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Tsarevna Frog by Viktor Vasnetsov: a frog metamorphoses into a princess.

Shapeshifting is a common theme in mythology and folklore as well as in science fiction and fantasy. In its broadest sense, it is when a being has the ability to alter its physical appearance. The transformation may be purposeful or not depending on whether it has been the subject of a curse or spell. In some folklore, once the shapeshifter has transformed, it becomes progressively more difficult for it to return to its original form.[citation needed]

Contents

Themes in shapeshifting

An important aspect of shape-shifting, thematically, is whether the transformation is voluntary. Circe transforms intruders to her island into swine, whereas Ged, in A Wizard of Earthsea, becomes a hawk to escape an evil wizard's stronghold. When a form is taken on involuntarily, the thematic effect is one of confinement and restraint; the person is bound to the new form. In extreme cases, such as petrifaction, the character is entirely disabled. Voluntary forms, on the other hand, are means of escape and liberation; even when the form is not undertaken to effect a literal escape, the abilities specific to the form, or the disguise afforded by it, allow the character to act in a manner previously impossible.

Hence, in fairy tales, a prince who is forced into a bear's shape (as in East of the Sun and West of the Moon) is a prisoner, but a princess who takes on a bear's shape to flee (as in The She-Bear) escapes with her new shape.[1]

Shapeshifting may be used as a plot device, as when Puss In Boots tricks the ogre into changing into a mouse so he may eat him; it may also include a symbolic significance, as when the Beast's transformation at the end of Beauty and the Beast indicates Belle's ability to accept him despite his appearance. In the Spiderwick Chronicles, the evil ogre Mulgarath is tricked by Jared into turning into a swallow so that the hobgoblin Hogsqueal can eat him.[2]

In modern fantasy, more than in folklore, the extent to which the change affects the mind can be important. Poul Anderson, in Operation Chaos, has the werewolf observe that taking on wolf-form can simplify his thoughts. This can be more dangerous in other writers' works; J.K. Rowling observed that a wizard who became a rat had a rat's brain (although the Animagus talent bypasses this problem), and in her Earthsea books, Ursula K. Le Guin depicts an animal form as slowly transforming the wizard's mind, so that the dolphin, or bear, or other creature forgets it was human and can not change back, a voluntary shapeshifting becoming an imprisoning metamorphosis.[3]

Beyond this, the uses of shape-shifting, transformation, and metamorphosis in fiction are as protean as the forms the characters take on. Some are rare — Italo Calvino's "The Canary Prince" is a Rapunzel variant in which shape-shifting is used to gain access to the tower — but others are common motifs.

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Between the sexes

Fiction that makes use of gender shape-shifting tends to invoke themes not normally found in other shapeshifting fiction.

Vertumnus, in the form of an old woman, wooing Pomona, by Gerbrand van den Eeckhout

It may be merely used as means of disguise: appearing as a woman allows a man to enter situations from which men are forbidden, and vice versa. Zeus disguised himself as Artemis in order to get close enough to Callisto that she could not escape when he turned himself into male form again, and raped her. More innocently, Vertumnus could not woo Pomona on his own; in the form of an old woman, he gained access to her orchard, where he persuaded her to marry him.

In Norse mythology, however, both Odin and Loki taunt each other with having taken the form of females in the Lokasenna. The ultimate proof of this was that they had given birth and had nursed their offspring. It is unknown what myths, if any, lie behind the charges against Odin, but Loki had taken the form of a mare and was the mother of Sleipnir.

L. Frank Baum concluded The Marvelous Land of Oz with the revelation that the princess, Ozma, that the characters had been looking for had been turned into a boy while a baby and raised as the boy Tip. Tip, one of the characters looking for Ozma, agreed to let himself be changed back into a girl but wished that he could be changed back into a boy if he did not like being a girl. Glinda decreed that he could be changed only into his proper form. Since she is a sorceress, Glinda disapproves of shapeshifting magic. Therefore it had to be done by the evil witch Mombi, who was skilled in its use.[4]

In Greek mythology, Tiresias, the blind prophet who helped Jason and the Argonauts, was walking through a forest when he found two snakes in the act of love. He prodded them with a stick and was instantly changed into a woman. He lived in this female form for many years, and even married and had children. Years later, Tiresias was walking through the same forest and came across the same snakes doing the same thing. Again she poked them with a stick, and Tiresias turned back into a man. Later in his life, he was asked by Zeus which of the two sexes enjoys sex more. Tiresias, speaking from experience, replied that it is woman, and Hera blinded him for telling her husband of the greatest secret of women. Zeus, unable to undo what his wife had done, gave the now blind Tiresias the gift of foresight. Other versions say that it was Zeus who was angered by Tiresias for saying that men did not get the most out of sex and that it was Hera who gave Tiresias the gift of foresight to comfort him.

Rumiko Takahashi's manga Ranma ½, along with several characters that transform into animals, also features two that transform from male to female. One is the title character, Ranma Saotome, and another is a powerful antagonist, Herb, from late in the series. While some have drawn the conclusion that this constitutes a parody of Japanese gender roles,[5] Takahashi herself has replied that it was a "simple, fun idea," that she "doesn't think in terms of societal agendas," and "thought humans turning into animals might also be fun and märchenhaft."[6]

Arjuna, of the Indian epic Mahabharata, spent a year disguised as a woman after refusing to sleep with the reincarnation of one of his ancestors.

Punitive changes

In many cases, imposed forms are punitive in nature. This may be a just punishment, the nature of the transformation matching the crime for which it occurs; in other cases, the form is unjustly imposed by an angry and powerful person.

"Svipdag transformed" by John Bauer

This motif is used in tales from myths to modern fantasy:

  • Ali ibn Abi Taleb transformed an offender into a crow in Masjid al-Kufa.
  • Athena transformed Arachne into a spider for challenging her as a weaver.
  • Artemis transformed Actaeon into a stag for spying on her in her bath.
  • Odin transformed Svipdag into a dragon because he had angered him.
  • In Child ballad 35, Allison Gross, the title witch turned a man into a dragon for refusing to be her lover. This is a motif found in many legends and folktales.[7]
  • In some variants of the fairy tales, both The Frog Prince and Beast, of Beauty and the Beast, were transformed as a form of punishment for some transgression.
  • In Eglė the Queen of Serpents, Eglė transforms her children and herself into trees as a punishment for betrayal.
  • In East of the Sun and West of the Moon, the hero was transformed into a bear by his wicked stepmother, who wished to force him to marry her daughter.[8]
  • Circe transformed all intruders into her home. Generally, this is for merely intruding, but in Nathaniel Hawthorne's Tanglewood Tales, "she changes every human being into the brute, beast, or fowl whom he happens most to resemble."
  • In George MacDonald's The Princess and Curdie, Curdie is informed that many human beings, by their acts, are slowly turning into beasts; he is given the power to detect the transformation before it is visible, and is assisted by beasts that had been transformed and are working their way back to humanity.[9]
  • In The Chronicles of Narnia, Eustace transforms into a dragon,[10] and the war-monger Rabadash into a donkey,.[11] Eustace's transformation is not strictly a punishment - his transformation simply revealing the truth of his human nature. It is reversed after he repents and (through grace) his nature is transformed. Rabadash is given an opportunity to return to human form providing he does so in a public place, so that his former followers will know that he had spent some time as a donkey. He is also warned that, if he ever leaves his capital city again, he will once more become a donkey and this time the transformation will be permanent. After following the instructions to regain his human form, Rabadash never again leads a military campaign ... as to do so would require him to leave his capital city. Also in The Chronicles of Narnia the Dufflepuds are dwarfs who have been transformed into monopods as a punishment. However, it ultimately transpires that they are happier with their new form in the end.
  • IN I, Coriander, Prince Tycho is transformed into a fox after refusing to marry Undwin, Queen Rosamore's daughter.

In mythology, the punishment is often a metamorphosis, and may be origin myths.

In most works of fiction, the changes are usually a temporary transformation. If the punishment was just, the character can often re-gain his form on learning the lesson it instructed him in; if unjust, the restoration is merely dependent on discovering the trick of it.

Transformation chase

In many fairy tales and ballads, as in Child Ballad #44, The Two Magicians or Farmer Weathersky, a magical chase occurs where the pursued endlessly takes on forms in an effort to shake off the pursuer, and the pursuer answers with other shape-shifting, as, a dove is answered with a hawk, and a hare with a greyhound. The pursued may finally succeed in escape or the pursuer in capturing. This appears in legends around the world. One is "The Story of Calicoin", the story of a powerful witch called Cerridwen who wished to make her son Afaggdu a powerful potion that would make him a wizard. She ordered her servant, a boy named Gwion, to make a potion that took a year and one day. He stirred it until the very last day, when Gwion accidentally spilled three drops on his finger. His finger was burning, so he put it in his mouth and swallowed the drops. Gwion became a wizard instantly. Cerridwen found out, and began to chase Gwion. Gwion first changed into a hare, and Cerridwen changed into a hound. The boy became a fish, and the woman an otter. He turned into a dove, she turned into a hawk. Finally Gwion transformed into a tiny grain of wheat, hiding with many other grains on a barn floor. Cerridwen transformed into a black hen and pecked up all the grains, including Gwion. Nine days later Cerridwen gave birth to Gwion as a baby. She could not kill her own child, so she tied him up in a leather bag and threw him into the river. He was discovered by a kind man named Elphin, who had no children of his own. Elphin named the boy Taliesin and raised him. As Taliesin grew, he remembered all that had happened before he was with Elphin, and retained his wizardly knowledge. It was said he became a very great wizard, maybe the greatest in the Islands of Britain before Merlin.

In Dapplegrim, this was set as a challenge; if the youth found the transformed princess twice, and hid from her twice, they would marry. The Grimm Brothers fairy tales Foundling-Bird contains this as the bulk of the plot.[12] In Greek mythology, Zeus frequently transformed himself and his love to escape Hera's wrath, or that of the women's fathers, but generally in a simplified form, with only one transformation.[13]

In other variants, the pursued may transform various objects into obstacles, as in the fairy tale "The Master Maid", where the Master Maid transforms a wooden comb into a forest, a lump of salt into a mountain, and a flask of water into a sea. In these tales, the pursued normally escapes after the three obstacles.[12] This obstacle chase is literally found worldwide, in many variants in every region.[14]

In fairy tales of the Aarne-Thompson type 313A, the girl helps the hero flee, one such chase is an integral part of the tale. It can be either a transformation chase (as in The Grateful Prince, King Kojata, Foundling-Bird, Jean, the Soldier, and Eulalie, the Devil's Daughter, or The Two Kings' Children) or an obstacle chase (as in The Battle of the Birds, The White Dove, or The Master Maid).[15]

In a similar effect, a captive may shape-shift in order to break a hold on him. Proteus's shape-shifting was to prevent heroes from forcing information from him.[16] Tam Lin, once seized by Janet, was transformed in her arms by the faeries to keep Janet from taking him, but as he had advised her, she did not let go, and so freed him.[17] The motif of capturing a person by holding him through all forms of transformation is found throughout Europe in folktales.[18]

Patricia A. McKillip made use of this motif at one point in the The Riddle-Master of Hed trilogy: a shapeshifting Earthmaster finally wins its freedom by startling the man holding it.

Another variant was used by T. H. White in The Sword in the Stone, where Merlin and Madam Mim fought a wizards' duel, in which the duelists would endlessly transform until one was in a form that could destroy the other.[19]

Powers

One motif is a shape change in order to obtain abilities in the new form. Berserkers were held to change into wolves and bears in order to fight more effectively. In many cultures, evil magicians could transform into animal shapes and thus skulk about.

In many fairy tales, the hero's talking animal helper proves to be a shapeshifted human being, able to help him in its animal form. In one variation, featured in The Three Enchanted Princes and The Death of Koschei the Deathless, the hero's three sisters have been married to animals. These prove to be shape-shifted men, who aid their brother-in-law in a variant of tale types.[20]

In an early Mayan text, the Shapeshifter, or Mestaclocan, was said to not only have the ability to change his appearance but could also manipulate the minds of animals. In one tale, the Mestaclocan finds a dying eagle. Changing into the form of an eagle, he convinces the dying bird that it is, in fact, not dying. As the story goes they both soar into the heavens, and lived together for eternity.

This use, though rare in older fiction, is perhaps the most common in modern fiction. Several superheroes — Beast Boy, Chameleon Boy/Chameleon, Morph, Ben 10, Mystique, Clayface — have it as their sole power. The Harry Potter series contains both Animagi who can change to a single form and Metamorphmagi who can alter their appearance. In addition Rowling also involves werewolves who change involuntarily with the rising of the full moon. Even one episode of the television show Supernatural featured a shape-shifter, and a reference that the main characters had hunted shape-shifters before, or at least knew how to. Both the Earthmasters and their opponents in The Riddle-Master of Hed trilogy make extensive use of their shape-shifting abilities for the powers of their new forms.[21]

Bildungsroman

A young character may learn of his shape-shifting abilities, and exploring them becomes part of a Bildungsroman. Mavin Manyshaped and her son Peter in Sheri S. Tepper's True Game novels are both shifters, being a subspecies of humans having this power, and in both, the learning of their abilities is a large portion of their growing up.

For a very different effect, T. H. White had Merlin transform Arthur into various animals in The Sword in the Stone, as an educational experience.[22] Although the lessons are very different, the Bildungsroman element is in common.

Needed items

Valkyries as swan maidens: having shed their swan skins

Some shape-shifters are able to change form only if they have some item, usually an article of clothing. Most of these are innocuous creatures — even if they are werewolves. In Bisclavret by Marie de France, a werewolf cannot regain human form without his clothing, but in wolf form does no harm to anyone.

Another such creature is the selkie, which needs its sealskin to regain its form. In The Great Silkie of Sule Skerry the (male) selkie seduces a human woman but does no further harm.

The commonest use of this motif, however, is in tales where a man steals the article and forces the shape-shifter, trapped in human form, to become his bride. This lasts until she discovers where he has hidden the article, and she can flee. Selkies feature in these tales. Others include swan maidens and the Japanese Tennin.

Various forms of fairytale fantasy have taken up these creatures and incorporated them into modern day works. Jane Yolen took up the notion of selkie in Greyling and transformed it into a foundling tale.

Usurpation

Some transformations are performed to remove the victim from his place, so that the transformer can usurp it. Bisclaveret's wife steals his clothing and traps him in wolf form because she has a lover. A witch, in The Wonderful Birch, changed a mother into a sheep to take her place, and had the mother slaughtered; when her stepdaughter, with her dead mother's aid, married the king, the witch transformed her into a reindeer so as to put her daughter in the queen's place. In the Korean Transformation of the Kumiho, a kumiho, a fox with magical powers, transformed itself into an image of the bride, only being detected when her clothing is removed. In Terminator 2: Judgment Day, the T-1000 took the form of John Connor's foster mom to gather information regarding his whereabouts, and later as his biological mother to gain his trust. Changelings take the place of the infant the elves have stolen, and usually resemble it, at least initially; sometimes, this is temporary, so that the child will appear to die, and sometimes the changeling grows up in the child's family.

Sister Alenushka Weeping about Brother Ivanushka by Viktor Vasnetsov, Russian variant of Brother and Sister: Alenushka laments her brother's transformation into a goat

This may not be so much desire to usurp a specific place as to remove possible rivals, but the intended effect of the removal is much the same. In Brother and Sister, when two children flee their cruel stepmother, she enchants the streams along the way to transform them. While the brother refrains from the first two, which threaten to turn them into tigers and wolves, he is too thirsty at the third, which turns him into a deer. The Six Swans are transformed into swans by their stepmother,[23] as are the Children of Lir in Irish mythology. In The Laidly Worm of Spindleston Heugh, Princess Margaret is transformed into a dragon by her stepmother; her motive sprung, like Snow White's stepmother's, from the comparison of their beauty.[24]

Modern fiction also includes this motif: Mary Stewart's A Walk in Wolf Wood revolves about revealing that one man is an imposter, taking the form of a man who is living as a wolf in the woods, and Patricia A. McKillip has her shapeshifters, in the Riddle-master trilogy, use their forms to take the place of others. The Harry Potter series included both a usurpation by a shape-shifter, and considerable precautions being taken by wizards and witches to attempt to identify such shape-shifters as they arose. In science fiction, Who Goes There? by John W. Campbell included a shape-shifting alien that could devour and replace terrestrial life.

While Doppelgängers in folklore were a kind of portent that resembled a person, with no shapeshifting required, in modern fiction and roleplaying games, they are usually depicted as shape-shifters out to usurp someone's place.

This motif can also be used in a similar manner to the Monstrous Bride/Bridegroom theme. A character who falls in love with a usurper (given a justifiable motive for the replacement) can discover the unimportance of appearances beside character. In the Legion of Super-Heroes comics, Colossal Boy fell in love with a shapeshifter who had been duped into taking the form of a woman he had been attracted to. The revelation of this made him realize that he had fallen in love with the shapeshifter herself and not with the woman he had thought her to be. Similarly, the Human Torch fell in love with a Skrull imposter; although in the Marvel Universe they eventually broke up, in the MC2 alternate universe, they remarried, are now members of the Fantastic Five, and have a son.

Ill-advised wishes

Many fairy-tale characters have expressed inadvised wishes to have any child at all, even one that has another form, and had such children born to them.[25] At the end of the fairy tale, normally after marriage, such children metamorphize into human form.

Hans My Hedgehog was born when his father wished for a child, even a hedgehog. Even stranger forms are possible: Giambattista Basile included in his Pentamerone the tale of a girl born as a sprig of myrtle, and Italo Calvino, in his Italian Folktales, a girl born as an apple.

Sometimes, the parent who wishes for a child is told how to gain one, but does not obey the directions perfectly, resulting in the transformed birth. In Prince Lindworm, the woman eats two onions, but does not peel one, resulting in her first child being a lindworm. In Tatterhood, a woman magically produces two flowers, but disobeys the directions to eat only the beautiful one, resulting her having a beautiful and sweet daughter, but only after a disgusting and hideous one.

Less commonly, ill-advised wishes can transform a person after birth. The Seven Ravens are transformed when their father thinks his sons are playing instead of fetching water to christen their newborn and sickly sister, and curses them.[26] In Puddocky, when three princes start to quarrel over the beautiful heroine, a witch curses her because of the noise.

Monstrous bride/bridegroom

Such wished-for children may become monstrous brides or bridegrooms. Other such characters have no explanation for their forms, because their tales focus on the person who must marry them.

These tales often lean heavily on the promise of the father that his child should marry, or on the financial advantages to her family that she should do so—factors clearly present in arranged marriages. These tales have often been intrepreted as symbolically representing arranged marriages; the bride's (in particular) revulsion to marrying a stranger being symbolized by his bestial form.[27]

These tales form, broadly, three subclasses.

"Beauty and the Beast" by Warwick Goble

The heroine must fall in love with the transformed groom. Beauty and the Beast falls under this. This has been interpreted as a young woman's coming-of-age, in which she changes from being repulsed by sexual activity and regarding a husband therefore bestial, to a mature woman who can marry.[28]

The hero or heroine must marry, as promised, and the monstrous form is removed by the wedding. Sir Gawain thus transformed the Loathly lady; although he was told that this was half-way, she could at his choice be beautiful by day and hideous by night, or vice versa, he told her that he would choose what she preferred, which broke the spell entirely.[29] In Tatterhood, Tatterhood is transformed by her asking her bridegroom why he didn't ask her why she rode a goat, why she carried a spoon, and why she was so ugly, and when he asked her, denying it and therefore transforming her goat into a horse, her spoon into a fan, and herself into a beauty. Puddocky is transformed when her prince, after she had helped him with two other tasks, tells him that his father has sent him for a bride. A similar effect is found in Child ballad 34, Kemp Owyne, where the hero can transform a dragon back into a maiden by kissing her three times.[30]

Sometimes the bridegroom removes his animal skin for the wedding night, whereupon it can be burned. Hans My Hedgehog, The Donkey and The Pig King fall under this grouping. At an extreme, in Prince Lindworm, the bride who avoids being eaten by the lindworm bridegroom arrives at her wedding wearing every gown she owns, and she tells the bridegroom she will remove one of hers if he removes one of his; only when her last gown comes off has he removed his last skin, and become a white shape that she can form into a man.[31]

The lindworm's bride was the last of a number of brides. Some other tales using this theme also have one or two who fail the task of the marriage.

In other tales, such as The Brown Bear of Norway, The Golden Crab, The Enchanted Snake and some variants of The Frog Princess, burning the skin is a catastrophe, putting the transformed bride or bridegroom in danger; this is an example of the third grouping.

In the third grouping, the hero or heroine must obey a prohibition; the bride must spend a period of time not seeing the transformed groom in human shape (as in East of the Sun and West of the Moon), or the bridegroom must not burn the animals skins. In these tales, the prohibition is broken, invariably. The hero or heroine must therefore find his bride, or her bridegroom again.[31]

This motif is found in modern fiction mostly in the form of fairytale fantasy. Robin McKinley retold Beauty and the Beast twice, in Beauty and Rose Daughter.

Death

Ghosts sometimes appear in animal form. In The Famous Flower of Serving-Men, the heroine's murdered husband appears to the king as a white dove, lamenting her fate over his own grave. In The White and the Black Bride and The Three Little Men in the Wood, the murdered — drowned — true bride reappears as a white duck. In The Rose Tree and The Juniper Tree, the murdered children become birds who avenge their own deaths.

In some fairy tales, the character can reveal himself in every new form, and so a usurper repeatedly kills the victim in every new form, as in Beauty and Pock Face, A String of Pearls Twined with Golden Flowers, and The Boys with the Golden Stars. This eventually leads to a form into which the character (or characters) can reveal the truth to someone able to stop the villain.

Similarly, the transformation back may be acts that would be fatal. In The Wounded Lion, the prescription for turning the lion back into a prince was to kill him, chop him to pieces, burn the pieces, and throw the ash into water. Less drastic but no less apparently fatal, the fox in The Golden Bird, the foals in The Seven Foals, and the cats in Lord Peter and The White Cat tell the heroes of those stories to cut off their heads; this restores them to human shape.[32]

Shapeshifting in religious texts

Rigveda describes shapeshifting rakshasas assuming animal forms.[33]

Shapeshifting in historical accounts

Procopius Caesarensis in his Secret History (ch. 12) gives an account about the shapeshifting of Emperor Justinian I:

And some of those who have been with Justinian at the palace late at night, men who were pure of spirit, have thought they saw a strange demoniac form taking his place. One man said that the Emperor suddenly rose from his throne and walked about, and indeed he was never wont to remain sitting for long, and immediately Justinian's head vanished, while the rest of his body seemed to ebb and flow; whereat the beholder stood aghast and fearful, wondering if his eyes were deceiving him. But presently he perceived the vanished head filling out and joining the body again as strangely as it had left it.

Another said he stood beside the Emperor as he sat, and of a sudden the face changed into a shapeless mass of flesh, with neither eyebrows nor eyes in their proper places, nor any other distinguishing feature; and after a time the natural appearance of his countenance returned. I write these instances not as one who saw them myself, but heard them from men who were positive they had seen these strange occurrences at the time.

They also say that a certain monk, very dear to God, at the instance of those who dwelt with him in the desert went to Constantinople to beg for mercy to his neighbors who had been outraged beyond endurance. And when he arrived there, he forthwith secured an audience with the Emperor; but just as he was about to enter his apartment, he stopped short as his feet were on the threshold, and suddenly stepped backward. Whereupon the eunuch escorting him, and others who were present, importuned him to go ahead. But he answered not a word; and like a man who has had a stroke staggered back to his lodging. And when some followed to ask why he acted thus, they say he distinctly declared he saw the King of the Devils sitting on the throne in the palace, and he did not care to meet or ask any favor of him.

Shapeshifting in folklore

1722 German woodcut of a werewolf transforming

Popular shapeshifting creatures in folklore are werewolves and vampires (mostly of European, Canadian, and Native American/early American origin), the Huli jing of East Asia (including the Japanese kitsune), and the gods, goddesses, and demons of numerous mythologies, such as the Norse Loki or the Greek Proteus. It was also common for deities to transform mortals into animals and plants.

Although shapeshifting to the form of a wolf is specifically known as lycanthropy, and such creatures who undergo such change are called lycanthropes, those terms have also been used to describe any human-animal transformations and the creatures who undergo them. Therianthropy is the more general term for human-animal shifts, but it is rarely used in that capacity.

Other terms for shapeshifters include metamorph, skin-walker, mimic, and therianthrope. The prefix "were-," coming from the Old English word for "man" (masculine rather than generic), is also used to designate shapeshifters; despite its root, it is used to indicate female shapeshifters as well.

Almost every culture around the world has some type of transformation myth, and almost every commonly found animal (and some not-so-common ones) probably has a shapeshifting myth attached to them. Usually, the animal involved in the transformation is indigenous to or prevalent in the area from which the story derives. While the popular idea of a shapeshifter is of a human being who turns into something else, there are numerous stories about animals that can transform themselves as well.[31]

Greco-Roman

Shapeshifting, transformations and metamorphoses serve a wide variety of purposes in classical mythology.

Examples of shapeshifting in classical literature include many examples in Ovid's Metamorphoses, Circe's transforming of Odysseus' men to pigs in Homer's The Odyssey, and Apuleius's Lucius becoming a donkey in The Golden Ass.

In Homer's, The Odyssey, the goddess Athena transforms her appearance on multiple occasions throughout: She appears to Odysseus' son Telemachus as Mentor (Mentes);She transforms herself into a girl named Dymas; a young girl; the herald of King Alcinous; a young herdsman; materializes from a young man into a tall woman, etc. She even transforms Odysseus into a beggar so that no one in his household , including the suitors, would recognize him.

Proteus among the gods was particularly noted for his shape-shifting; both Menelaus and Aristaeus seized him to win information from him, and succeeded only because they held on during his manifold shape changes.

Gianlorenzo Bernini, Apollo pursuing an unwilling Daphne who transforms into a laurel tree.

While the Greek gods could use transformation punitively — as for Arachne, turned to a spider for her pride in her weaving, and Medusa, turned to a monster for having sexual intercourse with Poseidon in Athena's temple — even more frequently, the tales using it are of amorous adventure. Zeus repeatedly transformed himself to approach mortal women, both as a means of gaining access:

or to attempt to conceal his affair from Hera

  • Io, as a cloud, and Io herself as a white heifer.

More innocently, Vertumnus transformed himself into an old woman in order to gain entry to Pomona's orchard; there, he persuaded her to marry him.

In other tales, the woman appealed to other gods to protect her from rape, and was transformed (Daphne into laurel, Cornix into a crow). Unlike Zeus and other god's shape-shifting, these women were permanently metamorphosed.

In one tale, Demeter transformed herself into a mare to escape Poseidon, but Poseidon counter-transformed himself into a stallion to pursue her, and succeeded in the rape.

"Cadmus Sowing the Dragon's Teeth" by Maxfield Parrish

Humans were also transformed, for many reasons.

Tiresias once saw two snakes mating and struck the female with his staff; this transformed him into a woman, and he lived as such for many years. At the end, he saw the snakes again, and this time was careful to hit the male, which restored him to male form.

Caenis, having been raped by Poseidon, demanded of him that she be changed to a man. He agreed, and she became Caeneus, a form he never lost, except, in some versions, upon death.

As a final reward from the gods for their hospitality, Baucis and Philemon were transformed, at their deaths, into a pair of trees.

Pygmalion having fallen in love with a statue he had made, Venus had pity on him and transformed the stone to a living woman.

In some variants of the tale of Narcissus, he is turned into a flower.

After Tereus raped Philomela and cut out her tongue to silence her, she wove her story into a tapestry for her sister, Tereus's wife Procne, and the sisters murdered his son and fed him to his father. When he discovered this, he tried to kill them, but the gods changed them all into birds.

Sometimes metamorphoses transformed objects into humans. In the myths of both Jason and Cadmus, one task set to the hero was to sow dragon's teeth; on being sown, they would metamorphose into belligerent warriors, and both heroes had to trick them into fighting each other to survive. Deucalion and Pyrrha repopulated the world after a flood by throwing stones behind them; they were transformed into people. Cadmus is also known to have transformed into a dragon or serpent towards the end of his life.

British and Irish

Celtic mythology

Though much of Welsh mythology has been lost, shapeshifting magic features several times in what remains.

Pwyll was transformed by Arawn into Arawn's own shape, and Arawn transformed himself into Pwyll's, so that they could trade places for a year and a day.

The Children of Lir, transformed into swans in Irish tales

Llwyd ap Cil Coed transformed his wife and attendants into mice to attack a crop in revenge; when his wife is captured, he turned himself into three clergymen in succession to try to pay a ransom.

Math and Gwydion transform flowers into a woman named Blodeuwedd, and when she betrays her husband Lleu, who is transformed into an eagle, they transform her again, into an owl - Blodeuwedd.

Gilfaethwy committed rape with help from his brother Gwydion. Both were transformed into animals, for one year each. Gwydion was transformed into a stag, sow and wolf, and Gilfaethwy into a hind, boar and she-wolf. Each year, they had a child. Math turned the three young animals into boys.

Gwion, having accidentally taken some of wisdom potion that Ceridwen was brewing for her son, fled her through a succession of changes that she answered with changes of her own, ending with his being eaten, a grain of corn, by her as a hen. She became pregnant, and he was reborn in a new form, as Taliesin.

Irish mythology also features shapeshifting. Perhaps the best known myth is that of Aoife who turned her stepchildren, the Children of Lir, into swans to be rid of them. Likewise in the Wooing of Etain Fuamnach jealously turns Étaín into a butterfly.

The Púca is a Celtic faery, and also a deft shape-shifter. He can transform into many different, terrifing forms.

Sadbh, the wife of the famous hero Fionn mac Cumhaill was changed into a deer by the druid Fer Doirich.

The most dramatic example of shapeshifting in Irish myth is that of Tuan mac Cairill, the only survivor of Partholón's settlement of Ireland. In his centuries long life he became successively a stag, a wild boar, a hawk and finally a salmon prior to being eaten and (as in the Wooing of Étaín) reborn as a human.

British folklore

"The giant Galligantua and the wicked old magician transform the duke's daughter into a white hind." by Arthur Rackham

Fairies, witches, and wizards were all noted for their shapeshifting ability. Not all fairies could shapeshift, and some were limited to changing their size, as with the spriggans, and others to a few forms, such as the each uisge, which appears only as a horse and a young man.[34] Other fairies might have only the appearance of shape-shifting, through their power, called "glamour," to create illusions.[35] But others, such as the Hedley Kow, could change to many forms, and both human and supernatural wizards were capable of both such changes, and inflicting them on others.[34]

Witches could turn into hares and in that form steal milk and butter.[36]

Many British fairy tales, such as Jack the Giant Killer and The Black Bull of Norroway, feature shapeshifting.

Norse

Loge feigns fear as Alberich turns into a giant snake. Wotan stands in the background; illustration by Arthur Rackham to Richard Wagner's Das Rheingold

Both Odin and Loki are shape-shifters in Norse myth. Unusually, both take on female forms, and Loki in the form of a mare bore Sleipnir. The Lokasenna depicts the two of them taunting each other with it, as having been women through and through, having borne children. (Any myths that depict Odin in female form have been lost, but the Lokasenna does contain references to many myths that are known to be believed.

In the Hyndluljóð, the goddess Freya transformed her protégé Óttar into a boar to conceal him. She also possessed a cloak of robin feathers that allowed her to transform into any kind of bird.

The Volsunga saga contains many shapeshifting characters. Siggeir's mother changed to a wolf to help torture his defeated brothers-in-law with slow and igmonious deaths. When one, Sigmund, survived, he and his nephew and son Sinfjötli killed men wearing wolfskins; when they donned the skins themselves, they were cursed to become werewolves.

Fafnir was originally a dwarf, a giant or even a human, depending on the exact myth, but in all variants he transformed into a dragon - a symbol of greed - while guarding his ill-gotten hoard.

In more recent folklore, the Nisse is sometimes said to be a shapeshifter. This trait also is attributed to Huldra.

Slavic

In Slavic mythology, werewolves and other human-to-animal shapeshifters are fairly rare, usually created as a course of Leszi.

Armenian

In Armenian mythology, shapshifters include the Nhang, a serpent-like river monster than can transform itself into a woman or seal, and will drown humans and then drink their blood, or the beneficial Shahapet, a guardian spirit that can appear either a man or a snake.[37]

Hinduism

Hindu folklore tells of nāga, snakes that can sometimes assume human form. One nāga took on a man's shape in order to be ordained a monk; the Buddha refused it, but gave it directions on how to ensure it could be reborn as a man after death, in which form it could be ordained.

Far East

"Madame White Snake" Picture on long veranda in the Summer Palace,Beijing,China.

Chinese, Japanese, and Korean folklore all tell of animals able to assume human shape. Though they have other traits in common—such animals are often old, they grow additional tails along with their abilities, and they frequently still have some animal traits to betray them—there are distinctions between the folklore in the various countries.

Chinese

Chinese folklore contains many tales of animal shapeshifters, capable of taking on human form. The most common such shapeshifter is the huli jing, a fox spirit which usually appears as a beautiful young woman; most are dangerous, but some feature as the heroines of love stories.

Madame White Snake is one such legend; a snake falls in love with a man, and the story recounts the trials that she and her husband faced.

Japanese

Kuzunoha the fox woman, casting a fox shadow

Many Japanese yōkai are animals with the ability to shapeshift. The fox, or kitsune is among the most common, but other such creatures include:

Korean

Korean folklore also contains a fox with the ability to shape-shift. Unlike its Chinese and Japanese counterparts, the kumiho is always malevolent. Usually its form is of a beautiful young woman; one tale recounts a man, a would-be seducer, revealed as a kumiho.[38] She has nine tails and as she desires to be a full human, she uses her beauty to seduce men and eat their hearts (or in some cases livers where the belief is that 100 livers would turn her into a real human).

Tatar

Tatar folklore includes Yuxa, a hundred-year-old snake that can transform itself into a beautiful young woman, and seeks to marry men in order to have children.

Philippines

Philippine folklore includes aswang, a cannibal capable of transforming itself to either a huge black dog or a black boar to stalk human beings at night. The folklore also mentions other beings, i.e., Kapre, Tikbalang, and Engkanto, that change their appearnace to woo beautiful maidens. Also, talismans, called "anting-anting" or "birtud" in the local dialect, can have the power to give its owner the ability to shapeshift.

Shapeshifting in popular culture

Shapeshifting can be a rich symbolic and narrative tool. Today, the theme appears in many fantasy, science fiction and horror stories; some would even recognize a distinct subgenre of shapeshifting or transformation fiction, with its own genre conventions. Fantasy and science fiction occasionally feature races or species of shapeshifters, and both magic and technology can be used to impose a change in form. Some of the more popular themes include werewolves, vampires, and age regression. In a broader sense, the term includes stories about characters who shrink or grow in size without changing their form. Transformation in this regard is physical, as opposed to the character development common to many stories, even with no fantastic element, which typically involves characters changing mentally, psychologically or spiritually.

Shapeshifting in TV

Shapeshifting is a recurrent theme in the TV show Fringe, in which shapeshifters are from another universe and are human/machine hybrids with blood made of mercury.

In the cult television series Charmed, several characters and mythological beings had the ability to shapeshift. Of them, some whitelighters (guardian angel-type beings) were able to glamour, a term used to denote a change in physical form into the appearance of another humanoid being. Notable whitelighters with this ability include protagonists Paige Matthews and Leo Wyatt. Additionally, during the second season a Glamour to Change Ones Appearance spell was seen in the magical Book of Shadows, to be used by witches. It was not until the seventh season finale and the eighth season that the spell was actually used by the main characters. Furthermore, shapeshifters is the name given to evil beings with the power to transform their physical appearance into anything else animate or inanimate. Other evil beings in the series, mainly demons, have also had the ability to shapeshift into any desired form, and some (including The Source of All Evil and Cole Turner during the fifth season) have also been able to change the appearance of others. This ability, when used by demons other than the shapeshifters, is occasionally referred to as morphing.

Three episodes of the television show Supernatural (Season 1 Episode 6 "Skin," Season 2 Episode 12 "Nightshifter," & Season 4 Episode 5 "Monster Movie") deal with the shapeshifter lore.

Dozens of episodes of the hit science-fiction TV series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine featured shapeshifters known as The Founders, also referred to informally as changelings, who were liquid life forms composed of a gelatinous substance and were the leaders of The Dominion. The most frequently seen of these was Odo. Star Trek VI featured a chameloid, another species of shapeshifter, by the name of Martia. Earlier in The Original Series, a shapeshifter, Captain Garth of Izar, 77 appeared in "Whom Gods Destroy".

Beginning in Season 2, "Space: 1999" featured a shapeshifter called Maya.

In Family Guy Viewer Mail #1, Peter Griffin has this power to turn into anything (and back to original form); from Britney Spears to a Dinosaur.

In the HBO series True Blood, the character Sam divulges that he is a shapeshifter, most of time into a dog and that there are several other shapeshifters in the world and they can all turn into different things. He also makes mention that turning into a human is too complicated.

In the long running BBC science fiction series Doctor Who, the main character changes or "regenerates" into another person. This usually takes place when the current actor ends his contract or dies or leaves the series for any reason. There was also an episode in season 2 called Tooth and Claw in which the Doctor and his companion face a werewolf.

In kids' TV comedy My Parents are Aliens, the foster parents, Aliens from Planet Valux, can shapeshift into any person (or on a few occasions, animals) and back, except for two issues where Sophie Johnson couldn't morph back to her original form from 1) An alterntive Woman and 2) A Mermaid.

In Stitch! anime, a new experiment named Leroy; Stitch's evil twin and Hamsterviel's new henchman is shown shapeshifting into a reddish black European-style dragon, python, griffin, black panther, all-powerful genie, ogre, Pteranodon, Tyrannosaurus, Velociraptor and human.

Shapeshifting in movies

In the film The Spiderwick Chronicles, Mulgarath; the antagonist is shown shapeshifting into a basilisk, raven, and a human. Another antagonist who shape shifts is Maleficent, who becomes both a Will o' the Wisp and a Dragon

In Terminator 2, the T-1000 is a shape-shifting, liquid-metal robot that frequently shape-shifts parts of itself into weapons, such as knives and hooks, shape-shifts to look like people and take on their identities, and even shape-shifting into a flat, black-and-white checkered surface to match and hide on the tile floor of a mental hospital.

In The Thing the alien life form can assimilate and replicate people's cells so the alien is an exact copy of the person. When threatened though the alien would rapidly mutate and kill anyone that it could catch.

Shapeshifting in novels

The plots of several novels in the mythic fiction field revolve around shape-shifting and therianthropy, for example: The Antelope Wife by Louise Erdrich, Coyote Blue by Christopher Moore, and The Wood Wife by Terri Windling are all contemorary explorations of Native American shape-shifter myths. The Fox Woman by Kij Johnson, When Fox is a Thousand by Larissa Lai, and A Rumor of Gems by Ellen Steiber are novels based on Japanese kitsune myths. Greenmantle by Charles de Lint and Stepping from the Shadows by Patricia McKillip draw on the Celtic myth of the stag-man Cernunnos. The Limits of Enchantment by Graham Joyce and Hannah's Garden by Midori Snyder are contemporary novels, set in England and North America respectively, concerning the shape-shifting powers of hares in the folklore of the British Isles.

In the series Animorphs by K. A. Applegate the protagonists receive the power to 'morph' into any animal they touch from a dying alien prince. The power to morph in these stories is not due magic, but to technology and has certain limitations.

In the book series Mindwarp, the Omega, which the six protagonists think are aliens at first are shape-shifter. At normal state, they have gray skin, bubbled head and totally dark eyes. One of the principal characters, Todd Aldridge, has a power who looks like it : he can record what he as already seen or heard - like another human - and turn into it, like a video recorder.

Jack Finney's novel Invasion of the Body Snatchers and the various movies it inspired use the shapeshifting motif as a means of exploring contemporary anxiety and paranoia, particularly fear of totalitarian manipulation of free will and the elimination of human emotion.

In the book The Hobbit, or There and Back Again by J. R. R. Tolkien, there is the character Beorn who can change from man to bear at will.

In the Harry Potter series of novels, there are certain witches and wizards in the wizarding world that have the ability to transform into a single animal form. Such an individual is trained to do so and is referred to as an Animagus. Minerva McGonagall, Sirius Black, Remus Lupin, James Potter, Peter Pettigrew and Rita Skeeter are among the only Animagi named in the series.

In the Twilight series by Stephenie Meyer, members of the Quileute tribe who can turn into wolves are said to be shapeshifters.

In Cornelia Funke's novel Inkdeath, the characters Resa and Mortola use magical seeds to transform into birds.

In the Witchlock series by Cyrese Covelli, main character Gemma Rafferty finds she can shapeshift into a werewolf. In the third book, Wolfsmage, Merle Pinewood shapeshifts into a crow, and the Sarke twins Savannah and Ian shapeshift into snakes.

Camouflage is a novel by Joe Haldeman, with two immortal shapeshifting aliens as the main characters.

Polymorph is a cyberpunk novel by Scott Westerfeld about a shapeshifter who meets another shapeshifter but with evil intentions.

In the Bartimaeus Trilogy by Jonathan Stroud, there are many implications that the Night Police are able to change into wolves at will, and every demon from foliot upwards is able to change its shape to some degree.

Mistwood is a young adult fantasy novel by Leah Cypess. The main character is a female shapeshifter who has lost both her memory and the ability to change her shape.

The Spiderwick series features fantasical beasts that shape shift, from brownies who become boggarts when angered, and the main antagonist; Mulgarath who transforms in to human, or a bird.

In The Power of Five series by Anthony Horowitz, there are creatures named Shape-Changers who can shift from human to monster for disguise.

In the novel IT by Stephen King, the titular monster can assume the shape of whatever it feels its victims will fear most.

Also, on the book "The Shapeshifter" by Ali Sparkes, a 12 year old boy can shapeshift in a fox, falcon and in the last book, an otter.

Shapeshifting in video games

In Prototype, the amnesiac protagonist, Alex Mercer, is capable of transforming his body into weapons or armor, which is a key component of the video game. He also has the ability to shapeshift into the form of the last enemy consumed as a disguise.

In Bayonetta, the title character, Bayonetta is a shapeshifter who uses her hair to help her transform.

In Altered Beast, the character shapeshifts as he collects 'power ups' throughout the levels, he can change into a werewolf, a bear, a tiger and a dragon in different levels with each having their own special ability.

In the popular online RPG World of Warcraft, characters of the Druid class may shapeshift into several different kinds of animals, both real and fantastical, as well as into a tree/ent, presumably due to their closeness to nature. The Warlock and Shaman classes can also shapeshift into a large demon and a ghostly wolf respectively for limeted periods of time. The Mage class can cast a spell called Polymorph, which can transform an opponent into a variety of animals (most notably a sheep), temporarily disabling the opponent in combat.

Shapeshifting in comics

In the comic strip Calvin and Hobbes, Calvin created a transmogrification machine that allowed him to transform into anything he wished.

In the Japanese manga Ranma ½, by Rumiko Takahashi, many of the main characters are under a curse and shapeshift when are touched by cold water and recover their original form with a little splash of hot water. For example, the hero, Ranma, changes into a beautiful maiden, and his father Genma into a Giant Panda.

In the Japanese manga and anime series Fullmetal Alchemist by Hiromu Arakawa, the Homunculus Envy is able to turn into any person or animal, and occasionally turns his limbs into blades.

The Zoanoids from the Guyver manga and anime series are also notoriously known for their abilities to change from humans into monsters.

In the Japanese manga and anime series Bleach, Yoruichi Shihōin can turn into a cat.

In the Japanese manga and anime series Fruits Basket, people who are members of The Zodiac transform into their respective zodiac animals when hugged by members of the opposite sex. Over time, they change back into their human forms, generally whether they want to or not.

In the Japanese anime series Yu-Gi-Oh! GX, transformation appears linked to love and/or romance. Antagonist Taniya is originally a tiger who becomes a human amazoness in order to search for a lover, though it could much more be considered a love slave that she was searching for. Later on, it is revealed that antagonist Yubel, who takes a hermaphroditic dragon form which has a nearly-sick romantic obsession with the main character, was originally a human in a past life and became its current form in an attempt to protect Judai (Jaden in the dub) from any harm that may come to him as he matures.

In One Piece, the Baroque Agent Bon Clay (Mr. 2) is able to transform in any person he has ever touched in the face with his right hand. He just has to touch himself in the face with his right hand. To turn back, he must touch his face with his left hand.

DC Comics' Beast Boy (later the Teen Titan Changeling) can transform into any animal (albeit, due to his green skin, his animal forms are always green).

DC Comics' Mister Mxyzptlk is also a changeling.

Martians (Most notably Martian Manhunter and Miss Martian) from various DC Comics are shape shifters, able to take on unlimited forms.

The American underground comic superhero Trashman can change his molecular structure at will to any shape, even non-organic.

In the X-men, there is the shape-shifting villain Mystique and there is the shapeshifting X-men member then villain named Morph. Due to Rogue's ability to temporarily absorb the powers of other mutants, she can occasionally display shapeshifting abilities by absorbing the powers of a shapeshifting mutant (such as Mystique) or may experience some limited involuntary shapeshifting when she absorbs the powers of certain mutants (for example, her fingernails will grow into claws after absorbing Sabertooth's powers).

In New Mutants, there is the shape-shifting technological life form, Warlock.

In the Marvel Universe (introduced in Fantastic Four #11), Impossible Man also has shape-shifting abilities. He also gains some of the object's properties, but not an ability to change color. (This has been contradicted by some Fantastic Four cover art.)

Also in the Marvel Universe are the Skrulls, a race of aliens with green skin, pointed ears, multiple chins, expanded lifespans, and the ability to shapeshift. Several notable Skrulls are the Super-Skrull, Lyja the Laserfist, and Paibok. Despite originally being enemies of the Fantastic Four, the Skrulls have impacted other heroes, and have been directly involved in the Kree-Skrull War and the Secret Invasion.

Also in the Marvel Universe (introduced in Tales of Suspense #82), the android Super-Adaptoid has limited shape-shifting abilities, adopting the appearance of the person whose powers he has absorbed. He does not gain an ability to change color, always remaining green. (This has also been contradicted by some cover art.)

In the television series' "Ben 10" and "Ben 10 Alien Force" the titular character uses an alien device to transform into different alien heroes.

In the Mario series,Doopliss and Mimi can transform into any known creature.

In Metroid, Gandrayda is a hunter with the ability to shape-shift.

In Castlevania: Symphony of the Night, Alucard, the son of Count Dracula Tepes Vlad, learned the dark arts of his father as a youth and can shape-shift into a bat, wolf, or fog.

In the Pokémon series Mew and Ditto can shape-shift but their copies are not perfect.

In Bionicle, there are many beings that shapeshift.

  • The Makuta, who can only use this power when inhabiting their original armor.
  • Rahkshi of Shapeshifting. The limits of their power depend on how old they are.
  • Krahka's species. Krahka could turn into anything she saw, and combinations of things she's seen.
  • Toa who wear the Mask of Illusion. (Great Kanohi Mahiki)
  • Dark Hunter Triglax.

Transformation enthusiasts

Many children have animal transformation fantasies and shapeshifting is a well-known feature of fairy tales, such as the story of the Frog Prince and The Spiderwick Chronicles . Interest in transformation isn't limited just to them, though; the concept captures some imaginations of all ages. The subject is rather obscure and there's no established term for those who like transformations; the general expression is just "TF fans". Note that having an interest in shapeshifting is distinct from belonging to therians, otherkin or any other group that actually identifies with or wishes to become something else.

Websites and online communities about transformation exist, both clean and otherwise, although for someone who e.g. just likes coming across shapechanges on TV, a site dedicated for appreciating them might be entirely too much. The Transformation Story Archive is a prominent example of its kind.

Two currently prominent webcomics feature transformations for their own sake: El Goonish Shive is technology- and magic-based and more character-driven, while The Wotch is somewhat younger, magic-based and considerably more madcap.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Marina Warner, From the Beast to the Blonde: On Fairy Tales And Their Tellers, p 353 ISBN 0-374-15901-7
  2. ^ Anne Wilson, Traditional Romance and Tale, p 84, D.S. Brewer, Rowman & Littlefield, Ipswitch, 1976, ISBN 0-87471-905-4
  3. ^ David Colbert, The Magical Worlds of Harry Potter, p 28-9, ISBN 0-9708442-0-4
  4. ^ Jack Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p 176-7 ISBN 0-415-92151-1
  5. ^ Anime from Akira to Princess Mononoke: Experiencing Contemporary Japanese Animation; Napier, Susan Jolliffe; ISBN 978-0-312-23863-6
  6. ^ Animerica Vol.1, #2; http://www.furinkan.com/takahashi/takahashi7.html
  7. ^ Francis James Child, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, v 1, p 313-4, Dover Publications, New York 1965
  8. ^ Maria Tatar, p 193, The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales, ISBN 0-393-05163-3
  9. ^ Stephen Prickett, Victorian Fantasy p 86 ISBN 0-253-17461-9
  10. ^ Erik J. Wielenberg, "Aslan the Terrible" p 226-7 Gregory Bassham ed. and Jerry L. Walls, ed. The Chronicles of Narnia and Philosophy ISBN 0-8126-9588-7
  11. ^ James F. Sennett, "Worthy of a Better God" p 243 Gregory Bassham ed. and Jerry L. Walls, ed. The Chronicles of Narnia and Philosophy ISBN 0-8126-9588-7
  12. ^ a b Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale, p 57, ISBN 0-292-78376-0
  13. ^ Richard M. Dorson, "Foreword", p xxiv, Georgias A. Megas, Folktales of Greece, University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1970
  14. ^ Stith Thompson, The Folktale, p 56, University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles London, 1977
  15. ^ Stith Thompson, The Folktale, p 89, University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles London, 1977
  16. ^ David Colbert, The Magical Worlds of Harry Potter, p 23, ISBN 0-9708442-0-4
  17. ^ John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Transformation", p 960 ISBN 0-312-19869-8
  18. ^ Francis James Child, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, v 1, p 336-7, Dover Publications, New York 1965
  19. ^ L. Sprague de Camp, Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers: The Makers of Heroic Fantasy, p 266 ISBN 0-87054-076-9
  20. ^ Stith Thompson, The Folktale, p 55-6, University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles London, 1977
  21. ^ John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Shapeshifting", p 858 ISBN 0-312-19869-8
  22. ^ John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Transformation", p 960 ISBN 0-312-19869-8
  23. ^ Maria Tatar, The Annotated Brothers Grimm, p 226 W. W. Norton & company, London, New York, 2004 ISBN 0-393-05848-4
  24. ^ Joseph Jacobs, English Fairy Tales, "The Laidly Worm of Spindleston Heugh"
  25. ^ Maria Tatar, Off with Their Heads! p. 60 ISBN 0-691-06943-3
  26. ^ Maria Tatar, The Annotated Brothers Grimm, p 136 ISBN 0-393-05848-4
  27. ^ Maria Tatar, Off with Their Heads! p. 140-1 ISBN 0-691-06943-3
  28. ^ Steven Swann Jones, The Fairy Tale: The Magic Mirror of Imagination, Twayne Publishers, New York, 1995, ISBN 0-8057-0950-9, p84
  29. ^ Anne Wilson, Traditional Romance and Tale, p 89, D.S. Brewer, Rowman & Littlefield, Ipswitch, 1976, ISBN 0-87471-905-4
  30. ^ Francis James Child, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, v 1, p 306, Dover Publications, New York 1965
  31. ^ a b c Terri Windling, "Married to Magic: Animal Brides and Bridegrooms in Folklore and Fantasy"
  32. ^ Maria Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p174-5, ISBN 0-691-06722-8
  33. ^ Rigveda 7.104.18-22
  34. ^ a b Katharine Briggs, An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Boogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures, "Shape-shifting", p360. ISBN 0-394-73467-X
  35. ^ Katharine Briggs, An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Boogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures, "Glamour", p191. ISBN 0-394-73467-X
  36. ^ Eddie Lenihan and Carolyn Eve Green, Meeting The Other Crowd: The Fairy Stories of Hidden Ireland, p 80 ISBN 1-58542-206-1
  37. ^ "Armenian Mythology" by Mardiros H. Ananikiam, in Bullfinch's Mythology
  38. ^ Heinz Insu Fenkl, "A Fox Woman Tale of Korea"

References

  • Hall, Jamie, Half Human, Half Animal: Tales of Werewolves and Related Creatures (AuthorHouse, 2003 ISBN 1-4107-5809-5)

External links


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