The Full Wiki

Shallot: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Shallot
Shallots
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Alliaceae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. oschaninii
Binomial name
Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant. The French grey challot or griselle, which has been considered to be the “true shallot” by many, is Allium oschaninii, a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia. Other varieties of shallot are Allium cepa var. aggregatum (multiplier onions), also known as A. ascalonicum. In Australia, the term can also refer to Scallion, and the term eschalot is used to refer to the shallot described in this article.

The botanical name of shallot is Allium ascalonicum Linn and it belongs to the family Alliaceae. Indian names are Ek-kanda-lasun or Gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi) or Gundhun (Bengali).

Contents

Details

Shallots probably originated in Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name “shallot” comes from Ashkelon, a city in Israel, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated.

Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor.

Shallots for sale in Southern France

The shallot is a relative of the onion, and tastes a bit like an onion, but has a sweeter, milder flavor. They tend to be more expensive than onions, especially in the United States. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[1]

Shallots are extensively cultivated and often used in cooking, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine.

Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets.

Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005

Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[1]

The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.

There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian Cooking

The shallot is called موسیر (Mûsîr) in Persian, and is often crushed and mixed with yoghurt. Iranians enjoy yoghurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavour.

Persian shallot is Allium hirtifolium Boiss., and different from the common shallot. It is white-skinned and each plant has one or rarely two bulbs, while the common shallot is reddish-brown skinned and each plant can contain as many as 15 bulbs. It grows wild across the Zagros Mountains in different provinces of Iran.[2]

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian Cooking

Shallots are called 'bawang merah kecil' (small red onions) in Bahasa Melayu, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and "hom" (หอม - literally "fragrant") in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer) literally called it "Katem Kror Hom" where "Katem or Ktem" is a species of Onion and "Kror Hom" or "Hom" is meant RED describing the colour of the onion, which roughly translate as "Red Onion". In South East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic ('bawang putih', white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called 'bawang goreng' (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many South East Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in Southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in variable kinds of traditional food. Its sourness increases one's appetite.

It is widely used in the southern part of India. In the Kannada language it is known as 'Eerulli' and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called 'Chuvannulli' in Malayalam and is used in Sambar (a type of curry) and different types of kuzhambu (curry).

References

  1. ^ Yang, J., Meyers, K.J., van der Heide, J. and Liu, R.H. (2004). "Varietal differences in phenolic content, and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of onions". J. Agric. Food Chem 52 (21): 6787–6793. doi:10.1021/jf0307144. PMID 15506817.  
  2. ^ R. Ebrahimia, Z. Zamani, and A. Kash (2009). "Genetic diversity evaluation of wild Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.) using morphological and RAPD markers". Scientia Horticulturae 119 (4): 345-351. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2008.08.032.  
Advertisements

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

'SHALLOT,' Allium ascalonicum, a hardy bulbous perennial, which has not been certainly found wild and is regarded by A. de Candolle as probably a modification of A. Cepa, dating from about the beginning of the Christian era (Origin of Cultivated Plants, p. 71). It is extensively cultivated and is much used in cookery, besides which it is excellent when pickled. It is propagated by offsets, which are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be got in earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when they have got root-hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August. There are two sorts - the common, and the Jersey or Russian, the latter being much larger and less pungent.


<< William Shakespeare

Shalmaneser >>


Simple English

Shallot
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked) Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Alliaceae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. oschaninii
Binomial name
Allium oschaninii
O. Fedtsch

The Shallot (Allium ascalonicum) is a perennial plant that seldom produces seeds and therefore must be increased by division of its compound bulbs, which is made up of several bulblets or cloves held together at the base.

Description

A sheath as in garlic does not encase the bulbs. The bulblets are planted in the same manner and at the same season, as are onion sets, each set developing into a compound set. The mature bulbs are harvested, cured and stored in the same manner as onions. In suitable storage, the bulbs keep from one season to next.

Edibles

The flavor of shallots is somewhat milder than that of onion. The chief use is for flavoring curries; both leaves and cloves are used. Leaves are also consumed as green vegetable. Like their cousin`s onion and garlic this is also considered as non-vegetarian food in India. Most of the crop is produced for sale in the green state, but some dry bulbs are also used. They are also used for pickling.


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message