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State / Territory / Region Name used
 Albania Furgon
 Algeria Taxi collectif
 Angola Candongueiro
 Argentina Colectivo (ancient usage) Combi (actual usage)
 Armenia Marshrutka or երթուղային տաքսի ert’uġayin tak’si
 Australia Multi-hire taxi
 Belarus Marshrutka (маршрутка)
 Bolivia Trufi or Combi
 Botswana Kombi (After VW's Kombi)
 Brazil Táxi-lotação, alternativo
 Bulgaria Marshrutka (маршрутка)
 Canada Jitney

In Quebec, taxi collectif
or transport collectif par taxi
or taxibus

 Colombia Colectivo, Buseta
 Costa Rica Taxi pirata
 Chile Colectivo
 Congo (DRC) Taxibus
 Dominican Republic Concho, carro público
 Egypt Mashrou' (مشروع)
 Estonia Liinitakso or marsruuttakso
 Ethiopia Minibus taxi
 Gambia Tanka tanka
 Germany Sammeltaxi
 Ghana Tro-tro
 Guatemala Camioneta
 Haiti Tap-Tap Cab
 Hong Kong Name in English:
Public light bus, minibus or van
Name in Chinese:
公共小型巴士 or 小巴
 Indonesia Angkot, Bemo, Mikrolet (Jakarta), Oplet (Pekanbaru, Padang), Pete-pete (Makassar), Sudako (Medan), other names exist
 India Shared taxi, Six-seater auto,

Eight-seater auto, Phat-a-Phat, Polaamboo

 Iran Taxi
(Not Share = Taxi Service)
 Israel Monit Sherut
מוֹנִית שֵׂרוּת
 Italy Taxi collettivo
 Kazakhstan Marshrutka (маршрутное такси,

or маршрутка)

 Kenya Matatu (Mathree)
 Lebanon Service (سرفيس)
 Latvia Maršruta taksometrs
 Lithuania Maršrutinis taksi
 Moldova Maxi-taxi (formal), Rutiera (informal)
 Mali Sotrouma
 Malaysia Pempena Executive Taxi
 Mexico Auto de Ruta (Ruletero), Colectivo, Rutero, Pesero or Combi,

(pesero and combi, usually a small bus)

 Morocco Grand Taxi, Petit Taxi
 Mozambique Chapa (pronounced sha-pa)
 Netherlands Deeltaxi, Treintaxi
 New Zealand Shuttle van
 Nigeria Molue or Danfo
 Pakistan Local Van or Vagon
 Peru Combi
 Philippines Jeepney or V–Hire (Vehicle for Hire)
 Poland Bus, busik, minibus, mikrobus, nyska
 Romania Maxi-taxi
 Russia Marshrutka (маршрутное такси,

or маршрутка)

 Rwanda Taxi or Twegerane
 Senegal Car Rapide
 Sierra Leone Poda-poda
 Slovakia Strely (In Martin, Martinské strely)
 Singapore Minibus
 Somalia Caasi, xaajiqamsiin or koostar
 South Africa Combi or Teksi
 Syria Service (سرفيس)
 Tanzania Dala-dala
 Thailand Songthaew (สองแถว)
 Trinidad and Tobago Maxi taxi
 Tunisia Louage
 Turkey Dolmuş
 Uganda Kamunye, Matatu or Taxi
 United Kingdom Demand Responsive Transport, DRT
 United States Circulator, jitney, dollar van, shuttle service, shared ride limousine, guagua Puerto Rico - Carros públicos, guagua, pisa y corre
 Uzbekistan Marshrutka (маршрутка)
 Venezuela Carrito por puesto
 Zimbabwe Commuter Omnibus or Tshova
Many West and Central
African countries,
& Madagascar
Bush taxi (French: Taxi brousse)
Some Latin American
countries
Públicos, colectivos, carritos, gauguas

A share taxi is a mode of transport that falls between private transport and conventional bus transport, often with a fixed or semi-fixed route, but with the added convenience of stopping anywhere to pick up or drop off passengers and not having fixed time schedules. The vehicles used range from standard four-seater cars up to minibuses.[1]

Share taxis are the main system of public transport in many countries (especially developing countries) and are known by many different names around the world (see table). They often are privately owned and have an anarchic operating style, lacking central control or organisation.

In many countries they create problems that are due to the ways in which they are driven and the conditions of their almost always old, polluting and often dangerous vehicles. Indeed in many places such services are illegal or banned.[citation needed]

Over the last few years the attitudes of planners and policy makers has begun to look on them as solutions as well as sources of problems. This interest is also starting to take shape in the more advanced economies which are looking more closely at movement solutions where regulations have changed to allow such services, many of which are supported by advanced information technology, including GPS tracking, internet booking systems and mobile phones to coordinate passengers and vehicles.[citation needed]

Contents

Types of vehicle

Share taxis come in various vehicle types, including minibuses, midibuses, covered pickup trucks, station wagons, or lorries.

Operation

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Vehicle ownership

Share taxis are operated under two main models:

  • Operated by a company, or subcontracted by a public transit authority.[2][3] Often, individual vehicles are owned by individual drivers but operate under the same company name. Alternatively, the cars are owned by a single company that pays the drivers.
  • Private vehicles. These tend to be more overloaded than company vehicles, sometimes with passengers sitting on the roof, on the bonnet, and in the boot. They are usually owned by individuals, who do not involve themselves in the day-to-day running of the taxi. Instead they either employ a driver and a conductor, who maintain and operate the vehicle, or they rent it out for a daily fee, allowing the renter to keep all profits. In some countries these private vehicles are illegal, but often operate anyway, attracting customers with lower prices.

The terminus

A minibus share taxi in Cameroon.
A row of minibus share taxis waiting to depart in Kigali, Rwanda.

A given share taxi route usually starts and finishes in central locations known as taxi parks, lorry parks, motor parks, garages, autogares, gares routières, or paragems. These are usually located near the centre of a town or near a major market. Larger towns often have several taxi parks, one for each road out or for each major destination. Other towns have no centralised taxi parks, with taxis departing from the roadside. There will also be smaller taxi parks in the suburbs of large towns, which serve as the terminus for urban share taxis to that destination.

When passengers arrive at a taxi park, they are often assailed by people known as touts, coti-men, or taxi scouts, whose job is to persuade travellers to use their specific vehicle or taxi company with efforts that range from praising the comfort of their vehicle to promising a quick journey or grabbing baggage and throwing it atop their car. Nevertheless, most share taxis only leave the taxi park after all possible seats have been sold, whether that be a matter of minutes, hours, or days. Taxis headed to more popular destinations thus generally have lower wait times, though such locales are often serviced by more than one company. Travellers often opt for the car with the more passengers, leading some companies to sit employees in cars to make them seem fuller than they really are. The cars sometimes follow a loose schedule, though this is seldom made public.

In some towns and villages, taxis are not affiliated with any particular company and several privately owned cars queue up to travel. Despite the fact that they are all in effect competitors, drivers still wait for other cars to depart before they begin to fill up their own vehicles.

Along the route

Share taxis service most major towns on major roads, though more popular destinations tend to have more cars travelling in and out per day. Ticket prices vary, but rates are often set by the government to take into account road conditions, distances, and time of year. Thus, taxis travelling lower-quality roads tend to be more expensive than those servicing towns on paved routes. In addition, taxis that cross international borders cost even more (and are often illegal). With some vehicles, payment must be made towards the beginning of the journey, while in others it is made after alighting. Passengers can usually purchase a ticket for a reduced price if they wish to get out at another destination on the same route. Luggage, which often includes livestock and produce, is usually placed on top of the vehicle for an extra, negotiable fee (though this fee is often not actually required). The earliest vehicles for most destinations leave between 6 and 9 AM, though more remote locations often leave much earlier.

Once the share taxi leaves the taxi park, it then proceeds along its route. Drivers generally stop to drop passengers wherever they want to alight and to pick up those who flag down the vehicle from the side of the road. Usually the vehicle continues along its route even if it is not always full, although long delays are common. Passengers picked up en route pay their fare to the conductor, who rides with the passengers (sometimes in a standing position), opens and closes the door, and handles any extra baggage. The conductor and/or driver remembers exactly which passenger got on where; nevertheless, arguments about the price often take place.

Because of the horrible conditions of many roads in developing countries, share taxi rides are often slow-going and physically demanding. Voyages are also hard on the taxis themselves, and vehicles frequently break down en route. Drivers and mechanics are often experts at repairing vehicles despite a serious lack of proper parts. Trips on share taxis can be quite dangerous, as well, since drivers are pressured to arrive as quickly as possible[citation needed]. This also means that with better road conditions drivers can go at even more dangerous speeds than usual. Other travel hazards sometimes encountered are road bandits and police checkpoints[citation needed].

Traditional systems around the world

Black taxi (Northern Ireland)

In some towns in Northern Ireland, notably certain districts in Ballymena, Belfast, Derry and Newry, share taxi services operate using Hackney carriages. These services developed during The Troubles as public bus services were often interrupted due to street rioting. Taxi collectives are closely linked with political groups - those operating in Catholic areas with Sinn Féin, those in Protestant areas with loyalist paramilitaries and their political wings.

Typically, fares approximate to those of Translink operated bus services on the same route. Service frequencies are typically higher than on bus services, especially at peak times, although limited capacities mean that passengers living close to the termini may find it difficult to find a black taxi with seats available in the rush hour.

Bush taxi (West and Central Africa)

A Toyota Corolla estate bush taxi.

There are three main types of bush taxi (French taxi brousse, Mandinka tanka tanka): the station wagon, the minibus, and the lorry. Many are previously owned vehicles imported from Europe or Japan, while others are assembled from parts in regional centres such as Nigeria or Kenya. The original seating of the vehicles is usually stripped out in order to allocate more and longer benches and thus more passenger space. In addition, more people generally sit on each bench than would be the case in more developed countries. They are often in poor condition, though wealthier countries tend to have better-maintained vehicles.

In the past, most station-wagon bush taxis were modified 1980s-model Peugeot 504s. In some countries they are known as "five-seaters" or "seven-seaters" (French sept-place), but in fact, they may seat nine passengers or more. The cars have three rows of seats. Today, however, other models, such as the Peugeot 505 or the Toyota Corolla have supplanted the 504 in some countries and are gaining ground in others.

The bush taxi, a type of public light bus frequently used in West-Africa

Typically two passengers are seated on the front seat next to the driver, and four passengers in each of the two back rows. Sometimes, in particular on less-frequented routes, bush taxis are even more crowded and passengers might even sit on the roof or the trunk. Bush taxis in wealthier countries tend to be less crowded. For example, in Nigeria bush taxis (of both the station wagon or minibus type) are called three-across if only three passenger sit in each row. If four passengers sit in each row the bush taxi is accordingly called four-across.

The minibus (French minicar) is quickly becoming the most common type of bush taxi in West and Central Africa, especially for longer trips. Minibuses are van-like vehicles that may seat between 12 and 20 passengers. Due to the vehicles' larger size, drivers often also employ a helper who rides in the back portion of the vehicle and tells them when to stop to let people off or helps load and unload baggage. Minibuses tend to travel at a slower pace, and they take longer to fill up and to pass through police checkpoints. These vehicles generally charge more than standard buses but less than Peugeot-type bush taxis. Frequently used brands/models in West-Africa are the Renault Goelette, the Saviem Super Goelette 2, and the Isuzu Kitamura minibus. Note that the Goelette may also be found frequently in Vietnam and Madagascar as a share taxi.[4]

The lorry bush taxi (French bâché) is also sometimes encountered. It is a typical lorry (or truck) with benches along the sides of the bed for passengers. There is often a cover for the bed as well. Routes serviced by lorries often require travel over worse roads and to more remote areas than the other types.

Carro Público or Concho (Dominican Republic)

Carros Públicos (literally "Public Cars") run fixed routes along main roads and throughout bigger cities in the Dominican Republic from the early morning to late night.

In the cities, different routes are designated by letter and number combinations. In other areas, no such designations exist.

Colectivo

See Main article: Colectivo

Colectivos operated as share taxis from the 1930s until the 1990s in Buenos Aries, Argentina when they were integrated into the public transportation system. They still operate throughout the country.

Dala-dala (Tanzania)

A dala-dala bus in the city of Dar es Salaam

The origin of the word is attributed to different sources. One is that it is derived from the Swahili word dala, jargon for 'five'. When Daladala made their first appearance in the late 1960s, the standard fare for a trip was five cents. Daladalas are sometimes known as 'Gobole' and more recently, as 'Vipanya'. In Arusha they are commonly called 'Hiace' after the Toyota minibus model most commonly in use (pronounced 'haice'). Many times the Dala-dala are filled with everything from goats to the daily market produce to the latest entrepreneurial venture of the day. People wanting to board must act fast and hold their position to gain access to the shared Dala-dala as everyone is usually fighting for their space.

Toll collectors are termed "mpigadebe" - literally, 'a person who hits a debe' (a 4 gallon tin container used for transporting gasoline or water). This is in reference to the fact that they are often hitting the roof and side of the van to attract customer attention and to notify the driver when to leave the station.

Dolmuş (Turkey)

A dolmus in Marmaris, Turkey

A dolmuş (pronounced DOLE-moosh) is a privately owned vehicle, normally with a capacity of 14 passengers, that runs on set routes within cities. It also runs to and from outlying towns and villages.

Dolmuşes mostly work on a fixed fee system: whatever the distance, passengers pay a set amount for the route, although there can be different prices for different distance groups in larger cities' dolmuşes. Cities have dedicated dolmuş stops as for buses, but on quieter routes a dolmuş may be hailed at any point on the route.

Dolmuş means "full" or "stuffed", as they depart not on fixed schedules but when sufficient passengers have boarded. Sometimes during off-peak periods, it is common for passenger(s) to pay the fare for the empty seat(s) for the dolmuş to depart without "filling up", if they do not want to wait for the entire car to fill up. It is customary for the passengers to cooperate in passing fares forward to the driver and passing change back.

There are actually two different share taxi systems in Turkey, and dolmuş is one of them, which is rapidly becoming a common name for both systems. In the traditional manner the dolmuşes are somehow vans providing a relatively comfortable transportation. Dolmuşes are yellow vans commuting 7-8 people at a time. They are also one of the more expensive mass transport alternatives. Minibuses however, have a capacity for 14 - 20 people. The picture on the right hand side shows a typical minibus. They are much cheaper and much easier to get access, because the streets are full of them.

Since rapid transit in Turkish cities is still being developed, a dolmuş is often the only alternative. Minibus drivers have a reputation for being aggressive, fearless and rude. Dolmuş drivers, in contrary, tend to know the local commuters in the smaller neighborhoods that they serve and are rather courteous. A dolmuş ride is also considered the only reliable form of rapid transit in Istanbul, for being the only form of mass transit running almost 24 hours a day.

Jeepney (Philippines)

A colorful jeepney

See Main article: Jeepney

Jitney (U.S. and Canada)

A jitney is a North American English term which originally referred to a livery vehicle intermediate between a taxi and a bus.[5] It is generally a small-capacity vehicle that follows a rough service route, but can go slightly out of its way to pick up and drop off passengers. In many U.S. cities (e.g. Pittsburgh and Detroit), the term jitney refers to an unlicensed taxi cab.

The name jitney comes from an archaic, colloquial term for a five-cent piece in the US. The common fare for the service when it first came into use was five cents, so the five-cent cab or jitney cab came to be known for the price charged.

In some U.S. jurisdictions the limit to a jitney is seven passengers. In Rhode Island a jitney license plate is used for all public passenger buses, even for larger ones.

Jitney in Atlantic City, United States in 2008

While jitneys are fairly common in many other countries, such as the Philippines, they first appeared in the U.S. and Canada. The first U.S. jitneys ran in Los Angeles, California in 1914. By 1915, there were 62,000 nationwide. Local regulations, demanded by streetcar companies, killed the jitney in most places. By the end of 1916, only 6,000 jitneys remained.[6][7][8] Similarly, in Vancouver, Canada, in the 1920s, jitneys competed directly with the streetcar monopoly, operating along the same routes as the streetcars but charging lower fares.[9] Operators were referred to as "Jitney Men." They were so successful that the city government banned them at the request of the streetcar operators.

Since the 1973 oil crisis, jitneys have reappeared in some areas of the United States, particularly inner city areas once served by streetcars and private buses. (An increase in bus fares usually leads to a significant rise in jitney usage.) Liberalization of jitneys is often encouraged by libertarian urban economists, such as The University of Chicago's Richard Epstein, Rutgers' James Dunn, and USC's Peter Gordon, as a more "market-friendly" alternative to public transportation. However, concerns over fares, insurance liabilities, and passenger safety have kept legislative support for jitneys decidedly tepid. Nevertheless, in New York City, jitneys (known as "dollar vans" because of their original price) are regulated and remain popular especially outside of Manhattan.

Miami has the country's most comprehensive jitney network, sparking from its Caribbean influence.[10]

The ACJA operates a jitney service that travels the main strip of casinos. One of the routes also services the new cluster of casinos west of Atlantic City proper.

The Washington Wave is a jitney service in Houston, Texas, serving the popular Washington Avenue Corridor.[11]

Liinitakso (Estonia)

Share taxis in Estonia are mostly found in Tallinn, the capital. They are called liinitakso (the official name), marsruuttakso (an old name but still widely used) or marsa (a slang name).

Marshrutka (Russia and the Republics of the Former Soviet Union)

Four marshrutkas in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

Marshrutka ('Marshrutky' plural) can be found from one end of the former Soviet Union to other, from Termez on the border with Afghanistan to Murmansk in Arctic, and from Vladivostok to European Russia.

See Main article: Marshrutka

Matatu (Kenya/Uganda)

The origin of the word matatu is ascribed to different sources. One attribution is that it is derived from the Kenyan tatu, meaning three ten cent coins. When matatus made their first appearance in the late 1960s, the standard fare for a trip was three coins worth thirty Kenyan cents.[12] Matatu are sometimes known as 'ma3' as the swahili word for "three" is tatu, normally used in text messaging and more recently, as 'mats' in Sheng, Kenya's creolised swahili language. Matatus are mostly Isuzu minibuses; other popular models include the Nissan Caravan and Toyota Hiace.

Until the Kenyan government enforced new laws to regulate the matatu sector, matatu vehicles were characteristically painted colorfully, commonly featuring pictures and caricatures of anything currently in vogue. If, for example, a single by Beyoncé were at Number One, one might easily find a matatu named after her or her song, with her picture prominent on both the inside and outside of the vehicle. They also use names of famous people all over the world be it singers, sportsmen, etc. like Martina Hingis, Jennifer Lopez, George Bush and so on..

Many Kenyan matatus were also equipped with powerful car audio systems, including high-powered woofers and sub-woofers. Loud music was a popular means of advertising, the theory being that the matatu with the loudest and most fashionable hip-hop, dancehall or reggae music would appeal to a larger crowd, hence making higher profits. That is why the youth normally use the 'dot-com' mathrees usually referred to as manyanga/nganya and the older people use the quieter ones-wangora or ya wazazi (for parents). This is because the majority of them have no music at all and are always slow.

Unsafe behavior by matatu operators, including speeding and violations of traffic laws, allegedly contributed to increasingly dangerous driving conditions on the streets of Nairobi. For this and other reasons, the government of Kenya implemented laws regulating the matatu industry on 31 January 2004.

More generally, 'matatu culture' has been characterized by a cut-throat approach to business that emphasizes quick profits. Numerous anti-social practices have allegedly been linked to the matatu business, including:

  • Bribery of traffic policemen
  • Corruption and sexual molestation of young girls by matatu drivers or crew
  • Petty crime: Outright theft from passengers, overcharging, pickpocketing, physical assault, verbal abuse and general intimidation of the travelling public
  • Young men dropping out of school to become touts and drivers

Of late, commuters have been complaining over the hiking of matatu fares in Kenya. For example, a trip to the Eastlands area in Nairobi could cost as much as a fifty kilometre journey to upcountry. In their defense, matatu drivers and conductors blame it on the traffic jams and rising fuel prices.

Minibus taxi (Ethiopia)

Minibus taxis in Ethiopia are one of the most important modes of transport in big cities like Addis Ababa. They are preferred by the majority of the populace over public buses and more traditional taxicabs because they are generally cheap, operate on diverse routes, and are available in abundance. All minibus taxis in Ethiopia have a standard blue-and-white coloring scheme, much like the yellow color of New York taxicabs. Minibus taxis are usually Toyota Hiace, but other makes, including Volkswagen Kombis have also been observed. They typically can carry 11 passengers. The minibus driver has a crew member called a "weyala".

To get a ride on a minibus, one has to either go straight to a minibus terminal or hail one that is passing by on the road. In both cases, the weyala will inform potential passengers of the minibus's itinerary simply by shouting out the destination of the minibus. It is the passenger's responsibility to assess the route the minibus is taking with respect to his/her own destination before boarding the minibus. Minibus taxis don't have fixed stops along their route, but instead the passenger is required to inform the weyala, who in turn informs the driver to stop at a desired location.

Despite providing a living for thousands of people and cheap transportation for the masses, minibus taxis have increasingly been making the headlines for all the wrong reasons. In a recent study, minibus taxis were implicated in 85% of all road accidents recorded in metropolitan Addis Ababa. This figure can be attributed to many factors: driving over the speed limit, reckless driving, and the poor maintenance condition of the minibus taxis. Many minibus taxi drivers regularly chew 'chat' (a mild stimulant) to offset fatigue due to their 16-18 hour shifts. This leads them to be aggressive and irritable on the road. Also recently, pickpocketing aboard minibuses is becoming a real problem.

Minibus taxi (South Africa)

Cape Town minibus taxi rank

Over 60% of South Africa's commuters use shared minibus taxis (16 seater commuter buses). These vehicles are mostly unsafe and not roadworthy, and often dangerously overloaded. Minibus taxi drivers are well known for their disregard of traffic rules.

Prior to 1987, the taxi industry in South Africa was highly regulated and controlled. Black taxi operators were declined permits in the Apartheid era and all minibus taxi operations were, by their very nature, illegal.

Post 1987, the industry was rapidly deregulated, leading to an influx of new minibus taxi operators, keen to make money off the high demand for this service. Taxi operators banded together to form local and national associations. Because the industry was largely unregulated and the official regulating bodies corrupt, these associations soon engaged in anti-competitive price fixing and exhibited gangster tactics - including the hiring of hit-men and all-out gang warfare. During the height of the conflict, it was not uncommon for taxi drivers to carry shotguns and AK-47's to simply shoot rival taxi drivers and their passengers on sight.[citation needed]

Currently the South African Government is attempting to formalize and re-regulate the out-of-control minibus taxi industry. Along with new legislation, the government has instituted a 7-year recapitalization scheme to replace the old and unroadworthy vehicles with new 18 and 35-seater minibuses. These new minibus taxi's carry the South African flag on the side and are notably more spacious and safe.

Public light bus (Hong Kong)

A public light bus (left) and a double-decker bus (right) in Hong Kong.

Public light buses (Chinese: 公共小型巴士), also known as minibus or maxicab (Chinese: 小巴), run the length and breadth of Hong Kong, through areas which the standard bus lines cannot or do not reach as frequently, quickly or directly. Minibuses carry a maximum of 16 seated passengers; no standing passengers are allowed. Minibuses typically offer a faster and more efficient transportation solution due to their small size, limited carrying capacity, frequency and diverse range of routes, although they are generally slightly more expensive than standard buses. The popularity of public light bus services in Hong Kong is due to the high population densities which are needed to support the extensive network of minibus routes. There are two types of public light minibus, Green minibuses and Red minibuses. Both types have a cream coloured body, the distinguishing feature being the colour of the external roof, and the type of service that the colour denotes: green for continuous service (regardless of number of passengers) and generally salaried drivers; red is more like a shared taxi, with the driver waiting for enough passengers to justify leaving, as his income depends on the revenue. Hence red minibuses are driven noticeably harder.

Shared taxi and shared jeep (India)

As one example, "Shared taxis" - and known just as that – have been operating in Mumbai, India, since the early 1970’s. These are more like a point to point service that operates only during the peak hours. During off peak hours, they ply just like the regular taxis, can be hailed anywhere on the roads, and passengers are charged by the meter. But in order to bridge the gap between demand and supply, during peak hours, several of them operate as Shared Taxis, taking a full cab load of passengers to a more or less common destination. The pick-up points for these taxis are fixed, and are marked by a post that says, “Shared Taxis” and cabs line up at this point during peak hours. They display the general destination they are headed for on their windscreens, and passengers just get in and wait for the cab to fill up. As soon as this happens - which takes less than a couple of minutes - the cab moves off. Fares are a fixed amount – fixed between the Taxi Unions and the authorities for the point to point distance - and are far lower than the metered fare to the same destination, but higher than the bus or train fare. Time taken is obviously much less than that by bus. These taxis are very popular because of the lack of waiting time, faster journey speeds, greater comfort, and absence of the crush loads of peak hour commuter traffic in buses and trains. Generally, the taxi drivers choose the locality that they live in, in the suburbs as the destination in the evenings, and in the mornings, the destinations are always the CBD in South Mumbai."

Share jeeps are a common form of transportation in the Himalayas and elsewhere.[13]

Sherut (Israel)

Sherut is a Hebrew word meaning "service". It refers to vans which serve as taxis in Israel, that operate on fixed routes, usually similar to bus lines, and take passengers for fixed point-to-point fares, which are similar and sometimes lower than bus fares. Sherut taxis usually don't have fixed timetables and will normally leave when they fill up with passengers. They are willing to stop at places that aren't designated bus stops, or even at areas where stopping is forbidden, if people flag them down or request to get off. In addition, they operate outside of normal bus companies' business days, providing a major form of public transportation during the Sabbath and holidays (when no public buses are available in most parts of the country, except for Eilat and the Haifa region) and on some lines all through the night.

Shuttle (New Zealand)

A shuttle van service to Dunedin International Airport, operated by Super Shuttle loads a passenger at Dunedin Railway Station in New Zealand

Shuttles operate from most New Zealand airports, and fares are usually on a per person basis with a minimum charge when there is a small number of passengers.[14] Under LTSA Regulations Shuttles are only allowed to have up to eleven passenger seats and the driver must have a 'p' endorsed drivers licence.

Shuttle Service (US)

In many places in the US shuttle services offer shared rides, particularly on popular routes, e.g. from/to the airport. Many Limousine and Sedan companies also offer shared rides. Passengers are picked up and dropped off at various destinations, just like with a cab you get "door to door" service, although the trip may take longer with other people being picked up/ dropped off on the way. Rates are lower than for cabs, even if the driver does not manage to pick up other riders for that particular tour.

Songthaew (Thailand)

See Main article: Songthaew

Tap-tap cab in Port-au-Prince.

Tap-Tap Cab (Haiti)

The Tap-Tap cab serves as mass transportation in Haiti. Urban Tap-Taps are small pick-up trucks with benches and a sun cover, able to manoeuvre in heavy traffic. For longer journeys between cities larger trucks and buses are used. Both are elaborately decorated by their owner/drivers, bright spots in the drab streets. They operate over fixed routes, departing only when full. Tapping on the metal panels at the back of the benches signals the chauffeur to stop for a passenger. One can ride a city tap-tap for five Gourdes.

Sharing taxi in Tehran

Taxi (Iran)

In Iran, four passengers share a taxi. Usually, there is no terminus and they wait in the street side and blare their destination to all taxis until one of them stops. These are regular taxi but if somebody wants to get non-share taxi he can call 'taxi service' or wait wait in the street side and tells 'DARBAST' free taxis. It means he wants to pay more and is not interested to share the taxi.

Minibus, with a capacity of 18 passengers, and Van(Shuttle),with a capacity of 9 passengers are other kinds of share transport in Iran.

Taxi collectif (Algeria)

These are generally sedans, minivans, or sometimes compacts with a capacity of four to nine passengers. The taxi collectif is owned by the driver (who is given a state licence), and must follow a strict route, dropping off and picking up passengers on the way. They usually bear the name of the route on the windshield, and slow down at common taxi stops, which are places where people usually wait for taxis to come.

The passenger pays when he gets off, and the fare depends on the distance he made, calculated according to the distance between common taxi stops, added to a minimum fare. This minimum fare, and the fare from one stop to another is state regulated, but sometimes driver syndicates disagree with the state fares and charge more. However, the fare is always the same from taxi to taxi.

The driver must remember who got in, and when, to be able to get paid accordingly. These taxis are slightly more expensive than buses, but have the advantage of coming more often, and being faster. Also, in villages, these are commonly used to go to nearby cities, and buses have disappeared due to people preferring taxis.

Ordinary taxis, with a meter, are almost non-existent in Algeria. However, there are taxis (often labelled as taxis collectifs, even though they only take passengers to one single destination) at bus terminals, airports and such places which can take one anywhere in the city for 200 Algerian dinars. If the driver judges the destination too far, he will charge extra. The price is negotiable.

Due to the problems posed by taxis collectifs, the Canadian Foreign Affairs Ministry[15] and US State Department[16] recommend against using them.

Taxi collectifs (Quebec)

In Quebec share taxis or jitneys are called "taxis collectifs"[17] (in English "collective taxis"[18]) or "Transport collectif par taxi"[19] (in English "Taxibus"[20]) and are operated by subcontractors to the local transit authorities[20][21][22][23] on fixed routes. In the case of the STM the fare is the same as the local bus fare, but no cash, and transfers are issued or accepted[24] In case of the STL only monthly passes are accepted.[21][25] The Réseau de transport de Longueuil accepts regular RTL tickets and all RTL and TRAM passes (zone 3 and up).[26]

See also: Montreal taxibus, RTL shared taxi

Taxi colectivo (México)

Often share-taxi routes in Mexico are ad hoc arrangements to fill in gaps in regular public transportation, (although they may be locally regulated as to fares and routes) and many operate inter-city as well as local routes, in many rural areas, they are the only public transportation. In some cases truck-taxi combination vehicles have evolved to transport light goods as well as passengers. Heavily used share-taxi routes often evolve into regulated microbus public transit routes, as has occurred in Mexico City. See Pesero.

Treintaxi (Netherlands)

Besides the Deeltaxi (originally for handicapped people, nowadays for everyone), there are treintaxis in most major towns. They are operated on behalf of the Netherlands Railways and run from and to the railway stations. Tickets (at a fixed price) can be purchased at the Railways' ticket offices, in combination with railway tickets. To get to the railway station, people can order a train taxi by phone, at least one hour in advance. To get back home, taxis are available at a specially marked stand outside the railway stations. They depart when they are full, or after 15 minutes.

Tro Tro (Ghana)

Tro tros or just tros are van-like vehicles, ranging from small minibuses within cities to large vans for intercity or international travel. They used to be trucks with bench-seating in the back. (This was the origin of their name: they used to typically be gaily decorated often with local proverbs or sayings e.g. "one tree fall down".)

Typical tro-tros seat about 14 people-two in the front seat, and then three rows of four bench seats, which have a folding partition in order to maximise space. The larger vehicles can seat anywhere up to 26 people. The number of passengers in a tro tro will often exceed the number of seats. This happens when the ride to a specific destination comes infrequently or demand for the ride is high, and when tro tro operators attempt to maximize prophets. Overpacking tro tros (as well as taxis) is a common occurrence in rural areas. In the cities, however, the threat of fines keeps this to a minimum. Instances occur where law enforcement officers detain a tro tro for a small infraction like exceeding the number of passengers under threat of confiscating the vehicle or imprisoning the driver until the driver pays a fee. Most or all of the fee is pocketed by the officer on site. This forced bribery is referred to coloquially as a "dash", though dashes are not necessarily forced, and may cost around 8 Ghana Cedi (approx $5 USD). Drivers are wary of this type of corruption which occurs in the cities and at checkpoints in the road across the country as it draws from their already low incomes.

Tro tros in Ghana very often decorated by the drivers with decals of country flags (Jamaica, United States, Ghana), pictures (football [soccerball USA], 'golden child') slogans written in both English and local languages along the back window or windshield (common examples given in parenthesies). The slogans often reflect the driver's religious belief's, aspirations, or opinions, though some seem nonsensicle. They are a source of entertainment and humor for the wayfarer, though this is probably not their purpose. and are

The ride is packed and uncomfortable, and there is often a great deal of jostling as people try to get out and in from seats at the back. Large amounts of cargo may be stored precariously on the top of tro tros, and cargo such as goats and chickens may accompany passengers inside.

You can pick up a tro-tro along the road, but all cities in Ghana have a main tro-tro station in order for you to find a route to almost anywhere within the country by some means or another, the biggest being Accra's New Tema Station. All tro-tros operate with a driver and a ride-along mate whose job it is to take money, open and close the door, and lean out the window looking for passengers and calling the destination and flashing accompanying hand signal. Tro tros at stations do not leave until they are full. This can translate into long wait times, though seats are taken on a first come basis and the difference in comfort between certain seats can be large. A bus stop can be called at nearly any point along the route.

Long distance travel (over a large part of the country or to surrounding countries) costs from 5 to 10 Ghana Cedi, or $3 to $7 USD (as of 2009), and short travel as little as 20 Pesawas [$0.13 USD].

These vehicles are maintained by the driver, and may be fairly dangerous, but they remain the main source of transport across the country or within the city for many people, with Ghana lacking a workable railway system. They should not be confused with the 'line' or 'drop' taxi's, which are, like the bush taxis described above, old cars which will run routes with shared passengers and one driver, or will be available for hire should the traveller pay for it.

Modern technology-based services

Paratransit

Modern Paratransit services, also known as demand responsive transport systems in the UK, can provide shared transport services in situations where scheduled services are not viable. Traditionally these services had to be booked a day in advance, but are becoming increasingly responsive using modern communications systems with a central booking system accessed by phone or internet and instant communications with GPS tracked vehicles. Unlike scheduled services the vehicles need not operate on fixed routes of timetables, although they do often have constrained routes.

Commercial shared taxis booking services

Some newer taxi share systems now use internet and mobile phone communications for booking and scheduling purposes, with the actual service provided by normal hackney carriage or Private Hire vehicles. Prospective passengers make bookings and supply destination details using SMS to a central server which aggregates these travel requests and creates packages of trips which are then communicated to drivers.

A Liverpool Hackney Cab Driver.

Commercially operated airport shuttle buses

There are many operators of airport shuttle services between Airports and Hotels around the world that operate on flexible routing and timing to offer a service that is both cheaper than a sole-occupancy taxi and also often more convenient that other forms of public transport. The requirement to carry luggage offers an added incentive to use such services over scheduled transport which will normally require a walk from the drop-off location to the final destination. Services from these operators are starting to spread from airports to railway stations and to other locations.

References

  1. ^ Robert Cervero, Fostering Commercial Transit: Alternatives in Greater Los Angeles, Reason Magazine, September 1992.
  2. ^ http://www.stl.laval.qc.ca/index-en.asp STL
  3. ^ http://www.stm.info/ STM
  4. ^ Brands frequently used as share taxis in West-Africa, Madagascar and Vietnam
  5. ^ "The March Of Events: The Jitney". The World's Work: A History of Our Time XXIX: 618. April 1915. http://books.google.com/books?id=l_2rn8M7DSsC&pg=RA1-PA618. Retrieved 2009-08-04. 
  6. ^ http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2186%28197210%2915%3A2%3C293%3ATJ%3E2.0.CO%3B2-%23&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage
  7. ^ http://www.lava.net/cslater/TQOrigin.pdf
  8. ^ IngentaConnect Roping the Wild Jitney': the jitney bus craze and the rise of urb
  9. ^ Report of Dr. Adam Shortt, commissioner investigating the economic conditions and operations of the British Columbia Electric Railway Company and subsidiary companies, and to decide definitely as to the possibility of street car service being maintained in competition with the jitneys, publ. BC Electric Railway Company Limited, Vancouver, 1917
  10. ^ http://www.miamiherald.com/460/story/538299.html
  11. ^ http://www.thewashingtonwave.com
  12. ^ What's a Matatu? RCBowen KENYA page.
  13. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=Fk8FQa2ZSFQC&pg=PA521
  14. ^ http://www.queenstown.net.nz/index.php?title=Airport_Transfers
  15. ^ Travel Report for Algeria
  16. ^ Algeria
  17. ^ STL - Taxis - Liste des circuits de taxis
  18. ^ STL - Taxis - Liste des circuits de taxis
  19. ^ Le transport collectif par taxi
  20. ^ a b Taxibus service
  21. ^ a b STL - Taxis - Liste des circuits de taxis
  22. ^ Taxibus service - Aldo distribution centre in Saint-Laurent
  23. ^ Taxibus service - Lachine
  24. ^ http://www.stm.info/English/info/a-taxi-aldo.htm.
  25. ^ http://www.stl.laval.qc.ca/pa1/taxis/i/T06r.jpg
  26. ^ Service Table
  • Burke, Andre, et al. (2002). Lonely Planet: West Africa (5th ed.). Victoria: Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd.
  • Hudgens, Jim; and Trillo, Richard (2000). West Africa: The Rough Guide (3rd ed.). London: Rough Guides Ltd.
  • Newton, Alex (1994). Lonely Planet: Central Africa. Victoria: Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd.

External links


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