Shafi`i: Wikis

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The Shāfi‘ī madhhab (Arabic: شافعي‎) is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. The Shāfi‘ī school of fiqh is named after Imām ash-Shāfi‘ī. The other three schools of law are Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali.

Contents

Principles

The Shāfi‘ī School of thought stipulates authority to four sources of jurisprudence, also known as the Usul al-fiqh. In hierarchical order the usul al-fiqh consist of: the Quran, the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad, ijma' "consensus", and qiyas "analogy".

The Shāfi‘ī school also refers to the opinions of Muhammad's companions (primarily Al-Khulafa ar-Rashidun). The school, based on Shāfi‘ī's books ar-Risala fi Usul al-Fiqh and Kitāb al-Umm, which emphasizes proper istinbaat (derivation of laws) through the rigorous application of legal principles as opposed to speculation or conjecture.

Imam Shāfi‘ī approached the imperatives of the Islamic Shariah (Canon Law) distinctly in his own systematic methodology. Imam Shāfi‘ī, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal almost entirely exclude the exercise of private judgment in the exposition of legal principles. They are wholly governed by the force of precedents, adhering to the Scripture and Traditions; they also do not admit the validity of a recourse to analogical deduction of such an interpretation of the Law whereby its spirit is adopted to the special circumstances of any special case. Their followers, among others, are accordingly designated as Ahl al-Hadith or "Traditionalists par excellence", while the followers of Abu Hanifa are called "Ahlu r-Ra'i" – the "People of Private Judgement".

Shāfi‘ī is also known as the "First Among Equals" for his exhaustive knowledge and systematic methodology to religious science.

The Imam

Shāfi‘ī's [150 – 206 AH] full name is Abū ‘Abdu l-Lāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs ibn al-Abbās ibn ‘Uthmān ibn Shāfi‘ī ibn as-Sa'ib ibn ‘Ubayd ibn ‘Abd al-Yazīd ibn al-Muttalib ibn ‘Abd Manaf. ‘Abd Manaf was the great grandfather of Muhammad. Based on this lineage, he is from the Quraish tribe.[1] He was born in 150 AH (760 CE) in Gaza in the same year Imam Abū Hanifa died.[2]. Al-Nawawī, a prominent Shāfiˤī scholar, cited Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah, one of al-Shafi`i's teachers, as being from "the grandfathers of the Shāfiˤī scholars in their methodology in jurisprudence".[3]

As a member of the school of Medina, ash-Shāfi‘ī worked to combine the pragmatism of the Medina school with the contemporary pressures of the Traditionalists. The Traditionalists maintained that jurists could not independently adduce a practice as the sunnah of Muhammad based on ijtihad "independent reasoning" but should only produce verdicts substantiated by authentic hadith.

Based on this claim, ash-Shāfi‘ī devised a method for systematic reasoning without relying on personal deduction. He argued that the only authoritative sunnah were those that were both of Muhammad and passed down from Muhammad himself. He also argued that sunnah contradicting the Quran were unacceptable, claiming that sunnah should only be used to explain the Quran. Furthermore, ash-Shāfi‘ī claimed that if a practice is widely accepted throughout the Muslim community, it cannot be in contradiction of sunnah.

Ash-Shāfi‘ī was also a significant poet. His poetry is noted for its beauty, wisdom, despite the fact that during his life time he stood off becoming a poet because of his rank as an Islamic scholar. He said once:

و لولا الشعر بالعلماء يزري
لكنت اليوم أشعر من لبيد
For scholars, if poetry did not degrade,
finer than Labīd's I would have said.

However, the beauty of his poetry made people collect it in one famous book under the name Diwān Imām al-Shāfi‘ī. Many verses are popularly known and repeated in the Arab world as proverbs:

نعيب زماننا و العيب فينا
و ما لزماننا عيب سوانا
و نهجو ذا الزمان بغير ذنب
و لو نطق الزمان لنا هجانا
We blame our time though we are to blame.
No fault has time but only us.
We scold the time for all the shame.
Had it a tongue, it would scold us.[4]

Importance of the Shāfi‘ī School

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Demographics

The Shafi`i madhhab (in dark yellow) is predominant in Northeast Africa, parts of the Arabian Peninsula, and Southeast Asia.

The Shāfi‘ī school is followed throughout the Ummah and is the official madhab of most traditional scholars and leading Sunni authorities. It is also recognized as the official madhab by the governments of Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia. In addition, the government of Indonesia uses this madhab for the Indonesian compilation of sharia law.

It is the dominant madhab of Syria, Palestinian Territories, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates, Chechnya, Kurdistan, Egypt, Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia, Yemen, Sudan, Maldives, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam and Indonesia.

It is also practised by large communities in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia (in the Hejaz and Asir), Israel, the Swahili Coast, Mauritius, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Ethiopia, Kazakhstan (by Chechens), and in the Indian States of Kerala, Karnataka (Bhatkal,Mangalore and Coorg districts) , Maharashtra (by Konkani Muslims) and Tamil Nadu.

The second largest school of the Sunni branch of Islam in terms of followers, the Shafi`i madhhab is followed by approximately 29% of Muslims worldwide.

Notable differences in Prayer from other Math'habs

  • Takbir – In the First Takbir, Shaf'is raise their Hands Parallel to their Ear Lobes.[5]
  • Al-Qayyam – Position of Folding of the hands during Al-Qayyam (Standing) is Below the Chest.[5]
  • Ruku' – Shaf'is raise their hands before going to Ruku'.[6]
  • Tashahhud – Shaf'is raise the Index Finger of their Right Hand when Reciting the Shahadah and Keep it Raised Until the Tasleem.[6]
  • Tasleem – Is considered obligatory by the Maddhab.[7]
  • Salat-ul-Witr – Shaf'is pray Two Rak'ats consecutively Perform Tasleem, and One Rak'at is performed separately.[7]
  • Dua'Qunoot is recited after the Ruku' during second rakah of Fajr, and Hands are raised during the Dua.[8] Although minority opinion in Sahafi'it is to recite Dua'Qunoot in last rak'at of Witr with raised hands instead of Fajr.

Famous Shāfi‘ī's

  • Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari, Imam of Ash'ari Aqida
  • Imam Jalaluddin Al-Mahally, Sunni authority in Quranic Tafsir (exegesis)
  • Imam Suyuti, Sunni authority in history, Quran, Fiqh, Tafsir, and Hadith
  • Imām al-Bayhaqi, Sunni authority in Hadith; Shafiite authority in Fiqh
  • Imām ibn Majah, Sunni authority in Hadith
  • Imām al-Hakim, Sunni authority in Hadith
  • Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Abdu l-Lāh as-Sumālī, Sunni authority in Hadith
  • Imam Abu Dawud Al-Tayalisi, Sunni authority in Hadith
  • Imām Tirmizi, Sunni authority in Hadith
  • Imam Nasa'ie, Sunni authority in Hadith.
  • Imam Daraqutni, Sunni authority in Hadith
  • Imam Tabrani, Sunni authority in Hadith
  • Imam Al-Mawardi, Sunni authority in Legal ordinances, history and Islamic governance.
  • Ibn al-Salah, hadith specialist
  • Imām Dhahabi, Sunni authority in Hadith
  • Al-Hāfidh ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Sunni's foremost authority in Hadith, author of the authoritative commentary of Sahih Bukhari.
  • Imām an-Nawawi, Sunni's second highest authority in Hadith, principal Shāfi‘ī jurist; author of the Sahih Muslim commentary.
  • Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, A renowned Sunni expert in Hadith methodology and jurisprudence
  • Imam Al-Baghawi, Also known as "Reviver of Sunnah", well-known for his Ma'alim Al-Tanzil in Tafsir.
  • Imam Al-Bayhawi, A major Shafiite exegete and legal expert.
  • Imam Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Sunni most respected exegete
  • Imam Bukhari, Sunni's most prominent Hadith authority in verification
  • Imam Muslim ibn Hajjaj, student of Imam Bukhari.
  • Ibn Kathir, top-notch Sunni expert in Tafsir, Hadith, Biography and Fiqh.
  • Al-Sakhawi
  • Sheikhul Islam Zakariyya Al-Ansari, a notable Sunni expert in jurisprudence.
  • Imam Daqiequl-Eid, Sunni specialist scholar in Fiqh and Theology
  • Sultan Al-Ulama' Izzuddin Abdul-Salam, renowned Sunni authority in legal law.
  • Zainuddin Makhdoom I and II, The Jurist and Historian (respectively) of Kerala
  • Sheikh Safi al-Din Is'haq Ardabili
  • Imam Al-Ghazali, The Early authority in Principles of Fiqh (Jurisprudence), well-known for his Al-Wasit Fi Al-Madzhab" Author of the Incoherence of The Philosophers and "Ihya Ulum Al-din" The revival of the religious sciences.
  • Makhdoom Ali Mahimi Great 13 th Century Konkani Muslims Saint from Konkan.

Contemporary Shafi'i Scholars

See also

References

  1. ^ Ibn Hazm, Jamharah Ansab al-'Arab
  2. ^ al-Zubaidi, Taj al-'Urus under the header 'Shafa'a'
  3. ^ al-Nawawi, Yahya ibn Sharaf (2005). Ali Mu`awwad and Adil Abd al-Mawjud. ed (in Arabic). Tahdhib al-Asma wa al-Lughat. al-Asma. Beirut: Dar al-Nafaes. pp. 314–6. 
  4. ^ Diwān Imām al-Shāfi‘ī, Damascus, Syria: Karam Publishing House  Verses are translated by Salma al-Helali.
  5. ^ a b "Hanafi Salat" from Sunnah.org
  6. ^ a b "Salat According to Five Islamic Schools of Law" from Oneummah.net
  7. ^ a b "Salat According to Five Islamic Schools of Law" from Al-Islam.org
  8. ^ "Fiqh on Prayer" from ICBH.org
  9. ^ Short Biography on Habib 'Ali al-Jifri
  • Yahia, Mohyddin (2009). Shafi'i et les deux sources de la loi islamique, Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, ISBN 978-2-503-53181-6
  • Rippin, Andrew (2005). Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices (3rd ed.). London: Routledge. pp. 90–93. ISBN 0-415-34888-9.
  • Calder, Norman, Jawid Mojaddedi, and Andrew Rippin (2003). Classical Islam: A Sourcebook of Religious Literature. London: Routledge. Section 7.1.
  • Schacht, Joseph (1950). The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. Oxford: Oxford University. pp. 16.
  • Khadduri, Majid (1987). Islamic Jurisprudence: Shafi'i's Risala. Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society. pp. 286.
  • Abd Majid, Mahmood (2007). Tajdid Fiqh Al-Imam Al-Syafi'i. Seminar pemikiran Tajdid Imam As Shafie 2007.
  • al-Shafi'i,Muhammad b. Idris,"The Book of the Amalgamation of Knowledge" translated by A.Y. Musa in Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave, 2008

External links


Simple English

The Shāfi‘ī madhab (شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam.


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