Shakespeare: Wikis

  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Shakespeare

Include this on your site/blog:












































































Encyclopedia

(Redirected to William Shakespeare article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

William Shakespeare

The Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed. National Portrait Gallery, London.
Born baptised 26 April 1564 (birth date unknown)
Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England
Died 23 April 1616 (aged 52)
Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England
Occupation Playwright, poet, actor
Literary movement English Renaissance theatre
Spouse(s) Anne Hathaway (m. 1582–1616) «start: (1582)–end+1: (1617)»"Marriage: Anne Hathaway to William Shakespeare" Location: (linkback:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Shakespeare)
Children Susanna Hall
Hamnet Shakespeare
Judith Quiney
Signature
.William Shakespeare (baptised 26 April 1564; died 23 April 1616)[a] was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.^ Agrees with, and thanks Leo for, the programme devised for the Shakespeare Gesellschaft meeting on April 23 in Berlin.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bringing forward the date of the next general assembly of the Shakespeare Gesellschaft from April 23 to February as suggested by Dingelstedt is impractical.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copies of the volumes are rare, and the only example I can find on the Internet is King Lear from volume III: Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616 .

[1] .He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon".[2][b] His surviving works, including some collaborations, consist of 38 plays,[c] 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems.^ In addition to the works, I have included a link to my own chronological listing of the canon , which contains some notes to the plays and issues related to the dating of the plays and poems.

^ Fletcher, and more of our Author than some of those which have been received as genuine" --Alexander Pope on The Two Noble Kinsmen, from his Preface to his Works of 1725.

^ Knight's text and often the illustrations from The Pictorial Edition appeared in many other editions of Shakespeare throughout the nineteenth century: The Library Edition, The Cabinet Edition, The National Edition, The Stratford Edition, and so on.

.His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.^ Which I could fancy more than any other.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]
  • » The Taming of the Shrew. The script. 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC www.shakespeare-by-the-sea.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the play, Iago is infectious, seeping into every corner of Othello's mind.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The usual response is to cut it, but what is more relevant than what is removed is the particular interpretation of the material that results, as well as the creative decisions made in performance and presentation.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[3]
.Shakespeare was born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon.^ McLean, Andrew M. "Orson Welles and Shakespeare: History and Consciousness in "Chimes at Midnight" Literature/Film Quarterly 11:3 (1983) 197 (Shakespeare On Film IV Papers from the World Shakespeare Congress, 1981 Stratford-upon-Avon) Poague, Leland.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, who bore him three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith. .Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men.^ The second quarto was practically printed in 1619 by Thomas Pavier and William Jaggard, and fraudulently dated 1600 in order to circumvent, it is thought, an order by the Lord Chamberlain of May, 1619, that plays belonging to the King's Men could not be printed without consent.

^ The second quarto was printed in 1619 as part of the Pavier collection and falsely dated 1600 to circumvent an action on the part of the King's Men attempting to block surreptitious printing of their properties.

^ Printed from a manuscript believed to have been prepared from memory by the Lord Chamberlain’s Men (including Shakespeare himself) to replace a missing prompt-book.

.He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613, where he died three years later.^ Shakespeare retired and returned to Stratford c.1613.
  • William Shakespeare Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about William Shakespeare 11 January 2010 19:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • William Shakespeare encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 3 February 2010 19:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She died one year later.
  • Shakespeare's Biography: Information on Shakespeare's Parents, Siblings, Career as Actor, Children, Marriage, Death, Will, Influence, and Much More... 19 September 2009 4:19 UTC www.shakespeare-online.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Shakespeare's Biography: Information on Shakespeare's Parents, Siblings, Career as Actor, Children, Marriage, Death, Will, Influence, and Much More... 19 September 2009 4:19 UTC www.shakespeare-online.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Shakespeare's Biography: Information on Shakespeare's Parents, Siblings, Career as Actor, Children, Marriage, Death, Will, Influence, and Much More... 19 September 2009 4:19 UTC shakespeare-online.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William Shakespeare - Writers of the World 3 February 2010 19:12 UTC writers.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Later years Shakespeare's last two plays were written in 1613, after which he appears to have retired to Stratford.
  • The Infidels - William Shakespeare 11 January 2010 19:31 UTC www.theinfidels.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, and there has been considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance, sexuality, religious beliefs, and whether the works attributed to him were written by others.^ Tranio is about to exit with the others when Gremio sees his opportunity to murder him.

^ A popular theory of Shakespeare's life has him serving as Southampton's secretary or literary assistant during this period of closure of the public playhouses.

^ Attributions (apocrypha) Introduction I have brought together here links to the collected and individual works by Shakespeare available on the Internet.

[4]
.Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613.[5][d] His early plays were mainly comedies and histories, genres he raised to the peak of sophistication and artistry by the end of the sixteenth century.^ The play was probably written at the end of 1596 or very early 1597.

^ The play was most likely written, therefore, between 1593 and 1597, though may be a revision of a much earlier work.

^ It is based on the conviction that we need a cultural history of Shakespeare's plays, and that in studying the status and the meaning of a play we should not entirely rely on criticism and performance history."

.He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language.^ In addition to the works, I have included a link to my own chronological listing of the canon , which contains some notes to the plays and issues related to the dating of the plays and poems.

^ Two examples of the 1608 1st quarto of King Lear from the British Library, both originally possessed by Halliwell-Phillipps: 1 2 .

^ UC users only Sokolyansky, Mark "Grigori Kozintsevs Hamlet and King Lear."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights.
.Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his lifetime.^ Alexander Pope edited a collected edition of Shakespeare's plays, published by Tonsons (as were Rowe's edition before his and Theobald's thereafter), in 6 quarto volumes, in the year 1725.

^ Theobald followed Shakespeare restored with his own edition of the plays (heavily indebted to an epistolary collaboration with Warburton), published in 1733.

^ The important new materials the many notes supplied by Steevens, the list of old editions of Shakespeare's plays, and the notes contained in the Appendix.

.In 1623, two of his former theatrical colleagues published the First Folio, a collected edition of his dramatic works that included all but two of the plays now recognised as Shakespeare's.^ First folio, 1623.

^ The first Globe edition was published in 1864.

^ William Shakespear prefaced to his 1709 edition of the works says of the play; .

.Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day, but his reputation did not rise to its present heights until the nineteenth century.^ William Shakespeare William Shakespeare was an English poet and playwright.
  • William Shakespeare 3 February 2010 19:12 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ William Shakespeare - 17th century poet and playwright.
  • BiographyShelf.com - Browse this comprehensive biography, autobiography & memoir resources 19 September 2009 4:19 UTC www.biographyshelf.com [Source type: General]

^ Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day, but his reputation did not rise to its present heights until the nineteenth century.
  • William Shakespeare » Monologue Search » A Searchable Monologues Database 11 January 2010 19:31 UTC www.monologuesearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is William Shakespeare? 11 January 2010 19:31 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • William Shakespeare | Feedbooks 11 January 2010 19:31 UTC feedbooks.com [Source type: General]
  • William Shakespeare 3 February 2010 19:12 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • William Shakespeare 3 February 2010 19:12 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • William Shakespeare 3 February 2010 19:12 UTC www.reduced-shakespeare.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Quotes about William Shakespeare | Tributes Paid 3 February 2010 19:12 UTC www.tributespaid.com [Source type: General]
  • William Shakespeare - Wikimedia 3 February 2010 19:12 UTC readerfeedback.labs.wikimedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Romantics, in particular, acclaimed Shakespeare's genius, and the Victorians worshipped Shakespeare with a reverence that George Bernard Shaw called "bardolatry".[6] In the twentieth century, his work was repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance.^ The Cambridge Shakespeare was the reference edition well into the twentieth century, and many important works of scholarship are keyed to it" (from the Perseus Project web site ).

^ [Art Index] Aebischer, Pascale Shakespeare's violated bodies : stage and screen performance Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ William Shakespeare's cinematic renaissance ended in the twentieth century with John Madden's Shakespeare in Love.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.His plays remain highly popular today and are constantly studied, performed and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world.^ Studies in Popular Culture , vol.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Three articles on Kenneth Branagh's "Henry V": a reading of the film in terms of contemporary political and popular culture references; a survey of postwar theatrical productions and their influence on this version; and a comparison of the handling of various aspects of the play in versions by Olivier and Branagh.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ It is based on the conviction that we need a cultural history of Shakespeare's plays, and that in studying the status and the meaning of a play we should not entirely rely on criticism and performance history."

Contents

Life

Early life

.William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, a successful glover and alderman originally from Snitterfield, and Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer.^ An analysis is presented on the 1953 film adaptation of William Shakespeare's play 'Julius Caesar', a collaborate effort by director Joseph Mankiewicz and actor John Houseman.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ An original, illustrated html edition of the complete Tales From Shakespeare , by Charles and Mary Lamb.

^ William Shakespeare's cinematic renaissance ended in the twentieth century with John Madden's Shakespeare in Love.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[7] He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised on 26 April 1564. His actual birthdate is unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, St George's Day.[8] .This date, which can be traced back to an eighteenth-century scholar's mistake, has proved appealing because Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616.[9] He was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son.^ Theobald was an eighteenth-century Shakespeare editor, literary critic, and poet; in 1726 he wrote Shakespeare Restored, in which he criticized Alexander Pope’s edition of Shakespeare."

^ Alderman John Boydell exhausted his considerable fortune patronizing the largest Shakespeare illustration and publishing project undertaken in the eighteenth century.

[10]
.Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare may have been educated at the King's New School in Stratford,[11] a free school chartered in 1553,[12] about a quarter of a mile from his home.^ Agrees to write 6 pages for Shakespeare Jahrbuch after all, provided he may have until the end of April.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York Review of Books v41, n10 (May 27, 1993):11 (3 pages).
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Shakespeare) New York Review of Books v44, n2 (Feb 6, 1997):11 (6 pages).
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but the curriculum was dictated by law throughout England,[13] and the school would have provided an intensive education in Latin grammar and the classics.
John Shakespeare's house, believed to be Shakespeare's birthplace, in Stratford-upon-Avon.
.At the age of 18, Shakespeare married the 26-year-old Anne Hathaway.^ Ulrici is now 77 years old and is unlikely to live to see a third edition of his (their) Shakespeare edition.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582. Two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds the next day as surety that there were no impediments to the marriage.[14] .The couple may have arranged the ceremony in some haste, since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times.^ Let's see; I think 'tis now some seven o'clock, And well we may come there by dinner-time.
  • The Taming of the Shrew - Wikisource 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[15] Anne's pregnancy could have been the reason for this. Six months after the marriage, she gave birth to a daughter, Susanna, who was baptised on 26 May 1583.[16] Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed almost two years later and were baptised on 2 February 1585.[17] Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried on 11 August 1596.[18]
.After the birth of the twins, there are few historical traces of Shakespeare until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592. Because of this gap, scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years".[19] Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories.^ "This second quarto of Love’s Labours Lost was owned by Dr. Richard Farmer (1735–1797), Shakespeare scholar and collector, and Canon of St. Paul’s, London.

^ Shrew is not mentioned by Francis Meres in his list of Shakespeare's plays in Palladis Tamia (1598), unless his reference to Love's Labour's Won is the same play.

^ A comparison is presented between the motion picture 'Independence Day', William Shakespeare's play 'Henry V' and the biblical story of King David.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare’s first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching.^ Rowe was the first formal editor of Shakespeare, and his first formal biographer.

^ The Nicholas Rowe 1709 Edition of the Works of Shakespeare THE WORKS OF Mr. William Shakespear IN SIX VOLUMES. ADORN'D with CUTS Revis'd and Corrected, with an Account of the Life and Writings of the Author .

[20] .Another eighteenth-century story has Shakespeare starting his theatrical career minding the horses of theatre patrons in London.^ Theobald was an eighteenth-century Shakespeare editor, literary critic, and poet; in 1726 he wrote Shakespeare Restored, in which he criticized Alexander Pope’s edition of Shakespeare."

^ Alderman John Boydell exhausted his considerable fortune patronizing the largest Shakespeare illustration and publishing project undertaken in the eighteenth century.

[21] John Aubrey reported that Shakespeare had been a country schoolmaster.[22] .Some twentieth-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare may have been employed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "William Shakeshafte" in his will.^ Suggests that Leo allow some extra time; in Wörlitz he would like to show him a Shakespeare portrait, an old English copy of the Jansen portrait.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four 20th century film adaptations of William Shakespeare's 'Hamlet' are analyzed focusing on the closet scene, which is Act 3, Scene 4.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ It examines the film as an adaptation of the play of the same name by William Shakespeare and discusses its use of sound.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[23] No evidence substantiates such stories other than hearsay collected after his death and the name Shakeshafte was common in the Lancashire area.[24]

London and theatrical career

"All the world's a stage,
and all the men and women merely players:
they have their exits and their entrances;
and one man in his time plays many parts..."
As You Like It, Act II, Scene 7, 139–42.[25]
It is not known exactly when Shakespeare began writing, but contemporary allusions and records of performances show that several of his plays were on the London stage by 1592.[26] He was well enough known in London by then to be attacked in print by the playwright Robert Greene:
...there is an upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his Tiger's heart wrapped in a Player's hide, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you: and being an absolute Johannes factotum, is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a country.[27]
.Scholars differ on the exact meaning of these words,[28] but most agree that Greene is accusing Shakespeare of reaching above his rank in trying to match university-educated writers, such as Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Nashe and Greene himself.^ Writer, university chancellor in Tübingen, author of Shakespeare-Studien eines Realisten.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She herself intends to write on celebrities of Berlin, and comments that “Shakespeare-Leo” surely belongs to the first rank of these.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .The italicised phrase parodying the line "Oh, tiger's heart wrapped in a woman's hide" from Shakespeare’s Henry VI, part 3, along with the pun "Shake-scene", identifies Shakespeare as Greene’s target.^ The second Part of Henry the Sixt , in the First Folio of 1623 (Jaggard and Blount), from Internet Shakespeare Editions (University of Victoria) from a volume held by Brandeis University Library.

^ The third Part of Henry the Sixt , in the First Folio of 1623 (Jaggard and Blount), from Internet Shakespeare Editions (University of Victoria) from a volume held by Brandeis University Library.

^ An original spelling transcription of Henry VI, Part One (1623 First Folio Edition) from the Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library.

[30]
Greene’s attack is the first recorded mention of Shakespeare’s career in the theatre. Biographers suggest that his career may have begun any time from the mid-1580s to just before Greene’s remarks.[31] .From 1594, Shakespeare's plays were performed only by the Lord Chamberlain's Men, a company owned by a group of players, including Shakespeare, that soon became the leading playing company in London.^ Shakespeare's company was known as Lord Hunsdon's Men only from July 1596, at the death of Henry Carey, First Baron Hunsdon and March 17, 1597 when his son George, who had lent his name to the company during the brief Chamberlaincy of William Brooke, Lord Cobham, a man not well disposed toward the actors, became Lord Chamberlain.

^ In addition to the works, I have included a link to my own chronological listing of the canon , which contains some notes to the plays and issues related to the dating of the plays and poems.

^ The second quarto was practically printed in 1619 by Thomas Pavier and William Jaggard, and fraudulently dated 1600 in order to circumvent, it is thought, an order by the Lord Chamberlain of May, 1619, that plays belonging to the King's Men could not be printed without consent.

[32] After the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603, the company was awarded a royal patent by the new king, James I, and changed its name to the King's Men.[33]
In 1599, a partnership of company members built their own theatre on the south bank of the Thames, which they called the Globe. In 1608, the partnership also took over the Blackfriars indoor theatre. .Records of Shakespeare's property purchases and investments indicate that the company made him a wealthy man.^ Thanks Leo for books: Leo’s volume of poems, Schmidt’s Comus and Leo’s article on “Shakespeare’s Frauen-Ideale.” Has sent him his 2 volumes, Shakespeare Hermeneutics and Shakespeare - Man and Book.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] In 1597, he bought the second-largest house in Stratford, New Place, and in 1605, he invested in a share of the parish tithes in Stratford.[35]
.Some of Shakespeare's plays were published in quarto editions from 1594. By 1598, his name had become a selling point and began to appear on the title pages.^ Shakespeare’s name is added to the title-page.

^ The second quarto appeared in 1599, with the following title page: .

^ Shakespeare’s name does not appear on the title-page.

[36] .Shakespeare continued to act in his own and other plays after his success as a playwright.^ Theobald followed Shakespeare restored with his own edition of the plays (heavily indebted to an epistolary collaboration with Warburton), published in 1733.

^ The play did not appear in a Shakespeare folio until the second issue of the Third Folio, 1664, where it appeared with six other apocryphal Shakespeare plays.

^ In addition, unlike other film adaptations of Shakespeare's plays, 'Romeo & Juliet' does not treat the bard's language as its raison d'etre.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.The 1616 edition of Ben Jonson's Works names him on the cast lists for Every Man in His Humour (1598) and Sejanus, His Fall (1603).^ Much Ado was entered on the books of the Stationers' Register August 4, 1600 along with As You Like It , Henry V and Ben Jonson's Every Man In his Humour with the notation "to be staid," which was a strategy used to prevent unauthorized printing.

^ To the memory of my Beloved the Author, Mr. William Shakespear and What He Hath Left Us (Ben Jonson) A Table of the Several Editions of Shakespear's Plays...

[37] .The absence of his name from the 1605 cast list for Jonson’s Volpone is taken by some scholars as a sign that his acting career was nearing its end.^ London: printed by Thomas Creede, and are to be sold by Mathew Lawe, dwelling in Paules Church-yard, at the signe of the Foxe, neare S. Austins gate, 1605.

^ Gloucester's reference to "These late eclipses of the sun and moon" (1.2.112) is by some authorities taken to refer to the eclipses of September and October 1605.

[38] .The First Folio of 1623, however, lists Shakespeare as one of "the Principal Actors in all these Plays", some of which were first staged after Volpone, although we cannot know for certain what roles he played.^ Actor, organizer of the Munich Shakespeare Stage.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facsimile of the first page of The Taming of the Shrew from the First Folio , published in 1623 DRAMATIS PERSONAE (Persons Represented): .
  • The Taming of the Shrew - Wikisource 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Questions of Shakespeare as author of the plays with which he is identified and the possibility of his work having been collaborative are raised in these movies but ultimately resolved in his favor.'
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[39] In 1610, John Davies of Hereford wrote that "good Will" played "kingly" roles.[40] .In 1709, Rowe passed down a tradition that Shakespeare played the ghost of Hamlet's father.^ It was again printed in the Fourth Folio, 1685, and appeared in Rowe's 1709 (and 1714) editions of the Plays.

^ William Shakespear prefaced to his 1709 edition of the works says of the play; .

^ Alexander Pope edited a collected edition of Shakespeare's plays, published by Tonsons (as were Rowe's edition before his and Theobald's thereafter), in 6 quarto volumes, in the year 1725.

[41] .Later traditions maintain that he also played Adam in As You Like It and the Chorus in Henry V,[42] though scholars doubt the sources of the information.^ The play was most likely written, therefore, between 1593 and 1597, though may be a revision of a much earlier work.

^ To express the like kindness myself, that have been more kindly beholding to you than any, freely give unto you this young scholar, [ Presenting Lucentio.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To express the like kindness, myself, that have been more kindly beholding to you than any, freely give unto you this young scholar, [Presenting LUCENTIO.] .
  • The Taming of the Shrew - Wikisource 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[43]
.Shakespeare divided his time between London and Stratford during his career.^ For some time it was fashionable to regard it as a collaboration between Shakespeare and Peele, or Shakespeare and Kyd, but reasons for regarding it as such are cloudy, at best.

In 1596, the year before he bought New Place as his family home in Stratford, Shakespeare was living in the parish of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, north of the River Thames.[44] .He moved across the river to Southwark by 1599, the year his company constructed the Globe Theatre there.^ If one accepts Sohmer's arguments for opening day of the Globe being 12 June, 1599, it may well be that Henry V was one of the first plays presented there.

[45] By 1604, he had moved north of the river again, to an area north of St Paul's Cathedral with many fine houses. There he rented rooms from a French Huguenot called Christopher Mountjoy, a maker of ladies' wigs and other headgear.[46]

Later years and death

.Rowe was the first biographer to pass down the tradition that Shakespeare retired to Stratford some years before his death;[47] but retirement from all work was uncommon at that time,[48] and Shakespeare continued to visit London.^ Rowe was the first formal editor of Shakespeare, and his first formal biographer.

^ Suggests that Leo allow some extra time; in Wörlitz he would like to show him a Shakespeare portrait, an old English copy of the Jansen portrait.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By Mr. Pope and Mr. Warburton , London, J. & P. Napton, 1747; from Google Book Search, full text and PDF. The "Blunders of the first Editors" refers collectively to the editors of the quarto and folio editions, and Rowe, who was safely dead by this time.

[47] In 1612 he was called as a witness in a court case concerning the marriage settlement of Mountjoy's daughter, Mary.[49] In March 1613 he bought a gatehouse in the former Blackfriars priory;[50] and from November 1614 he was in London for several weeks with his son-in-law, John Hall.[51]
Shakespeare's funerary monument in Stratford-upon-Avon.
.After 1606–1607, Shakespeare wrote fewer plays, and none are attributed to him after 1613.[52] His last three plays were collaborations, probably with John Fletcher,[53] who succeeded him as the house playwright for the King’s Men.^ Questions of Shakespeare as author of the plays with which he is identified and the possibility of his work having been collaborative are raised in these movies but ultimately resolved in his favor.'
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ An analysis is presented on the 1953 film adaptation of William Shakespeare's play 'Julius Caesar', a collaborate effort by director Joseph Mankiewicz and actor John Houseman.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Through its roaming, interrogative camera, this version of Shakespeare's play manages to go far beyond the prison house of a photographed stage play.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[54]
.Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616[55] and was survived by his wife and two daughters.^ Agrees with, and thanks Leo for, the programme devised for the Shakespeare Gesellschaft meeting on April 23 in Berlin.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bringing forward the date of the next general assembly of the Shakespeare Gesellschaft from April 23 to February as suggested by Dingelstedt is impractical.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first part of his book Altengland und Shakespeare will be ready for publication on April 23, when he will present it at the Shakespeare Gesellschaft meeting in Weimar.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Susanna had married a physician, John Hall, in 1607,[56] and Judith had married Thomas Quiney, a vintner, two months before Shakespeare’s death.^ The life and death of King John , in the First Folio of 1623 (Jaggard and Blount), from Internet Shakespeare Editions (University of Victoria) from a volume held by Brandeis University Library.

^ The life and death of King John , in the First Folio of 1623 (Jaggard and Blount), from The Rare Book Room (Octavo) from a volume held by the Folger Shakespeare Library.

^ Two Noble Kinsmen , John Fletcher and William Shakespeare.

[57]
.In his will, Shakespeare left the bulk of his large estate to his elder daughter Susanna.^ The bulk of the Shakespeare papers left by ten Brink, however, were printed as a separate volume.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] The terms instructed that she pass it down intact to "the first son of her body".[59] The Quineys had three children, all of whom died without marrying.[60] .The Halls had one child, Elizabeth, who married twice but died without children in 1670, ending Shakespeare’s direct line.^ The play must be one of Shakespeare's first, and if A Shrew is a corrupt version of The Shrew , it could even have been in existence towards the end of the 1580s.

^ Modenessi, Alfredo Michel ""(Un)doing the book "without Verona walls": a view from the receiving end of Baz Luhrmann's William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[61] .Shakespeare's will scarcely mentions his wife, Anne, who was probably entitled to one third of his estate automatically.^ Printed from a manuscript believed to be Shakespeare’s foul papers, collated with the third quarto and probably for some parts of the text with the sixth quarto.

[62] He did make a point, however, of leaving her "my second best bed", a bequest that has led to much speculation.[63] .Some scholars see the bequest as an insult to Anne, whereas others believe that the second-best bed would have been the matrimonial bed and therefore rich in significance.^ I am agreed; and would I had given him the best horse in Padua to begin his wooing, that would thoroughly woo her, wed her, and bed her, and rid the house of her.
  • The Taming of the Shrew - Wikisource 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[64]
Shakespeare was buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity Church two days after his death.[65] The stone slab covering his grave is inscribed with a curse against moving his bones:
Shakespeare's grave.
Good frend for Iesvs sake forbeare,
To digg the dvst encloased heare.
Blest be ye man yt spares thes stones,
And cvrst be he yt moves my bones.
.Sometime before 1623, a funerary monument was erected in his memory on the north wall, with a half-effigy of him in the act of writing.^ Asks Leo to compare his description of Freiherr von Stein (whom he met 50 years ago) with the statue of him on the monument recently erected in Berlin.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Its plaque compares him to Nestor, Socrates, and Virgil.[66] .In 1623, in conjunction with the publication of the First Folio, the Droeshout engraving was published.^ Facsimile of the first page of The Taming of the Shrew from the First Folio , published in 1623 DRAMATIS PERSONAE (Persons Represented): .
  • The Taming of the Shrew - Wikisource 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[67]
.Shakespeare has been commemorated in many statues and memorials around the world, including funeral monuments in Southwark Cathedral and Poet's Corner in Westminster Abbey.^ Printed from a manuscript believed to have been prepared from memory by the Lord Chamberlain’s Men (including Shakespeare himself) to replace a missing prompt-book.

^ Facsimile editions of Folios and Quartos held by many of the world's libraries, including many by Shakespeare.

^ The study of Shakespeare has been dropped from many school curriculums, buthis popularity continues virtually unabated and his works continue to beproduced around the world.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

Plays

.Most playwrights of the period typically collaborated with others at some point, and critics agree that Shakespeare did the same, mostly early and late in his career.^ He never held a university post, though for a brief period (1873-1875) he did lecture on Shakespeare at Herrig’s academy of modern languages.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The publisher and printer (Blount and Jaggard) of the First Folio must have regarded A Shrew and The Shrew as the same play, because they did not bother to register it along with Shakespeare's other unpublished plays.

^ The play did not appear in a Shakespeare folio until the second issue of the Third Folio, 1664, where it appeared with six other apocryphal Shakespeare plays.

[68] .Some attributions, such as Titus Andronicus and the early history plays, remain controversial, while The Two Noble Kinsmen and the lost Cardenio have well-attested contemporary documentation.^ The 1634 1st quarto of Two Noble Kinsmen from the Rare Book Room (Octavo) from a volume held by The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford.

^ Facsimile edition (The Tudor Facsimile Texts) of the 1634 1st quarto of The two noble kinsmen (1910) from the Internet Archive.

^ A no-frills, well designed portal to standard html versions of the complete works (the thirty-seven canonical plays, not Two Noble Kinsmen), with a brief biography on the index page, and the ability to search within any of the individual works or across all, from ReadPrint.com.

Textual evidence also supports the view that several of the plays were revised by other writers after their original composition.
.The first recorded works of Shakespeare are Richard III and the three parts of Henry VI, written in the early 1590s during a vogue for historical drama.^ An excellent historical example of a cold-blooded killer is King Richard III, who has repeatedly been depicted on both the screen and the stage during the 20th century.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Roman Polanski's movie of William Shakespeare's 'Macbeth' makes use of reversals in the story, and three reversals are Polanski's works.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ A comparison is made between the three film adaptations of William Shakespeare's 'Richard III', with Laurence Olivier, Ron Cook and Ian McKellen playing the title role.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Shakespeare's plays are difficult to date, however,[69] and studies of the texts suggest that Titus Andronicus, The Comedy of Errors, The Taming of the Shrew and The Two Gentlemen of Verona may also belong to Shakespeare’s earliest period.^ Bringing forward the date of the next general assembly of the Shakespeare Gesellschaft from April 23 to February as suggested by Dingelstedt is impractical.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [The intended short article seems to be on] Two Gentlemen of Verona on stage.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is sending a study of his for review in the Shakespeare Jahrbuch and suggests as possible reviewers either Leo himself, Zupitza, R. Köhler, Elze, [?
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70] .His first histories, which draw heavily on the 1587 edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland,[71] dramatise the destructive results of weak or corrupt rule and have been interpreted as a justification for the origins of the Tudor dynasty.^ It was most likely written in 1595 and used the second edition of Holinshed's Chronicles and Daniel's Civil Wars as sources.

^ Malone traces the provenance of the book to Charles I (1600–1649), who reigned as King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1625 until his death.

[72] .The early plays were influenced by the works of other Elizabethan dramatists, especially Thomas Kyd and Christopher Marlowe, by the traditions of medieval drama, and by the plays of Seneca.^ Dyce was a distinguished editor of Jacobean and Elizabethan dramatists and poets including Christopher Marlowe, Beaumont and Fletcher, and Alexander Pope.

^ Although not particularly successful as a textual editor of Shakespeare, Malone is especially noted for his work on Elizabethan theater.

^ Although not particularly successful as a textual editor of Shakespeare, Malone is especially noted for his work on Elizabethan theater."

[73] .The Comedy of Errors was also based on classical models, but no source for the The Taming of the Shrew has been found, though it is related to a separate play of the same name and may have derived from a folk story.^ It examines the film as an adaptation of the play of the same name by William Shakespeare and discusses its use of sound.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[74] .Like The Two Gentlemen of Verona, in which two friends appear to approve of rape,[75] the Shrew's story of the taming of a woman's independent spirit by a man sometimes troubles modern critics and directors.^ The two gentlemen of Verona.

^ There is no general agreement on the date of Shakespeare's first four earliest comedies: The Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Taming of the Shrew, Love's Labour's Lost, and The Comedy of Errors .

^ An original spelling transcription of Two Gentlemen of Verona (1623 First Folio Edition) from the Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library.

[76]
Oberon, Titania and Puck with Fairies Dancing. By William Blake, c. 1786. Tate Britain.
.Shakespeare's early classical and Italianate comedies, containing tight double plots and precise comic sequences, give way in the mid-1590s to the romantic atmosphere of his greatest comedies.^ UC users only "Taymor films Shakespeare's early tragedy in an extremely challenging, dynamic, and faithful way.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Shakespeare on Screen , from the BFI, with features on Contemporary Shakespeare , Olivier and Shakespeare , Silent Shakespeare , BBC Television Shakespeare , Shakespeare on Television , Shakespeare's Comedies , Shakespeare's Early Tragedies , Shakespeare's Histories , Shakespeare's Late Plays , Shakespeare's Late Tragedies , and Shakespeare's Problem Plays .

[77] .A Midsummer Night's Dream is a witty mixture of romance, fairy magic, and comic lowlife scenes.^ Robin Goodfellow of A Midsummer Night’s Dream, for use in Leo’s variorum edition.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On P.H.'s perception of the concord of discords in "A midsummer night's dream" which he expresses through cinematic oxymoron.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ [Referring to E. Hermann, Shakespeare der Kämpfer: Die polemischen Hauptbeziehungen des Midsummer Night’s Dream und Tempest [...
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78] .Shakespeare's next comedy, the equally romantic Merchant of Venice, contains a portrayal of the vengeful Jewish moneylender Shylock, which reflects Elizabethan views but may appear derogatory to modern audiences.^ UC users only "A review of Michael Radford's film version of Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ He sees Shakespeare's language as a challenge for accessibility to a modern audience.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The 1600 1st quarto of The Excellent History of the Merchant of Venice with the Extreme Cruelty of Shylocke the Jew toward the saide Merchant in cutting a just pound of his flesh.

[79] .The wit and wordplay of Much Ado About Nothing,[80] the charming rural setting of As You Like It, and the lively merrymaking of Twelfth Night complete Shakespeare's sequence of great comedies.^ Thinks of them as “charming, and graceful, and attractive.” He is seeing [the Variorum edition of] As You Like It through the press.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Announces the title of his article for Shakespeare Jahrbuch: “ The Middle English origin of As You Like It.” [“Die mittelenglische Vorstufe von As You Like It.”] It will be about the Tale of Gamelyn.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The [Munich] Shakespeare Stage will begin later with Romeo and Juliet, Twelfth Night, Lear and Comedy of Errors.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81] .After the lyrical Richard II, written almost entirely in verse, Shakespeare introduced prose comedy into the histories of the late 1590s, Henry IV, parts 1 and 2, and Henry V.^ It is most likely that Henry IV, Part 1 was composed without reference to a part 2, and that part 2 was written to build on the success of part 1.

^ The 1604 3rd quarto of Henry IV, Part 1 , from the Rare Book Room (Octavo) from a volume held by The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford.

^ The second Part of Henry the Sixt , in the First Folio of 1623 (Jaggard and Blount), from Internet Shakespeare Editions (University of Victoria) from a volume held by Brandeis University Library.

His characters become more complex and tender as he switches deftly between comic and serious scenes, prose and poetry, and achieves the narrative variety of his mature work.[82] .This period begins and ends with two tragedies: Romeo and Juliet, the famous romantic tragedy of sexually charged adolescence, love, and death;[83] and Julius Caesar—based on Sir Thomas North's 1579 translation of Plutarch's Parallel Lives—which introduced a new kind of drama.^ A defense is presented of director Baz Luhrmann's adaptation of William Shakespeare's play in his film 'William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet', creating a parallel between the subversiveness of theater and Luhrmann's interpretation.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Four chapters of North’s Plutarch as sources to Shakespeare’s tragedies, Coriolanus, Julius Caesar, Antony and Cleopatra, and partly to Hamlet and Timon of Athens (London, 1878).
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asks if he could borrow Leo’s copy of North’s Plutarch, since he is preparing an edition of the Schlegel-Tieck translation of Julius Caesar and Antony and Cleopatra.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84] According to Shakespearean scholar James Shapiro, in Julius Caesar "the various strands of politics, character, inwardness, contemporary events, even Shakespeare's own reflections on the act of writing, began to infuse each other".[85]
Hamlet, Horatio, Marcellus, and the Ghost of Hamlet's Father. Henry Fuseli, 1780–5. Kunsthaus Zürich.
.In the early 1600s, Shakespeare wrote the so-called "problem plays" Measure for Measure, Troilus and Cressida, and All's Well That Ends Well and a number of his best known tragedies.^ Open Source Shakespeare - concordance, keyword and advanced searching, statistics, the text of the plays, find characters, and a search of all the poetry as well.

^ The writer goes on to discuss the effectiveness of the dialogin several films, including Trevor Nunn's Twelfth Night, which may well be the best of thecurrent crop of Shakespeare films."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ A man well known throughout all Italy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[86] Many critics believe that Shakespeare's greatest tragedies represent the peak of his art. The titular hero of one of Shakespeare's most famous tragedies, Hamlet, has probably been discussed more than any other Shakespearean character, especially for his famous soliloquy "To be or not to be; that is the question."[87] Unlike the introverted Hamlet, whose fatal flaw is hesitation, the heroes of the tragedies that followed, Othello and King Lear, are undone by hasty errors of judgement.[88] The plots of Shakespeare's tragedies often hinge on such fatal errors or flaws, which overturn order and destroy the hero and those he loves.[89] In Othello, the villain Iago stokes Othello's sexual jealousy to the point where he murders the innocent wife who loves him.[90] .In King Lear, the old king commits the tragic error of giving up his powers, initiating the events which lead to the murder of his daughter and the torture and blinding of the Earl of Gloucester.^ "Broken Lance," like "King Lear," examines the ending of one era, and features lead characters that are unable to adapt to a changing society."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ M. William Shak-speare: his true chronicle historie of the life and death of King Lear and his three daughters.

^ M. William Shake-speare, his true chronicle history of the life and death of King Lear, and his three daughters.

.According to the critic Frank Kermode, "the play offers neither its good characters nor its audience any relief from its cruelty".[91] In Macbeth, the shortest and most compressed of Shakespeare's tragedies,[92] uncontrollable ambition incites Macbeth and his wife, Lady Macbeth, to murder the rightful king and usurp the throne, until their own guilt destroys them in turn.^ DeWeese, Dan "Prospero's pharmacy : Peter Greenaway and the critics play Shakespeare's mimetic game."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ It is based on the conviction that we need a cultural history of Shakespeare's plays, and that in studying the status and the meaning of a play we should not entirely rely on criticism and performance history."

^ UC users only Discusses how television directors, Roman Polanski and Orson Welles, presented the characters of the novel 'Macbeth,' written by William Shakespeare.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[93] In this play, Shakespeare adds a supernatural element to the tragic structure. .His last major tragedies, Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus, contain some of Shakespeare's finest poetry and were considered his most successful tragedies by the poet and critic T. S. Eliot.^ Four chapters of North’s Plutarch as sources to Shakespeare’s tragedies, Coriolanus, Julius Caesar, Antony and Cleopatra, and partly to Hamlet and Timon of Athens (London, 1878).
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Volume I contains general supplemental comments, comments to each of the plays in particular, and Shakespeare's Poetry with annotations.

^ Theobald was an eighteenth-century Shakespeare editor, literary critic, and poet; in 1726 he wrote Shakespeare Restored, in which he criticized Alexander Pope’s edition of Shakespeare."

[94]
In his final period, Shakespeare turned to romance or tragicomedy and completed three more major plays: Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale and The Tempest, as well as the collaboration, Pericles, Prince of Tyre. .Less bleak than the tragedies, these four plays are graver in tone than the comedies of the 1590s, but they end with reconciliation and the forgiveness of potentially tragic errors.^ The tragedies have attracted you far more than the comedies.” He himself prefers the latter; life itself is enough of a tragedy.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shakespeare Jahrbuch contains no less than four articles by Vincke (pp.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My lord, I warrant you we will play our part, As he shall think by our true diligence, He is no less than what we say he is.
  • The Taming of the Shrew - Wikisource 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[95] .Some commentators have seen this change in mood as evidence of a more serene view of life on Shakespeare's part, but it may merely reflect the theatrical fashion of the day.^ Moreover, part of the correspondence bears testimony to the fact that at least some representatives of the Shakespeare Gesellschaft sought and cultivated contacts with their colleagues in England and America.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ X in searchable Snippet view from GBS] For more on Capell, see his entry in the Shakespeare's Editors section.

^ Printed from a manuscript believed to be Shakespeare’s foul papers, collated with the third quarto and probably for some parts of the text with the sixth quarto.

[96] .Shakespeare collaborated on two further surviving plays, Henry VIII and The Two Noble Kinsmen, probably with John Fletcher.^ The 1634 1st quarto of Two Noble Kinsmen from the Rare Book Room (Octavo) from a volume held by The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford.

^ The ambiguities in William Shakespeare's 'Henry V' are absent from performances of the play and in Lawrence Olivier's and Kenneth Branagh's film versions.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Questions of Shakespeare as author of the plays with which he is identified and the possibility of his work having been collaborative are raised in these movies but ultimately resolved in his favor.'
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[97]

Performances

.It is not clear for which companies Shakespeare wrote his early plays.^ Indeed, the Essex revolt occurred early the next year, in which Shakespeare's company played their small, though thankfully forgivable, part.

^ Introduction The Canon Tales From Shakespeare Collected Editions of the Plays HTML editions Facsimiles of early quarto and folio editions Facsimile modern editions Promptbooks Multimedia editions Productions .

^ Shakespeare on Screen , from the BFI, with features on Contemporary Shakespeare , Olivier and Shakespeare , Silent Shakespeare , BBC Television Shakespeare , Shakespeare on Television , Shakespeare's Comedies , Shakespeare's Early Tragedies , Shakespeare's Histories , Shakespeare's Late Plays , Shakespeare's Late Tragedies , and Shakespeare's Problem Plays .

.The title page of the 1594 edition of Titus Andronicus reveals that the play had been acted by three different troupes.^ For links to quarto facsimile editions of individual plays, see individual plays by title below.

^ List of characters in the play on the verso of the title page in an unidentified hand."

^ The 1914, W. J. Craig, Oxford Edition of the Complete Works (37 plays, 154 sonnets), with an excellent search tool which finds words to Act/Scene divisions.

[98] .After the plagues of 1592–3, Shakespeare's plays were performed by his own company at The Theatre and the Curtain in Shoreditch, north of the Thames.^ It is based on the conviction that we need a cultural history of Shakespeare's plays, and that in studying the status and the meaning of a play we should not entirely rely on criticism and performance history."

^ Theobald followed Shakespeare restored with his own edition of the plays (heavily indebted to an epistolary collaboration with Warburton), published in 1733.

^ Indeed, the Essex revolt occurred early the next year, in which Shakespeare's company played their small, though thankfully forgivable, part.

[99] .Londoners flocked there to see the first part of Henry IV, Leonard Digges recording, "Let but Falstaff come, Hal, Poins, the rest...and you scarce shall have a room".[100] When the company found themselves in dispute with their landlord, they pulled The Theatre down and used the timbers to construct the Globe Theatre, the first playhouse built by actors for actors, on the south bank of the Thames at Southwark.^ It is most likely that Henry IV, Part 1 was composed without reference to a part 2, and that part 2 was written to build on the success of part 1.

^ The 1604 3rd quarto of Henry IV, Part 1 , from the Rare Book Room (Octavo) from a volume held by The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford.

^ British Library originally possessed by Garrick, and another originally possessed by George III. Another copy of the 1599 quarto of Henry IV, Part 1 from the Rare Book Room (Octavo) from a volume held by the National Library of Scotland.

[101] .The Globe opened in autumn 1599, with Julius Caesar one of the first plays staged.^ Julius Caesar was printed for the first time in the First Folio of 1623.

^ An analysis is presented on the 1953 film adaptation of William Shakespeare's play 'Julius Caesar', a collaborate effort by director Joseph Mankiewicz and actor John Houseman.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Julius Caesar from the etext center at the University of Virginia HTML edition based on the Moby Lexical project, in turn based on the Globe edition.

.Most of Shakespeare's greatest post-1599 plays were written for the Globe, including Hamlet, Othello and King Lear.^ The play was most likely written 1594-1595.

^ King Lear was probably written in late 1605 or early 1606.

^ The play was most likely written, therefore, between 1593 and 1597, though may be a revision of a much earlier work.

[102]
The reconstructed Globe Theatre, London.
.After the Lord Chamberlain's Men were renamed the King's Men in 1603, they entered a special relationship with the new King James.^ The second quarto was practically printed in 1619 by Thomas Pavier and William Jaggard, and fraudulently dated 1600 in order to circumvent, it is thought, an order by the Lord Chamberlain of May, 1619, that plays belonging to the King's Men could not be printed without consent.

^ Printed from a manuscript believed to have been prepared from memory by the Lord Chamberlain’s Men (including Shakespeare himself) to replace a missing prompt-book.

^ Q1 is unique in having been printed during the brief period when Shakespeare's company was known as Lord Hunsdon's Men, and not the Lord Chamberlain's Men.

.Although the performance records are patchy, the King's Men performed seven of Shakespeare's plays at court between 1 November 1604 and 31 October 1605, including two performances of The Merchant of Venice.^ The film, a version of the Shakespeare play of the same name, was made as the result of a pact made in 1986 between Godard and two heads of the Cannon firm, but it has not been seen for a long time because of a legal imbroglio.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ UC users only "A review of Michael Radford's film version of Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The ambiguities in William Shakespeare's 'Henry V' are absent from performances of the play and in Lawrence Olivier's and Kenneth Branagh's film versions.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[103] After 1608, they performed at the indoor Blackfriars Theatre during the winter and the Globe during the summer.[104] The indoor setting, combined with the Jacobean fashion for lavishly staged masques, allowed Shakespeare to introduce more elaborate stage devices. In Cymbeline, for example, Jupiter descends "in thunder and lightning, sitting upon an eagle: he throws a thunderbolt. The ghosts fall on their knees."[105]
.The actors in Shakespeare's company included the famous Richard Burbage, William Kempe, Henry Condell and John Heminges.^ The ambiguities in William Shakespeare's 'Henry V' are absent from performances of the play and in Lawrence Olivier's and Kenneth Branagh's film versions.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ An analysis is presented on the 1953 film adaptation of William Shakespeare's play 'Julius Caesar', a collaborate effort by director Joseph Mankiewicz and actor John Houseman.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ A comparison is presented between the motion picture 'Independence Day', William Shakespeare's play 'Henry V' and the biblical story of King David.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Burbage played the leading role in the first performances of many of Shakespeare's plays, including Richard III, Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear.^ An excellent historical example of a cold-blooded killer is King Richard III, who has repeatedly been depicted on both the screen and the stage during the 20th century.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Shakespeare in Quarto , from the British Library, ninety-three quartos of twenty-one plays in their possession (many purchased from Halliwell-Phillipps, Garrick and George III).

^ The life and death of King Richard the Second , in the First Folio of 1623 (Jaggard and Blount), from Internet Shakespeare Editions (University of Victoria) from a volume held by Brandeis University Library.

[106] .The popular comic actor Will Kempe played the servant Peter in Romeo and Juliet and Dogberry in Much Ado About Nothing, among other characters.^ "Much ado about nothing".
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Much ado about nothing.

^ Muche Adoe about Nothinge...

[107] .He was replaced around the turn of the sixteenth century by Robert Armin, who played roles such as Touchstone in As You Like It and the fool in King Lear.^ And paint your face, and use you like a fool.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And paint your face and use you like a fool.

^ Full plays available include As You Like It , Henry IV Pt.

[108] .In 1613, Sir Henry Wotton recorded that Henry VIII "was set forth with many extraordinary circumstances of pomp and ceremony".[109] On 29 June, however, a cannon set fire to the thatch of the Globe and burned the theatre to the ground, an event which pinpoints the date of a Shakespeare play with rare precision.^ Henry V is one of the few plays by Shakespeare that can be reliably dated.

^ Shakespeare in Quarto , from the British Library, ninety-three quartos of twenty-one plays in their possession (many purchased from Halliwell-Phillipps, Garrick and George III).

^ An electronic facsimile edition of the 1619 (dated 1608) 3rd Quarto edition of Henry V from the Furness Shakespeare Library.

[109]

Textual sources

Title page of the First Folio, 1623. Copper engraving of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout.
.In 1623, John Heminges and Henry Condell, two of Shakespeare's friends from the King's Men, published the First Folio, a collected edition of Shakespeare's plays.^ First folio, 1623.

^ The first Globe edition was published in 1864.

^ Barnard, with the advice of such men of letters as Samuel Johnson, enlarged the king’s library in a methodical fashion, assembling a fine collections of religious texts, English an European history, classics, English and Italian literature, and such incunables as a Gutenberg Bible and a first edition of Caxton’s Canterbury Tales.

.It contained 36 texts, including 18 printed for the first time.^ The following illustration is taken from the First Folio text, which was printed from the first quarto text.

^ Julius Caesar was printed for the first time in the First Folio of 1623.

^ It was not printed again until the First Folio, which must have been type set from an original manuscript since the Folio version contains passages not contained in either early quarto.

[110] .Many of the plays had already appeared in quarto versions—flimsy books made from sheets of paper folded twice to make four leaves.^ There are four basic types: HTML editions, PDF versions, searchable scanned versions (at Google Book Search and the Internet Archive) and facsimile editions, that is, static images which represent the leaves of published volumes but cannot be searched.

^ Shakespeare in Quarto , from the British Library, ninety-three quartos of twenty-one plays in their possession (many purchased from Halliwell-Phillipps, Garrick and George III).

^ Other quartos appeared in 1604, 1608, 1613, and 1622, testifying to the popularity of the play.

[111] .No evidence suggests that Shakespeare approved these editions, which the First Folio describes as "stol'n and surreptitious copies".[112] Alfred Pollard termed some of them "bad quartos" because of their adapted, paraphrased or garbled texts, which may in places have been reconstructed from memory.^ This is the copy used for the First Folio text.

^ The First Folio text is based on the text of the first quarto, which itself may have been printed from Shakespeare's "foul papers."

^ The following illustration is taken from the First Folio text, which was printed from the first quarto text.

[113] .Where several versions of a play survive, each differs from the other.^ Literature/Film Quarterly; Vol.XXIX nr.2 (2001); p.128-134 Examines the differences that cinematic reproduction makes to the endings of Shakespeare in several film versions of the plays.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.The differences may stem from copying or printing errors, from notes by actors or audience members, or from Shakespeare's own papers.^ Printed from a manuscript believed to be Shakespeare’s foul papers, collated with the third quarto and probably for some parts of the text with the sixth quarto.

^ This research has focused on how different audiences refunction Luhrmann's film and actor Leonardo DiCaprio's presence to meet their own needs and pleasures.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The First Folio text is based on the text of the first quarto, which itself may have been printed from Shakespeare's "foul papers."

[114] .In some cases, for example Hamlet, Troilus and Cressida and Othello, Shakespeare could have revised the texts between the quarto and folio editions.^ An original spelling transcription of Timon of Athens (1623 First Folio Edition) from the Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library.

^ "Staunton's text was based on a collation of the folio editions with the early quartos and with the texts of modern editors from Rowe [1709] to Dyce [1857].

^ The volume had previously belonged to George III. The 1599 2nd quarto of Romeo and Juliet from Internet Shakespeare Editions from the volume held by the British Library.

.In the case of King Lear, however, while most modern additions do conflate them, the 1623 folio version is so different from the 1608 quarto, that the Oxford Shakespeare prints them both, arguing that they cannot be conflated without confusion.^ The life and death of King Richard the Second , in the First Folio of 1623 (Jaggard and Blount), from Internet Shakespeare Editions (University of Victoria) from a volume held by Brandeis University Library.

^ The second quarto was practically printed in 1619 by Thomas Pavier and William Jaggard, and fraudulently dated 1600 in order to circumvent, it is thought, an order by the Lord Chamberlain of May, 1619, that plays belonging to the King's Men could not be printed without consent.

^ The first quarto of Romeo and Juliet, commonly thought to be a "bad," pirated version, was printed in 1597 with the following title page: An excellent conceited tragedie of Romeo and Iuliet.

[115]

Poems

.In 1593 and 1594, when the theatres were closed because of plague, Shakespeare published two narrative poems on erotic themes, Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece.^ "Now at the Bodleian Library, this 1594 quarto of The Rape of Lucrece is the first of seven other Shakespeare quartos inlaid in Edmund Malone’s Volume III..."

^ Unique to the ISE site is a 1593 1st quarto of Venus and Adonis from U. Victoria's MacPherson Library, and a facsimile edition of John Velz's 1968 Shakespeare and the Classical Tradition .

^ Declines to write an obituary on Thümmel, because the deceased was too close to him [an obituary on J.S. Thümmel appeared anonymously in Shakespeare Jahrbuch, 21 (1886), pp.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He dedicated them to Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. In Venus and Adonis, an innocent Adonis rejects the sexual advances of Venus; while in The Rape of Lucrece, the virtuous wife Lucrece is raped by the lustful Tarquin.[116] Influenced by Ovid's Metamorphoses,[117] the poems show the guilt and moral confusion that result from uncontrolled lust.[118] .Both proved popular and were often reprinted during Shakespeare's lifetime.^ A popular theory of Shakespeare's life has him serving as Southampton's secretary or literary assistant during this period of closure of the public playhouses.

.A third narrative poem, A Lover's Complaint, in which a young woman laments her seduction by a persuasive suitor, was printed in the first edition of the Sonnets in 1609. Most scholars now accept that Shakespeare wrote A Lover's Complaint.^ A Lovers Complaint appears after Sonnet 154.

^ The Chalmers Edition of 1805 Chalmers' edition of Shakespeare first appeared in 1805, issued in ten volumes (Murphy's edition number 413, see Shakespeare in Print , p.

^ Electronic facsimiles of modern (usually nineteenth century or later) printed editions, now in the public domain.

Critics consider that its fine qualities are marred by leaden effects.[119] .The Phoenix and the Turtle, printed in Robert Chester's 1601 Love's Martyr, mourns the deaths of the legendary phoenix and his lover, the faithful turtle dove.^ IX - (1866) - Antony and Cleopatra; Cymbeline; Pericles; Venus and Adonis; The Rape of Lucrece; Sonnets; A Lover's Complaint; The Passionate Pilgrim; The Phoenix and the Turtle.

^ II and Poems) [ IA ] Macbeth Troilus and Cressida Coriolanus Julius Caesar Antony and Cleopatra Supplementary Notice to the Three Roman Plays Venus and Adonis The Rape of Lucrece Sonnets A Lover's Complaint The Passionate Pilgrim Verses Among the Additional Poems to Chester's Love's Martyr, 1601 Supplementary Notice to the Poems Vol.

.In 1599, two early drafts of sonnets 138 and 144 appeared in The Passionate Pilgrim, published under Shakespeare's name but without his permission.^ McMurtry, Jo "'His Name, My Lord, Is Tyrrel': Comparing Scenes in Two Versions of Richard III." Shakespeare on Film Newsletter , vol.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[120]

Sonnets

Title page from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets.
.Published in 1609, the Sonnets were the last of Shakespeare's non-dramatic works to be printed.^ Malone left his uncompleted work on Shakespeare to James Boswell the younger, who had it published in a 21-volume octavo edition in 1821 (Third Variorum Edition).

^ The works of William Shakespeare , Edition: 2, Published by Chapman and Hall, 1864-67.

^ A transcription of the 1609 edition of the Sonnets , originally published as a Scolar Press Facsimile of the 1609 Edition, from the Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library.

Scholars are not certain when each of the 154 sonnets was composed, but evidence suggests that Shakespeare wrote sonnets throughout his career for a private readership.[121] .Even before the two unauthorised sonnets appeared in The Passionate Pilgrim in 1599, Francis Meres had referred in 1598 to Shakespeare's "sugred Sonnets among his private friends".[122] Few analysts believe that the published collection follows Shakespeare's intended sequence.^ His collected essays on textual cruxes were published in English as Shakespeare Notes (1885).
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Refers to his Hamlet conjectures published in Athenaeum, to which Dr. Cartwright from Shrewsbury has responded; also sends his own book for review in Shakespeare Jahrbuch.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[123] He seems to have planned two contrasting series: one about uncontrollable lust for a married woman of dark complexion (the "dark lady"), and one about conflicted love for a fair young man (the "fair youth"). It remains unclear if these figures represent real individuals, or if the authorial "I" who addresses them represents Shakespeare himself, though Wordsworth believed that with the sonnets "Shakespeare unlocked his heart".[124] The 1609 edition was dedicated to a "Mr. W.H.", credited as "the only begetter" of the poems. It is not known whether this was written by Shakespeare himself or by the publisher, Thomas Thorpe, whose initials appear at the foot of the dedication page; nor is it known who Mr. W.H. was, despite numerous theories, or whether Shakespeare even authorised the publication.[125] Critics praise the Sonnets as a profound meditation on the nature of love, sexual passion, procreation, death, and time.[126]
"Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate..."
Lines from Shakespeare's Sonnet 18.[127]
.The production of Shakespeare's Sonnets was in some way influenced by the Italian sonnet: it was popularised by Dante and Petrarch and refined in Spain and France by DuBellay and Ronsard.^ Most theater and motion picture production groups have presented some ofShakespeare's works in a way that makes it easier for people to understandthem.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[128] .Shakespeare probably had access to these last two authors, and read English poets as Richard Field and John Davies.^ Questions of Shakespeare as author of the plays with which he is identified and the possibility of his work having been collaborative are raised in these movies but ultimately resolved in his favor.'
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ A (Two-Dimensional) Literary-Psychological Re-Reading of Shakespeare's Macbeth with Jeremy Freeston and Henry Fuseli."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[128] The French and Italian poets gave preference to the Italian form of sonnet—two groups of four lines, or quatrains (always rhymed a-b-b-a a-b-b-a) followed by two groups of three lines, or tercets (variously rhymed c-c-d e-e-d or c-c-d e-d-e)—which created a sonorous music in the vowel rich Romance languages, but in Shakespeare it is artificial and monotonous for the English language. .To overcome this problem derived from the difference of language, Shakespeare chose to follow the idiomatic rhyme scheme used by Philip Sidney in his Astrophel and Stella (published posthumously in 1591), where the rhymes are interlaced in two pairs of couplets to make the quatrain.^ Criticizes Orson Welles's use of Shakespeare's language and history in Chimes at Midnight.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The main challenge facing any filmmaker adapting Shakespeare is how to deal with the language, through which he delighted popular audiences with his poetic gifts and playful use of words.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[128]

Style

Shakespeare's first plays were written in the conventional style of the day. He wrote them in a stylised language that does not always spring naturally from the needs of the characters or the drama.[129] .The poetry depends on extended, sometimes elaborate metaphors and conceits, and the language is often rhetorical—written for actors to declaim rather than speak.^ During rehearsals, he often provides background information aboutthe characters and time period, but encourages actors to add their ownpersonal response to the language.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Often Zeffirelli's camera will focus on the bearer rather than the object of the gaze, and often the bearer will be one of his handsome leading actors such as Michael York or Leonard Whiting.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

The grand speeches in Titus Andronicus, in the view of some critics, often hold up the action, for example; and the verse in Two Gentlemen of Verona has been described as stilted.[130]
Soon, however, Shakespeare began to adapt the traditional styles to his own purposes. .The opening soliloquy of Richard III has its roots in the self-declaration of Vice in medieval drama.^ "Integrating multimodal analysis and the stylistics of drama: a multimodal perspective on Ian McKellen's Richard III." Language & Literature , Nov2008, Vol.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.At the same time, Richard’s vivid self-awareness looks forward to the soliloquies of Shakespeare's mature plays.^ The film, a version of the Shakespeare play of the same name, was made as the result of a pact made in 1986 between Godard and two heads of the Cannon firm, but it has not been seen for a long time because of a legal imbroglio.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ It examines the film as an adaptation of the play of the same name by William Shakespeare and discusses its use of sound.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Is looking forward to seeing Leo again in Weimar [at Shakespeare Gesellschaft meeting].
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[131] No single play marks a change from the traditional to the freer style. .Shakespeare combined the two throughout his career, with Romeo and Juliet perhaps the best example of the mixing of the styles.^ Graham Holderness and Christopher McCullough list 23 film adaptations of William Shakespeare's play 'Romeo and Juliet' in a selected filmography.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Dead letters, ghostly fathers, and the cultural pathology of authorship in Baz Luhrmann's 'William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet'."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ It is important to consider the position of Baz Luhrmann's 1996 film 'William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet' within Shakespeare culture and world popular culture.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[132] By the time of Romeo and Juliet, Richard II, and A Midsummer Night's Dream in the mid-1590s, Shakespeare had begun to write a more natural poetry. He increasingly tuned his metaphors and images to the needs of the drama itself.
Pity by William Blake, 1795, Tate Britain, is an illustration of two similes in Macbeth: "And pity, like a naked new-born babe, / Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubim, hors'd / Upon the sightless couriers of the air".
Shakespeare's standard poetic form was blank verse, composed in iambic pentameter. In practice, this meant that his verse was usually unrhymed and consisted of ten syllables to a line, spoken with a stress on every second syllable. The blank verse of his early plays is quite different from that of his later ones. It is often beautiful, but its sentences tend to start, pause, and finish at the end of lines, with the risk of monotony.[133] Once Shakespeare mastered traditional blank verse, he began to interrupt and vary its flow. .This technique releases the new power and flexibility of the poetry in plays such as Julius Caesar and Hamlet.^ An analysis is presented on the 1953 film adaptation of William Shakespeare's play 'Julius Caesar', a collaborate effort by director Joseph Mankiewicz and actor John Houseman.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ In: Julius Caesar : new critical essays / edited by Horst Zander.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ (Berkeley users only) Griffin, Alice "Shakespeare Through the Camera's Eye--Julius Caesar in Motion Pictures; Hamlet and Othello on Television."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

Shakespeare uses it, for example, to convey the turmoil in Hamlet's mind:[134]
Sir, in my heart there was a kind of fighting
That would not let me sleep. Methought I lay
Worse than the mutines in the bilboes. Rashly—
And prais'd be rashness for it—let us know
Our indiscretion sometimes serves us well...
Hamlet, Act 5, Scene 2, 4–8[134]
.After Hamlet, Shakespeare varied his poetic style further, particularly in the more emotional passages of the late tragedies.^ The 1980 BBC teleplay made Hamlet's longings more explicit, while Franco Zeffirelli's 1990 version carried Olivier's Oedipal interpretation even further.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Examines the visual techniques of 3 widely variant versions of Hamlet, (by Gade, Olivier and Richardson) one of Shakespeare's least visual works.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.The literary critic A. C. Bradley described this style as "more concentrated, rapid, varied, and, in construction, less regular, not seldom twisted or elliptical".[135] In the last phase of his career, Shakespeare adopted many techniques to achieve these effects.^ Examines the visual techniques of 3 widely variant versions of Hamlet, (by Gade, Olivier and Richardson) one of Shakespeare's least visual works.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Advises Leo to avoid complete listings of textual variants and to concentrate instead on the question of which edition of [North’s] Plutarch was accessible to Shakespeare and what use of it he made in his plays.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These included run-on lines, irregular pauses and stops, and extreme variations in sentence structure and length.[136] In Macbeth, for example, the language darts from one unrelated metaphor or simile to another: "was the hope drunk/ Wherein you dressed yourself?" (1.7.35–38); "...pity, like a naked new-born babe/ Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubim, hors'd/ Upon the sightless couriers of the air..." (1.7.21–25). The listener is challenged to complete the sense.[136] .The late romances, with their shifts in time and surprising turns of plot, inspired a last poetic style in which long and short sentences are set against one another, clauses are piled up, subject and object are reversed, and words are omitted, creating an effect of spontaneity.^ At last, though long, our jarring notes agree: And time it is when raging war is done, To smile at 'scapes and perils overblown.
  • The Taming of the Shrew - Wikisource 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I have watch'd so long That I am dog-weary; but at last I spied An ancient angel coming down the hill Will serve the turn.
  • The Taming of the Shrew - Wikisource 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But if Leo cannot have it ready in time he will be able to substitute another one.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[137]
Shakespeare's poetic genius was allied with a practical sense of the theatre.[138] .Like all playwrights of the time, Shakespeare dramatised stories from sources such as Petrarch and Holinshed.^ Suggests that Leo allow some extra time; in Wörlitz he would like to show him a Shakespeare portrait, an old English copy of the Jansen portrait.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His interests are mainly linguistic, especially since all his spare time has been consumed by his work on the Shakespeare-Lexicon.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[139] He reshaped each plot to create several centres of interest and show as many sides of a narrative to the audience as possible. .This strength of design ensures that a Shakespeare play can survive translation, cutting and wide interpretation without loss to its core drama.^ (Berkeley users only) Gronsky, Daniel "Shakespeare in Translation: Foreign Film Versions of Shakespeare's Plays."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ A defense is presented of director Baz Luhrmann's adaptation of William Shakespeare's play in his film 'William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet', creating a parallel between the subversiveness of theater and Luhrmann's interpretation.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ This new adaption of Shakespeare's play relocates the drama from Elsinore to the Elsinore Hotel in contemporary New York.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[140] As Shakespeare’s mastery grew, he gave his characters clearer and more varied motivations and distinctive patterns of speech. He preserved aspects of his earlier style in the later plays, however. In his late romances, he deliberately returned to a more artificial style, which emphasised the illusion of theatre.[141]

Influence

Macbeth Consulting the Vision of the Armed Head. By Henry Fuseli, 1793–94. Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington.
.Shakespeare's work has made a lasting impression on later theatre and literature.^ Shakespeare's works) American Theatre v15, n6 (July-August, 1998):22 (8 pages).
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

In particular, he expanded the dramatic potential of characterisation, plot, language, and genre.[142] .Until Romeo and Juliet, for example, romance had not been viewed as a worthy topic for tragedy.^ Modenessi, Alfredo Michel ""(Un)doing the book "without Verona walls": a view from the receiving end of Baz Luhrmann's William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[143] .Soliloquies had been used mainly to convey information about characters or events; but Shakespeare used them to explore characters' minds.^ Tiffany, Grace "Not much information about Bollywood Shakespeare."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Refers to “today’s Times” as reporting on a “Shakespeare album” sent to Birmingham by Leo and asks for more information about it.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[144] His work heavily influenced later poetry. The Romantic poets attempted to revive Shakespearean verse drama, though with little success. Critic George Steiner described all English verse dramas from Coleridge to Tennyson as "feeble variations on Shakespearean themes."[145]
.Shakespeare influenced novelists such as Thomas Hardy, William Faulkner, and Charles Dickens.^ In: William Shakespeare: his world, his work, his influence / John F. Andrews, editor.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.The American novelist Herman Melville's soliloquies owe much to Shakespeare; his Captain Ahab in Moby-Dick is a classic tragic hero, inspired by King Lear.^ His film "Karl Lier," an adaptation of the play "King Lear" by William Shakespeare, is examined.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Issue 2, p92-100, 9p UC users only "The article discusses western film adaptations of William Shakespeare's "King Lear."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The cinematic discourse of Peter Brook's unconventional film adaptation of Shakespeare's 'King Lear' is best understood in symbiosis with its screenplay and the playtext.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[146] .Scholars have identified 20,000 pieces of music linked to Shakespeare's works.^ Questions of Shakespeare as author of the plays with which he is identified and the possibility of his work having been collaborative are raised in these movies but ultimately resolved in his favor.'
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

These include two operas by Giuseppe Verdi, Otello and Falstaff, whose critical standing compares with that of the source plays.[147] Shakespeare has also inspired many painters, including the Romantics and the Pre-Raphaelites. .The Swiss Romantic artist Henry Fuseli, a friend of William Blake, even translated Macbeth into German.^ A (Two-Dimensional) Literary-Psychological Re-Reading of Shakespeare's Macbeth with Jeremy Freeston and Henry Fuseli."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[148] The psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud drew on Shakespearean psychology, in particular that of Hamlet, for his theories of human nature.
.In Shakespeare's day, English grammar and spelling were less standardised than they are now, and his use of language helped shape modern English.^ He sees Shakespeare's language as a challenge for accessibility to a modern audience.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Criticizes Orson Welles's use of Shakespeare's language and history in Chimes at Midnight.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The main challenge facing any filmmaker adapting Shakespeare is how to deal with the language, through which he delighted popular audiences with his poetic gifts and playful use of words.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[149] .Samuel Johnson quoted him more often than any other author in his A Dictionary of the English Language, the first serious work of its type.^ Which I could fancy more than any other.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]
  • » The Taming of the Shrew. The script. 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC www.shakespeare-by-the-sea.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Remarks on Hunting of the Snark: the Boojum/Snark question is more serious than Leo thinks.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has worked on this translation for more than ten years.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[150] Expressions such as "with bated breath" (Merchant of Venice) and "a foregone conclusion" (Othello) have found their way into everyday English speech.[151]

Critical reputation

"He was not of an age, but for all time."
Ben Jonson[152]
Shakespeare was never revered in his lifetime, but he received his share of praise.[153] In 1598, the cleric and author Francis Meres singled him out from a group of English writers as "the most excellent" in both comedy and tragedy.[154] And the authors of the Parnassus plays at St John's College, Cambridge, numbered him with Chaucer, Gower and Spenser.[155] In the First Folio, Ben Jonson called Shakespeare the "Soul of the age, the applause, delight, the wonder of our stage", though he had remarked elsewhere that "Shakespeare wanted art". He was also recognised highly by James I by making them his 'Kings Men'.[156]
Ophelia (detail). By John Everett Millais, 1851–52. Tate Britain.
Between the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 and the end of the seventeenth century, classical ideas were in vogue. As a result, critics of the time mostly rated Shakespeare below John Fletcher and Ben Jonson.[157] Thomas Rymer, for example, condemned Shakespeare for mixing the comic with the tragic. .Nevertheless, poet and critic John Dryden rated Shakespeare highly, saying of Jonson, "I admire him, but I love Shakespeare".[158] For several decades, Rymer's view held sway; but during the eighteenth century, critics began to respond to Shakespeare on his own terms and acclaim what they termed his natural genius.^ You Germans seem to love Shakespeare so much and to study him so profoundly.” White is thinking of writing an article to show that Shakespeare wrote Bacon’s works.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But among those who wrote to him, soliciting his ideas or responding to them, were virtually all the leading representatives of the Shakespeare Gesellschaft; what they discussed were matters of both principle and practical organization, scholarly views as well as problems connected with publication projects and contracts.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Refers to his Hamlet conjectures published in Athenaeum, to which Dr. Cartwright from Shrewsbury has responded; also sends his own book for review in Shakespeare Jahrbuch.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A series of scholarly editions of his work, notably those of Samuel Johnson in 1765 and Edmond Malone in 1790, added to his growing reputation.[159] By 1800, he was firmly enshrined as the national poet.[160] In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, his reputation also spread abroad. Among those who championed him were the writers Voltaire, Goethe, Stendhal and Victor Hugo.[161]
.During the Romantic era, Shakespeare was praised by the poet and literary philosopher Samuel Taylor Coleridge; and the critic August Wilhelm Schlegel translated his plays in the spirit of German Romanticism.^ Honoraria are arranged: M 100 per play for revision ('Correctur') of a Schlegel translation; M 140 for revision ('Neubearbeitung') of a Tieck translation.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ States that he has discovered a French Shakespeare translation (10 plays) of 1746 and enquires if the Shakespeare Jahrbuch has ever published anything on it.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now that Leo has finished the translation of Macbeth he ought to deal with Coriolanus, “ the most difficult” of Shakespeare’s plays.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[162] In the nineteenth century, critical admiration for Shakespeare's genius often bordered on adulation.[163] ."That King Shakespeare," the essayist Thomas Carlyle wrote in 1840, "does not he shine, in crowned sovereignty, over us all, as the noblest, gentlest, yet strongest of rallying signs; indestructible".[164] The Victorians produced his plays as lavish spectacles on a grand scale.^ His film "Karl Lier," an adaptation of the play "King Lear" by William Shakespeare, is examined.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ A comparison is presented between the motion picture 'Independence Day', William Shakespeare's play 'Henry V' and the biblical story of King David.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Cartelli, Thomas }Shakespeare and the Street: Pacino's Looking for Richard, Bedford's Street King, and the Common Understanding."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[165] .The playwright and critic George Bernard Shaw mocked the cult of Shakespeare worship as "bardolatry". He claimed that the new naturalism of Ibsen's plays had made Shakespeare obsolete.^ This new adaption of Shakespeare's play relocates the drama from Elsinore to the Elsinore Hotel in contemporary New York.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Jess-Cooke, Carolyn Shakespeare on film : such things as dreams are made of London ; New York : Wallflower, 2007.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ DeWeese, Dan "Prospero's pharmacy : Peter Greenaway and the critics play Shakespeare's mimetic game."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[166]
.The modernist revolution in the arts during the early twentieth century, far from discarding Shakespeare, eagerly enlisted his work in the service of the avant garde.^ Argues that this "schizophrenic" aspect of Branagh's cultural heritage informs his merging of the "high" culture of Shakespeare with the "low" cultural form of film and is indicative of art during the postmodern age."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ However, a review of modern theater renditions and film adaptationsof Shakespearean works during the early 1998 showed that they have onlyundermined some values for appreciating Shakespeare's plays.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ William Shakespeare's cinematic renaissance ended in the twentieth century with John Madden's Shakespeare in Love.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

The Expressionists in Germany and the Futurists in Moscow mounted productions of his plays. Marxist playwright and director Bertolt Brecht devised an epic theatre under the influence of Shakespeare. The poet and critic T. S. Eliot argued against Shaw that Shakespeare's "primitiveness" in fact made him truly modern.[167] Eliot, along with G. Wilson Knight and the school of New Criticism, led a movement towards a closer reading of Shakespeare's imagery. .In the 1950s, a wave of new critical approaches replaced modernism and paved the way for "post-modern" studies of Shakespeare.^ He never held a university post, though for a brief period (1873-1875) he did lecture on Shakespeare at Herrig’s academy of modern languages.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[168] .By the eighties, Shakespeare studies were open to movements such as structuralism, feminism, New Historicism, African American studies, and queer studies.^ Jess-Cooke, Carolyn Shakespeare on film : such things as dreams are made of London ; New York : Wallflower, 2007.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ For example, in New York City before Christmas1996 three new Shakespeare films were showing, with another to open onChristmas.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[169][170]

Speculation about Shakespeare

Authorship

.Around 150 years after Shakespeare's death, doubts began to emerge about the authorship of the works attributed to him.^ Is working on an article on friendship in Shakespeare’s plays; will send him the manuscript.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study of Shakespeare has been dropped from many school curriculums, buthis popularity continues virtually unabated and his works continue to beproduced around the world.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ You Germans seem to love Shakespeare so much and to study him so profoundly.” White is thinking of writing an article to show that Shakespeare wrote Bacon’s works.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[171] Proposed alternative candidates include Francis Bacon, Christopher Marlowe, and Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford.[172] Several "group theories" have also been proposed.[173] .While only a small minority of academics believe there is reason to question the traditional attribution,[174] popular interest in the subject, particularly the Oxfordian theory, continues into the 21st century.^ (UC Berkeley users only) Niyogi De, Esha "Modern Shakespeare in popular Bombay cinema: translation, subjectivity and community."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[175]

Religion

.Some scholars claim that members of Shakespeare's family were Catholics, at a time when Catholic practice was against the law.^ He has for some time been almost exclusively interested in Shakespeare.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also reports that the family of the late ten Brink would permit the publication of some of ten Brink’s Shakespeare lectures and has asked him to negotiate an honorarium.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Suggests that Leo allow some extra time; in Wörlitz he would like to show him a Shakespeare portrait, an old English copy of the Jansen portrait.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[176] Shakespeare's mother, Mary Arden, certainly came from a pious Catholic family. The strongest evidence might be a Catholic statement of faith signed by John Shakespeare, found in 1757 in the rafters of his former house in Henley Street. The document is now lost, however, and scholars differ on its authenticity.[177] In 1591, the authorities reported that John had missed church "for fear of process for debt", a common Catholic excuse.[178] In 1606, William's daughter Susanna was listed among those who failed to attend Easter communion in Stratford.[178] .Scholars find evidence both for and against Shakespeare's Catholicism in his plays, but the truth may be impossible to prove either way.^ Throughout the play, Shakespeare reveals how Venetian society defined itself through tropes of measurement and weight, and Radford and his brilliant cast find telling ways to embody those methods of knowing and acting in the world.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[179]

Sexuality

Few details of Shakespeare's sexuality are known. At 18, he married the 26-year-old Anne Hathaway, who was pregnant. .Susanna, the first of their three children, was born six months later on 26 May 1583. However, over the centuries readers have pointed to Shakespeare's sonnets as evidence of his love for a young man.^ William Shakespeare's cinematic renaissance ended in the twentieth century with John Madden's Shakespeare in Love.
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Bemrose, John "What muddled dreams may come: Hollywood loves -- but doesn't quite trust -- Shakespeare."
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ He served as 'text' adviser on three film adaptations of Shakespeare by Kenneth Branagh, on Oliver Parker's 'Othello' and on John Madden's'Shakespeare in Love.'
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

Others read the same passages as the expression of intense friendship rather than sexual love.[180] At the same time, the twenty-six so-called "Dark Lady" sonnets, addressed to a married woman, are taken as evidence of heterosexual liaisons.[181]

Portraiture

.There is no written description of Shakespeare's physical appearance and no evidence that he ever commissioned a portrait, so the Droeshout engraving, which Ben Jonson approved of as a good likeness,[182] and his Stratford monument provide the best evidence of his appearance.^ Also reports that he has written to England for the New Shakespeare Society’s bulletins, which he would like to review.
  • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From the eighteenth century, the desire for authentic Shakespeare portraits fueled claims that various surviving pictures depicted Shakespeare. That demand also led to the production of several fake portraits, as well as misattributions, repaintings and relabelling of portraits of other people.[183][184]

List of works

Classification of the plays

The Plays of William Shakespeare. By Sir John Gilbert, 1849.
.Shakespeare's works include the 36 plays printed in the First Folio of 1623, listed below according to their folio classification as comedies, histories and tragedies.^ Questions of Shakespeare as author of the plays with which he is identified and the possibility of his work having been collaborative are raised in these movies but ultimately resolved in his favor.'
  • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[185] .Two plays not included in the First Folio, The Two Noble Kinsmen and Pericles, Prince of Tyre, are now accepted as part of the canon, with scholars agreed that Shakespeare made a major contribution to their composition.^ Faith, gentlemen, now I play a merchant’s part, .
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[186] No poems were included in the First Folio.
In the late nineteenth century, Edward Dowden classified four of the late comedies as romances, and though many scholars prefer to call them tragicomedies, his term is often used.[187] These plays and the associated Two Noble Kinsmen are marked with an asterisk (*) below. In 1896, Frederick S. Boas coined the term "problem plays" to describe four plays: All's Well That Ends Well, Measure for Measure, Troilus and Cressida and Hamlet.[188] "Dramas as singular in theme and temper cannot be strictly called comedies or tragedies", he wrote. "We may therefore borrow a convenient phrase from the theatre of today and class them together as Shakespeare's problem plays."[189] The term, much debated and sometimes applied to other plays, remains in use, though Hamlet is definitively classed as a tragedy.[190] The other problem plays are marked below with a double dagger (‡).
Plays thought to be only partly written by Shakespeare are marked with a dagger (†) below. Other works occasionally attributed to him are listed as apocrypha.

Works

Comedies
Histories
Tragedies
Poems
Lost plays
Apocrypha

See also

Notes

  • b. ^ The "national cult" of Shakespeare, and the "bard" identification, dates from September 1769, when the actor David Garrick organised a week-long carnival at Stratford to mark the town council awarding him the freedom of the town. In addition to presenting the town with a statue of Shakespeare, Garrick composed a doggerel verse, lampooned in the London newspapers, naming the banks of the Avon as the birthplace of the "matchless Bard".[192]
  • d. ^ Individual play dates and precise writing span are unknown.^ Questions of Shakespeare as author of the plays with which he is identified and the possibility of his work having been collaborative are raised in these movies but ultimately resolved in his favor.'
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ An analysis is presented on the 1953 film adaptation of William Shakespeare's play 'Julius Caesar', a collaborate effort by director Joseph Mankiewicz and actor John Houseman.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    .See Chronology of Shakespeare's plays for further details.
  • e. ^ The Passionate Pilgrim, published under Shakespeare's name in 1599 without his permission, includes early versions of two of his sonnets, three extracts from Love's Labour's Lost, several poems known to be by other poets, and eleven poems of unknown authorship for which the attribution to Shakespeare has not been disproved.^ He does it under name of perfect love; .

    ^ Acknowledges printed version of Leo’s lecture on Shakespeare’s ideal of womanhood and regrets not having been present at the meeting of the Shakespeare Gesellschaft at which it was delivered [published as Shakespeare’s Frauen-Ideale (Halle, 1868)].
    • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In response to a translation by Leo of a sonnet [Daniel, Delia, IX?], von Friesen is now sending manuscript translations of the same and three other Daniel sonnets.
    • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [193]

References

  1. ^ Greenblatt 2005, 11; Bevington 2002, 1–3; Wells 1997, 399.
  2. ^ Dobson 1992, 185–186
  3. ^ Craig 2003, 3.
  4. ^ Shapiro 2005, xvii–xviii; Schoenbaum 1991, 41, 66, 397–98, 402, 409; Taylor 1990, 145, 210–23, 261–5
  5. ^ Chambers 1930, Vol. 1: 270–71; Taylor 1987, 109–134.
  6. ^ Bertolini 1993, 119.
  7. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 14–22.
  8. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 24–6.
  9. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 24, 296; Honan 1998, 15–16.
  10. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 23–24.
  11. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 62–63; Ackroyd 2006, 53; Wells et al. 2005, xv–xvi
  12. ^ Baldwin 1944, 464.
  13. ^ Baldwin 1944, 164–84; Cressy 1975, 28, 29.
  14. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 77–78.
  15. ^ Wood 2003, 84; Schoenbaum 1987, 78–79.
  16. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 93.
  17. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 94.
  18. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 224.
  19. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 95.
  20. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 97–108; Rowe 1709.
  21. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 144–45.
  22. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 110–11.
  23. ^ Honigmann 1999, 1; Wells et al. 2005, xvii
  24. ^ Honigmann 1999, 95–117; Wood 2003, 97–109.
  25. ^ Wells et al. 2005, 666
  26. ^ Chambers 1930, Vol. 1: 287, 292
  27. ^ Greenblatt 2005, 213.
  28. ^ Greenblatt 2005, 213; Schoenbaum 1987, 153.
  29. ^ Ackroyd 2006, 176.
  30. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 151–52.
  31. ^ Wells 2006, 28; Schoenbaum 1987, 144–46; Chambers 1930, Vol. 1: 59.
  32. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 184.
  33. ^ Chambers 1923, 208–209.
  34. ^ Chambers 1930, Vol. 2: 67–71.
  35. ^ Bentley 1961, 36.
  36. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 188; Kastan 1999, 37; Knutson 2001, 17
  37. ^ Adams 1923, 275
  38. ^ Wells 2006, 28.
  39. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 200.
  40. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 200–201.
  41. ^ Rowe 1709.
  42. ^ Ackroyd 2006, 357; Wells et al. 2005, xxii
  43. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 202–3.
  44. ^ Honan 1998, 121.
  45. ^ Shapiro 2005, 122.
  46. ^ Honan 1998, 325; Greenblatt 2005, 405.
  47. ^ a b Ackroyd 2006, 476.
  48. ^ Honan 1998, 382–83.
  49. ^ Honan 1998, 326; Ackroyd 2006, 462–464.
  50. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 272–274.
  51. ^ Honan 1998, 387.
  52. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 279.
  53. ^ Honan 1998, 375–78.
  54. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 276.
  55. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 25, 296.
  56. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 287.
  57. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 292, 294.
  58. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 304.
  59. ^ Honan 1998, 395–96.
  60. ^ Chambers 1930, Vol. 2: 8, 11, 104; Schoenbaum 1987, 296.
  61. ^ Chambers 1930, Vol. 2: 7, 9, 13; Schoenbaum 1987, 289, 318–19.
  62. ^ Charles Knight, 1842, in his notes on Twelfth Night, quoted in Schoenbaum 1991, 275.
  63. ^ Ackroyd 2006, 483; Frye 2005, 16; Greenblatt 2005, 145–6.
  64. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 301–3.
  65. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 306–07; Wells et al. 2005, xviii
  66. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 308–10.
  67. ^ National Portrait Gallery, Searching for Shakespeare, NPG publications, 2006
  68. ^ Thomson, Peter, "Conventions of Playwriting". in Wells & Orlin 2003, 49.
  69. ^ Frye 2005, 9; Honan 1998, 166.
  70. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 159–61; Frye 2005, 9.
  71. ^ Dutton & Howard 2003, 147.
  72. ^ Ribner 2005, 154–155.
  73. ^ Frye 2005, 105; Ribner 2005, 67; Cheney 2004, 100.
  74. ^ Honan 1998, 136; Schoenbaum 1987, 166.
  75. ^ Frye 2005, 91; Honan 1998, 116–117; Werner 2001, 96–100.
  76. ^ Friedman 2006, 159.
  77. ^ Ackroyd 2006, 235.
  78. ^ Wood 2003, 161–162.
  79. ^ Wood 2003, 205–206; Honan 1998, 258.
  80. ^ Ackroyd 2006, 359.
  81. ^ Ackroyd 2006, 362–383.
  82. ^ Shapiro 2005, 150; Gibbons 1993, 1; Ackroyd 2006, 356.
  83. ^ Wood 2003, 161; Honan 1998, 206.
  84. ^ Ackroyd 2006, 353, 358; Shapiro 2005, 151–153.
  85. ^ Shapiro 2005, 151.
  86. ^ Bradley 1991, 85; Muir 2005, 12–16.
  87. ^ Bradley 1991, 94.
  88. ^ Bradley 1991, 86.
  89. ^ Bradley 1991, 40, 48.
  90. ^ Bradley 1991, 42, 169, 195; Greenblatt 2005, 304.
  91. ^ Bradley 1991, 226; Ackroyd 2006, 423; Kermode 2004, 141–2.
  92. ^ McDonald 2006, 43–46.
  93. ^ Bradley 1991, 306.
  94. ^ Ackroyd 2006, 444; McDonald 2006, 69–70; Eliot 1934, 59.
  95. ^ Dowden 1881, 57.
  96. ^ Dowden 1881, 60; Frye 2005, 123; McDonald 2006, 15.
  97. ^ Wells et al. 2005, 1247, 1279
  98. ^ Wells et al. 2005, xx
  99. ^ Wells et al. 2005, xxi
  100. ^ Shapiro 2005, 16.
  101. ^ Foakes 1990, 6; Shapiro 2005, 125–31.
  102. ^ Foakes 1990, 6; Nagler 1958, 7; Shapiro 2005, 131–2.
  103. ^ Wells et al. 2005, xxii
  104. ^ Foakes 1990, 33.
  105. ^ Ackroyd 2006, 454; Holland 2000, xli.
  106. ^ Ringler 1997, 127.
  107. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 210; Chambers 1930, Vol. 1: 341.
  108. ^ Shapiro 2005, 247–9.
  109. ^ a b Wells et al. 2005, 1247
  110. ^ Wells et al. 2005, xxxvii
  111. ^ Wells et al. 2005, xxxiv
  112. ^ Pollard 1909, xi.
  113. ^ Wells et al. 2005, xxxiv; Pollard 1909, xi; Maguire 1996, 28.
  114. ^ Bowers 1955, 8–10; Wells et al. 2005, xxxiv–xxxv
  115. ^ Wells et al. 2005, 909, 1153
  116. ^ Rowe 2006, 21.
  117. ^ Frye 2005, 288.
  118. ^ Rowe 2006, 3, 21.
  119. ^ Rowe 2006, 1; Jackson 2004, 267–294; Honan 1998, 289.
  120. ^ Rowe 2006, 1; Honan 1998, 289; Schoenbaum 1987, 327.
  121. ^ Wood 2003, 178; Schoenbaum 1987, 180.
  122. ^ Honan 1998, 180.
  123. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 268.
  124. ^ Honan 1998, 180; Schoenbaum 1987, 180.
  125. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, 268–269.
  126. ^ Wood 2003, 177.
  127. ^ Shakespeare 1914.
  128. ^ a b c Bruce MacEvoy. "Shakespeare's Sonnets", 2005. Retrieved on June 18th.
  129. ^ Clemen 2005a, 150.
  130. ^ Frye 2005, 105, 177; Clemen 2005b, 29.
  131. ^ Brooke, Nicholas, "Language and Speaker in Macbeth", 69; and Bradbrook, M.C., "Shakespeare's Recollection of Marlowe", 195: both in Edwards, Ewbank & Hunter 2004.
  132. ^ Clemen 2005b, 63.
  133. ^ Frye 2005, 185.
  134. ^ a b Wright 2004, 868.
  135. ^ Bradley 1991, 91.
  136. ^ a b McDonald 2006, 42–6.
  137. ^ McDonald 2006, 36, 39, 75.
  138. ^ Gibbons 1993, 4.
  139. ^ Gibbons 1993, 1–4.
  140. ^ Gibbons 1993, 1–7, 15.
  141. ^ McDonald 2006, 13; Meagher 2003, 358.
  142. ^ Chambers 1944, 35.
  143. ^ Levenson 2000, 49–50.
  144. ^ Clemen 1987, 179.
  145. ^ Steiner 1996, 145.
  146. ^ Bryant 1998, 82.
  147. ^ Gross, John, "Shakespeare's Influence" in Wells & Orlin 2003, 641–2..
  148. ^ Paraisz 2006, 130.
  149. ^ Crystal 2001, 55–65, 74.
  150. ^ Wain 1975, 194.
  151. ^ Johnson 2002, 12; Crystal 2001, 63.
  152. ^ Jonson 1996, 10.
  153. ^ Dominik 1988, 9; Grady 2001b, 267.
  154. ^ Grady 2001b, 265; Greer 1986, 9.
  155. ^ Grady 2001b, 266.
  156. ^ Grady 2001b, 266–7.
  157. ^ Grady 2001b, 269.
  158. ^ Dryden 1889, 71.
  159. ^ Grady 2001b, 270–27; Levin 1986, 217.
  160. ^ Dobson 1992 Cited by Grady 2001b, 270.
  161. ^ Grady cites Voltaire's Philosophical Letters (1733); Goethe's Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship (1795); Stendhal's two-part pamphlet Racine et Shakespeare (1823–5); and Victor Hugo's prefaces to Cromwell (1827) and William Shakespeare (1864). Grady 2001b, 272–274.
  162. ^ Levin 1986, 223.
  163. ^ Sawyer 2003, 113.
  164. ^ Carlyle 1907, 161.
  165. ^ Schoch 2002, 58–59.
  166. ^ Grady 2001b, 276.
  167. ^ Grady 2001a, 22–6.
  168. ^ Grady 2001a, 24.
  169. ^ Grady 2001a, 29.
  170. ^ Drakakis 1985, 16–17, 23–25
  171. ^ McMichael & Glenn 1962.
  172. ^ Gibson 2005, 48, 72, 124.
  173. ^ McMichael & Glenn 1962, p. 56.
  174. ^ Did He or Didn’t He? That Is the Question, New York Times, April 22, 2007
  175. ^ Kathman, David, "The Question of Authorship" in Wells & Orlin 2003, 620, 625–626; Love 2002, 194–209; Schoenbaum 1991, 430–40.
  176. ^ Pritchard 1979, 3.
  177. ^ Wood 2003, 75–8; Ackroyd 2006, 22–3.
  178. ^ a b Wood 2003, 78; Ackroyd 2006, 416; Schoenbaum 1987, 41–2, 286.
  179. ^ Wilson 2004, 34; Shapiro 2005, 167.
  180. ^ Casey; Pequigney 1985; Evans 1996, 132.
  181. ^ Fort 1927, 406–414.
  182. ^ Tarnya Cooper, Searching for Shakespeare, National Portrait Gallery, Yale University Press, 2006, pp. 48; 57.
  183. ^ Pressly, William L. "The Ashbourne Portrait of Shakespeare: Through the Looking Glass." Shakespeare Quarterly. 1993: pp. 54–72.
  184. ^ David Piper" O Sweet Mr. Shakespeare I'll Have His Picture: The Changing Image of Shakespeare's Person, 1600-1800, National Portrait Gallery, Pergamon Press, 1980.
  185. ^ Boyce 1996, 91, 193, 513..
  186. ^ Kathman, David, "The Question of Authorship" in Wells & Orlin 2003, 629; Boyce 1996, 91.
  187. ^ Edwards 1958, 1–10; Snyder & Curren-Aquino 2007.
  188. ^ Schanzer 1963, 1–10.
  189. ^ Boas 1896, 345.
  190. ^ Schanzer 1963, 1; Bloom 1999, 325–380; Berry 2005, 37.
  191. ^ Schoenbaum 1987, xv.
  192. ^ McIntyre 1999, 412–432
  193. ^ Wells et al. 2005, 805

Bibliography

  • Ackroyd, Peter (2006), Shakespeare: The Biography, London: Vintage, ISBN 0749386558 .
  • Adams, Joseph Quincy (1923), A Life of William Shakespeare, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, OCLC 1935264 .
  • Baer, Daniel (2007), The Unquenchable Fire, Xulon Press, ISBN 16047732789781604773279 .
  • Baldwin, T. W. (1944), William Shakspere's Small Latine & Lesse Greek, 1, Urbana, Ill: University of Illinois Press, OCLC 359037 .
  • Barber, C. L. (1964), Shakespearian Comedy in the Comedy of Errors, England: College English 25.7 .
  • Bate, Jonathan (2008), The Soul of the Age, London: Penguin, ISBN 978-0-670-91482-1 .
  • Bentley, G. E. (1961), Shakespeare: A Biographical Handbook, New Haven: Yale University Press, OCLC 356416 .
  • Berry, Ralph (2005), Changing Styles in Shakespeare, London: Routledge, ISBN 0415353165 .
  • Bertolini, John Anthony (1993), Shaw and Other Playwrights, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, ISBN 027100908X .
  • Bevington, David (2002), Shakespeare, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 0631227199 .
  • Bloom, Harold (1999), Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human, New York: Riverhead Books, ISBN 157322751X .
  • Boas, F. S. (1896), Shakspere and His Predecessors, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons .
  • Bowers, Fredson (1955), On Editing Shakespeare and the Elizabethan Dramatists, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, OCLC 2993883 .
  • Boyce, Charles (1996), Dictionary of Shakespeare, Ware, Herts, UK: Wordsworth, ISBN 1853263729 .
  • Bradford, Gamaliel Jr. (February 1910), "The History of Cardenio by Mr. Fletcher and Shakespeare", Modern Language Notes 25 (2) .
  • Bradley, A. C. (1991), Shakespearean Tragedy: Lectures on Hamlet, Othello, King Lear and Macbeth, London: Penguin, ISBN 0140530193 .
  • Brooke, Nicholas (1998), "Introduction", in Shakespeare, William; Brooke, Nicholas (ed.), .The Tragedy of Macbeth, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0192834177 .
  • Bryant, John (1998), "Moby Dick as Revolution", in Levine, Robert Steven, The Cambridge Companion to Herman Melville, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052155571X .
  • Bryson, Bill (2007), Shakespeare: The World as a Stage, Harper Collins, ISBN 0060740221 .
  • Burns, Edward (2000), "Introduction", in Shakespeare, William; Burns, Edward (ed.^ W.J. Craig M.A. (Oxford University Press, 1916).
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Complete Works of William Shakespeare (The Oxford Shakespeare), ed.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Part of: The Complete Works of William Shakespeare (The Oxford Shakespeare) .
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ), .King Henry VI, Part 1, London: Arden Shakespeare, Thomson, ISBN 1903436435 .
  • Carlyle, Thomas (1907), Adams, John Chester, ed., On Heroes, Hero-worship, and the Heroic in History, Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, OCLC 643782 .
  • Casey, Charles (Fall 1998), "Was Shakespeare gay?^ A comparison is presented between the motion picture 'Independence Day', William Shakespeare's play 'Henry V' and the biblical story of King David.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Henry VI. Intends to rewrite part of his book, even if that will delay its publication.
    • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Norman Rabkin has persuasively argued that Shakespeare's 'Henry V' vacillates between depicting Henry as an ideal king and an ambitious and ruthless ruler.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    .Sonnet 20 and the politics of pedagogy", College Literature 25 (3), http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3709/is_199810/ai_n8827074, retrieved 2 May 2007 .
  • Chambers, E. K. (1923), The Elizabethan Stage, 2, Oxford: Clarendon Press, OCLC 336379 .
  • Chambers, E. K. (1944), Shakespearean Gleanings, Oxford: Oxford University Press, OCLC 2364570 .
  • Chambers, E. K. (1930), William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems, 2 vols., Oxford: Clarendon Press, OCLC 353406 .
  • Cheney, Patrick Gerard (2004), The Cambridge Companion to Christopher Marlowe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521527341 .
  • Clemen, Wolfgang (2005a), Shakespeare's Dramatic Art: Collected Essays, New York: Routledge, ISBN 0415352789 .
  • Clemen, Wolfgang (2005b), Shakespeare's Imagery, London: Routledge, ISBN 0415352800 .
  • Clemen, Wolfgang (1987), Shakespeare's Soliloquies, London: Routledge, ISBN 0415352770 .
  • Cooper, Tarnya (2006), Searching for Shakespeare, National Portrait Gallery and Yale Center for British Art: Yale University Press, ISBN 9780300116113 .
  • Craig, Leon Harold (2003), Of Philosophers and Kings: Political Philosophy in Shakespeare's "Macbeth" and "King Lear", Toronto: University of Toronto Press, ISBN 0802086055 .
  • Cressy, David (1975), Education in Tudor and Stuart England, New York: St Martin's Press, OCLC 2148260 .
  • Crystal, David (2001), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521401798 .
  • Dillon, Janette (2007), The Cambridge Introduction to Shakespeare's Tragedies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521858178 .
  • Dobson, Michael (1992), The making of the national poet, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780198183235 .
  • Dominik, Mark (1988), Shakespeare–Middleton Collaborations, Beaverton, OR: Alioth Press, ISBN 0945088019 .
  • Dowden, Edward (1881), Shakspere, New York: Appleton & Co., OCLC 8164385 .
  • Drakakis, John (1985), Drakakis, John, ed., Alternative Shakespeares, New York: Meuthen, ISBN 0416368603 .
  • Dryden, John (1889), Arnold, Thomas, ed., An Essay of Dramatic Poesy, Oxford: Clarendon Press, OCLC 7847292 .
  • Dutton, Richard; Howard, Jean (2003), A Companion to Shakespeare's Works: The Histories, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 0631226338 .
  • Edwards, Phillip (1958), "Shakespeare's Romances: 1900–1957", in Nicoll, Allardyce, Shakespeare Survey, 11, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, OCLC 15880120 .
  • Edwards, Philip; Ewbank, Inga-Stina; Hunter, G. K., eds.^ New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ New York : Routledge, 2005.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Series title: Cambridge companions to literature.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    .(2004), Shakespeare's Styles: Essays in Honour of Kenneth Muir, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521616948 .
  • Eliot, T. S. (1934), Elizabethan Essays, London: Faber & Faber, OCLC 9738219 .
  • Evans, G. Blakemore (1996), "Commentary", in Shakespeare, William; Evans, G. Blakemore (ed.^ [Art Index] Aebischer, Pascale Shakespeare's violated bodies : stage and screen performance Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Rutherford [N.J.]: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses, c1991.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ UCB Main PR3093 .W55 1991 UCB Moffitt PR3093 .W55 1991 Willson, Robert Frank Shakespeare in Hollywood, 1929-1956 Madison [N.J.]: London; Cranbury, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; Associated University Presses, 2000.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ), .The Sonnets, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521222257 .
  • Farley-Hills, David (1990), Shakespeare and the Rival Playwrights, 1600–06, London: Routledge, ISBN 0415040507 .
  • Foakes, R. A. (1990), "Playhouses and Players", in Braunmuller, A.; Hattaway, Michael, The Cambridge Companion to English Renaissance Drama, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521386624 .
  • Fort, J. A. (October 1927), "The Story Contained in the Second Series of Shakespeare's Sonnets", The Review of English Studies 3 (12) .
  • Freehafer, John (May 1969), "'Cardenio', by Shakespeare and Fletcher", PMLA 84 (3) .
  • Friedman, Michael D. (2006), "'I'm not a feminist director but...': Recent Feminist Productions of The Taming of the Shrew", in Nelsen, Paul; Schlueter, June, Acts of Criticism: Performance Matters in Shakespeare and his Contemporaries: Essays in Honor of James P. Lusardi, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, ISBN 0838640591 .
  • Frye, Roland Mushat (2005), The Art of the Dramatist, London; New York: Routledge, ISBN 0415352894 .
  • Gager, Valerie L. (1996), Shakespeare and Dickens: The Dynamics of Influence, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052145526X .
  • Gibbons, Brian (1980), Romeo and Juliet.^ [Loening’s review of E.J. Castle, Shakespeare, Bacon, Jonson and Greene: A Study (London, 1897) was published in Shakespeare Jahrbuch, 34 (1898), pp.
    • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hopes that the second volume of his Notes will at last be reviewed in Shakespeare Jahrbuch.
    • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Is sending a Shakespeare Calendar for 1881 and 1882: “containing events in the History of New York illustrated by Shakespeare.” Only 100 copies were printed for private distribution.
    • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Arden Shakespeare Second Series
    , London: Thomson Learning, ISBN 9781903436417 .
  • Gibbons, Brian (1993), Shakespeare and Multiplicity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521444063 .
  • Gibson, H. N. (2005), The Shakespeare Claimants: A Critical Survey of the Four Principal Theories Concerning the Authorship of the Shakespearean Plays, London: Routledge, ISBN 0415352908 .
  • Grady, Hugh (2001a), "Modernity, Modernism and Postmodernism in the Twentieth Century's Shakespeare", in Bristol, Michael; McLuskie, Kathleen, Shakespeare and Modern Theatre: The Performance of Modernity, New York: Routledge, ISBN 0415219841 .
  • Grady, Hugh (2001b), "Shakespeare Criticism 1600–1900", in deGrazia, Margreta; Wells, Stanley, The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521650941 .
  • Gray, Arthur (1926), A Chapter in the Early Life of Shakespeare, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.^ [Art Index] Aebischer, Pascale Shakespeare's violated bodies : stage and screen performance Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Rutherford [N.J.]: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses, c1991.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ UCB Main PR3093 .W55 1991 UCB Moffitt PR3093 .W55 1991 Willson, Robert Frank Shakespeare in Hollywood, 1929-1956 Madison [N.J.]: London; Cranbury, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; Associated University Presses, 2000.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    .Reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2009;, ISBN 9781108005579 .
  • Greenblatt, Stephen (2005), Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became Shakespeare, London: Pimlico, ISBN 0712600981 .
  • Greer, Germaine (1986), William Shakespeare, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0192875388 .
  • Halio, Jay (1998), Romeo and Juliet: A Guide to the Play, Westport: Greenwood Press, ISBN 0313300895 
  • Hansen, William (1983), Saxo Grammaticus & the Life of Hamlet, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 0803223188 .
  • Hattaway, Michael (1990), "Introduction", in Shakespeare, William; Hattaway, Michael (ed.^ Moscow, Idaho : University of Idaho Press, 1998.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ New York : Greenwood Press, 1990.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ), .The First Part of King Henry VI, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052129634X .
  • Hoeniger, F. D. (1963), "Introduction", in Shakespeare, William; Hoeniger, F. D. (ed.^ [Art Index] Aebischer, Pascale Shakespeare's violated bodies : stage and screen performance Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Shakespeare remains: theater to film, early modern to postmodern Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2002.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ (Berkeley users only) Howlett, Kathy M. Framing Shakespeare on film Athens: Ohio University Press, 2000.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ), .Pericles, London: Arden Shakespeare, ISBN 0174435886l .
  • Holland, Peter (2000), "Introduction", in Shakespeare, William; Holland, Peter (ed.^ (Shakespeare on Film 2000)(William Shakespeare)(Critical Essay) UCB users only Literature-Film Quarterly v28, n2 (April, 2000):118 (7 pages).
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ "Hamlet, by William Shakespeare: Screenplay and Introduction."
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ "The Book on the Screen: Shakespeare Films and Textual Culture."In: Shakespeare, film, fin de siecle Edited by Mark Thornton Burnett and Ramona Wray; foreword by Peter Holland.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ), .Cymbeline, London: Penguin, ISBN 0140714723 .
  • Honan, Park (1998), Shakespeare: A Life, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198117922 .
  • Honigmann, E. A. J. (1999), Shakespeare: The Lost Years (Revised ed.^ [Art Index] Aebischer, Pascale Shakespeare's violated bodies : stage and screen performance Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Rutherford [N.J.]: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses, c1991.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ UCB Main PR3093 .W55 1991 UCB Moffitt PR3093 .W55 1991 Willson, Robert Frank Shakespeare in Hollywood, 1929-1956 Madison [N.J.]: London; Cranbury, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; Associated University Presses, 2000.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ), .Manchester: Manchester University Press, ISBN 0719054257 .
  • Hunter, Robert E. (1864), Shakespeare and Stratford-upon-Avon: A ‘Chronicle of the Time’, Whittaker.^ [Art Index] Aebischer, Pascale Shakespeare's violated bodies : stage and screen performance Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ UCB Main PR3093 .W55 1991 UCB Moffitt PR3093 .W55 1991 Willson, Robert Frank Shakespeare in Hollywood, 1929-1956 Madison [N.J.]: London; Cranbury, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; Associated University Presses, 2000.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Shakespeare at the cineplex : the Kenneth Branagh era Athens : Ohio University Press, c2003.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    .Reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2009;, ISBN 9781108001625 .
  • Jackson, MacDonald P. (2004), "A Lover's Complaint Revisited", in Zimmerman, Susan, Shakespeare Studies, Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Press, ISBN 0838641202 .
  • Jackson, MacDonald P. (2003), Defining Shakespeare: Pericles as Test Case, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199260508 .
  • Johnson, Samuel (2002), Lynch, Jack, ed., Samuel Johnson's Dictionary: Selections from the 1755 Work that Defined the English Language, Delray Beach, FL: Levenger Press, ISBN 184354296X .
  • Jonson, Ben (1996), "To the memory of my beloued, The AVTHOR MR. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE: AND what he hath left vs", in Shakespeare, William; Hinman, Peter W. (ed.^ W.J. Craig M.A. (Oxford University Press, 1916).
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Complete Works of William Shakespeare (The Oxford Shakespeare), ed.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Part of: The Complete Works of William Shakespeare (The Oxford Shakespeare) .
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ); Blayney, The First Folio of Shakespeare (2nd ed.), .New York: W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0393039854 .
  • Kastan, David Scott (1999), Shakespeare After Theory, London: Routledge, ISBN 041590112X .
  • Keeble, N.H. (1980), Romeo and Juliet: Study Notes, Longman: York Notes, ISBN 0582781019 .
  • Kermode, Frank (2004), The Age of Shakespeare, London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, ISBN 029784881X .
  • Kolin, Philip C. (1985), Shakespeare and Southern Writers: A Study in Influence, Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, ISBN 0878052550 .
  • Knutson, Roslyn (2001), Playing Companies and Commerce in Shakespeare's Time, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521772427 .
  • Lambourne, Lionel (1999), Victorian Painting, London: Phaidon, ISBN 0714837768 .
  • Levenson, Jill L. (2000), "Introduction", in Shakespeare, William; Levenson, Jill L. (ed.^ [Art Index] Aebischer, Pascale Shakespeare's violated bodies : stage and screen performance Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Rutherford [N.J.]: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses, c1991.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ UCB Main PR3093 .W55 1991 UCB Moffitt PR3093 .W55 1991 Willson, Robert Frank Shakespeare in Hollywood, 1929-1956 Madison [N.J.]: London; Cranbury, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; Associated University Presses, 2000.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ), .Romeo and Juliet, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0192814966 .
  • Levin, Harry (1986), "Critical Approaches to Shakespeare from 1660 to 1904", in Wells, Stanley, The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare Studies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521318416 .
  • Love, Harold (2002), Attributing Authorship: An Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521789486 .
  • Maguire, Laurie E. (1996), Shakespearean Suspect Texts: The "Bad" Quartos and Their Contexts, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521473640 .
  • McAfee, Cleland Boyd (1912), The Greatest English Classic: A Study of the King James Version of the Bible and Its Influence on Life and Literature, New York .
  • McDonald, Russ (2006), Shakespeare's Late Style, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521820685 .
  • McIntyre, Ian (1999), Garrick, Harmondsworth, England: Allen Lane, ISBN 0713993286 .
  • McMichael, George; Glenn, Edgar M. (1962), Shakespeare and his Rivals: A Casebook on the Authorship Controversy, New York: Odyssey Press, OCLC 2113359 .
  • McMullan, Gordon (2000), "Introduction", in Shakespeare, William; McMullan, Gordon (ed.^ UCB Main PR3093 .W55 1991 UCB Moffitt PR3093 .W55 1991 Willson, Robert Frank Shakespeare in Hollywood, 1929-1956 Madison [N.J.]: London; Cranbury, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; Associated University Presses, 2000.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ (Shakespeare on Film 2000)(William Shakespeare)(Critical Essay) UCB users only Literature-Film Quarterly v28, n2 (April, 2000):118 (7 pages).
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ "Misshapen chaos of well-seeming form: Baz Luhrmann's 'Romeo + Juliet'."
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ), .King Henry VIII, London: Arden Shakespeare, Thomson, ISBN 1903436257 .
  • Meagher, John C. (2003), Pursuing Shakespeare's Dramaturgy: Some Contexts, Resources, and Strategies in his Playmaking, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, ISBN 0838639933 .
  • Milward, Peter (1973), Shakespeare's Religious Background, Chicago: Loyola University Press, ISBN 0829405089 .
  • Morris, Brian Robert (1968), Christopher Marlowe, New York: Hill and Wang, ISBN 0809067803 .
  • Muir, Kenneth (2005), Shakespeare's Tragic Sequence, London: Routledge, ISBN 0415353254 .
  • Nagler, A. M. (1958), Shakespeare's Stage, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, ISBN 0300026897 .
  • Nolen, Stephanie (2002), Shakespeare's Face, Canada: Vintage Canada, ISBN 9780676974843 .
  • Nuttall, Anthony (2007), Shakespeare the Thinker, Yale University Press, ISBN 9780300119282 .
  • Paraisz, Júlia (2006), "The Nature of a Romantic Edition", in Holland, Peter, Shakespeare Survey, 59, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521868386 .
  • Pequigney, Joseph (1985), Such Is My Love: A Study of Shakespeare's Sonnets, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226655636 .
  • Pollard, Alfred W. (1909), Shakespeare Quartos and Folios: A Study in the Bibliography of Shakespeare's Plays, 1594-1685, London: Methuen, OCLC 46308204 .
  • Porter, Roy; Teich, Mikuláš (1988), Romanticism in National Context, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521339138 .
  • Potter, Lois (1997), "Introduction", in Shakespeare, William; Potter, Lois (ed.^ London; New York: Routledge, 1997.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Rutherford [N.J.]; Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London; Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Press, 1987.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ [Art Index] Aebischer, Pascale Shakespeare's violated bodies : stage and screen performance Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ), The Two Noble Kinsmen, London: Arden Shakespeare, Thomson, ISBN 1904271189 .
  • Pritchard, Arnold (1979), Catholic Loyalism in Elizabethan England, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 0807813451 .
  • Ramos, Péricles Eugênio da Silva (1976), Hamlet (translate to portuguese), São Paulo: Editora Abril 
  • Ribner, Irving (2005), The English History Play in the Age of Shakespeare, London: Routledge, ISBN 0415353149 .
  • Ringler, William, Jr. (1997), "Shakespeare and His Actors: Some Remarks on King Lear", in Ogden, James; Arthur Hawley, In Lear from Study to Stage: Essays in Criticism, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, ISBN 083863690X .
  • Rowe, John (2006), "Introduction", in Shakespeare, William; Rowe, John (ed.), .The Poems: Venus and Adonis, The Rape of Lucrece, The Phoenix and the Turtle, The Passionate Pilgrim, A Lover's Complaint, by William Shakespeare (2nd revised ed.^ The Complete Works of William Shakespeare (The Oxford Shakespeare), ed.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521855519
     .
  • Rowe, Nicholas (1709), Gray, Terry A., ed., Some Acount of the Life &c. of Mr. William Shakespear, Online at Mr. William Shakespeare and the Internet, 1997, http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/rowe.htm, retrieved 30 July 2007 .
  • Royle, Nicholas (2000), "To Be Announced", in Morra, Joanne; Robson, Mark; Smith, Marquard, The Limits of Death: Between Philosophy and Psychoanalysis, Manchester: Manchester University Press, ISBN 0719057515 .
  • Sawyer, Robert (2003), Victorian Appropriations of Shakespeare, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, ISBN 0838639704 .
  • Schanzer, Ernest (1963), The Problem Plays of Shakespeare, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, OCLC 2378165 .
  • Schoch, Richard (2002), "Pictorial Shakespeare", in Wells, Stanley; Stanton, Sarah, The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Stage, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052179711X .
  • Schoenbaum, Samuel (1991), Shakespeare's Lives, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198186185 .
  • Schoenbaum, Samuel (1987), William Shakespeare: A Compact Documentary Life (Revised ed.), .Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195051610 .
  • Schopenhauer, Arthur (1958), The World as Will and Representation (Volume I. E.F.J. ed.^ W.J. Craig M.A. (Oxford University Press, 1916).
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York:Oxford University Press, 1991.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ), .Payne: Falcon Wing's Press .
  • Shakespeare, William (1914), "Sonnet 18", in Craig, W. J., The Oxford Shakespeare: the Complete Works of William Shakespeare (Bartleby.com (2000) ed.^ (Shakespeare on Film 2000)(William Shakespeare)(Critical Essay) UCB users only Literature-Film Quarterly v28, n2 (April, 2000):118 (7 pages).
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Roman Polanski's movie of William Shakespeare's 'Macbeth' makes use of reversals in the story, and three reversals are Polanski's works.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ (Berkeley users only) Howlett, Kathy M. Framing Shakespeare on film Athens: Ohio University Press, 2000.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ), .Oxford: Oxford University Press, http://www.bartleby.com/70/50018.html, retrieved 22 June 2007 .
  • Shapiro, James (2005), 1599: A Year in the Life of William Shakespeare, London: Faber and Faber, ISBN 0571214800 .
  • Snyder, Susan; Curren-Aquino, Deborah (2007), "Introduction", in Shakespeare, William; Snyder, Susan (ed.^ MAIN: PR3069.B58 A68 2004 Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/cam032/2003055765.html Albanese, Denise "The Shakespeare film and the Americanization of culture."
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Rutherford [N.J.]; Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London; Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Press, 1987.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ [Art Index] Aebischer, Pascale Shakespeare's violated bodies : stage and screen performance Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ); Curren-Aquino, Deborah (ed.), .The Winter's Tale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521221587 .
  • Steiner, George (1996), The Death of Tragedy, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 0300069162 .
  • Taylor, Dennis (2006), "Hardy and Hamlet", in Wilson, Keith, Thomas Hardy Reappraised: Essays in Honour of Michael Millgate, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, ISBN 0802039553 .
  • Taylor, Gary (1990), Reinventing Shakespeare: A Cultural History from the Restoration to the Present, London: Hogarth Press, ISBN 0701208880 .
  • Taylor, Gary (1987), William Shakespeare: A Textual Companion, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198129149 .
  • Tiramani, Jenny (2002), "The Sanders Portrait", ww.CanadianShakespeares.ca, http://www.canadianshakespeares.ca/pdf/sanders_costume.pdf, retrieved June 17th .
  • Vickers, Brian (2002), Shakespeare, Co-Author: A Historical Study of Five Collaborative Plays, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199256535 .
  • Wain, John (1975), Samuel Johnson, New York: Viking, ISBN 0670616710 .
  • Wells, Stanley; Taylor, Gary; Jowett, John et al., eds.^ London; New York: Routledge, 1997.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ London ; New York : Routledge, 2001.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ London ; New York : Routledge, 2004.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    (2005), The Oxford Shakespeare: The Complete Works (2nd ed.), .Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199267170 .
  • Wells, Stanley (1997), Shakespeare: A Life in Drama, New York: W. W. Norton, ISBN 0393315622 .
  • Wells, Stanley (2006), Shakespeare & Co, New York: Pantheon, ISBN 0375424946 .
  • Wells, Stanley; Orlin, Lena Cowen, eds.^ London; New York: Routledge, 1997.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ [Art Index] Aebischer, Pascale Shakespeare's violated bodies : stage and screen performance Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ New York: St. Martin's Press, Main Stack PR3093 .S485 2000 "Shakespeare in the cinema: a film directors' symposium."
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    (2003), Shakespeare: An Oxford Guide, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199245223 .
  • Werner, Sarah (2001), Shakespeare and Feminist Performance, London: Routledge, ISBN 0415227291 .
  • Wilson, Richard (2004), Secret Shakespeare: Studies in Theatre, Religion and Resistance, Manchester: Manchester University Press, ISBN 0719070244 .
  • Wood, Michael (2003), Shakespeare, New York: Basic Books, ISBN 0465092640 .
  • Wright, George T. (2004), "The Play of Phrase and Line", in McDonald, Russ, Shakespeare: An Anthology of Criticism and Theory, 1945–2000, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 0631234888 .

External links

This audio file was created from a revision dated 2008-04-11, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to William Shakespeare article)

From Wikiquote

All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players:
They have their exits and their entrances; and one man in his time plays many parts...
.William Shakespeare (born April 1564, traditionally celebrated on 23 April; baptised 1564-04-26; died 1616-05-03 {1616-04-23 O.S.}) was an English playwright and poet.^ Copies of the volumes are rare, and the only example I can find on the Internet is King Lear from volume III: Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616 .

^ Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616 .

Contents

Works of Shakespeare

Separate pages exist for quotations from all of the following works:

Sourced

Time's glory is to command contending kings,
To unmask falsehood, and bring truth to light.
  • Time's glory is to command contending kings,
    To unmask falsehood, and bring truth to light. .
  • On a day—alack the day!—
    Love, whose month is ever May,
    Spied a blossom passing fair
    Playing in the wanton air
    • Sonnets to Sundry Notes of Music, II
    • Not to be confused with The Sonnets; this poem is not a sonnet
  • Crabbed age and youth cannot live together:
    Youth is full of pleasure, age is full of care
    • The Passionate Pilgrim: A Madrigal
    • There is some doubt about the authorship.
  • I gyve unto my wief my second best bed with the furniture
    (Modern spelling: I give unto my wife my second best bed with the furniture.^ If I may have your daughter to my wife, .
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]
    • » The Taming of the Shrew. The script. 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC www.shakespeare-by-the-sea.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In addition to the works, I have included a link to my own chronological listing of the canon , which contains some notes to the plays and issues related to the dating of the plays and poems.

    ^ Fair lovely maid, once more good day to thee.
    • The Taming of the Shrew - Wikisource 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]
    • » The Taming of the Shrew. The script. 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC www.shakespeare-by-the-sea.com [Source type: Original source]

    )
  • Good frend for Jesus sake forbeare/To digg the dust encloased heare/Blese be the man that spares these stones/And curst be he that moves my bones
    (Modern spelling: Good friend, for Jesus' sake forbear, to dig the dust enclosed here. .Blessed be the man that spares these stones, And cursed be he that moves my bones.^ Another way I have to man my haggard, To make her come, and know her keeper's call, That is, to watch her, as we watch these kites That bate and beat, and will not be obedient.
    • The Taming of the Shrew - Wikisource 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    )
    • Shakespeare's epitaph

Misattributed

  • Beware the leader who bangs the drums of war in order to whip the citizenry into a patriotic fervor, for patriotism is indeed a double-edged sword. The saying goes you live by the sword you shall die by the sword...It both emboldens the blood, just as it narrows the mind. And when the drums of war have reached a fever pitch and the blood boils with hate and the mind has closed, the leader will have no need in seizing the rights of the citizenry. Rather, the citizenry, infused with fear and blinded by patriotism, will offer up all of their rights unto the leader and gladly so. How do I know? For this is what I have done. And I am Caesar.
    • This statement by an unknown author has also been wrongly attributed to Julius Caesar, as well as to Shakespeare's play on his assassination and aftermath, but there are no records of it prior to late 2000. It has been debunked at Snopes.com and About.com

Quotes about Shakespeare

Alphabetized by author
.
  • But Shakespear's Magick could not copy'd be,
    Within that Circle none durst walk but he.
  • Dante and Shakespeare divide the modern world between them; there is no third.
    • T. S. Eliot, "Dante" (1929), from Selected Essays (1932)
  • Nor sequent centuries could hit
    Orbit and sum of SHAKSPEARE's wit.^ It is important to consider the position of Baz Luhrmann's 1996 film 'William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet' within Shakespeare culture and world popular culture.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Now tell me, I pray, You that durst swear that your Mistress Bianca Lov'd none in the world so well as Lucentio.
    • The Taming of the Shrew - Wikisource 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Is sending complimentary copy of volume I of the third edition of his Shakespeare book.
    • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • The remarkable thing about Shakespeare is that he is really very good — in spite of all the people who say he is very good.
  • For there is an upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his Tygers hart wrapt in a Players hyde, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blanke verse as the best of you: and beeing an absolute Johannes fac totum, is in his owne conceit the onely Shake-scene in a countrey.^ Asks Leo to sound out Albert Cohn about his readiness to give the main lecture at the Shakespeare Gesellschaft meeting in 1884.
    • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Will be able to write “Additional remarks on Mucedorus and Fair Em” during the vacation and asks if there is still room in Shakespeare Jahrbuch.
    • http://shakespeare.folger.edu/other/html/dfoleo.html 18 September 2009 8:32 UTC shakespeare.folger.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An explanation of the differences between the "Cambridge Shakespeare" and the Globe Edition, taken from the Preface to the Globe Edition of 1867: As however the two editions differ in plan, the one recording in foot-notes all the various readings and conjectural emendations, the other giving only the text, we have in some particulars modified our rules.

    .
  • When they ask my opinion about Shakespeare, I tell them that if theatre is a powerful magic, then Shakespeare is The Master Magician!^ "[Shakespeare in the Digital Age: The Dynamics between Filmic Magic and Technologial [Technological] Power in Prospero's Books]."
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Willson, Robert F., Jr. "Recontextualizing Shakespeare on Film: My Own Private Idaho, Men of Respect, Prospero's Books."
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

  • He was not of an age, but for all time!
    • Ben Jonson, To the Memory of my Beloved, the Author, Mr. William Shakespeare (1623)
  • I never quite despair and I read Shakspeare — indeed I shall I think never read any other Book much [...] I am very near Agreeing with Hazlit that Shakspeare is enough for us. .
    • John Keats, in a letter to Benjamin Robert Haydon (11 May 1817)
  • He has left nothing to say about nothing or any thing.^ Volume the Third The Taming of the Shrew ; The Comedy of Errors ; Much Ado About Nothing ; All's Well That Ends Well ; The Life and Death of King John .

    • John Keats, in a letter to John Hamilton Reynolds (22 November 1817)
  • At once it struck me, what quality went to form a Man of Achievement especially in Literature & which Shakespeare posessed so enormously — I mean Negative Capability, that is when man is capable of being in uncertainties, Mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact & reason. .
    • John Keats, in a letter to George and Tom Keats ([21/27?] December 1817)
  • Shakespeare led a life of Allegory; his works are the comments on it.
    • John Keats, in a letter to George and Georgiana Keats (19 February 1819)
  • Shakespeare is not our poet, but the world's;
    Therefore on him no speech!^ Owned initially by the great Shakespeare editor George Stevens (1736–1800); then Richard Forster; then John Stuart, first Marquiss of Bute.

    ^ The life and death of King John , in the First Folio of 1623 (Jaggard and Blount), from Internet Shakespeare Editions (University of Victoria) from a volume held by Brandeis University Library.

    ^ A popular theory of Shakespeare's life has him serving as Southampton's secretary or literary assistant during this period of closure of the public playhouses.

    • Walter Savage Landor, "To Robert Browning," published in The Morning Chronicle (1845-11-22); reprinted in The Works of Walter Savage Landor (1846), vol. .II
  • When I read Shakespeare I am struck with wonder
    That such trivial people should muse and thunder
    In such lovely language.^ That love should of a sudden take such hold?
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

  • The verbal poetical texture of Shakespeare is the greatest the world has known, and is immensely superior to the structure of his plays as plays.
    • Vladimir Nabokov, quoted in interview with Alfred Appel, Jr. (September 1966), printed in Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature 8 (1967); republished in Nabokov's Strong Opinions (1973)
  • Shakespeare — the nearest thing in incarnation to the eye of God.
    • Laurence Olivier, quoted in Kenneth Harris, "Sir Laurence Olivier," from Kenneth Harris Talking To... (1971)
  • Æschylus is above all things the poet of righteousness. ."But in any wise, I say unto thee, revere thou the altar of righteousness": this is the crowning admonition of his doctrine, as its crowning prospect is the reconciliation or atonement of the principle of retribution with the principle of redemption, of the powers of the mystery of darkness with the coeternal forces of the spirit of wisdom, of the lord of inspiration and of light.^ This is true that I say: an I had thee in place where thou shouldst know it.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I say unto thee, I bid thy master cut out the gown; but I did not bid him cut it to pieces: ergo, thou liest.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Taming of the Shrew 22 January 2010 1:28 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The doctrine of Shakespeare, where it is not vaguer, is darker in its implication of injustice, in its acceptance of accident, than the impression of the doctrine of Æschylus. Fate, irreversible and inscrutable, is the only force of which we feel the impact, of which we trace the sign, in the upshot of Othello or King Lear.^ UC users only King Lear .
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Copies of the volumes are rare, and the only example I can find on the Internet is King Lear from volume III: Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616 .

    ^ His film "Karl Lier," an adaptation of the play "King Lear" by William Shakespeare, is examined.
    • Shakespeare on Film & Video: Books in the UC Berkeley Library 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    The last step into the darkness remained to be taken by "the most tragic" of all English poets. With Shakespeare — and assuredly not with Æschylus — righteousness itself seems subject and subordinate to the masterdom of fate: but fate itself, in the tragic world of Webster, seems merely the servant or the synonym of chance.

See also

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
Wikisource has original works written by or about:

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Proper noun

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:
Singular
Shakespeare
Plural
-
Shakespeare
  1. An English surname.
  2. William Shakespeare, an English playwright and poet of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries
  3. His works or media adaptations of his works.

Usage notes

.
  • (William Shakespeare): Note that Shakespeare's manuscripts use a great many different spellings of his surname, too many to list here.^ Please note that the surname is spelled 'Shakespeare' throughout this site.

    ^ Great playwright William Shakespeare .
    • History of william shakespeare 11 January 2010 19:31 UTC shakespeare2006.net [Source type: General]
    • History of william shakespeare 3 February 2010 19:12 UTC shakespeare2006.net [Source type: General]
    • History of william shakespeare 3 February 2010 19:12 UTC shakespeare2006.net [Source type: General]

    ^ William Shakespeare - A biography and list of links.

    .(At the time, spellings were much more variable than today.^ Well, clearly it is much more than that.
    • William Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.landmarktheatres.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He was a dynamic man, who achieved yet more status locally by holding various council offices in the town and becoming Bailiff, the equivalent of mayor today.
    • Stratford-upon-Avon for Accommodation, Touring, Dining, Walking... 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stratford-upon-avon.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Since the series debuted more than forty years ago, developments in scholarship have revolutionized our understanding of William Shakespeare, his time, and his works.
    • The Complete Pelican Shakespeare - William Shakespeare - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 19:12 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    )

Derived terms

Translations

Noun

Singular
Shakespeare
Shakespeare (uncountable)
.
  1. Eloquent language, especially English; poetry.^ Through his plays and sonnets, Shakespeare helped form and mold more than just poetry; he also helped to influence the formation of the English language.
    • Shakespeare's Sonnets in English Literature: New Vocabulary and Ground-Breaking Poetic Forms in the Renaissance 11 January 2010 19:31 UTC poetry-forms.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The sequence contains some of the most beautiful and enduring love poetry in the English language: "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
    • 5 Things You Didn't Know: Shakespeare - AskMen.com 24 January 2010 1:15 UTC www.askmen.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Individual Editions of the Plays Non-English Language Editions The Poetry and Sonnets Language Lists (Bibliographies, etc.

    • 1979 Oct 10, Russell Maker, “Highbrows Ruin Baseball's Language”, Toledo Blade:
      This may not be poetry, but in competition with "Ryan has good velocity and excellent location" it is pure Shakespeare.

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to William Shakespeare's Works article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

The Basics

  1. Introduction to this textbook
  2. Authors

The Author

  1. The Life of William Shakespeare Development stage: 75% (as of June 11, 2008)(June 11, 2008)
  2. The World of William Shakespeare Development stage: 75% (as of June 11, 2008)(June 11, 2008)

The Works

  1. Overview Development stage: 00% (as of June 11, 2008)(June 11, 2008)
  2. Comedies Development stage: 50% (as of May 16, 2007)(May 16, 2007)
  3. Tragedies Development stage: 25% (as of May 16, 2007)(May 16, 2007)
  4. Romances
  5. Histories Development stage: 00% (as of June 11, 2008)(June 11, 2008)
  6. Lost Plays Development stage: 00% (as of June 11, 2008)(June 11, 2008)
  7. Sonnets Development stage: 00% (as of June 11, 2008)(June 11, 2008)
  8. Poems Development stage: 00% (as of June 11, 2008)(June 11, 2008)

The Rest

  1. The Quartos and Folios Development stage: 00% (as of June 11, 2008)(June 11, 2008)
  2. Criticism of Shakespeare Development stage: 00% (as of June 11, 2008)(June 11, 2008)
  3. Performances of Shakespeare Development stage: 00% (as of June 11, 2008)(June 11, 2008)
  4. Plays in Chronological Order Development stage: 25% (as of June 11, 2008)(June 11, 2008)
  5. Further Reading and Other ResourcesDevelopment stage: 00% (as of June 11, 2008)(June 11, 2008)
  6. Shakespeare 101 Development stage: 00% (as of June 11, 2008)(June 11, 2008)

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 04, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on William Shakespeare, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message