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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For the people of Shandong, see Shandong people Coordinates: 36°30′N 118°0′E / 36.5°N 118°E / 36.5; 118

Shandong Province
Chinese : 山东省
Shāndōng Shěng
Abbreviations:   (pinyin: )
Shandong is highlighted on this map
Origin of name 山 shān - mountain
东 dōng - east
"east of the Taihang Mountains"
Administration type Province
Capital Jinan
Largest city Qingdao
CPC Ctte Secretary Jiang Yikang 姜异康
Governor Jiang Daming 姜大明
Area 156,700 km2 (60,500 sq mi) (20th)
Population (2008)
 - Density
94,000,000 (2nd)
586 /km2 (1,520 /sq mi) (5th)
GDP (2008)
 - per capita
CNY 3.11 trillion (2nd)
CNY 33,083 (7th)
HDI (2006) 0.815 (high) (8th)
Ethnic composition Shandongese:

Han - 99.3%
Hui - 0.6%

Prefecture-level 17 divisions
County-level 140 divisions
Township-level* 1941 divisions
ISO 3166-2 CN-37
Official website
http://www.sd.gov.cn
(Simplified Chinese)
Source for population and GDP data:
《中国统计年鉴—2005》 China Statistical Yearbook 2005
ISBN 7503747382
Source for nationalities data:
《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》 Tabulation on nationalities of 2000 population census of China
ISBN 7105054255
*As at December 31, 2004
Template ■ Discussion ■ WikiProject China

About this sound Shandong (simplified Chinese: traditional Chinese: pinyin: ShāndōngWade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern People's Republic of China. Its abbreviation is , after the state of Lu that existed here during the Spring and Autumn Period.

The name Shandong literally means "mountain's east", which refers to the province's location east of the Taihang Mountains.[1] The province is located in the lower reaches of the Huang He (Yellow River) and extends out to sea in the form of the Shandong Peninsula. Shandong borders the Bohai Sea to the north, Hebei to the northwest, Henan to the west, Jiangsu to the south, and the Yellow Sea to the southeast; it also shares a very short border with Anhui, between Henan and Jiangsu.

A common nickname for Shandong is Qílǔ (齐鲁/齊魯), after the state of Lu and state of Qi that existed here during the Spring and Autumn Period.

Contents

History

Shandong is located on the eastern edge of the North China Plain, and felt the influence of Chinese civilization since remote antiquity. The earliest dynasties (the Shang dynasty and Zhou dynasty) exerted varying degrees of control over western Shandong, while eastern Shandong was inhabited by the Laiyi peoples who were considered as the "barbarians". Over subsequent centuries, the Laiyi were eventually sinicized.

During the Spring and Autumn Period (春秋时期) and the Warring States Period (战国时期), regional states became increasingly powerful. At this time, Shandong was home to two powerful states: the state of Qi (齐国) at Linzi and the state of Lu (鲁国) at Qufu. Lu is noted for being the home of Confucius. The state was, however, comparatively small, and eventually succumbed to the powerful state of Chu from the south. The state of Qi was, on the other hand, a major power throughout this entire period. Cities it ruled included Linzi, Jimo (north of modern Qingdao) and Ju.

The Qin Dynasty destroyed Qi and founded the first centralized Chinese state in 221 BC. The Han Dynasty that followed created two zhou ("provinces") in what is now modern Shandong: Qingzhou Province in the north and Yanzhou Province in the south. During the division of the Three Kingdoms Shandong belonged to the Kingdom of Wei, which ruled over northern China.

After the Three Kingdoms period, a brief period of unity under the Western Jin Dynasty gave way to invasions by nomadic peoples from the north. Northern China, including Shandong, was overrun. Over the next century or so Shandong changed hands several times, falling to the Later Zhao, then Former Yan, then Former Qin, then Later Yan, then Southern Yan, then the Liu Song Dynasty, and finally the Northern Wei Dynasty, the first of the Northern Dynasties during the Northern and Southern Dynasties Period. Shandong stayed with the Northern Dynasties for the rest of this period.

In 412, the Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian landed at Laoshan, on the southern edge of the Shandong peninsula, and proceeded to Qingzhou to edit and translate the scriptures he had brought back from India.

The Sui Dynasty reestablished unity in 589, and the Tang Dynasty (618-907) presided over the next golden age of China. For the earlier part of this period Shandong was ruled as part of Henan Circuit, one of the circuits (a political division). Later on China splintered into warlord factions, resulting in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Shandong was part of the Five Dynasties, all based in the north.

The Song Dynasty reunified China in the late tenth century. In 1996, the discovery of over two hundred buried Buddhist statues at Qingzhou was hailed as a major archaeological find. The statues included early examples of painted figures, and are thought to have been buried due to Emperor Huizong's Song Dynasty repression of Buddhism (he favoured Taoism).

The Song Dynasty was forced to cede northern China to the Jurchen Jin Dynasty in 1142. Shandong was administered by the Jin Dynasty as Shandong East Circuit and Shandong West Circuit — the first use of its current name.

The modern province of Shandong was created by the Ming Dynasty. It also included much of modern-day Liaoning (in south Manchuria) at the time. However, the Manchus increasingly asserted independence, and managed to conquer all of China in 1644. Under the Qing Dynasty, which they founded, Shandong acquired (more or less) its current borders.

Dezhou, Shandong

During the nineteenth century, China became increasingly exposed to Western influence, and Shandong, a coastal province, was especially affected. Qingdao was leased to Germany in 1897 and Weihai to Britain in 1898. The rest of Shandong was generally considered to be part of the German sphere of influence. In addition, the Qing Dynasty opened Manchuria to Han Chinese immigration during the 19th century; Shandong was the main source of the ensuing tide of migrants.

Shandong was one of the first places in which the Boxer Rebellion started and became one of the centers of the uprising. In 1899, the Qing-Dynasty general Yuan Shikai was appointed as governor of the province to suppress the uprising. He held the post for 3 years.

After the Republic of China was founded in 1911, Qingdao reverted to Chinese control in 1922, Weihai followed in 1930.

In April 1925, the warlord Zhang Zongchang, nicknamed the "Dogmeat General", became military governor of Shandong Province. Time dubbed him China's "basest warlord".[2] He ruled over the province until 1928, when he was ousted in the wake of the Northern Expedition. He was succeeded by Han Fuju, who was loyal to the warlord Feng Yuxiang but later switched his allegiance to the Nanjing government headed by Chiang Kai-Shek. Han Fuju also ousted the warlord Liu Zhennian, nicknamed the "King of Shandong East", who ruled eastern Shandong Province, hence unifying the province under his rule.

In 1937 Japan began its invasion of China proper in the Second Sino-Japanese War, which would eventually become part of the Pacific theatre of the Second World War. Han Fuju was made Deputy Commander in Chief of the 5th War Area and put in charge defending the lower Yellow River valley. However, he abandoned his base in Jinan when the Japanese crossed the Yellow River. He was executed for not following orders shortly thereafter.

Shandong was occupied in its entirety by Japan, with resistance in the countryside, and was one of the provinces where operation sankō was implemented by general Yasuji Okamura. This lasted until the surrender of Japan in 1945.

By 1945, communist forces already held some parts of Shandong. Over the next four years of the Chinese Civil War, they expanded their holdings, eventually driving the Kuomintang (government of the Republic of China) entirely out of Shandong by June 1949. The People's Republic of China was founded in October of the same year.

Under the new government, parts of western Shandong was initially given to the short-lived Pingyuan Province, but this did not last. Shandong also acquired the Xuzhou and Lianyungang areas from Jiangsu province, but this did not last either. For the most part Shandong has kept the same borders that it has today.

In recent years Shandong, especially eastern Shandong, has enjoyed significant economic development, becoming one of the richest provinces of the People's Republic of China.

Zhucheng, which is located in Shandong, is known as "dinosaur city" as it has been the scene of many dinosaur finds in the past. On December 31, 2008, it was announced that 7,600 dinosaur bones were uncovered. This is believed to be the largest collection ever found. These bones include tyrannosaurus and ankylosaurus.[3]

Geography

The sacred Mount Tai.

Shandong is mostly flat in terrain. The northwestern, western, and southwestern parts of the province are all part of the vast North China Plain. The center of the province is more mountainous, with the Taishan Mountains, Lushan Mountains, and Mengshan Mountains being the most prominent. The east of the province is the hilly Shandong Peninsula extending into the sea; it separates Bohai Sea in the northwest from the Yellow Sea to the east and south. The highest peak of Shandong is the highest peak in the Taishan area: Jade Emperor Peak, with a height of 1545 m.

The Yellow River passes through Shandong's western areas, entering the sea along Shandong's northern coast; in its traversal of Shandong it flows on a levee, higher than the surrounding land, and dividing western Shandong into the Hai He watershed in the north and the Huai He watershed in the south. The Grand Canal of China enters Shandong from the northwest and leaves on the southwest. Lake Weishan is the largest lake of the province. Shandong's coastline is 3000 km long. Shandong Peninsula has a rocky coastline with cliffs, bays, and islands; the large Laizhou Bay, the southernmost of the three bays of Bohai Sea, is found to the north, between Dongying and Penglai; Jiaozhou Bay, which is much smaller, is found to the south, next to Qingdao. The Miaodao Islands extend northwards from the northern coast of the peninsula.

Shandong has a temperate climate, with moist summers and dry, cold winters. Average temperatures are -5 to 1°C in January and 24 to 28°C in July. Annual precipitation is 550 to 950 mm.

With Jinan serving as the province's economic and cultural centre, the province's economic prowess has led to the development of modern coastal cities located at Qingdao, Weihai, and Yantai. In addition, Weifang and Zaozhuang are also upstart cities.

Politics

The politics of Shandong is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Shandong is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Shandong. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Shandong Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Shandong CPC Party Chief".

Economy

Shandong ranks first among the provinces in the production of a variety of products, including cotton and wheat as well as precious metals such as gold and diamonds. It also has one of the biggest sapphire deposits in the world.[4] Other importants crop include sorghum and maize. Shandong has extensive petroleum deposits as well, especially in the Dongying area in the Yellow River delta, where the Shengli Oilfield (lit. Victory Oilfield) is one of the major oilfields of China. Shandong also produces bromine from underground wells and salt from sea water.

Shandong is one of the richer provinces of China, and its economic development focuses on large enterprises with well-known brand names. Shandong is the biggest industrial producer and one of the top manufacturing provinces in China. Shandong has also benefited from South Korean and Japanese investment, due to its geographical proximity to those countries. The richest part of the province is the Shandong Peninsula, where the city of Qingdao is home to three of the most well-known brand names of China: Tsingtao Beer, Haier and Hisense. In addition, Dongying's oil fields and petroleum industries form an important component of Shandong's economy.

In 2008, the nominal GDP for Shandong was 3.11 trillion yuan (US$446 billion), ranking second in the country (behind Guangdong and ahead of Jiangsu). It's GDP per capita was 33,083 yuan (US$4,749), ranking seventh.

Wine Industry

Shandong Coastal Vineyards

The production of wine is the second largest industry in the Shandong Province, second only to agriculture.

Geographically, the southern hills average an elevation of 200 meters, while the coastal areas remain relatively flat. Most of the soil is loose, well-ventilated, and rich in minerals and organic matter that enable full development of the root systems.

Presently, there are more than 140 wineries in the region, mainly distributed in the Nanwang Grape Valley and along the Yan-Peng Sightseeing Highway. The region produced more than 40% of China's grape wine production.[5] Main varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt, Merlot, Riesling and Chardonnay are all at 20 years of age, considered to be the golden stage for these grapes. Most of them maintain an average saccharinity of above 20%.

Major Producers

Economic and Technological Development Zones

  • Jinan Export Processing Zone
  • Jinan New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Qingdao Economic and Technical Development Zone
  • Qingdao Export Processing Zone
  • Qingdao Free Trade Zone
  • Qingdao New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Qingdao Shi Laoren Tourist Holiday Resort
  • Weifang Hi-Tech Industry Development Zone
  • Weihai Economic and Technical Development Zone
  • Weihai Export Processing Zone
  • Weihai Torch Hi-Tech Science Park
  • Yantai Economic Development Area
  • Yantai Export Processing Zone
  • Yantai New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Zibo National New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Demographics

Shandong is the second most populous province of China, after Henan, with a population of almost 92 million. Over 99% of Shandong's population is Han Chinese. Minority groups include the Hui and the Manchus. Shandong citizens are also known to have the highest average height of any Chinese province.

Administrative divisions

Shandong is divided into seventeen prefecture-level divisions, all of them prefecture-level cities:

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Administrative Seat Type
Shandong prfc map.png
1 Jinan 济南市 Jǐnán Shì Shizhong District Sub-provincial city
2 Qingdao 青岛市 Qīngdǎo Shì Shinan District Sub-provincial city
3 Binzhou 滨州市 Bīnzhōu Shì Bincheng District Prefecture-level city
4 Dezhou 德州市 Dézhōu Shì Decheng District Prefecture-level city
5 Dongying 东营市 Dōngyíng Shì Dongying District Prefecture-level city
6 Heze 菏泽市 Hézé Shì Mudan District Prefecture-level city
7 Jining 济宁市 Jìníng Shì Shizhong District Prefecture-level city
8 Laiwu 莱芜市 Láiwú Shì Laicheng District Prefecture-level city
9 Liaocheng 聊城市 Liáochéng Shì Dongchangfu District Prefecture-level city
10 Linyi 临沂市 Línyí Shì Lanshan District Prefecture-level city
11 Rizhao 日照市 Rìzhào Shì Donggang District Prefecture-level city
12 Tai'an 泰安市 Tài'ān Shì Taishan District Prefecture-level city
13 Weifang 潍坊市 Wéifāng Shì Weicheng District Prefecture-level city
14 Weihai 威海市 Wēihǎi Shì Huancui District Prefecture-level city
15 Yantai 烟台市 Yāntái Shì Laishan District Prefecture-level city
16 Zaozhuang 枣庄市 Zǎozhuāng Shì Shizhong District Prefecture-level city
17 Zibo 淄博市 Zībó Shì Zhangdian District Prefecture-level city

The seventeen prefecture-level divisions of Shandong are subdivided into 140 county-level divisions (49 districts, 31 county-level cities, and 60 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1941 township-level divisions (1223 towns, 293 townships, two ethnic townships, and 423 subdistricts).

See List of administrative divisions of Shandong for a complete list of county-level divisions.

Culture

Mandarin dialects are spoken in Shandong. Linguists classify these dialects into three broad categories: Ji Lu Mandarin spoken in the northwest (as well as in neighbouring Hebei), such as the Jinan dialect; Zhongyuan Mandarin spoken in the southwest (as well as in neighbouring Henan); and Jiao Liao Mandarin spoken in the Shandong Peninsula (as well as the Liaodong Peninsula across the sea), such as the Qingdao dialect. When people speak of the "Shandong dialect" (山東話), it is generally the first or the second that is meant; the Jiao Liao dialects of Shandong are commonly called the "Jiaodong dialect" (膠東話).

Shandong cuisine (鲁菜) is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. It can be more finely divided into inland Shandong cuisine (e.g. Jinan cuisine); the seafood-centered Jiaodong cuisine in the peninsula; and Confucius's Mansion cuisine, an elaborate tradition originally intended for imperial and other important feasts.

Shandong Bangzi and Lüju are popular types of Chinese opera in Shandong; both originated from southwestern Shandong.

Transport

The Jingjiu Railway (Beijing-Kowloon) and Jinghu Railway (Beijing-Shanghai) are both major arterial railways that pass through the western part of Shandong. The Jingjiu passes through Liaocheng and Heze; the Jinghu passes through Dezhou, Jinan, Tai'an, Qufu. and Tengzhou. The Jiaoji Railway is an important railway of Shandong, linking its two largest cities of Qingdao and Jinan, with the longest history of all.

Shandong has one of the densest and highest quality expressway networks among all Chinese provinces. At over 3000 km, the total length of Shandong's expressways is the highest among the provinces. The Jiqing Expressway (Jinan-Qingdao) and Jingfu Expressway (Beijing-Fuzhou, passing through Shandong) are all important arterial expressways.

The Shandong Peninsula, with its bays and harbours, has many important ports, including Qingdao, Yantai, Weihai, Rizhao, and Longkou. Many of these ports have historical significance as well, as the sites of former foreign naval bases or historical battles. Ferries link the cities on the north coast of the peninsula with the Liaodong Peninsula, further north across the sea.

Important airports include Jinan Yaoqiang Airport and Qingdao Liuting International Airport.

Tourism

Tourist attractions in Shandong include:

  • Jinan, the capital city of Shandong since Ming dynasty, renowned for its 72 Famous Springs.
    • Baotu Spring, a culturally significant artesian karst spring, declared as "Number One Spring under the Heaven" (天下第一泉) by the Qing Dynasty Emperor Qian Long.
    • Daming Lake, the largest lake in Jinan, whose water is from the springs of the area. Marco Polo described its beauty in his works.
    • Thousand Buddha Mountain, renowned for its numerous Buddha images which have been carved out of the hill's rock faces or free-standing structures erect since the times of the Sui Dynasty and its Xingguochan Temple.
    • Lingyan Temple, one of the 4 most famous temples(四大名刹) in Tang dynasty, in which there are 11th century Pizhi Pagoda and the Thousand Buddha Hall which houses a Ming Dynasty bronze Buddha statue as well as 40 painted clay statues of life-size luohan from the Song Dynasty.
    • remant of Great Wall of Qi, the oldest existing Great Wall in China, which is built in 685 BCE and stretches from Jinan to Qingdao.

Education

Colleges and universities

Senior High Schools

Sports

Professional sports teams based in Shandong include:

See also

Notes

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Contents
The location of Shandong Province
The location of Shandong Province

Shandong (山东; Shāndōng) is a province in China.

The name means east of the mountains. Shandong is a coastal province situated by the Bohai Sea to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south. The Yellow River runs through the province.

Main attractions are Qufu (the birthplace of Confucius), Mount Tai (the most climbed mountian in China), Qingdao (nice port city with beaches) and Yantai (holiday city with lots of European buildings). The capital, Jinan, is of limited interest to travellers, except as a transport hub.

Regions

Shandong is subdivided into 17 prefectures, 140 counties and 1,941 townships. Geographically, it can be subdivided in

  • Lowland Shandong — the area along the rivers in the northwest, west and southwest of the province.
  • Highland Shandong — the hilly area in the central part of the province.
  • Coastal Shandong — the coastal area including Shandong Peninsula in the eastern part of the province.
Overview of Shandong Province
Overview of Shandong Province
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Shandong

Plural
-

Shandong

  1. a coastal province of China.
Translations

See also


Mandarin

simplified

山东

traditional

山東

Etymology

Literally: east of the (Taihang) Mountains

Pronunciation

  •  audiohelp, file
  • IPA: [ ʂan˥˥tʊŋ˥˥ ]

Proper noun

Shandong (Pinyin Shāndōng, traditional 山東, simplified 山东)

  1. Shandong province
  2. (archaic) the area to the east of Mount Hua

References








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