, red clover, red helleborine) or pink (red campion, red valerian) colors.

Symbolism

Sin, guilt, pain, passion, blood and anger

Red-light district in Amsterdam

Red is used as a symbol of guilt, sin and anger, often as connected with blood or sex.[12] A Biblical example is found in Isaiah: "Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be white as snow."[13] Also, The Scarlet Letter, an 1850 American novel by Nathaniel Hawthorne, features a woman in a Puritan New England community who is punished for adultery with ostracism, her sin represented by a red letter 'A' sewn into her clothes.[14] This all comes from a general Hebrew view inherited by Christianity which associates red with the blood of murder[15], as well as with guilt in general. Often, things will be in red to scare.[16] Another popular example of this is in the phrase "caught red-handed", meaning either caught in an act of crime or caught with the blood of murder still on one's hands.[17] At one point, red was associated with prostitutes, or now, with brothels (red-light districts).[18][19] In Roman Catholicism, red represents wrath, one of the Seven Deadly Sins. In Christianity, Satan is usually depicted as colored red and/or wearing a red costume in both iconography and popular culture.[20] Statistics have shown that red cars are more likely to be involved in accidents.[21]

The color red is associated with lust, passion, love, and beauty as well. The association with love and beauty is possibly related to the use of red roses as a love symbol.[22] Both the Greeks and the Hebrews considered red a symbol of love, as well as sacrifice.[23] Psychological research has shown that men find women who are wearing red more attractive.[24]

Courage and sacrifice

Red is used as a symbol of courage and sacrifice, as in blood spilt in sacrifice or courage in the face of lethal danger.[25] Examples of this are found in the flags of many nations including the United States, as well as in the novel The Red Badge of Courage, in which a soldier in the American Civil War discovers the meaning of courage.[26] Besides the association with guilt previously mentioned, in Christianity, red represents the color of Christian martyrs who suffered death for their faith. It is sometimes used for Holy Thursday and during Eastertide, and red green and white is the color scheme of Christmas. In Roman Catholic tradition it is used for all feast days of Christian martyrs as well as Palm Sunday in anticipation of the death of Jesus.[20] Red is associated in Roman mythology with the god of war, Mars.[25] A Roman general receiving a triumph had his entire body painted red in honor of his achievement.[27] The phrase "red-blooded" describes someone who is audacious, robust, or virile.[17] In English heraldry, red (called gules) denoted ardent affection or love, while crimson (blood-color) stood for boldness, enthusiasm, or impetuosity.[28]

Warning

Stop sign used in various countries. The shape and color red is used nearly universally today.
Red sky at night, sailor's/shepherd's delight.

Red catches people's attention, and can be used either in a negative way to indicate danger and emergency, or in a positive way in advertising to gain more viewers, or in nature, as a ripe fruit announces its readiness with its red color.[29] Several studies have indicated that red carries the strongest reaction of all the colors, with the level of reaction decreasing gradually with orange, yellow, and white, respectively.[30] Because of this, scientists have repeatedly recommended red for warning signals, labels, and signs. Because of these recommendations, red has seen widespread use as a danger signal, in stop signs, to warn people of extreme heat or flammability, and to signal warnings in sports such as soccer (see: penalty card).[31]

The port, or left, side of a sea-going vessel carries a red navigation light, to warn other vessels approaching from that side to change course to avoid a collision.

In religion and metaphysics

Red may represent fire and so may symbolize the presence of God. In Western Christianity, red is the liturgical color for Pentecost (though sometimes white is used). Also, in the Catholic Church and Anglican Communion red is the color of a martyr. In the Russian Orthodox Church it may be used during the lesser lenten seasons, on Feasts of the Cross, for feast days of John the Baptist and other martyrs. In the Diocese of Moscow, and in other places influenced by Moscow, red is used at Pascha (Easter). This is because Russian the word for red, красная (krasnaya), can mean either "red" or "beautiful". In Islam, red is the color for passion and courage.

Eastern and African traditions

In China, red (红 pinyin: hóng) is the symbol of fire and the south (both south in general and Southern China specifically). It carries a largely positive connotation, being associated with courage, loyalty, honor, success, fortune, fertility, happiness, passion, and summer.[32][33][34] In Chinese cultural traditions, red is associated with weddings (where brides traditionally wear red dresses) and red paper is also frequently used to wrap gifts of money or other things. Special red packets called hong bao as in Mandarin or lai see as in Cantonese - are specifically used during the Chinese New Year to give monetary gifts. On the more negative end, obituaries are traditionally written in red ink, and to write someone's name in red signals either cutting them out of your life, or that they have died.[34] Red is also associated with both the feminine yin and the masculine yang, depending on the source.[34][35]

In Japan, red is a traditional color for a heroic figure.[36] In the Indian Sub-continent, red is the traditional color of bridal dresses, and is frequently represented in the media as a symbolic color for married women. The color is associated with purity, sexuality in marriage relationships through its connection to heat and fertility.[37] It is also the color of wealth, beauty, and the goddess Lakshmi.[25]

In Central Africa, Ndembu warriors rub themselves with red during celebrations. Since their culture sees the color as a symbol of life and health, sick people are also painted with it. Like most Central African cultures, the Ndembu see red as ambivalent, better than black, but not as good as white.[38] In other parts of Africa, however, red is a color of mourning, representing death.[39] Because of the connection red bears with death in many parts of Africa, the Red Cross has changed its colors to green and white in parts of the continent.[40]

Geography, sports and politics

In sports

Both the Cleveland Indians and the Boston Red Sox wear red

Teams throughout the world wear red on their uniforms. Major League Baseball is especially well known for red teams. Over a dozen teams sport red uniforms and red logos.

Major League Baseball teams that use red:

National Hockey League teams that use red:

National Football League teams that use red:

National Basketball Association teams that use red:

European Football teams that use red:

Flags

Red is one of the most common colors used on national flags. The use of red has similar connotations from country to country: the blood, sacrifice, and courage of those who defended their country; the sun and the hope and warmth it brings; and the sacrifice of Christ's blood (in some historically Christian nations) are a few examples. Red is the color of the flags of several countries which once belonged to the former British Empire. The British flag bears the colors red, white and blue; it includes the cross of Saint George, patron saint of England, and the saltire of Saint Patrick, patron saint of Ireland, both of which are red on white.[41] The United States flag bears the colors of Britain,[42] the colors of the French tricolore are believed to have been inspired by the American flag, and other countries' flags, such as those of Australia, New Zealand and Fiji, carry a small inset of the British flag in memory of their ties to that country.[43] Former colonies of Spain, such as Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, also feature red, one of the colors of the Spanish flag, on their own banners. Red flags are also used to symbolize storms, bad water conditions, and many other things. Navy flags are often Red and Yellow.

Red, blue and white are also the Pan-Slavic colors adopted by the Slavic solidarity movement of the late nineteenth century. Initially these were the colors of the Russian flag; as the Slavic movement grew, they were adopted by other Slavic peoples including Slovaks, Slovenes and Serbs. The flags of the Czech Republic and Poland, which contain red use it for historic heraldic reasons (see Coat of arms of Poland and Coat of arms of the Czech Republic), not due to Pan-Slavic connotations.

Red, white, and black are the colors of Pan-Arabism, and are used by many Arab countries.[44]

Red, gold, green and black are the colors of Pan-Africanism. Several African countries thus use the color on their flags, including South Africa, Ghana, Senegal, Mali, Ethiopia, Togo, Guinea, Benin, and Zimbabwe. The Pan-African colors are borrowed from the flag of Ethiopia, one of the oldest independent African countries.[44][45] Rwanda, notably, removed red from its flag after the Rwandan Genocide, because Pan-Africanism was so strongly associated with the event and because of red's association with blood.[46]

For other reasons, the flag of Japan has a red circle in the middle while the flag of the Philippines has a red trapezoid on the bottom and the flag of Singapore has a red rectangle on the top.

Political movements

The red flag of the former Soviet Union

As early as the 9th century, the Khurramites successors to the Mazdak religion and proto-communists in in the Middle Ages of the Middle East used red as their symbol for revolution. Even before Europe's Revolutions of 1848, "Socialist" red was used as a color of European Revolutionaries, often in the form of the red flag. It was also used by Garibaldi's camicie rosse ("redshirts") in the Italian Risorgimento, and taken up by Leftist and generally revolutionary groups, while the white of legitimist Bourbon partisans became associated with pre-World War I conservatives. This relates to the term "Blood of the workers", representing the suffering of the proletariat. For instance the Civil War in Russia and the Civil War in Finland were fought between the "Red Army" and various "White Armies".

The Cincinnati Red Stockings are the oldest professional baseball team, dating back to 1869. The franchise soon relocated to Boston and is now the Atlanta Braves, but its name survives as the origin for both the Cincinnati Reds and Boston Red Sox. During the 1950s when red was so strongly associated with communism, the modern Cincinnati team was known as the "Redlegs" and the term was even used on baseball cards. After the red scare faded, the team was known as the Reds again.[47]

The identification of Communism with "Socialist" red (with the red flag being the primary color of the flag of the Soviet Union) and the red star being a Communist emblem led to such Cold War phrases as "the Red Menace" and "Red China" (distinguished from Nationalist China, "Blue China" or "Free China").

China's de-facto anthem under Mao Zedong was "The East Is Red".[48] Mao Zedong was sometimes referred to as a "red sun".[49] The color was also associated with political vehicles such as the Red Guard in China and the Red Guards during the Russian Revolution of 1917 as well as with left wing paramilitary terrorist groups such as the Red Army Faction in Germany and the Japanese Red Army. Red remains associated with parties on the left of the political spectrum. However, the major exception is the United States. There, red is associated with the Republican Party, which is right-wing. (The reason is that U.S. television networks assigned blue and red to states awarded to the Republicans and the Democrats, respectively, on news maps; the color assignments were alternated every presidential election, but the controversial election of 2000 was when commentators happened to pick up on the color choices.) Red and black are colors associated with anarchism, and, specifically, anarcho-syndicalism.

Pigments

A red apple in a tree

Food and drinks

Some foods are red, these include apples, strawberries, cherries, tomatoes, pomegranates, cranberries and peppers. The fruit punch juice mix is also officially red.

Fabric

Red baseball hats

Red dyes or naturally red fabric can be used to weave red designs, patterns and/or blotches of red fabric.[50] Examples include red baseball caps red carpets, red shoes, red lingerie or red tablecloths.

The color red is often used advertisements for stain-removing products. Red wine is typically spilled onto a white carpet [51] and then removed by a product.

See also

References

  1. ^ Color
  2. ^ a b c Craig F. Bohren (2006). Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation: An Introduction with 400 Problems. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3527405038. http://books.google.com/books?visbn=3527405038&id=1oDOWr_yueIC&pg=PA214&lpg=PA214&ots=Jrfi5sPBhk&dq=indigo+spectra+blue+violet+date:1990-2007&sig=Rm2xP5mIgyGJ1a1pbfAt65QSf0I#PPA214,M1. 
  3. ^ Thomas J. Bruno, Paris D. N. Svoronos. CRC Handbook of Fundamental Spectroscopic Correlation Charts. CRC Press, 2005.
  4. ^ W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, HTML4 color keywords
  5. ^ Pasquale Gagliardi (1992). Symbols and Artifacts: Views of the Corporate Landscape. Aldine Transaction. ISBN 0202304280. http://books.google.com/books?id=N3TmThAd_PkC&pg=PA173&ots=mZ7Y-_fACH&dq=red+anger+blood+energy+passion+love&sig=nKF3ftCi6mDnsdn1YCPgmUHWm_k#PPA173,M1. 
  6. ^ Eric Partridge (1966). Origins: An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. Routledge. ISBN 0415050774. http://books.google.com/books?id=xA9dxrhfa5kC&pg=PA555&dq=red+read+rauthaz&lr=&as_brr=0&ei=YvmfR_3qCoqqswOjkp2yCg&sig=S8ASNhN9nYv1Q6EcrdN2ja3W5kA. 
  7. ^ Harper, Douglas (2007-12-09). "Online Etymology Dictionary: Red". http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=red&searchmode=none. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  8. ^ "What Wavelength Goes With a Color?". Atmospheric Science Data Center. http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/EDDOCS/Wavelengths_for_Colors.html. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  9. ^ DVD
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  11. ^ Primary Colors: Additive and Subtractive - An Educator's Reference Desk Lesson Plan
  12. ^ Oehler, Gustav Friedrich and George Edward Day, Theology of the Old Testament. pg. 320
  13. ^ KJV Isaiah 1:18
  14. ^ Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. New York: Pocket, 2004. ISBN 0743487567 pg. 136
  15. ^ Hecht, Mendy. "Seven Things You Can Do for America". http://www.noahide.org/article.asp?Level=179&Parent=342. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
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  17. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary
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  19. ^ Delaney, Carol. Investigating Culture. Cambridge: Blackwell Pub, 2004. ISBN 0631222375 pg. 324
  20. ^ a b Steffler, Alva. Symbols of the Christian Faith. City: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2002. ISBN 0802846769 pg. 132
  21. ^ Kopacz, Jeanne. Color in Three-Dimensional Design. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004. ISBN 0071411704 pg. 76
  22. ^ Sebeok, Thomas and Marcel Danesi. The Forms of Meaning: Modeling Systems Theory and Semiotic Analysis. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1999. ISBN 3110167514 pgs. 150-152
  23. ^ Dreyfuss, Henry. Symbol Sourcebook. New York: Wiley, 1984. ISBN 0471288721 pg. 239
  24. ^ Red on Women Drives Men Wild also http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,444415,00.html
  25. ^ a b c Feisner, Edith. Colour. City: King Laurence Publis, 2006. ISBN 1856694410 pg. 127
  26. ^ Hoffman, Daniel. The Poetry of Stephen Crane. New York: Columbia University Press, 1971. ISBN 0231086628 pg. 150
  27. ^ Ramsay, William (1875). "Triumphus". http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMIGRA*/Triumphus.html. Retrieved 2007-12-09. 
  28. ^ The American Girl's Handy Book, p. 369-370
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  31. ^ Karwowski, Waldemar. International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors, Second Edition - 3 Volume Set. Boca Raton: CRC, 2006. ISBN 041530430X pg. 1518
  32. ^ Li Sujun (李素军), China Red (中国红). (In Chinese.)
  33. ^ Sherida Davis-Bryan, A Call to Arms: A Comparison of the Semiotics of the Peking Revolutionary Opera and 9/11 Media Images
  34. ^ a b c Cullen, Cheryl. Global Graphics. Gloucester: Rockport Publishers, 2000. ISBN 1564962938 pg. 147
  35. ^ Hodge, Bob and Kam Louie. The Politics of Chinese Language and Culture. New York: Routledge, 1998. ISBN 0415172667 pg. 132
  36. ^ "PS2 News: CVG goes straight to hell with Devil May Cry director - ComputerAndVideoGames.com:". http://www.computerandvideogames.com/article.php?id=17957. Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
  37. ^ Lamb, Sarah. White Saris and Sweet Mangoes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000. ISBN 0520220013 pg. 188
  38. ^ Banton, Michael. Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Religion. New York: Routledge, 2004. ISBN 0415330211 pg. 57
  39. ^ Bradley, Carolyn. Western World Costume. New York: Dover Publications, 2001. ISBN 048641986X pg. 8
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  41. ^ Brabazon, Tara. Tracking the Jack. Sydney: UNSW Press, 2000. ISBN 0868406996 pg. 10
  42. ^ "The United States Flag - Public and Intergovernmental Affairs". United States Department of Veterans Affairs. http://www1.va.gov/opa/feature/celebrate/Flag.asp. Retrieved December 7, 2006. 
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  46. ^ Rwandan: Adoption of the new flag
  47. ^ Cuordileone, K.A. Manhood and American Political Culture in the Cold War. New York: Routledge, 2005. ISBN 0415925991 pg. XIII
  48. ^ "The East Is Red". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,943793,00.html. Retrieved 2009-04-10. 
  49. ^ "The Reddest Red Sun". Morning Sun. http://www.morningsun.org/red/redfamily_cp_69.html. Retrieved 2009-04-10. 
  50. ^ "Fabric Dyeing 101". http://fabricdyeing101.blogspot.com/2006/11/1a-introduction.html. 
  51. ^ "Arm & Hammer Oxiclean Power Stain Lifter Commercial". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-siRE5d-8aY. 

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