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.Sharia (Arabic: 'شريعة Šarīʿa; [ʃɑˈriːɑ], "way" or "path") refers to the "way" Muslims should live or the "path" they must follow.^ Factories that employ many Muslims find that they must obey Sharia law and set aside prayer rooms and give time off.
  • Political Islam // Articles // Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.politicalislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If they want Sharia, they should go to Iran.
  • Michelle Malkin » “Banks are helping sharia make a back-door entrance” 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: General]

^ A Muslim living today should follow the model of marrying only one woman.
  • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sharia is derived from the sacred text of Islam (the Qur'an), and Traditions (Hadith) gathered from the life of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.^ Muhammad was the first and last prophet of Islam.
  • The Jawa Report v3.0 Beta Archives 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC mypetjawa.mu.nu [Source type: News]

^ The sacred law of Islam; Islamic law .
  • Legal Dictionary 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.duhaime.org [Source type: Original source]

^ TRANSLATED as "pathway to the water", sharia is derived from the Koran and the 7th-century teachings of the prophet Muhammad known as the hadiths.
  • Archbishop of Canterbury calls for Sharia Law in Great Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nevilleawards.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are different interpretations in some areas of Sharia, depending on the school of thought (Madh'hab), and the particular scholars (Ulema) involved.^ Are there different interpretations of sharia?
  • FAQ: Sharia law | UK news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ There are different interpretations of the various tenets of sharia by various Muslims communities.
  • New Socialist: SHARIA LAW: Religious arbitration and the privatization of law 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC newsocialist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are different schools of thought, which consequently lead to different rulings.
  • BBC Claims Sharia Law Is Nothing To Fear | Sweetness & Light 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC sweetness-light.com [Source type: Original source]

.Traditionally, Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh) interprets and refines Sharia by extending its principles to address new questions.^ In a recent article, Alex Alexiev, Vice President of Research at the Center for Security Policy, points out that Sharia law is not "Islamic law", except as interpreted by Islamists.
  • Sharia Law gets 'OK' in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.polishforums.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Islamic jurists have traditionally held that Muslim women may only enter into marriage with Muslim men, although some contemporary jurists question the basis of this restriction.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ In the context of Islam Mainstream Islam distinguishes between fiqh (deep understanding, discernment), which refers to the inferences drawn by scholars, and sharia, which refers to the principles that lie behind the fiqh.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

.Islamic judges (Qadi) apply the law, however modern application varies from country to country.^ It has generally been supplemented by legislation adapted to the conditions of the day, though the manner in which it should be applied in modern states is a subject of dispute between Islamic fundamentalists and modernists.
  • sharia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For those unfamiliar with it, Sharia law is the legal and judicial system of Islam that is brutally imposed on many Islamic countries in the Middle East .
  • Sharia Banking: The Silent Jihad Against the West 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chronwatch-america.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, if interest, in money or kind, is understood to mean profit rate, then, all recognised schools and all modern educated Islamic scholars, with very few exceptions, consider intereste to be compatible with Islamic Laws of Sharia.
  • Social/Economic Implications of Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC dawodu.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sharia deals with many aspects of life, including crime, politics, economics, banking, business, contracts, family, sexuality, hygiene, and social issues.^ It further promotes the islamic way of life Sharia deals with many aspects of day-to-day life, including politics, economics, banking, business, contracts, family, sexuality, hygiene, and social issues.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ It is impossible to have a rational debate until people recognise that sharia deals with many aspects of day-to-day life, from business and banking to hygiene and social issues.
  • Hysteria over 'sharia courts' in Scotland is unjustified - The Scotsman 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC thescotsman.scotsman.com [Source type: News]

^ Sharia is the totality of religious, political, social, domestic and private life.
  • Sharia - LookLex Encyclopaedia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: Original source]

.Islamic law is now the most widely used religious law, and one of the three most common legal systems of the world alongside common law and civil law (Roman law).^ Islamic Law is the broadest, most comprehensive system of legislation in the world.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then he will place the world under Islamic Law.

^ But Islamic justice can also be used in civil law.
  • Sharia courts give The Hague the shivers | Radio Netherlands Worldwide 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.rnw.nl [Source type: Original source]

[1] .During the Islamic Golden Age, classical Islamic law may have influenced the development of common law,[2] and also influenced the development of several civil law institutions.^ But Islamic justice can also be used in civil law.
  • Sharia courts give The Hague the shivers | Radio Netherlands Worldwide 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.rnw.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ Some contemporary scholars fail to recognize Islamic Law as an equal to English Common Law, European Civil Law and Socialist Law.
  • Shariah Islamic Law 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Shariah Islamic Law - The Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.shariah.net [Source type: Original source]

^ AS: The Ontario government is dealing with it now because there was a lot of media controversy after the Islamic Civil Institute announced that it was already using sharia law in binding arbitration of family disputes.
  • New Socialist: SHARIA LAW: Religious arbitration and the privatization of law 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC newsocialist.org [Source type: Original source]

[3]

Contents

Etymology

.The term Sharia itself derives from the verb "shara'a" (Arabic: شرع‎), which according to Abdul Mannan Omar's "Dictionary of the Holy Qur'an" connects to the idea of "system of divine law; way of belief and practice".[Qur'an 45:18] The phrase ‘Šarīʿat Allāh’ ('God’s Law" or "Law of God") is also used by Arabic Christians[4] and Jews to describe their own religious law, sometimes translating expressions such as Torat Elōhīm [תורת אלוהים] or ‘ho nómos toû theoû' (ὁ νόμος τοῦ θεοῦ) '’.^ Sharia but for all forms of religious law .
  • Archbishop of Canterbury getting his head around Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC prodos.thinkertothinker.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sharia law is holy!
  • Gaza inches closer to Sharia Law 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.israeltoday.co.il [Source type: Original source]

^ Sharia law is derived both from: .

.The definition of Shari’a could be traced from the verbal Arabic noun “Shari’a” that appears in the Qur’an only once at 45:18. Moreover, its derivative form appears three times at 42:13, 42:21, and 5:51 verses.^ Though the word Shari'ah in its various derivative forms is found in five places in the Qur'an, (1) its extensive use only came into vogue much later; for the words Islam and Din were more commonly employed to express the same meaning in the early days of Islam.
  • "What is Shariah? - Definition/Description potpourri" by Dr.Mohammad Omar Farooq 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [Qur'an 45:18] Legal scholar L. Ali Khan explains that "the concept of sharia has been thoroughly confused in legal and common literature.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Koran the word as such only occurs once – in sura 45, verse 18: ‘We set thee upon an open way of the Sharia; therefore follow it, and follow not the caprices of those who do not know.’ It occurs twice in the Koran as a verb entailing some form of ordering (42/13:21).
  • Fikrun wa Fann - Topics - Sharia, Justice and the Law - Goethe-Institut  28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.goethe.de [Source type: Original source]

.According to the modern definition, Shari’a is the comprehensive body of Islamic laws that should regulate the public and private aspects of the lives of the Muslims.^ Islam according to Islamic law.
  • American Thinker: Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.americanthinker.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies -- Islam and human rights 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To live in Islam is to live according to the Shari'ah.
  • "What is Shariah? - Definition/Description potpourri" by Dr.Mohammad Omar Farooq 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Shari'ah refers to Islamic law.
  • Survey: 81% of Detroit Muslims want Sharia in Muslim Countries - Jihad Watch 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.Shari’a is not a single code of laws; rather, it consists of four sources that legal experts refer to.^ Shari'ah refers to Islamic law.
  • Survey: 81% of Detroit Muslims want Sharia in Muslim Countries - Jihad Watch 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Secondary Sources of Islamic Law There are other acceptable means of deriving Islamic legal injunctions, besides the four primary sources.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It also includes legal matters (this is what today is referred to as the 'Shari'ah', while the true meaning of the 'Shari'ah in Islam is entirely different).
  • "What is Shariah? - Definition/Description potpourri" by Dr.Mohammad Omar Farooq 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.globalwebpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first two sources are the Qur’an and the Sunnah, and the other two complementary sources are consensus (ijma) and analogy (qiyas).^ It is more of a system of law, a consensus of the unified spirit, based on the Qur'an , hadith (sayings and doings of Muhammad and his contemporaries), Ijma (consensus), Qiyas (reasoning by analogy), and centuries of debate, interpretation, and precedent.
  • Inside Islam: Dialogues and Debates 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC insideislam.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This blending of sources has created a muddled assumption that scholarly interpretations are as sacred and beyond revision as are the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ A general agreement was reached, in the course of the formalization of Islam, as to the authority of four such roots: the Qur'an in its legislative segments; the example of the Prophet as related in the hadith ; the consensus of the Muslims ( ijma ), premised on a saying by Muhammad stipulating "My nation cannot agree on an error" ; and reasoning by analogy ( qiyas ).
  • sharia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moreover, some schools of thought accept additional sources as secondary sources where the first four primary sources allow.^ We shall first discuss the primary sources of Islamic Law the Qurn, Sunnah, juristic consensus, and juristic analogy.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Secondary Sources of Islamic Law There are other acceptable means of deriving Islamic legal injunctions, besides the four primary sources.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the rulings of these schools of thought vary on some specifics of religious rituals in forms of practice but agree on most other issues.
  • M. Zuhdi Jasser: Getting Real on Shariah 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[5]
.Legal scholar L. Ali Khan claims that "the concept of Sharia has been thoroughly confused in legal and common literature.^ [Qur'an 45:18] Legal scholar L. Ali Khan explains that "the concept of sharia has been thoroughly confused in legal and common literature.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite religious claims to the contrary, Sharia has always been a combination of principles derived from a common Islamic legal tradition and local practices that vary from place to place.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Sharia Law Enforced in Texas! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While there is legal consensus on some issues, Muslim scholars have had different opinions regarding practically every aspect of Sharia.
  • altmuslim - Defining sharia: Faithful questions about Islamic law 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.altmuslim.com [Source type: Original source]

.For some Muslims, Sharia consists of the Qur'an and Sunnah.^ For some Muslims, sharia consists of the Qur'an and Sunnah.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Some banks and building societies have also found ways of offering "sharia-compliant" mortgages, allowing Muslims to fund house purchase while observing the precepts of their religion.
  • Thinking Anglicans: Sharia law in UK is 'unavoidable' 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.thinkinganglicans.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Adegbite says the Qur'an tells Muslims to follow sharia, so Muslims need to have access to sharia courts to live a full Islamic life.
  • News - Africa: Sharia law moves to Nigeria's Christian south 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.iol.co.za [Source type: News]

.For others, it also includes classical fiqh.^ For others, it also includes classical fiqh.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

.Most encyclopedias define Sharia as law based upon the Qur'an, the Sunnah, and classical fiqh derived from consensus (ijma) and analogy (qiyas).^ Most encyclopedias define sharia as law based upon the Qur'an, the Sunna, and classical fiqh derived from consensus (ijma) and analogy (qiyas).This definition of sharia inappropriately lumps together the revealed with the unrevealed.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Sharia law is derived both from: .

^ Traditionally, these laws were based largely upon the Qur'an and the sunnah, which is the practice of the Prophet.
  • The Sunnah: Practice and Law (shari'ah and madh'habs) 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This definition of Sharia lumps together the revealed with the unrevealed.^ Most encyclopedias define sharia as law based upon the Qur'an, the Sunna, and classical fiqh derived from consensus (ijma) and analogy (qiyas).This definition of sharia inappropriately lumps together the revealed with the unrevealed.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

.This blending of sources has created a muddled assumption that scholarly interpretations are as sacred and beyond revision as are the Qur'an and the Sunnah.^ This blending of sources has created a muddled assumption that scholarly interpretations are as sacred and beyond revision as are the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ The only elements of Sharia law that were fixed were the Qur'an and Sunnah, which were equivalent to the US Consitutition, and were subject to various methods of interpretation similar to the methods used today to interpret the US Consitutition.
  • Is Sharia Law "Inevitable"? - Blog of the Nation Blog : NPR 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ The Qur'an and the Sunnah constitute the immutable Basic Code, which should be kept separate from ever-evolving interpretive law (fiqh).
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

.The Qur'an and the Sunnah constitute the immutable Basic Code, which should be kept separate from ever-evolving interpretive law (fiqh).^ The Qur'an and the Sunnah constitute the immutable Basic Code, which should be kept separate from ever-evolving interpretive law (fiqh).
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ This blending of sources has created a muddled assumption that scholarly interpretations are as sacred and beyond revision as are the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ The only elements of Sharia law that were fixed were the Qur'an and Sunnah, which were equivalent to the US Consitutition, and were subject to various methods of interpretation similar to the methods used today to interpret the US Consitutition.
  • Is Sharia Law "Inevitable"? - Blog of the Nation Blog : NPR 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

.This analytical separation between the Basic Code and fiqh is necessary to" dissipate confusion around the term Sharia.^ This analytical separation between the Basic Code and fiqh is necessary to" dissipate confusion around the term Sharia.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ He also warned that there are huge contradictions in terms of sex discrimination and equal opportunities between sharia and British law.
  • Express.co.uk - Home of the Daily and Sunday Express | UK News :: Sharia law is backed by top judge 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.express.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ In the context of Islam Mainstream Islam distinguishes between fiqh (deep understanding, discernment), which refers to the inferences drawn by scholars, and sharia, which refers to the principles that lie behind the fiqh.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

[6]

Definitions and descriptions

Sharia has been defined as
.
  • "Muslim or Islamic law, both civil and criminal justice as well as regulating individual conduct both personal and moral.^ Islamic Law is not limited to regulating the interrelationships between individuals in society.
    • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Muslims are subject to Islamic family and criminal laws that run alongside national civil laws.
    • http://blogs.reuters.com/faithworld/tag/sharia/ 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.reuters.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Some contemporary scholars fail to recognize Islamic Law as an equal to English Common Law, European Civil Law and Socialist Law.
    • Shariah Islamic Law 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Shariah Islamic Law - The Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.shariah.net [Source type: Original source]

    .The custom-based body of law based on the Quran and the religion of Islam.^ The custom-based body of law based on the Koran and the religion of Islam.
    • Legal Dictionary 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.duhaime.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That is because we have made the grievous error of thinking that Islam is another religion, like Christianity or Buddhism, based on the individual relationship between the believer and God.
    • Express.co.uk - Home of the Daily and Sunday Express | Express Comment :: We cannot sit back and let Sharia law take root in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.express.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ In order to protect the five important indispensables in Islam (religion, life, intellect, offspring and property), Islamic Law has provided a worldly punishment in addition to that in the hereafter.
    • Shariah Islamic Law 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.islamawareness.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Shariah Islamic Law - The Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.shariah.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Because, by definition, Muslim states are theocracies, religious texts are law, the latter distinguished by Islam and Muslims in their application, as Sharia or Sharia law."^ For a muslim, sharia is the primary law.
    • http://blogs.reuters.com/faithworld/2008/05/30/muslim-scholar-responds-to-sharia-smear-against-obama/ 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.reuters.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sharia Law - source and definitions: .

    ^ Muslims want Sharia law because only under Sharia law is can Muslims practice pure Islam.
    • Political Islam // Articles // Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.politicalislam.com [Source type: Original source]

    [7]
  • "a discussion on the duties of Muslims," —Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb[8]
  • "a long, diverse, complicated intellectual tradition," rather than a "well-defined set of specific rules and regulations that can be easily applied to life situations," —Hunt Janin and Andre Kahlmeyer[9]
  • "a shared opinion of the [Islamic] community, based on a literature that is extensive, but not necessarily coherent or authorized by any single body," —Knut S. Vikor[10]
.Mainstream Islam distinguishes between fiqh (deep understanding, discernment), which refers to the inferences drawn by scholars, and sharia, which refers to the principles that lie behind the fiqh.^ Mainstream Islam distinguishes between fiqh , which means 'understanding of details' and refers to the inferences drawn by scholars, and sharia , which refers to the principles that lie behind the fiqh .

^ In the context of Islam Mainstream Islam distinguishes between fiqh (deep understanding, discernment), which refers to the inferences drawn by scholars, and sharia, which refers to the principles that lie behind the fiqh.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Precisely because the principles of sharia were made accessible through the scholars, the scholars helped legitimize rulers whose responsibility was to command the good and to prohibit the bad.
  • Why Islamic States Would Be Bad for Muslims - US News and World Report 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.usnews.com [Source type: General]

.Scholars hope that fiqh (jurisprudence) and sharia (law) are in harmony in any given case, but they cannot be sure.^ Scholars hope that fiqh and sharia are in harmony in any given case, but they cannot be sure.

^ Scholars hope that fiqh (jurisprudence) and sharia (law) are in harmony in any given case, but they cannot be sure.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Are they experts in Sharia law?
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Sharia Law Enforced in Texas! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.The primary sources of Islamic law are the Qur'an and Sunnah.^ The sources of Islamic law are as follows: 1.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This blending of sources has created a muddled assumption that scholarly interpretations are as sacred and beyond revision as are the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ The only elements of Sharia law that were fixed were the Qur'an and Sunnah, which were equivalent to the US Consitutition, and were subject to various methods of interpretation similar to the methods used today to interpret the US Consitutition.
  • Is Sharia Law "Inevitable"? - Blog of the Nation Blog : NPR 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

.Certain Sharia laws are regarded as divinely ordained, concrete, and timeless for all relevant situations.^ Sharia but for all forms of religious law .
  • Archbishop of Canterbury getting his head around Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC prodos.thinkertothinker.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Sharia law is divinely ordained and unchangeable.
  • Sharia Crisis in Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC emeagwali.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sharia has certain laws which are regarded as divinely ordained, concrete and timeless for all relevant situations (for example, the ban against drinking liquor as an intoxicant).
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • muslim shariah law 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.truthandgrace.com [Source type: Original source]

.It also has laws derived from principles established over time by Islamic lawyers.^ It also has certain laws which derived from principles established by Islamic lawyers and judges (mujtahidun).
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Islamic law had already been revealed at that time.
  • SHARIAH RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND POLITICS IN ISLAM 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.alislam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Frances Gibb, Legal Editor of the Times Sharia or Islamic law cannot trump the fundamental principles of English law even if the Archbishop of Canterbury wants to adopt some of its aspects, lawyers say.

.Traditional Sunni Muslims also add the consensus (ijma) of Muhammad's companions (sahaba) and Islamic jurists (ulema) on certain issues, and drawing analogy from the essence of divine principles and preceding rulings (qiyas).^ Islamic jurists issue guidance and rulings.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For Sunni Muslims , the primary sources of Islamic law are the Qur'an , the Hadith , the unanimity of Muhammad's disciples on a certain issue ( ijma ), and Qiyas (drawing analogy from the essence of divine principles).

^ It is more of a system of law, a consensus of the unified spirit, based on the Qur'an , hadith (sayings and doings of Muhammad and his contemporaries), Ijma (consensus), Qiyas (reasoning by analogy), and centuries of debate, interpretation, and precedent.
  • Inside Islam: Dialogues and Debates 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC insideislam.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In situations where no concrete rules exist under the sources, law scholars use qiyas — various forms of reasoning, including by analogy.^ Qiyas various forms of reasoning, including by analogy are used by the law scholars ( Mujtahidun ) to deal with situations where the sources provided no concrete rules.

^ Filed under: malaysia , the rule of law .

^ In 2003 a Malaysian court ruled that, under Sharia law, a man may divorce his wife via text messaging as long as the message was clear and unequivocal.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

.The consensus of the community or people, public interest, and others are also accepted as secondary sources where the first four primary sources allow.^ The technique of accepting the consensus of a Muslim community.

^ The consensus of the community or people, public interest, and others were also accepted as secondary sources where the first four primary sources allow.

^ As a nation of immigrants, there is a certain appeal to the idea of multiculturalism where people of different backgrounds are accepted in our communities.
  • Annaqed - Sharia Law and the US Constitution 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.annaqed.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
Shi'a Muslims reject this approach. .They strongly reject analogy (qiyas) as an easy way to innovations (bid'ah), and also reject consensus (ijma) as having any particular value in its own.^ Most encyclopedias define sharia as law based upon the Qur'an, the Sunna, and classical fiqh derived from consensus (ijma) and analogy (qiyas).This definition of sharia inappropriately lumps together the revealed with the unrevealed.
  • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ If one has progressed enough to knowingly reject some of “God’s words” mightn’t they go ahead and be an atheist and live by their own rules?
  • (Non-)Muslims Against Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC freethinker.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ These twin foundations find expression in a struggle against bid'ah (innovation) and an obsession with the hudud or fixed punishment in the Islamic code.
  • Muslim Intellectuals and the Sharia Debate in Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nigerdeltacongress.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the period that the Sunni scholars developed those two tools, the Shi'a Imams were alive, and Shi'a view them as an extension of the Sunnah, so they view themselves as deriving their laws (fiqh) only from the Qur'an and Sunnah.^ Those are the only two options.
  • Michelle Malkin » “Banks are helping sharia make a back-door entrance” 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: General]

^ The two are not mutually exclusive and Rauf's oversimplification gives Islamist groups (those who favor Shariah law in government) what they want to hear rather than to lead them in new thought which can only happen when Islamism (political Islam) is abandoned.
  • M. Zuhdi Jasser: Getting Real on Shariah 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Sharia Law, such Will is only valid when at least two thirds of the property left behind by the dead Muslim is assigned to charitable causes.
  • Social/Economic Implications of Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC dawodu.com [Source type: Original source]

.A recurring theme in Shi'a jurisprudence is logic (mantiq),[11] something most Shi'a believe they mention, employ and value to a higher degree than most Sunnis do.^ "If you talk to any primary care worker they will tell you that levels of disability among the [British] Pakistani population are higher than the general population.
  • Archbishop of Canterbury calls for Sharia Law in Great Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nevilleawards.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They believe their civil rights are being violated if it takes longer for them to gain citizenship than it does for an immigrant from a non-Muslim country.

^ What Muslims around the world tell us they believe is that the key to progress is attachment to their spiritual and moral values.
  • Does Sharia Law Promote Women’s Rights? – by Cinnamon Stillwell | FrontPage Magazine 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC frontpagemag.com [Source type: Original source]

.They do not view logic as a third source for laws, rather a way to see if the derived work is compatible with the Qur'an and Sunnah.^ The term Sharia itself derives from the verb shara'a , which according to Abdul Mannan Omar's Dictionary of the Holy Qur'an connects to the idea of "spiritual law" (5:48) and "system of divine law; way of belief and practice" (45:18) in the Qur'an .

^ I can see how easily they tolerate those people who have different views than themselves.
  • Hamas enacts Islamic (Sharia) laws: Hand amputation, crucifixion, lashes and execution 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Imami-Shi'i law, the sources of law ( usul al-fiqh ) are the Qur'an, anecdotes of the Prophet's practices and those of the 12 Imams, and the intellect ( aql ).

.In Imami-Shi'i law, the sources of law (usul al-fiqh) are the Qur'an, anecdotes of Muhammad's practices and those of The Twelve Imams, and the intellect ('aql).^ In Imami-Shi'i law, the sources of law ( usul al-fiqh ) are the Qur'an, anecdotes of the Prophet's practices and those of the 12 Imams, and the intellect ( aql ).

^ The actual codification of canonic law is the result of the concurrent evolution of jurisprudence proper and the so-called science of the roots of jurisprudence ( usul al-fiqh ).
  • sharia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These commandments are given, in part, in the Qur'an, the word of God, and in other parts in the narratives and utterances of the Prophet Mohammed and his companions (and to the Shi 'a in the narratives of their "twelve" imams ).
  • Sharia: practice of faith, politics of modernity | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

.The practices called Sharia today, however, also have roots in local customs (urf).^ The practices called Sharia today, however, also have roots in local customs ( Al-urf ).

^ Despite religious claims to the contrary, Sharia has always been a combination of principles derived from a common Islamic legal tradition and local practices that vary from place to place.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Sharia Law Enforced in Texas! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It should be noted however that it is not only Sanusi and his Marxists colleagues who have been analytical of the process of Sharia implementation and with calls for improvement and caution.
  • Muslim Intellectuals and the Sharia Debate in Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nigerdeltacongress.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Classic Islamic law

.The formative period of fiqh stretches back to the time of the early Muslim communities.^ Although Islam is my religion, I’ve left this Muslim community to lick my wounds (I know I’m not the only one) but I don’t know if I’ll ever come back.
  • Mona Eltahawy Blog » Archives » Sharia Delusions in Canterbury 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.monaeltahawy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the evidence I’ve seen, I think it’s virtually certain he was raised as a Muslim , at least for a period of time.

^ That girls of this time period were all early bloomers.
  • The Jawa Report v3.0 Beta Archives 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC mypetjawa.mu.nu [Source type: News]

.In this period, jurists were more concerned with pragmatic issues of authority and teaching than with theory.^ It appears to me that holders of office in the "high church" are more concerned about affecting state policy than feeding people "the bread of life".
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Rarely, in recent years, have they been more self righteous - or more fearsome - than when discussing the issue of Sharia Courts.

^ Fred Hemmings to the applause of more than 100 people gathered in the Senate to oppose a separate issue -- same-sex civil unions.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

[12] .Progress in theory happened with the coming of the early Muslim jurist Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i (767-820), who laid down the basic principles of Islamic jurisprudence in his book Al-Risala.^ Named after its leader (imam) Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi'i (d.
  • The Sunnah: Practice and Law (shari'ah and madh'habs) 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some polls have shown that substantial numbers of British Muslims would like to live under some form of Islamic law, and often feel alienated when their traditional legal principles come into conflict with secular civil law.
  • Archbishop of Canterbury calls for Sharia Law in Great Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nevilleawards.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, much Islamic law was codified many centuries after the prophet died: by male jurists who used the Koran, and the life and sayings of the prophet to come up with laws that met the needs of their time.
  • Mona Eltahawy Blog » Archives » Sharia Delusions in Canterbury 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.monaeltahawy.com [Source type: Original source]

.The book details the four roots of law (Qur'an, Sunnah, ijma, and qiyas) while specifying that the primary Islamic texts (the Qur'an and the hadith) be understood according to objective rules of interpretation derived from careful study of the Arabic language.^ He continued "according to authoritative Islamic jurisprudence, the entirety of the provisions of Sharia that have been dictated by the Islamic holy book (the Qur'an), and Islamic traditions (the Sunna) and agreed upon by the principal scholars of all of the principal schools of Islamic law are all considered the laws of God himself, are not negotiable, are not subject to compromise or to mitigation."
  • Press Conference: Coalition to Stop Sharia » Publications » Family Security Matters 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.familysecuritymatters.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Otherwise, he fears that what he calls an inhumane brand of Islamic law will take root in Nigeria.

^ The Council on Foreign Relations' (CFR) March 2008 study "Islam: Governing Under Sharia" states that Sharia law is based on 4 primary sources: (1) the Islamic Qur'an; (2) "the hadith, or record of the actions and sayings of the Prophet Mohammed, whose life is to be emulated"; (3) "ijma, the consensus of Islamic scholars"; and (4) "qiyas, a kind of reasoning that uses analogies to apply precedents established by the holy texts to problems not covered by them."
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

[13]
.A number of important legal concepts and institutions were developed by Islamic jurists during the classical period of Islam, known as the Islamic Golden Age, dated from the 7th to 13th centuries.^ TRANSLATED as "pathway to the water", sharia is derived from the Koran and the 7th-century teachings of the prophet Muhammad known as the hadiths.
  • Archbishop of Canterbury calls for Sharia Law in Great Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nevilleawards.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to protect the five important indispensables in Islam (religion, life, intellect, offspring and property), Islamic Law has provided a worldly punishment in addition to that in the hereafter.

^ As we chat about the perception of Islam in the West, he tells me a story about a visit to Cordoba, the city in central Spain dominated by a cathedral that, until the 13th century, was a mosque.

[2][3][14][15]

Origins

.According to Muslims, Sharia Law is founded on the teachings of Allah and the acts and sayings of Muhammad as found in the Qur'an and the Sunnah.^ For a muslim, sharia is the primary law.
  • http://blogs.reuters.com/faithworld/2008/05/30/muslim-scholar-responds-to-sharia-smear-against-obama/ 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.reuters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This ruling must be done with Allah's laws, which is Sharia.
  • Sharia: Islam's Warden 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.aina.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where did I say all Muslims are forced to follow Sharia law?
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC fora.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

[16] .However, sharia was not fully developed at the time of Muhammad's death, but rather it evolved around the Muslim community or Ummah through which it would serve.^ With the death of Muhammad, divine revelation to the Muslim community stopped.

^ A Muslim loses his faith when he suggests the possibility of prophethood being acquired through spiritual exercise, since that would imply the possible arising of a prophet after Muhammad.
  • The Penalties for Apostasy in Islam 1/3 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.light-of-life.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One is particularly pleased at Agabi's emphasis on the argument that it is MUSLIMS that are actually discriminated against through these harsher Sharia punishments, not non-Muslims!
  • The Unfizzled Sharia Vector in the Nigerian State 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nigerdeltacongress.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.When sharia began its formation in the deserts of Arabia about 1,400 years ago, the time Islam was born,[17] a sense of community did not exist.^ We were lousy at communications of the accomplishments that we did have over time.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About 10 years ago Saudi women started returning home from abroad with fresh law degrees and were ready to take on the world.

^ This has happened even in highly traditional Saudi Arabia, where Islam began....Since 1980, some countries with fundamentalist Islamic regimes like Iran have attempted to reverse the trend of westernization and return to the classic Sharia."

.Life in the desert was nomadic and tribal, thus the only factor that tied people together into various tribes was through common ancestry.^ We have come together to call attention to and to counter the insinuation of Sharia into our society and those of other freedom loving people through various means, both stealthy and nonviolent and through the use or threat of the use of force."
  • Press Conference: Coalition to Stop Sharia » Publications » Family Security Matters 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.familysecuritymatters.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Muslims worldwide have expressed their outrage, not only through peaceful protests, but also by burning down embassies and murdering innocent people.

^ There are only Muslim peoples living in societies with concoctions and hybridizations of various laws.

[16] .However, the nature of Islam challenged that ideology and brought all those who professed their submission to Islam into the Ummah.^ Lord Phillips said: "It is possible in this country for those who are entering into a contractual agreement to agree that the agreement shall be governed by law other than English law."
  • Sharia in the West | The Weekly Standard 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.weeklystandard.com [Source type: General]

^ He has now created a new niche within the legal profession and within Islam itself - all with one interview!
  • Thinking Anglicans: Sharia law in UK is 'unavoidable' 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.thinkinganglicans.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Or have the authors assumed that those who haven’t made up their mind about this question are all “moderate”?

.Additionally, Islam was not just a religion but a way of life.^ He can practice his religion and his way of life here.

^ Hizb ut Tahrir’s self-described objective is “to resume the Islamic way of life by establishing an Islamic State that executes the systems of Islam and carries its call to the world.” .
  • Does Sharia Law Promote Women’s Rights? – by Cinnamon Stillwell | FrontPage Magazine 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC frontpagemag.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to protect the five important indispensables in Islam (religion, life, intellect, offspring and property), Islamic Law has provided a worldly punishment in addition to that in the hereafter.

.Laws had to be instilled so the doctrines of sharia took root.^ Express Comment :: We cannot sit back and let Sharia law take root in Britain .
  • Express.co.uk - Home of the Daily and Sunday Express | Express Comment :: We cannot sit back and let Sharia law take root in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.express.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ ND: The world needs to understand the roots of the eternal conflict, which is the Sharia law commandment to kill all Jews.
  • The Jawa Report v3.0 Beta Archives 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC mypetjawa.mu.nu [Source type: News]

^ TWO MAJOR ROOTS OF SHARIA LAW. The Qura'an and the Prophet's sayings are two of the most important sources of Sharia.
  • Can Sharia (Islamic Law) work in the 21st Century? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: Original source]

.All who are Muslim are judged by sharia[18] – regardless of the location or the culture.^ Other Muslims add that Saudi Arabia's judges are the only branch of state over which the country's royal family has no control, as Sharia makes them fiercely independent of all but their religious obligations.
  • A Special Feature on Sharia in Nigeria By Nigeria On Line, 23 August, 2002 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.waado.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Denis MacEoin, who wrote a recent report for the think-tank Civitas examining the spread of Sharia in Britain, said that MAT’s claims about non-Muslim clients “raises all sorts of questions”.
  • Non-Muslims turning to Sharia courts to resolve civil disputes - Times Online 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC business.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Now, if the Muslims are demanding to employ Sharia Laws for such cases in the UK, I would not consider that fair at all.
  • Sharia a threat to Britain's future as 'tolerant' society - Topix 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

.Sharia was guided through its development by lifestyles of the tribes in which was initially absorbed into Islam.^ His Shariah is there not only to guide us, but to preserve that which is already under Islam and expand into that which is not.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Attention to all those that excuse or kowtow to Islam and who think it’s OK to just let a “little bit” of sharia in through the door.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is possible to outline the stages of development that Islamic law passed through by dividing it into the following seven stages: 1.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, through the understandings of the tribe, Islamic law would be a law of the community – for the community by the community – even if initially proposed by an individual "for they could not form part of the tribal law unless and until they were generally accepted as such."^ Are they a threat to the non Islamic community?
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How is this even part of Sharia law?

^ Dr Williams argues that adopting parts of Islamic Sharia law would help maintain social cohesion.
  • Anorak News » Blog Archive » Archbishop of Canterbury: UK Adopts Aspects Of Sharia Law 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.anorak.co.uk [Source type: General]

[16] .Additionally, Noel James Coulson, Lecturer in Islamic law of the University of London, states that "to the tribe as a whole belonged the power to determine the standards by which its members should live.^ This is a universal principle in Islamic law.

^ Treasury’s self-described “seminar for the policy community” is co-sponsored with the leading academic promoters of Shariah and SCF in the United States: Harvard University Law School’s Project on Islamic Finance.
  • Michelle Malkin » Sharia alert: What’s the Treasury Department up to now? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: General]

^ Islamic law codifies beliefs that are deeply held by a significant proportion of the world's population and which those believers consider to be immutable and of universal vocation.
  • Features - Finding the Law: Islamic Law (Sharia) | LLRX.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Academic]

.But here the tribe is conceived not merely as the group of its present representatives but as a historical entity embracing past, present, and future generations."^ It is an ethical challenge to generations of Americans past, present, and future.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They agree on the past and present of Islam but disagree about the future.

^ 'If all groups are represented, with hard work and the unity we saw here, we will have no difficulty going forward.'"
  • Sharia to be enforced by Canadian courts 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.amnation.com [Source type: Original source]

[16] .So, while "each and every law must be rooted in either the Qur'an or the Sunnah,"[19] without contradiction, tribal life brought about a sense of participation.^ Sharia is the 1,300-year-old body of Muslim canon law that regulates every aspect of life.
  • No to Ontario's "Sharia Courts"! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.icl-fi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Shariah means, in its original sense, "the path leading to water," hence the road, in Qur'anic usage, to the source of life.
  • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sharia law controls every single aspect of your private and public life.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

Such participation is further reinforced by Muhammad who stated, "My community will never agree in error".[19]
.After the death of Muhammad, sharia continued to undergo fundamental changes, beginning with the reigns of caliphs Abu Bakr (632–34) and Umar (634–44) in which many decision making matters were brought to the attention of Muhammad's closest comrades for consultation.^ Abu Bakr was the first ruler of the Caliphate.
  • The Jawa Report v3.0 Beta Archives 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC mypetjawa.mu.nu [Source type: News]

^ If there is a hell, Muhammad and Abu Bakr are in it.
  • The Jawa Report v3.0 Beta Archives 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC mypetjawa.mu.nu [Source type: News]

^ But the Swedish Government continued to make many compromises with Islamists, such as establishing special health clinics for Muslim women.
  • Full report on Political Islam, Sharia Law and Civil Society | International Humanist and Ethical Union 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.iheu.org [Source type: Original source]

[17] In AD 662, during the reign of Muawiya b. .Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, life ceased to be nomadic, and undertook an urban transformation that created matters not originally covered by Islamic law.^ Their life was ordered by Islamic laws.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ LONDON -- Russell Investments of the U.S. and Jadwa Investments of Saudi Arabia said they have teamed up to create an index of shares complying with Shariah, or Islamic law.
  • Russell Investments, Jadwa to Create Shariah-Tied Index - WSJ.com 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ In order to protect the five important indispensables in Islam (religion, life, intellect, offspring and property), Islamic Law has provided a worldly punishment in addition to that in the hereafter.

[17] .Every change of Islamic society has played an active role in developing sharia, which branches out into Fiqh and Qanun respectively.^ In a recent article, Alex Alexiev, Vice President of Research at the Center for Security Policy, points out that Sharia law is not "Islamic law", except as interpreted by Islamists.
  • Sharia Law gets 'OK' in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.polishforums.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Christianity and Judaism have both changed their original position (complete prohibition) on charging interest as the societies they lived in became more developed economically.
  • Michelle Malkin » “Banks are helping sharia make a back-door entrance” 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: General]

^ As we beat down every consideration of Sharia, the moderate Muslims hiding in the fox holes will begin to raise their heads and make the difficult journey out...to freedom.
  • Sharia Law Threatens America! | Red County 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.redcounty.com [Source type: General]

.Before the 19th century, legal theory was considered the domain of the traditional legal schools of thought.^ Before the 19th century legal theory was considered the domain of the traditional legal schools of thought.

^ Traditionalists believe that the law of the state should be based on the traditional legal schools.

^ Under the Shari’a codes in force in Nigeria, based on the Maliki school of thought, pregnancy is considered sufficient evidence to convict a woman of adultery.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.The legal schools followed by most Sunni Muslims were Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki or Shafi`i.^ The four Sunni madh'habs are the Maliki, Hanafi, Sha'fi'i, and Hanbali schools.
  • The Sunnah: Practice and Law (shari'ah and madh'habs) 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consider adultery: of the four Sunni schools of Muslim laws, only among Maliki adherents—but not all of them—is extramarital pregnancy in itself sufficient evidence of adultery.
  • Working within Nigeria's Sharia Courts 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.cceia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are various Sunni and Shi’ite Muslim schools of thought but there is no consensus on one version of Sharia.
  • Mona Eltahawy Blog » Archives » Sharia Delusions in Canterbury 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.monaeltahawy.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most Shia Muslims followed the Ja'fari school of thought.^ Salafis believe that the traditional schools were wrong, and therefore failed, and strive to follow the generation of early Muslims.

^ The Muslim Student Association at most schools is a front for Hamas and the Muslim Brotherhood.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gaubatz: This Islamic Center is predominately Sunni and considers itself “Pure Muslim.” Essentially they follow no Islamic school of thought, and follow Islam as it was practiced 1400 years under Prophet Mohammed.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

[20]

Comparisons with common law

.The methodology of legal precedent and reasoning by analogy (qiyas) used in Islamic law was similar to that of the common law legal system.^ We have legal system based on Roman law.
  • Sharia Law gets 'OK' in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.polishforums.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, the precedent of legal sharia-finance transactions was used by the hapless archbishop of Canterbury to buttress his argument that introducing sharia in the United Kingdom was unavoidable.
  • Sharia Finance 101 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ The Council on Foreign Relations' (CFR) March 2008 study "Islam: Governing Under Sharia" states that Sharia law is based on 4 primary sources: (1) the Islamic Qur'an; (2) "the hadith, or record of the actions and sayings of the Prophet Mohammed, whose life is to be emulated"; (3) "ijma, the consensus of Islamic scholars"; and (4) "qiyas, a kind of reasoning that uses analogies to apply precedents established by the holy texts to problems not covered by them."
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

[14] According to Justice Gamal Moursi Badr, Islamic law is like common law in that it "is not a written law" and the "provisions of Islamic law are to be sought first and foremost in the teachings of the authoritative jurists" (ulema), hence Islamic law may "be called a lawyer's law if common law is a judge's law."[3]

English common law

.Since the publication of legal scholar John Makdisi's The Islamic Origins of the Common Law in the North Carolina Law Review in 1999,[2] there has been controversy over whether English common law was inspired by Islamic law.^ There are tons of articles on islamic law.
  • altmuslim - Defining sharia: Faithful questions about Islamic law 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.altmuslim.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sharia is the Islamic religious law based on the Koran, the words and actions of the Prophet Muhammad and the rulings of scholars.
  • Express.co.uk - Home of the Daily and Sunday Express | UK News :: Sharia law is backed by top judge 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.express.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Frances Gibb, Legal Editor of the Times Sharia or Islamic law cannot trump the fundamental principles of English law even if the Archbishop of Canterbury wants to adopt some of its aspects, lawyers say.

[21][22] .It has been suggested by several scholars such as Professor John Makdisi, Jamila Hussain and Lawrence Rosen[23] that several fundamental English common law institutions may have been derived or adapted from similar legal institutions in Islamic law and jurisprudence, and introduced to England after the Norman conquest of England by the Normans, who conquered and inherited the Islamic legal administration of the Emirate of Sicily (see Arab-Norman culture), and "through the close connection between the Norman kingdoms of Roger II in Sicily — ruling over a conquered Islamic administration — and Henry II in England",[23] as well as by Crusaders during the Crusades.^ Sharia law is Islam's legal system, derived from the Koran and from fatwas – the rulings of Islamic scholars.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lord Phillips said: "It is possible in this country for those who are entering into a contractual agreement to agree that the agreement shall be governed by law other than English law."
  • Sharia in the West | The Weekly Standard 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.weeklystandard.com [Source type: General]

^ In practice, the sunna becomes similar to the concept of precedent in the civil and criminal law of various nations of the world, as well as the idea of legal interpretation.
  • Sharia@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The connection with Norman law in Normandy may be real, but it should be remembered that common law owes a great deal to Anglo-Saxon traditions and forms, and in its current form represents an interplay between the two systems.^ In reality, sharia is a complex system of jurisprudence, differently applied by four different Sunni and two Shia schools of interpretation.
  • Sharia Comes for the Archbishop | The Weekly Standard 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.weeklystandard.com [Source type: General]

^ If she abandons her college education, then she will miss a great deal of enlightenment about her religion and about everyday knowledge,” (Chronicle, 11 May 09) .
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As we have argued elsewhere, Sharia law as currently practiced in Nigeria not only discriminates against Muslims, but it is against the spirit and the letter of a federal system where the LEGAL PROCEDURE should be UNIFORM everywhere, even if the PUNISHMENT differs from federating unit to unit.
  • The Unfizzled Sharia Vector in the Nigerian State 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nigerdeltacongress.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to Makdisi, the "royal English contract protected by the action of debt is identified with the Islamic Aqd, the English assize of novel disseisin is identified with the Islamic Istihqaq, and the English jury is identified with the Islamic Lafif" in classical Maliki jurisprudence.^ Much has been publicized across the world for years of different Muslim and Islamic leaders different interprtations of Sharia Law and the actions they justify according to their interpretations.
  • http://blogs.reuters.com/faithworld/2008/05/30/muslim-scholar-responds-to-sharia-smear-against-obama/ 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.reuters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Note the Islamic Universal Declaration of Human Rights which, however, according to Sami Aldeeb is misleadingly and incorrectly translated into English.
  • Features - Finding the Law: Islamic Law (Sharia) | LLRX.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Academic]

[2] .The Islamic Hawala institution also influenced the development of the agency institution in English common law.^ Posted by: ettu on Thursday, 7 February 2008 at 4:55pm GMT I've lost all respect for the AoC. I live in the U.S. which derived it's legal sytem from English Common law developed over a 1000 years.
  • Thinking Anglicans: Sharia law in UK is 'unavoidable' 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.thinkinganglicans.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ "The institute is classified in Islamic law as a Darul-Qada, or judicial tribunal...
  • Sharia to be enforced by Canadian courts 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.amnation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some contemporary scholars fail to recognize Islamic Law as an equal to English Common Law, European Civil Law and Socialist Law.

[3] .Other English legal institutions such as "the scholastic method, the license to teach," the "law schools known as Inns of Court in England and Madrasas in Islam" may have also originated from Islamic law.^ What about the opinions of other schools of law?
  • altmuslim - Defining sharia: Faithful questions about Islamic law 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.altmuslim.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Islam according to Islamic law.
  • American Thinker: Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.americanthinker.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lord Phillips said: "It is possible in this country for those who are entering into a contractual agreement to agree that the agreement shall be governed by law other than English law."
  • Sharia in the West | The Weekly Standard 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.weeklystandard.com [Source type: General]

These influences have led Makdisi to suggest that Islamic law may have laid the foundations for "the common law as an integrated whole".[2]
.The Waqf in Islamic law, which developed during the 7th-9th centuries, bears a notable resemblance to the trusts in the English trust law.^ During the 19th century the history of Islamic law took a sharp turn due to new challenges the Muslim world faced: the West had risen to a global power and colonized a large part of the world, including Muslim territories.

^ Although some Islamic laws does not permit minors to have sex before her first menstruation, but who in their right mind would trust a 47 yr.
  • Sharia // Current 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC current.com [Source type: News]

^ From the latter half of the 19th century , however, European -style codified law was introduced nearly universally in the Islamic world.
  • Sharia@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[24] For example, every Waqf was required to have a waqif (founder), mutawillis (trustee), qadi (judge) and beneficiaries.[25] Under both a Waqf and a trust, "property is reserved, and its usufruct appropriated, for the benefit of specific individuals, or for a general charitable purpose; the corpus becomes inalienable; estates for life in favor of successive beneficiaries cannot be created" and "without regard to the law of inheritance or the rights of the heirs; and continuity is secured by the successive appointment of trustees or mutawillis."[26] The trust law developed in England at the time of the Crusades, during the 12th and 13th centuries, was introduced by Crusaders who may have been influenced by the Waqf institutions they came across in the Middle East.[27][28] Dr. Paul Brand also notes parallels between the Waqf and the trusts used to establish Merton College by Walter de Merton, who had connections with the Knights Templar. .Brand also points out, however, that the Knights Templar were primarily concerned with fighting the Muslims rather than learning from them, making it less likely that they had knowledge of Muslim legal institutions.^ I said they are more likely than Muslims to take over.
  • Michelle Malkin » “Banks are helping sharia make a back-door entrance” 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: General]

^ He suggests that these Muslims have not assimilated, but rather have formed “a parallel society.” And they are bringing anti-Semitism back big time.
  • David R. Stokes : Support Your Local Sharia - Townhall.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: General]

^ If there is some uniform dogmatic law that applies to a whole country (as there needs to be) then people are less likely to want alternatives if the said law is coherent and based on truth rather than legal fictions.
  • Thinking Anglicans: Sharia law in UK is 'unavoidable' 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.thinkinganglicans.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

[21] The introduction of the trust, or "use" was primarily motivated by the need to avoid medieval inheritance taxes. .By transferring legal title to a third party, there was no need to pay feudal dues on the death of the father.^ There is no need to lie.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no need to lie."
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no parallel legal system.
  • Pajamas Media » Sharia Law Not Coming to Britain — Yet 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In those times, it was common for an underage child to lose many of his rights to his feudal overlord if he succeeded before he came of age.^ Since the act opened the door to faith-based arbitration, it was only a matter of time before a Muslim group would request that those provisions be extended to them.
  • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Half of the country’s brides, according to a 2006 field study, were married before age 18, often to men many years older.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It so happened that her search came at a time when, at seventeen years of age, she had began to question her Roman Catholic faith.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

.The precursor to the English jury trial was the Lafif trial in classical Maliki jurisprudence, which was developed between the 8th and 11th centuries in North Africa and Islamic Sicily, and shares a number of similarities with the later jury trials in English common law.^ One who follows the historical development of Islamic Law will observe that it passed through different stages with respect to its formation, growth, and development over the past fourteen centuries.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One common myth associated with Islamic Law is that judges must always impose a fixed and predetermined punishment for each crime.

^ Posted by: ettu on Thursday, 7 February 2008 at 4:55pm GMT I've lost all respect for the AoC. I live in the U.S. which derived it's legal sytem from English Common law developed over a 1000 years.
  • Thinking Anglicans: Sharia law in UK is 'unavoidable' 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.thinkinganglicans.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

Like the English jury, the Islamic Lafif was a body of twelve members drawn from the neighbourhood and sworn to tell the truth, who were bound to give a unanimous verdict, about matters that "...they had personally seen or heard, binding on the judge, to settle the truth concerning facts in a case, between ordinary people, and obtained as of right by the plaintiff." The only characteristic of the English jury that the Islamic Lafif lacked was the "judicial writ directing the jury to be summoned and directing the bailiff to hear its recognition." According to Professor John Makdisi, "no other institution in any legal institution studied to date shares all of these characteristics with the English jury." .It is thus likely that the concept of the Lafif may have been introduced to England by the Normans and then evolved into the modern English jury.^ This may be seen as an "alternative modernity" of finance, but one that springs not from some historical and cultural essence (as usually supposed by advocates of the concept) but from current ideological preoccupations.
  • Sharia: practice of faith, politics of modernity | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Parties who contract into arbitration may have the arbitrator apply any rules they like, whatsoever.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Sharia Law Enforced in Texas! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the US finally looks like it is going to bury Jim Crow, it is disturbing that the head of the Church of England wants to introduce the principle of 'separate but equal' here.
  • Thinking Anglicans: Sharia law in UK is 'unavoidable' 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.thinkinganglicans.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

[2] .However, the hearing of trials before a body of citizens may have existed in courts before the Norman conquest.^ In common with other similar cases, Jibrin Babaji did not have legal representation or access to legal advice before or during his trial by the lower Shari’a court.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, in a surprising development, it was reported that the state counsel for Niger State had claimed that the Shari’a court did not have the power to hear the case.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The co-founder of a Muslim-American television station accused of beheading his wife submitted to a court-ordered DNA swab after a procedural hearing in advance of his trial.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

The precursor to the English assize of novel disseisin was the Islamic Istihqaq, an action "for the recovery of usurped land", in contrast to the previous Roman law, which "emphasized possession in resolving such disputes." The "assize of novel disseisin broke with this tradition and emphasized ownership, as is found in the Islamic law of Istihqaq."[29] Islamic law also introduced the notion of allowing an accused suspect or defendant to have an agent or lawyer, known as a wakil, handle his/her defense. .This was in contrast to early English common law, which "used lawyers to prosecute but the accused were left to handle their defense themselves."^ By contrast, who today remembers that the much-loved English common law called for execution as punishment for hundreds of crimes, including theft of any object worth five shillings or more?

^ Some contemporary scholars fail to recognize Islamic Law as an equal to English Common Law, European Civil Law and Socialist Law.

^ Sacramento 10/10/2008 00:17:17 If I remember correctly, the Acts of Union specified that English Common Law would reign in England, and Scots Law in Scotland.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

The English Parliament did not allow those accused of treason the right to retain lawyers until 1695, and for those accused of other felonies until 1836.[30]
.Islamic jurists formulated early contract laws that introduced formal rationality, legal rationality, legal logic (see Logic in Islamic philosophy) and legal reasoning in the use of contracts.^ The medical profession, for instance supports the Islamic restraint on intoxicants, which make human beings lose their senses of reasoning and rationality.
  • SHARIA 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC yashuaib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, the precedent of legal sharia-finance transactions was used by the hapless archbishop of Canterbury to buttress his argument that introducing sharia in the United Kingdom was unavoidable.
  • Sharia Finance 101 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Theoretically, these canonical sources constitute the bases for elaborate legal traditions, known as fiqh (understanding), formulated by divines and jurists over the Islamic centuries, and subject to many mutations.
  • Sharia: practice of faith, politics of modernity | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

[31] .Islamic jurists also introduced the concepts of recission (Iqalah), frustration of purpose (istihalah al-tanfidh or "impossibility of performance"), Act of God (Afat Samawiyah or "Misfortune from Heaven") and force majeure in the law of contracts.^ We shall first discuss the primary sources of Islamic Law the Qurn, Sunnah, juristic consensus, and juristic analogy.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This can include the marriage contract entered into in a Muslim country or a battle of who under Islamic law have the right to seek divorce.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If Jesus had acted contrary to God’s plan by breaking this one Mosaic law, He would not have remained sinless.
  • Michelle Malkin » “Banks are helping sharia make a back-door entrance” 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: General]

[32] .However, recission, frustration and other core concepts in the law of contract are relatively recent introductions into the Law of England, dating back to the Victorian period.^ Provided that two parties mutually agree to be bound by a particular contract, and the contract doesn't contradict established laws, then the contract should be respected the same as any other contract would be.
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC fora.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This can include the marriage contract entered into in a Muslim country or a battle of who under Islamic law have the right to seek divorce.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mr MacEoin wrote in his conclusion that the “introduction of Sharia law into this country is a recipe for a dichotomous legal system that holds Muslims and non-Muslims to different standards.
  • UK Sharia Courts:Sharia is the law of the Land, Wage war | Loganswarning 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC loganswarning.com [Source type: Original source]

.Early case law indicates that it was impossible to rescind a contract for frustration even where performance became impossible.^ American law usually enforces the contracts despite talk of pressure and unfairness.” Not in the case of prenuptial contracts.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Sharia Law Enforced in Texas! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Afghanistan women are banned by law from performing on radio or TV even for news broadcasting.
  • Can Sharia (Islamic Law) work in the 21st Century? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These outrages are always followed by (or even, as in the case of Fitna , preceded by) calls for self-censorship and/or hate speech laws.

.Other possible influences of Islamic law on English common law include the concepts of a passive judge, impartial judge, res iudicata, the judge as a blank slate, individual self-definition, justice rather than morality, the law above the state, individualism, freedom of contract, privilege against self-incrimination, fairness over truth, individual autonomy, untrained and transitory decision making, overlap in testimonial and adjudicative tasks, appeal, dissent, day in court, prosecution for perjury, oral testimony, and the judge as a moderator, supervisor, announcer and enforcer rather than an adjudicator.^ The appeal was rejected by the Islamic High Court in Funtua in Katsina state.

^ The judge under Islamic Law is not bound by precedents, rules, or prior decisions as in common law.

^ He has since appealed against the sentence to the Kebbi State Shari’a Court of Appeal.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

[33]

Law of the United States

.While some aspects of Sharia may contradict certain principles of the Constitution of the United States, similarities between Islamic law and the common law of the United States have been noted, particularly in regards to interpretation of Constitutional law.^ Sharia law is some scary stuff.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Sharia Law Enforced in Texas! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is a universal principle in Islamic law.

^ Moslems will want Sharia law to be constitutional.
  • Sharia Crisis in Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC emeagwali.com [Source type: Original source]

According to Asifa Quraishi, the methods used in the judicial interpretation of the Constitution are similar to that of the Qur'an, including the methods of "plain meaning literalism, historical understanding "originalism," and reference to underlying purpose and spirit."[34] Sameer S. Vohra says the United States Constitution is similar to the Qur'an in that the Constitution is "the supreme law of the land and the basis from which the laws of the legislature originate."[35] Vohra further notes that the legislature is similar to the Sunnah in that the "legislature takes the framework of the Constitution and makes directives that involve the specific day-to-day situations of its citizens."[35] He also writes that the judicial decision-making process is similar to the qiyas and ijma methods, in that judicial decision-making is "a means by which the law is applied to individual disputes," that "words of the Constitution or of statutes do not specifically address all the possible situations to which they may apply," and that, "at times, it requires the judiciary to either use the consensus of previous decisions or reason by analogy to find the correct principle to resolve the dispute."[36]
.Azizah Y. al-Hibri argues that American constitutional law may have possibly borrowed certain concepts from Islamic constitutional law.^ Dr Williams argues that adopting parts of Islamic Sharia law would help maintain social cohesion.
  • Anorak News » Blog Archive » Archbishop of Canterbury: UK Adopts Aspects Of Sharia Law 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.anorak.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Most Americans and others schooled in Common Law have great difficulty with that concept.The U.S. Constitution (Bill of Rights) prohibits the government from “establishing a religion.” The U.S. Supreme Court has concluded in numerous cases that the U.S. Government can’t favour one religion over another.

^ We are given a précis of Islamic law and what Feldman calls its ‘constitutional theory’ without any sense of historical variation—the kind that can pass as an answer to a quiz in Islamic Civ.

[37] al-Hibri compares the .American constitution to the Qur'an, Sunnah and Constitution of Medina, such as the establishment of a federal government, the declaration of freedom of religion, the abolishment of guilt by association, the right to privacy, and matters such as common defense and peacemaking.^ The constitution guarantees freedom of religion to Moslems.
  • Sharia Crisis in Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC emeagwali.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most Americans and others schooled in Common Law have great difficulty with that concept.The U.S. Constitution (Bill of Rights) prohibits the government from “establishing a religion.” The U.S. Supreme Court has concluded in numerous cases that the U.S. Government can’t favour one religion over another.

^ It does not recognize creativity, freedom of individual rights, science, survival instinct, and the higher values above man-imposed religion, and so forth: the X factors of humanity.

[38] al-Hibri notes that while it is uncertain whether or not the .American Founding Fathers had access to the Constitution of Medina, it is certain that they had access to the Qur'an (which protects some of the rights mentioned in the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution),[39] that Thomas Jefferson was familiar with Orientalist writings on Islam (including those of Volney) in addition to owning a copy of the Qur'an, that Jefferson spoke of avoiding the mistakes of previous civilizations, and that there were African American Muslim slaves from an Islamic legal background.^ Islam discriminates between Muslims and non-Muslims in an Islamic State.

^ Some defend the right of the Muslim community to rule on its own affairs.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Slaves have few civil or legal rights.

[40] However, Thomas Jefferson was not involved at all in the Constitutional drafting, as he was the United States Minister to France from 1785 to 1789.
.The earliest known lawsuits may also date back to Islamic law.^ F'n bailouts not only destroy capitalism, promote socialism, but now may possibly promote Islamic law.
  • The Jawa Report v3.0 Beta Archives 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC mypetjawa.mu.nu [Source type: News]

^ Report as abusive May 31, 2008 5:28 am EDT No matter if Obama is considered (by Islamic Law) a muslim.
  • http://blogs.reuters.com/faithworld/2008/05/30/muslim-scholar-responds-to-sharia-smear-against-obama/ 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.reuters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This means that the only injunctions that are considered in the science of Fiqh are those that are derived from the well-known sources of Islamic Law.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

.A hadith tradition reports that the Caliph Uthman ibn Affan (580-656) attempted to sue a Jewish subject for recovery of a suit of armour, but his case was unsuccessful due to a lack of competent witnesses.^ Ibn Abbas, Muhammad’s cousin and highly reliable transmitter of hadith, reports the following about early Islam and Muhammad’s punishment of homosexuals: .
  • Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies -- Islam and human rights 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ibn Abbas, Muhammad's cousin and highly reliable transmitter of hadith, reports the following about early Islam and Muhammad's punishment of homosexuals: .
  • American Thinker: Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.americanthinker.com [Source type: Original source]

[41] .The concept of a lawsuit was also described in the Ethics of the Physician by Ishaq bin Ali al-Rahwi (854–931) of al-Raha, Syria, as part of an early medical peer review process, where the notes of a practicing Islamic physician were reviewed by peers and he/she could be sued by a maltreated patient if the reviews were negative.^ The Refugee Review Tribunal has recommended a protection visa for an Egyptian man, who is a supporter of the Muslim Brotherhood, an Islamic political group with links to al-Qaida.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Women may soon be banned from wearing tight trousers in parts of an Indonesian province that practices strict Islamic law, and offenders could see their attire cut up.

^ The complex penetration and deception operations that could counter al-Qa'ida take time and patience.

[42]
.The earliest known prohibition of illegal drugs occurred under Islamic law, which prohibited the use of Hashish, a preparation of cannabis, as a recreational drug.^ Then he will place the world under Islamic Law.

^ If you again provide for Muslims in our laws the way it is proposed, we are going to open the country to have two legal systems - one Islamic and another common as we have known it.
  • allAfrica.com: Uganda: Sharia Law Inevitable in Country's Legal System (Page 1 of 1) 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC allafrica.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fort Hood jihadist consulted cleric about whether killing U.S. soldiers was permitted under Islamic law .

.Classical jurists in medieval Islamic jurisprudence, however, accepted the use of the Hashish drug for medicinal and therapeutic purposes, and agreed that its "medical use, even if it leads to mental derangement, remains exempt" from punishment.^ Even the word "Fiqh", Islamic Jurisprudence, literally means human understanding, far from divine gift of Law.
  • Can Sharia (Islamic Law) work in the 21st Century? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That would be apostacy and is punishable by death according all schools of Islamic jurisprudence.

^ It it is also quite common to agree to use the laws of another country even if it has no jurisdiction here.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the 14th century, the Islamic jurist Az-Zarkashi spoke of "the permissibility of its use for medical purposes if it is established that it is beneficial."^ They’re there in the Koran, and they’ve been established by centuries of use,” he said.

^ Added to this, the jurists have explored the general tendencies in Islamic Law by studying the injunctions, then deriving general axioms from their patterns, so that these patterns could be used as guidelines for legal decisions.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Do they want to establish an Islamic state as certain groups accuse, or is there some other purpose?
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

[43] According to Mary Lynn Mathre, with "this legal distinction between the intoxicant and the medical uses of cannabis, medieval Muslim theologians were far ahead of present-day American law."[44]

Other comparisons

.Other parallels to common law concepts in property law were found in classical Islamic property law, including the concepts of leasehold (including duty to take and keep in possession and holdover tenancy), joint ownership (including partition, pledge, bailment, lost property, license and trespass), acquisition (including intestate succession), duress (Ikrah), transfer by sale (including contract formation, meeting of the minds, declaration, and risk of loss), transfer by gift, rights and restrictions on transfers (including restraint on alienation, appurtenance, fixture, preemption, mortgage and water rights), will (including entitlement to shares, revocation, ademption, lapse, abatement and ambiguity), attacks on ownership (including concepts of theft, robbery, usurpation, nuisance, and defense of necessity), and causation (including remote consequences, intervening human cause, concurrent cause and uncertain cause).^ This concept is not found in common law or the civil law of most nations.

^ Sharia is antithetical to the Western concept of law and human rights.
  • Thinking Anglicans: Sharia law in UK is 'unavoidable' 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.thinkinganglicans.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ A society where robbery has become the order of the day, where there is disorder, chaos, usurpation of others rights, where the .Courts seldom witness a person who is truthful, where filthy language is a common place mode of expression, where there is no decency left in human behaviour, what would you expect Shariah to do there?
  • SHARIAH RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND POLITICS IN ISLAM 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.alislam.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many of these concepts were summarized in Islamic juristic texts, including the Hidayah by the Hanafi jurist Qazi Halb Burhan-ud-din, the Minhaj al-Talibin by the Shafi`i jurist Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi, the Mukhtasar by the Maliki jurist Khalil ibn Ishaq al-Jundi, the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri by Hanafi jurists, and the Kasani.^ The author, Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi (d.
  • The Sunnah: Practice and Law (shari'ah and madh'habs) 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, such terrorism is institutionalized in nations that support Islamic supremacism; many of these nations are directly or indirectly funded by millions of American dollars.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Modern Islamic Law recognizes many differences between these two nations.

[15]
While some see the Islamic concept of Istihsan as being equivalent to the concept of equity in English law, others see it as being equivalent to the "reasoned distinction of precedent" in American law, in which case Istihsan may be referred to as the "reasoned distinction of qiyas (reasoning by analogy)".[45]
.Other parallels to common law concepts are found in classical Islamic law and jurisprudence, including advocacy,[46] ratio decidendi (illah),[47] arbitrary decision-making, legal opinion, discretion,[48] public policy (Istislah and Maslaha),[15][48] freedom of religion, equal protection, reasoning by analogy and distinction, and consensus and precedent.^ What about the opinions of other schools of law?
  • altmuslim - Defining sharia: Faithful questions about Islamic law 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.altmuslim.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This concept is not found in common law or the civil law of most nations.

^ Islamic Law and Jurisprudence (1990).
  • Features - Finding the Law: Islamic Law (Sharia) | LLRX.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Academic]

[15]

Comparisons with civil law

.One of the institutions developed by classical Islamic jurists that influenced civil law was the Hawala, an early informal value transfer system, which is mentioned in texts of Islamic jurisprudence as early as the 8th century.^ Islamic Law and Jurisprudence (1990).
  • Features - Finding the Law: Islamic Law (Sharia) | LLRX.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Islamic law is not a suitable system of crime and punishment in civilized society.
  • Islam Watch - "Quranic Sharia Laws" by Ibn Kammuna 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC islam-watch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, when in 2003 the Islamic Institute of Civil Justice announced its intention to begin offering arbitration services based on Islamic family law, a great debate ensued.
  • Keeping the faith? - Haaretz - Israel News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.haaretz.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hawala itself later influenced the development of the Aval in French civil law and the Avallo in Italian law.^ This richness is one of the factors that give Islamic Law the ability to develop, grow, and respond to the growth of human civilization.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

[3] .The "European commenda" limited partnerships (Islamic Qirad) used in civil law as well as the civil law conception of res judicata may also have origins in Islamic law.^ At Harvard, his analysis of Sharia was limited to "The Rule of Law" as interpreted by "scholars" producing an Islamic "constitution"; all of which is refined and perfected by a "balance of power" between rulers and scholars.
  • Solomonia: Stavis: Shilling for Sharia at Harvard 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.solomonia.com [Source type: General]

^ Under Islamic law, a Muslim mother may be given custody of daughters under the age of nine and sons under seven, after which custody goes to the father.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Islamic Law covers all aspects of Law covered by man-made positive law as well as other issues that such man-made laws do not touch upon.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

[2]
.The transfer of debt, which was not permissible under Roman law but is practiced in modern civil law, may also have origins in Islamic law.^ Some polls have shown that substantial numbers of British Muslims would like to live under some form of Islamic law, and often feel alienated when their traditional legal principles come into conflict with secular civil law.
  • Archbishop of Canterbury calls for Sharia Law in Great Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nevilleawards.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, when in 2003 the Islamic Institute of Civil Justice announced its intention to begin offering arbitration services based on Islamic family law, a great debate ensued.
  • Keeping the faith? - Haaretz - Israel News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.haaretz.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2003, for example, a Malaysian court ruled that, under Sharia law, a man may divorce his wife via text messaging as long as the message was clear and unequivocal.

[49] The concept of an agency was also an "institution unknown to Roman law", where it was not possible for an individual to "conclude a binding contract on behalf of another as his agent." The concept of an agency was introduced by Islamic jurists, and thus the civil law conception of agency may also have origins in Islamic law.[50]

International law

.The first treatise on international law (Siyar in Arabic) was the Introduction to the Law of Nations written at the end of the 8th century by Muhammad al-Shaybani[51] (d.^ This is an invidious form of discrimination, and the City of Dearborn will have to justify it in the lawsuit that I and the Thomas More Law Center have filed against it to permanently end this violation of the First Amendment.

^ "Its laws are based on the Qur'an and hadiths (reports of Muhammad's words and actions outside of the Qur'an) as well as centuries of debate and interpretation," says Darwish.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So far the local identity has been suppressed by the central government.” Shariah law is a system that operates under a code of Islamic principles first established in the Arab world by the prophet Muhammad in the seventh century.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

.804), an Islamic jurist of the Hanafi school,[52] eight centuries before Hugo Grotius wrote the first European treatise on the subject.^ Theoretically, these canonical sources constitute the bases for elaborate legal traditions, known as fiqh (understanding), formulated by divines and jurists over the Islamic centuries, and subject to many mutations.
  • Sharia: practice of faith, politics of modernity | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We shall first discuss the primary sources of Islamic Law the Qurn, Sunnah, juristic consensus, and juristic analogy.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Returning from Pakistan in 1994, this father of eight children established the Islamic boarding school Ihyaus Sunnah in KM 15, Kaliurang, Yogyakarta.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

.Al-Shaybani wrote a second more advanced treatise on the subject, and other jurists soon followed with a number of other multi-volume treatises written on international law during the Islamic Golden Age.^ The sources of Islamic law are as follows: 1.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Without Shariah, there would have been no Haroun al-Rashid in Baghdad, no golden age of Muslim Spain, no reign of Suleiman the Magnificent in Istanbul.

^ In matters of finance, public administration, criminal law and international law, secular-based Western laws have been followed -- with some amendments for local conditions.
  • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

[51] .They dealt with both public international law as well as private international law.^ In matters of finance, public administration, criminal law and international law, secular-based Western laws have been followed -- with some amendments for local conditions.
  • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Their official crime was a violation of Article 152 of Sudan’s criminal law: “conduct or clothing in violation of public decency.” But what did they actually do?
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This fact is recognized by Scholars of Islamic law as well, so they would have to designate a venue, school, or scholar(s) to arbitrate back to.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Sharia Law Enforced in Texas! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

[53]
.These early Islamic legal treatises covered the application of Islamic ethics, Islamic economic jurisprudence and Islamic military jurisprudence to international law,[52] and were concerned with a number of modern international law topics, including the law of treaties; the treatment of diplomats, hostages, refugees and prisoners of war; the right of asylum; conduct on the battlefield; protection of women, children and non-combatant civilians; contracts across the lines of battle; the use of poisonous weapons; and devastation of enemy territory.^ Besides, the principles of Islamic laws are discriminatory to women's right.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We need protection from Sharia Islamic Law."
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That's why the Taliban stuck women in burqas and fired them from their jobs while in Iran women serve (in significant numbers) in the national legislature: differing interpretations of what Sharia law requires.

[51] .The Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphs were also in continuous diplomatic negotiations with the Byzantine Empire on matters such as peace treaties, the exchange of prisoners of war, and payment of ransoms and tributes.^ A captured enemy of war could be killed, enslaved, ransomed for money or an exchange, freely released, or beaten.
  • American Thinker: Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.americanthinker.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies -- Islam and human rights 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Islam understood the concept of diplomacy, diplomatic immunity and the negotiation of treaties, all of which can be researched as such.
  • Features - Finding the Law: Islamic Law (Sharia) | LLRX.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He claims that Moses was an Egyptian who destroyed the peace and continues to do so-meaning that Abrahamic realigions by tying religion to conquest and empire did a lot of damage.
  • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

[54]
After Sultan al-Kamil defeated the Franks during the Crusades, Oliverus Scholasticus praised the Islamic laws of war, commenting on how al-Kamil supplied the defeated Frankish army with food:[51]
.
"Who could doubt that such goodness, friendship and charity come from God?^ Having observed a succession of changes of this type, Adbollah renounced Islam on the grounds that revelations, if from God could not be changed at the prompting of a scribe such as himself.
  • Islam Watch - "Quranic Sharia Laws" by Ibn Kammuna 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC islam-watch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ America has a history of heroes that lived for and died for such courage - to stand as an example to those who would come after them.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People who were found to have made such an agreement could then be punished in some way.
  • Pajamas Media » Sharia Law Not Coming to Britain — Yet 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Men whose parents, sons and daughters, brothers and sisters, had died in agony at our hands, whose lands we took, whom we drove naked from their homes, revived us with their own food when we were dying of hunger and showered us with kindness even when we were in their power."^ Our sons and daughters in the military will not fire on us.
  • Michelle Malkin » Sharia alert: What’s the Treasury Department up to now? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: General]

^ It is in this context that we invited you this evening to be with us here, with IRIS in this community, to share with you, our views, our insights and our ideas on this topic.
  • SHARIAH RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND POLITICS IN ISLAM 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.alislam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When her parents were eventually allowed to visit her in Kontagora, Fatima Usman cried and said she wanted to come home, indicating that she was not there of her own free will.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

[55]
.The Islamic legal principles of international law were largely based on Qur'an and the Sunnah of Muhammad, who gave various injunctions to his forces and adopted practices toward the conduct of war.^ This is a universal principle in Islamic law.

^ All of these practices are based on Islamic law and/or are considered Islamic by those Muslims who practice them.

^ Lord Chief Justice Lord Phillips said that Islamic legal principles could be employed to deal with family and marital arguments and to regulate finance.
  • Pajamas Media » Sharia Law Not Coming to Britain — Yet 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

The most important of these were summarized by Muhammad's successor and close companion, Abu Bakr, in the form of ten rules for the Muslim army:[56]
.
Stop, O people, that I may give you ten rules for your guidance in the battlefield.^ Do not hesitate to present your ideas to those who may be able to offer the financial backing you are looking for.
  • Sharia a threat to Britain's future as 'tolerant' society - Topix 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

^ This must be stopped so please come along to our passive protest and bring your friends with you.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now the press and people like you will not stop harassing him or his church, so he has decided, quite correctly, that he should not choose a new one until the election is over.
  • http://blogs.reuters.com/faithworld/2008/05/30/muslim-scholar-responds-to-sharia-smear-against-obama/ 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.reuters.com [Source type: Original source]

Do not commit treachery or deviate from the right path. .You must not mutilate dead bodies.^ If you try to get rid of Jews, you are mutilating your own body politic.
  • From Magna Carta to Sharia Law – Britain’s Decline | The Brussels Journal 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.brusselsjournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you try to get rid of Jews, you are mutilating your own body politic."
  • From Magna Carta to Sharia Law – Britain’s Decline | The Brussels Journal 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.brusselsjournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.Neither kill a child, nor a woman, nor an aged man.^ Anonymous: One hundred dollars for killing a man and 200 lashes for a woman meeting a man outside of marriage!

^ Hate crime and assault charges have been filed against an Auburn man accused of threatening to cut a woman and her infant child at a Seattle health center.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If a woman is killed, the blood money (the money a killer has to pay to the family of the killed on demand to get acquitted) is half of that of a Muslim man.
  • Can Sharia (Islamic Law) work in the 21st Century? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: Original source]

Bring no harm to the trees, nor burn them with fire, especially those which are fruitful. Slay not any of the enemy's flock, save for your food. .You are likely to pass by people who have devoted their lives to monastic services; leave them alone.^ If it’s left to people like you, perhaps.
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ You`ve got people like (INAUDIBLE) Martinez in Congress who just introduced their massive, 12-million-person amnesty.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Apostates are those who leave Islam, like Salman Rushdie (see the linked article in no.
  • American Thinker: Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.americanthinker.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies -- Islam and human rights 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

[56]
.Islamic private international law arose as a result of the vast Muslim conquests and maritime explorations, giving rise to various conflicts of laws.^ When the British applied their law to Muslims in place of Shariah, as they did in some colonies, the result was to strip married women of the property that Islamic law had always granted them — hardly progress toward equality of the sexes.

^ We are given a précis of Islamic law and what Feldman calls its ‘constitutional theory’ without any sense of historical variation—the kind that can pass as an answer to a quiz in Islamic Civ.

^ Islamic law threatens Muslims with death if they criticize Muhammad and the Quran, not to mention denying them.
  • American Thinker: Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.americanthinker.com [Source type: Original source]

A will, for example, was "not enforced even if its provisions accorded with Islamic law if it violated the law of the testator." Islamic jurists also developed elaborate rules for private international law regarding issues such as contracts and property, family relations and child custody, legal procedure and jurisdiction, religious conversion, and the return of aliens to an enemy country from the Islamic world. .Democratic religious pluralism also existed in classical Islamic law, as the religious laws and courts of other religions, including Christianity, Judaism and Hinduism, were usually accommodated within the Islamic legal framework, as seen in the early Caliphate, al-Andalus, Indian subcontinent, and the Ottoman Millet system.^ The same is true for Islamic Law and Islamic religion.

^ Most Americans and others schooled in Common Law have great difficulty with that concept.The U.S. Constitution (Bill of Rights) prohibits the government from “establishing a religion.” The U.S. Supreme Court has concluded in numerous cases that the U.S. Government can’t favour one religion over another.

^ As I recall, Blackstone devoted part of his treatise to demonstrating that the laws of England are necessarily based on the Christian religion, and remarked in passing that this reason disqualified Jews (and presumably other non-Christians) from serving as judges.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Sharia Law Enforced in Texas! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

[54][57]
.Islamic law also introduced "two fundamental principles to the West, on which were to later stand the future structure of law: equity and good faith", which was a precursor to the concept of pacta sunt servanda in civil law and international law.^ This is a universal principle in Islamic law.

^ However, when in 2003 the Islamic Institute of Civil Justice announced its intention to begin offering arbitration services based on Islamic family law, a great debate ensued.
  • Keeping the faith? - Haaretz - Israel News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.haaretz.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The researcher may wish to look at the Islamic law of jihad, apostasy and the laws of war as well as the Islamists' concept of khilafa.
  • Features - Finding the Law: Islamic Law (Sharia) | LLRX.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Academic]

Islamic law also "introduced it to international relations, making possible the systematic development of conventional law, which became a partial substitute for custom."[58]
.Islamic law also made "major contributions" to international admiralty law, departing from the previous Roman and Byzantine maritime laws in several ways.^ The three major crime categories in Islamic Law are: .

^ The case of a Muslim woman in Malaysia, who will be caned as punishment for drinking beer, has triggered a debate on whether Islamic laws are too severe for the country's multiracial society.

^ Islamic Law covers all aspects of Law covered by man-made positive law as well as other issues that such man-made laws do not touch upon.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

[59][60] These included Muslim sailors being "paid a fixed wage "in advance" with an understanding that they would owe money in the event of desertion or malfeasance, in keeping with Islamic conventions" in which contracts should specify "a known fee for a known duration", in contrast to Roman and Byzantine sailors who were "stakeholders in a maritime venture, in as much as captain and crew, with few exceptions, were paid proportional divisions of a sea venture's profit, with shares allotted by rank, only after a voyage's successful conclusion." Muslim jurists also distinguished between "coastal navigation, or cabotage," and voyages on the "high seas", and they also made shippers "liable for freight in most cases except the seizure of both a ship and its cargo." Islamic law also "departed from Justinian's Digest and the Nomos Rhodion Nautikos in condemning slave jettison", and the Islamic Qirad was also a precursor to the European commenda limited partnership. .The "Islamic influence on the development of an international law of the sea" can thus be discerned alongside that of the Roman influence.^ In international media, practices by countries applying Islamic law have fallen under considerable criticism at times.

^ When the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and International Law was constructed, instead of proposing modifications to it, Muslim clergy were quick to formulate an alternate Islamic Declaration of Human Rights and Islamic International Law.
  • Can Sharia (Islamic Law) work in the 21st Century? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus arbitrated decisions, by choice of the parties involved, may not reach the courts and may be carried out solely according to Islamic law.
  • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

[59]
.There is evidence that early Islamic international law influenced the development of Western international law, through various routes such as the Crusades, Norman conquest of the Emirate of Sicily, and Reconquista of al-Andalus.^ There are tons of articles on islamic law.
  • altmuslim - Defining sharia: Faithful questions about Islamic law 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.altmuslim.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In matters of finance, public administration, criminal law and international law, secular-based Western laws have been followed -- with some amendments for local conditions.
  • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are given a précis of Islamic law and what Feldman calls its ‘constitutional theory’ without any sense of historical variation—the kind that can pass as an answer to a quiz in Islamic Civ.

[58] .In particular, the Spanish jurist Francisco de Vitoria, and his successor Hugo Grotius, may have been influenced by Islamic international law through earlier Islamic-influenced writings such as the 1263 work Siete Partidas of Alfonso X, which was regarded as a "monument of legal science" in Europe at the time and was influenced by the Islamic legal treatise Villiyet written in Islamic Spain.^ Islamic law had already been revealed at that time.
  • SHARIAH RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND POLITICS IN ISLAM 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.alislam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Users may make such material available in an effort to advance awareness and understanding of issues relating to civil rights, economics, individual rights, international affairs, liberty, science & technology, etc.

^ Both monies are now regarded as part of the deceaseds estate to be divided according to faraid, the Islamic law of inheritance where wives and daughters get half of what the men get.

[53][58]

Legal education

.Madrasahs were the first law schools, and it is likely that the "law schools known as Inns of Court in England" may have been derived from the Madrasahs, which taught Islamic law and jurisprudence.^ Islamic jurisprudence has never been like that but the opposite.
  • Muslim Intellectuals and the Sharia Debate in Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nigerdeltacongress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Islamic Law and Jurisprudence (1990).
  • Features - Finding the Law: Islamic Law (Sharia) | LLRX.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Zahed will be a panelist at Divan 2.0 , a debate on the future of the Muslim internet sponsored by the Radical Middle Way at the London School of Economics in London, England, May 22, 2009.
  • altmuslim - Defining sharia: Faithful questions about Islamic law 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.altmuslim.com [Source type: Original source]

[2][61]
.The origins of the doctorate dates back to the ijazat attadris wa 'l-ifttd ("license to teach and issue legal opinions") in the medieval Islamic legal education system, which was equivalent to the Doctor of Laws qualification and was developed during the 9th century after the formation of the Madh'hab legal schools.^ During the 19th century the history of Islamic law took a sharp turn due to new challenges the Muslim world faced: the West had risen to a global power and colonized a large part of the world, including Muslim territories.

^ An unexpected backing for the Islamic legal system, sharia, currently in place in most northern states has come from the Attorney General and Minister of Justice, Chief Bola Ige (SAN) who declared it constitutional.
  • The Unfizzled Sharia Vector in the Nigerian State 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nigerdeltacongress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Subject Matter of Islamic Law Islamic Law is a comprehensive system covering the human beings relationship with his Creator, with his fellow human beings, and with his society and nation.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

.To obtain a doctorate, a student "had to study in a guild school of law, usually four years for the basic undergraduate course" and ten or more years for a post-graduate course.^ He was against blind taqlid (imitation of legal precedents) but he "did not deny authoritative judgments - determined on the basis of consensus - by eponyms of the four schools of Sunni law".
  • Muslim Intellectuals and the Sharia Debate in Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nigerdeltacongress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact is that this teenage girl converted to Christianity more than four years ago.

^ He also said development of the policy had no connection to the arrest last year of a 2008 graduate of the school, Tarek Mehanna, on terrorism charges.

The "doctorate was obtained after an oral examination to determine the originality of the candidate's theses," and to test the student's "ability to defend them against all objections, in disputations set up for the purpose," which were scholarly exercises practiced throughout the student's "career as a graduate student of law." After students completed their post-graduate education, they were awarded doctorates giving them the status of faqih (meaning "master of law"), mufti (meaning "professor of legal opinions") and mudarris (meaning "teacher"), which were later translated into Latin as magister, professor and doctor respectively.[61]

Democratic participation

.In the early Islamic caliphate, the head of state, the caliph, had a position based on the notion of a successor to Muhammad's political authority, who, according to Sunnis, were ideally elected by the people or their representatives.^ Khatib said that in preparation for the coming Islamic takeover, Muslims who hold Israeli citizenship like himself should begin to actively rebel against the state by refusing to cooperate with and forming alternatives to the Israeli authorities.
  • Israel to come under Sharia law, says Israeli Arab cleric 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.israeltoday.co.il [Source type: Original source]

^ Said Namouh, who makes bomb instruction videos *Caliphate Voice Channel*, a branch of al Qaeda*s * Global Islamic Media Front *, [GIMF].
  • small dead animals: More creeping sharia in Canada 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.smalldeadanimals.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mohammed Salam Madkoar, who was the head of Islamic Law at the University of Cairo, makes the following observation (Ministry of the Interior, 1976, p.104): .

[62] .After the Rashidun Caliphs, later Caliphates during the Islamic Golden Age had a lesser degree of democratic participation, but since "no one was superior to anyone else except on the basis of piety and virtue" in Islam, and following the example of Muhammad, later Islamic rulers often held public consultations with the people in their affairs.^ Muhammad" but one that "bears no resemblance to Muhammad."

^ For example, one reads the following .

^ However it is a ruling that is made by the Islamic Courts of Shar'iah and not done on an individual basis, hence there's no legal ruling in Islam allowing Shari'ah to be carried out in dar ul harb.

[57][63]
.The power of the Caliph (or later, the Sultan) was restricted by the scholarly class, the ulema, a group regarded as the guardians of the law.^ Michele Vianes President of the Paris-based group Regards de Femmes, is leading the fight against sharia law and political Islam in France.
  • International Campaign Against Shari'a Court in Canada 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC nosharia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Codification signaled the death knell for the scholarly class, but it did not destroy the balance of powers on its own.

^ This self-appointed group came to be known as the scholars — and over the course of a few generations, they got the caliphs to acknowledge them as the guardians of the law.

.Since the law came from the legal scholars, this prevented the Caliph from dictating legal results.^ The caliph could promote or fire them as he wished, but he could not dictate legal results: judicial authority came from the caliph, but the law came from the scholars.

^ In the same vein are the traffic laws of today that came in response to the demands of the automobile and were set down in order to preserve life and prevent collisions and accidents.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Secularist movements pushed for laws deviating from the opinions of the Islamic legal scholars.

.Laws were decided based on the ijma (consensus) of the Ummah (community), which was most often represented by the legal scholars.^ In addition to an imam, Elmasry said there should be Canadian-trained lawyers, women and elders in the community represented on a panel involved with sharia-based arbitration.
  • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Secularists believe the law of the state should be based on secular principles, not on Islamic legal theory.

^ While there is legal consensus on some issues, Muslim scholars have had different opinions regarding practically every aspect of Sharia.
  • altmuslim - Defining sharia: Faithful questions about Islamic law 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.altmuslim.com [Source type: Original source]

[64] .In order to qualify as a legal scholar, it was required that they obtain a doctorate known as the ijazat attadris wa 'l-ifttd ("license to teach and issue legal opinions") from a Madrasah.^ While there is legal consensus on some issues, Muslim scholars have had different opinions regarding practically every aspect of Sharia.
  • altmuslim - Defining sharia: Faithful questions about Islamic law 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.altmuslim.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Normally Moslems are required to obey the Sharia, the law that obtains in Moslem societies, but if they live under a non-Moslem government, as hundreds of thousands of them do in Canada, they are excused from that obligation.
  • Sharia to be enforced by Canadian courts 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.amnation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They would then ask the Court to make an order making the result legally binding...
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

[61] .In many ways, classical Islamic law functioned like a constitutional law.^ At Harvard, his analysis of Sharia was limited to "The Rule of Law" as interpreted by "scholars" producing an Islamic "constitution"; all of which is refined and perfected by a "balance of power" between rulers and scholars.
  • Solomonia: Stavis: Shilling for Sharia at Harvard 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.solomonia.com [Source type: General]

^ The point is this: though many factors contribute to a drop in crime rates (and their rise), it is possible to see such a decrease without Islamic law.
  • Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies -- Islam and human rights 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The demand for implementation of Islamic sharia law for Muslim adherents has become not only a project but a reality that is a constitutional demand.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

[64]

Human rights

.In the field of human rights, early Islamic jurists introduced a number of advanced legal concepts before the 12th century that anticipated similar modern concepts in the field.^ President Ahmadinejad along with other leaders of Islamic Regime of Iran has violated Articles 9, 10, 11 and 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; .
  • International Campaign Against Shari'a Court in Canada 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC nosharia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This article lays out a timeline for the Islamic Crusades, four centuries before the Europeans launched their own.
  • Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies -- Islam and human rights 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She said the term "inverts victim and perpetrator" by portraying Islamic fanatics as the victim, thus allowing them to label dissent as a violation of human rights and, in effect, silence dissent.

[65] .These included the notions of the charitable trust and the trusteeship of property; the notion of brotherhood and social solidarity; the notions of human dignity and the dignity of labour; the notion of an ideal law; the condemnation of antisocial behavior; the presumption of innocence; the notion of "bidding unto good" (assistance to those in distress); and the notions of sharing, caring, universalism, fair industrial relations, fair contract, commercial integrity, freedom from usury, women's rights, privacy, abuse of rights, juristic personality, individual freedom, equality before the law, legal representation, non-retroactivity, supremacy of the law, judicial independence, judicial impartiality, limited sovereignty, tolerance, and democratic participation.^ Women do not share this right.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Sweden, we are all equal before the law.
  • International Campaign Against Shari'a Court in Canada 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC nosharia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Citizenship and human rights are non-negotiable.
  • One Law For All - Against Sharia Law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC onelawforallpetition.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of these concepts were adopted in medieval Europe through contacts with Islamic Spain and the Emirate of Sicily, and through the Crusades and the Latin translations of the 12th century.^ In fact, such terrorism is institutionalized in nations that support Islamic supremacism; many of these nations are directly or indirectly funded by millions of American dollars.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Modern Islamic Law recognizes many differences between these two nations.

^ There are varying degrees of this concept in many nations, but all law, government and civil authority rests upon it and it is a part of Islamic religion.

[65]
In the North Carolina Law Review journal, Professor John Makdisi of the University of North Carolina School of Law writes in The Islamic Origins of the Common Law article:
.
"[T]he manner in which an act was qualified as morally good or bad in the spiritual domain of Islamic religion was quite different from the manner in which that same act was qualified as legally valid or invalid in the temporal domain of Islamic law.^ The same is true for Islamic Law and Islamic religion.

^ Sharia finance – good, Sharia law – bad.
  • Pickled Politics » Sharia Finance still matters 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pickled Politics » Sharia Finance still matters 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It cannot therefore be accepted as a legally valid basis even for settling private disagreements in a country like ours, where our law embodies the equal legal status of everyone, regardless of race, gender or religion.” .
  • UK Sharia Courts:Sharia is the law of the Land, Wage war | Loganswarning 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC loganswarning.com [Source type: Original source]

.Islamic law was secular, not canonical...^ Islamic Shariah law is a barbaric Stone Age system of law that is incompatible with modern secular societies.

^ The Islamic law, the Shari’a , is not a supplement to the “secular” legal code, it is the only such code and the only basis of obligation (Kuran 4:8).
  • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Islamic shariah is a barbaric code of "law" that has no place in a modern secular society.

.Thus, it was a system focused on ensuring that an individual received justice, not that one be a good person."^ Your point that liberals tend to prefer a Western style system and therefore are not working on Sharia is a good one.

^ No one would appreciate insults about his/her personal beliefs and systems.

^ Individuals are subject to "justice" that first take into account their personal beliefs, sex, and position in society.
  • Islam Watch - "Quranic Sharia Laws" by Ibn Kammuna 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC islam-watch.org [Source type: Original source]

[66]
Count Leon Ostorog, a French jurist, wrote the following on classical Islamic law in 1927:
"Those Eastern thinkers of the ninth century laid down, on the basis of their theology, the principle of the Rights of Man, in those very terms, comprehending the rights of individual liberty, and of inviolability of person and property; described the supreme power in Islam, or Califate, as based on a contract, implying conditions of capacity and performance, and subject to cancellation if the conditions under the contract were not fulfilled; elaborated a Law of War of which the humane, chivalrous prescriptions would have put to the blush certain belligerents in the Great War; expounded a doctrine of toleration of non-Moslem creeds so liberal that our West had to wait a thousand years before seeing equivalent principles adopted."[67]

Inalienable rights

.The concept of inalienable rights was found in early Islamic law and jurisprudence, which denied a ruler "the right to take away from his subjects certain rights which inhere in his or her person as a human being.^ Sharia is antithetical to the Western concept of law and human rights.
  • Thinking Anglicans: Sharia law in UK is 'unavoidable' 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.thinkinganglicans.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Islamic law threatens Muslims with death if they criticize Muhammad and the Quran, not to mention denying them.
  • American Thinker: Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.americanthinker.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Ahmadinejad along with other leaders of Islamic Regime of Iran has violated Articles 9, 10, 11 and 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; .
  • International Campaign Against Shari'a Court in Canada 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC nosharia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63]" .Islamic rulers could not take away certain rights from their subjects on the basis that "they become rights by reason of the fact that they are given to a subject by a law and from a source which no ruler can question or alter.^ No exceptions from the law for religious reasons.
  • Thinking Anglicans: Sharia law in UK is 'unavoidable' 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.thinkinganglicans.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The sources of Islamic law are as follows: 1.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I see no reason to alter the prediction.
  • Democrats & Liberals:: Basra Under Sharia Law 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.watchblog.com [Source type: Original source]

[63]" .Islamic jurists also anticipated the concept of the rule of law, the equal subjection of all classes to the ordinary law of the land, where no person is above the law and where officials and private citizens are under a duty to obey the same law.^ In Sweden, we are all equal before the law.
  • International Campaign Against Shari'a Court in Canada 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC nosharia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Islamic jurists issue guidance and rulings.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The same is true for Islamic Law and Islamic religion.

.A qadi (Islamic judge) was also not allowed to discriminate on the grounds of religion, race, colour, kinship or prejudice.^ Title VII prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin and religion.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination on the job on the basis of race, color, sex, religion or national origin.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

.There were also a number of cases where caliphs had to appear before judges as they prepared to take their verdict.^ There have been a number of other cases of women accused of adultery who, if found guilty, could have faced a death sentence.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the six cases of domestic violence, Siddiqi said the judges ordered the husbands to take anger management classes and mentoring from community elders.
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC fora.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When two or three [Somali] students went over there to take things into their own hands, they had a gallery,” Johnson said.

[68] .There is evidence that John Locke's formulation of inalienable rights and conditional rulership, which were present in Islamic law centuries earlier, may have also been influenced by Islamic law, through his attendance of lectures given by Edward Pococke, a professor of Islamic studies.^ UN: Islamic law is major influence on refugee law, says study .
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Secondary Sources of Islamic Law There are other acceptable means of deriving Islamic legal injunctions, besides the four primary sources.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This can include the marriage contract entered into in a Muslim country or a battle of who under Islamic law have the right to seek divorce.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

[69]

Economic and social rights

.Early Islamic law recognized two sets of human rights.^ To have two separate societies with two separate sets of laws?
  • From Magna Carta to Sharia Law – Britain’s Decline | The Brussels Journal 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.brusselsjournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It does not recognize creativity, freedom of individual rights, science, survival instinct, and the higher values above man-imposed religion, and so forth: the X factors of humanity.

^ When Islamic groups sought to establish similar courts in which decisions would be based on shari’a and their decisions officially recognized by Ontario law they met with opposition from protest groups.
  • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

.In addition to the category of civil rights and political rights (covered in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights), Islamic law also recognized an additional category: social, economic and cultural rights.^ This is a universal principle in Islamic law.

^ Each of Islam's five pillars (declaration of belief, prayer, fasting, Islamic tax and Hajj the pilgrim to Mecca once in life) is essentially non-political.
  • Can Sharia (Islamic Law) work in the 21st Century? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It does not recognize creativity, freedom of individual rights, science, survival instinct, and the higher values above man-imposed religion, and so forth: the X factors of humanity.

.This latter category was not recognized in the Western legal tradition until the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in 1966.[70] The right of privacy, which was not recognized in Western legal traditions until modern times, was recognized in Islamic law since the beginning of Islam.^ Rethinking traditions in modern Islamic thought .

^ Islam has legal, political, economic, social, and military components.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Islam according to Islamic law.
  • American Thinker: Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.americanthinker.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies -- Islam and human rights 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

[55]

Women's rights

Status of women under Islamic law prior to the 19th century
.Until the 19th century, Islamic law granted women some legal rights that they did not have under Western legal systems until the 19th and 20th centuries.^ Then he will place the world under Islamic Law.

^ Besides, the principles of Islamic laws are discriminatory to women's right.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the Islamic people they also had to live under sharia law.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

[71] For example, "French married women, unlike their Muslim sisters, suffered from restrictions on their legal capacity which were removed only in 1965."[72] Noah Feldman, a Harvard University law professor, notes:
.
As for sexism, the common law long denied married women any property rights or indeed legal personality apart from their husbands.^ As for sexism, the common law long denied married women any property rights or indeed legal personality apart from their husbands.

^ When the British applied their law to Muslims in place of Shariah, as they did in some colonies, the result was to strip married women of the property that Islamic law had always granted them — hardly progress toward equality of the sexes.

^ To marry her former husband, a divorced wife must marry another person, have complete sex with him and get divorced by the new husband.
  • Can Sharia (Islamic Law) work in the 21st Century? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: Original source]

.When the British applied their law to Muslims in place of Shariah, as they did in some colonies, the result was to strip married women of the property that Islamic law had always granted them — hardly progress toward equality of the sexes.^ Then he will place the world under Islamic Law.

^ Did the Prophet marry many women or not?
  • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the British applied their law to Muslims in place of Shariah, as they did in some colonies, the result was to strip married women of the property that Islamic law had always granted them — hardly progress toward equality of the sexes.

[64]
.Women also had the right to challenge or oppose any laws proposed by a Caliph.^ Nevertheless, the proposed changes were condemned by parts of the Muslim and Jewish community, and legal challenges to the new law remain a distinct possibility.

^ At the same time, there are laws which considerably place women worse off than men, which means that women can be refused the right to a divorce.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sharia law conflicts with the principle of equal treatment of women and men, because women are treated as unequal in regard to family law and rights of inheritance.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

In the 7th century, when the Caliph Umar proposed a change in Islamic marital jurisprudence at a mosque, he was challenged by an old unknown woman who stated: "You shall not deprive us [women] of what God gave us." The woman cited a passage from the Qur'an as support and thus Umar had no choice but to declare: "The woman is right and the Khalifah is wrong."[73] At the time of the Prophet Muhammad, he often sought advice from women in regards to political matters, and a delegation of Arab women once "extended the bay'ah to him," thus establishing "the right of Muslim women to participate in the political process."[74]
Status of women under Islamic law since the 19th century
.Of course, since this point in history the aforementioned exploration of freedom is no longer true — that is to say that whilst it is arguable that women had more extensive legal rights under Islamic law than they did under Western legal systems in the past, it is no longer true today.^ If they love God more than me, they have to do this.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then he will place the world under Islamic Law.

^ Just say no to sharia law .

[75]

Welfare and pension

.The concepts of welfare and pension were introduced in early Islamic law as forms of Zakat (charity), one of the Five Pillars of Islam, since the time of the Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur in the 8th century.^ Islam according to Islamic law.
  • American Thinker: Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.americanthinker.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies -- Islam and human rights 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Islamic law had already been revealed at that time.
  • SHARIAH RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND POLITICS IN ISLAM 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.alislam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They believe that when that happens they will rule over those lands very much like the early Muslims had done in 7th and 8th Century when the few nomads of Arabia appointed themselves Caliphs and Viziers of the lands of the Byzantine and Persian Empires.

.The taxes (including Zakat and Jizya) collected in the treasury of an Islamic government was used to provide income for the needy, including the poor, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled.^ The government took the step as the rebels have already implemented the Islamic law in the areas they control including southern and central parts of the nation.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Qiyas various forms of reasoning, including by analogy are used by the law scholars ( Mujtahidun ) to deal with situations where the sources provided no concrete rules.

^ Such "Islamic scholars" increasingly provide the "expert opinions" to U.S. government agencies, to the United Nations, to law enforcement agencies, and to other national and international organizations.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to the Islamic jurist Al-Ghazali (Algazel, 1058–1111), the government was also expected to store up food supplies in every region in case a disaster or famine occurs.^ According to Al-Attas, the Islamic understanding of change has some definite direction and an ultimate destination, unlike the secular perspective.
  • Muslim Intellectuals and the Sharia Debate in Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nigerdeltacongress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to a month of fasting, every Muslim donates food for the needy, a practice known as sadaqah al-Fitr; similar to Thanksgiving Day dinner.

^ According to Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taimiyyah, the scholar, who gave classical theory of Islamic government its fullest treatment, "caliphal government" is "a practical reality, not a doctrinal issue".
  • Muslim Intellectuals and the Sharia Debate in Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nigerdeltacongress.com [Source type: Original source]

.The caliphate was thus one of the earliest welfare states.^ You get the educated ones who could afford a plane ticket and chose a country that is not a welfare state.
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC fora.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

[76][77]

Freedom of speech

.During the Islamic Golden Age, there was an early emphasis on freedom of speech in the Islamic caliphate.^ Without Shariah, there would have been no Haroun al-Rashid in Baghdad, no golden age of Muslim Spain, no reign of Suleiman the Magnificent in Istanbul.

^ There were cases, during this early period, where kabu-kabu drivers were charged and flogged for carrying female passengers.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.This was first declared by the Caliph Umar in the 7th century.^ The era of the rightly guided Caliphs and the period that followed it up to the middle of the first century A.H. This period and the one that preceded it are considered the preliminary stage for the codification of Islamic Law.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

[58] Later during the Abbasid period, freedom of speech was also declared by al-Hashimi, a cousin of caliph Al-Ma'mun (786–833), in the following letter to a religious opponent:[78]
.
"Bring forward all the arguments you wish and say whatever you please and speak your mind freely.^ If you are thankful, your thanks will please Him.
  • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You are free to think as you please.
  • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You wrap up your entire argument in religion, the Prophet did this or that, meant this or that and you lose.
  • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Now that you are safe and free to say whatever you please appoint some arbitrator who will impartially judge between us and lean only towards the truth and be free from the empery of passion, and that arbitrator shall be Reason, whereby God makes us responsible for our own rewards and punishments.^ It's not our choice to make-- nor their choice to decide for us.

^ God allows us to have free choice.
  • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The truth will set you free.

.Herein I have dealt justly with you and have given you full security and am ready to accept whatever decision Reason may give for me or against me.^ None of of this, I’m sad to say, is a good sign and a KEY reason why you NEVER EVER give one person… Paulson… control over anything.
  • Michelle Malkin » Sharia alert: What’s the Treasury Department up to now? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: General]

^ If you break those rules or laws you may be dealt with, e.g.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Much ado about Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Feb 8th, 2008 at 2:58 pm Report comment Quietzapple, if sharia is applied, can i stone you for whatever silly reason i can make up?
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.For "There is no compulsion in religion" (Qur'an 2:256) and I have only invited you to accept our faith willingly and of your own accord and have pointed out the hideousness of your present belief.^ We have our own works and you have yours; let there be no argument between us.
  • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were no witnesses, only the complainant.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Quran is very explicit when it says, “there is no compulsion in religion,” (Quran 2: 256).
  • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Peace be with you and the blessings of God!"^ Every prophet ‑ not only Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of God be upon him) ‑ every prophet first created that healthy climate for the law of God to be imposed, willingly not compulsorily.
  • SHARIAH RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND POLITICS IN ISLAM 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.alislam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God Bless Both of You in Christ, come soon Lord Jesus: .
  • Gaza inches closer to Sharia Law 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.israeltoday.co.il [Source type: Original source]

^ God Bless, You and Yours: .
  • Gaza inches closer to Sharia Law 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.israeltoday.co.il [Source type: Original source]

[78]
.According to George Makdisi and Hugh Goddard, "the idea of academic freedom" in universities was "modelled on Islamic custom" as practiced in the medieval Madrasah system from the 9th century.^ The term Sharia itself derives from the verb shara'a , which according to Abdul Mannan Omar's Dictionary of the Holy Qur'an connects to the idea of "spiritual law" (5:48) and "system of divine law; way of belief and practice" (45:18) in the Qur'an .

^ No civilized society of the 21st century can permit this medieval practice.

^ At a time when America is locked in a battle of ideas with Islamic extremists and other enemies of freedom, accurate knowledge is indispensable.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

[79]

Peace and justice

.As in other Abrahamic religions, peace is a basic concept of Islam.^ Why: because the children should be with the parent who adheres to the better religion, and Islam is the better religion when compared to any other religion.
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ He has separated his study into four areas: Islam as the religion of Muslims; Islam as it relates to other religions, such as Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, and Hinduism; Islam as a civilization; and Islam and the contemporary world.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why should other religions accept Islam when Islam traps its believers, including converts from other faiths, like flies on flypaper?

.The Arabic term "Islam" itself (إسلام) is usually translated as "submission"; submission of desires to the will of God.^ But that is not all the problem is further complicated within Islam itself: Because Islam has a Book revealed by God and the Muslim scholars claim that it is their right to interpret the Book.
  • SHARIAH RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND POLITICS IN ISLAM 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.alislam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To that end, Islam makes the following assertions about itself and its desire: .

.It comes from the term aslama, which means "to surrender" or "resign oneself".[80] The Arabic word salaam (سلام) ("peace") has the same root as the word Islam[81].^ The Meaning of "Islamic Law" The Arabic word for Islamic Law, fiqh, originally meant understanding and knowledge.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The word hijab is derived from the Arabic word hajaba which means 'to hide from sight or view', 'to conceal'.

^ The word Islam means “surrender.” The entire religion is based on surrendering one’s self, speech, action and thoughts to god.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

.One Islamic interpretation is that individual personal peace is attained by utterly submitting to Allah.^ No one loses face, and that is important for keeping the peace.” There is, of course, a more developed form of Islamic jurisprudence that constitutes Sharia.

^ The question arises, "when will the Islamic community of Indonesia attain to the stage of Islam ijabah, Madinah Islam, which submits to the religious regulations"?
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mas`d one of the greatest jurists from among the Companions of the Messenger (peace be upon him) as a proof for the status of customary practice in Islamic Law: Whatever the Muslims see as good is seen by Allah as good.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

.The greeting "As-Salamu Alaykum", favoured by Muslims, has the literal meaning "Peace be with you"[82].^ In the case of Muslims, you could make a distinction between peaceful Muslim citizens and Muslim agitators.
  • From Magna Carta to Sharia Law – Britain’s Decline | The Brussels Journal 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.brusselsjournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So Muslims are supposed to refer back to the legal community if you will, and not "divulge it" which is a rather weak translation of a word meaning to broadcast or raise public alarm.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Sharia Law Enforced in Texas! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only ladedahs would countenance and encourage immigrants whose religious dogma is to kill non Muslims (that means you).
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

.Muhammad is reported to have said once, "Mankind are the dependents, or family of God, and the most beloved of them to God are those who are the most excellent to His dependents."^ "This decision can have a huge impact on those who practice Sharia law or religious marriages," said Hazimeh's lawyer, Edward Corrigan.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And if the father and the old man deserve death for their horrible deeds, then what can be said about Abu Bakr as-Siddiqui and Muhammad who's examples was being followed?
  • The Jawa Report v3.0 Beta Archives 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC mypetjawa.mu.nu [Source type: News]

^ The most credible witness to the inappropriateness of that cult’s teachings to the modern world is the texts of your scriptures and the actions of your prophet and those who are emulating him .

."Not one of you believes until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself."^ But remember, this has nothing -- nothing -- to do with Islam, if you believe Army brass and, of course, Obama himself.

^ You know those anti-sodomy statutes that were in effect in many places up until recently, when one of the last ones in Texas was struck down?
  • Sharia Finance 101 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Lee, you have to believe me…I love you, I do, and you know you love me,” Gray said.
  • FOX Toledo Online Blogs » Sharia Davis 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.foxtoledo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Great Muslim scholars of prophetic tradition such as Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani and Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi have said[83] that the words 'his brother' mean any person irrespective of faith.^ Sultan serves on the board for two of Qaradawi’s organizations along with al-Malawi, the International Association of Muslim Scholars and the European Council for Fatwa and Research.

^ "Why does al-Farabi have such an unquestioning faith in Greek philosophy, despite its pagan content, and its clear stance against the teachings of the Qur'an?
  • Muslim Intellectuals and the Sharia Debate in Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nigerdeltacongress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So, the only person who could be genuinely entrusted with the faith of others, and be permitted to use coercion also where he felt that rectification was to be made by force, was the Holy Prophet.
  • SHARIAH RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND POLITICS IN ISLAM 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.alislam.org [Source type: Original source]

Slavery and emancipation

The major juristic schools of Islam have traditionally accepted the institution of slavery. .However, Islam has prescribed five ways to free slaves, has severely chastised those who enslave free people, and regulated the slave trade.^ And its an injustice on the ignorant people who only know how to think with their bowels and are ignorant of Islam and the world.

^ As usual, those who do not fully understand and respect Islam use poor tricks in order to fool the uneducated population.

^ Is Judge Gill and Rifqa's crack legal defense team going to continue to ignore the apostasy and sharia law for those who leave Islam?

.The source of slaves was restricted to war in preference to killing whole tribes en masse, as was the tradition at the time.^ She had to run: he vowed to kill her in the time honored Islamic tradition of honor killings.

^ We hosted an open design competition in time of war and literally invited the whole world to enter.

^ However, the Muslim community as a whole does not seem sufficiently disturbed by the items on this list to protest them en masse.

.Slaves also had more rights under Islam as an owner could not mistreat them.^ Women's rights under Sharia are intimately related to the rise and fall of Political Islam, which recently succeeded in assuming Islam's virtual ownership.
  • Can Sharia (Islamic Law) work in the 21st Century? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Iranian cleric misunderstands Islam, says opposition leaders are enemies of Allah who could be executed under Islamic law .

^ WOMENS' RIGHTS UNDER SHARIA IN THE PAST. The picture of the past is not bright, disproving Political Islam's claim that since Sharia protected women's' rights in the past, it can do so now and in the future.
  • Can Sharia (Islamic Law) work in the 21st Century? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many slaves were freed after certain period of time, if they accepted to convert to Islam, or if they were ransomed.^ By Jawad Mazhar INTERNATIONAL "PAKISTANI MUSLIMS GUN DOWN CHRISTIAN FRIEND They order him to convert to Islam or die, after accusing him of murder."

^ From the evidence I’ve seen, I think it’s virtually certain he was raised as a Muslim , at least for a period of time.

^ They can all be learned in a short period of time.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

Sharia and non-Muslims

.Sharia attributes different legal rights to different groups.^ Implicit in that story, I believe, is the point that judges in a different Sharia legal tradition might not have been so eager to pull the same trick.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Sharia Law Enforced in Texas! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HARROW Central Mosque has denied having plans for a Sharia court ahead of a demonstration by far-right protest groups.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The main legal and cultural body, once it accepts sharia law as its own law, must also accept its rulings, its supporting culture, its gender differences, its inflexible intolerance.
  • From Magna Carta to Sharia Law – Britain’s Decline | The Brussels Journal 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.brusselsjournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sharia distinguishes between men and women, as well as between Muslims, "people of the Book" - Jews and Christians.^ The 'people of the book' are christians and jews.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Muslim men can marry Christian and Jews women but Muslim women can marry only a Muslim man.
  • Can Sharia (Islamic Law) work in the 21st Century? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Here''s something to add a little complexity for your consideration: Rabbi Dovid Yisrael Weiss explains that the conflict is not between Jew and Muslim but Israel-Palestine.
  • Gaza inches closer to Sharia Law 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.israeltoday.co.il [Source type: Original source]

Some scholars have included the religions of Zoroastrianism and Hinduism.
.Under 'Sharia' law non-Muslims must pay tax called Jizya if they want to live safely in Muslim states, otherwise the state refuses to protect them, even though it protects the Muslim citizens.^ This is living under a soft shariah law.

^ When they deal with the family law of Muslim countries, which are based on Sharia.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If muslims want to be tried under sharia laws they should not come to Scotland.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

.Under Sharia a non-Muslim is worth half that of a Muslim (see Diyya) under certain circumstances; however, the dominant school of thought—the Hanafi school—is of the opinion that a non-Muslim is equal to a Muslim in worth in terms of Diyya[citation needed].^ Under the umbrella of the Madinah Charter, the non-Muslim community - the Jews and the Christians - were given the freedom to practice their own religions.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thankfully it was soundly rejected, because of non-Muslims and of course Muslim women who have faced stringnent discrimination under the Shariah law.

^ Separate arbitration tribunals to settle family matters under Sharia/Muslim family law will ghettoize and further marginalize vulnerable women.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

Qanun

After the fall of the Abbasids in 1258, a practice known to the Turks and Mongols transformed itself into Qanun, which gave power to caliphs, governors, and sultans alike to "make their own regulations for activities not addressed by the sharia."[19] The Qanun began to unfold as early as Umar I (586-644 CE).[19] .Many of the regulations covered by Qanun were based on financial matters or tax systems adapted through the law and regulations of those territories Islam conquered.^ In matters of finance, public administration, criminal law and international law, secular-based Western laws have been followed -- with some amendments for local conditions.
  • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Subject Matter of Islamic Law Islamic Law is a comprehensive system covering the human beings relationship with his Creator, with his fellow human beings, and with his society and nation.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ali contends Shariah, mediated through the Canadian system of law, would be a win-win situation for Muslims and Canadians.
  • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

[19] .Qanun in Arabic means law or rules.^ The Meaning of "Islamic Law" The Arabic word for Islamic Law, fiqh, originally meant understanding and knowledge.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

Modern Islamic law

Map of the Muslim world with the main schools of Islamic law (madhhab)
.During the 19th century, the history of Islamic law took a sharp turn due to new challenges the Muslim world faced: the West had risen to a global power and colonized a large part of the world, including Muslim territories.^ Then he will place the world under Islamic Law.

^ During the 19th century the history of Islamic law took a sharp turn due to new challenges the Muslim world faced: the West had risen to a global power and colonized a large part of the world, including Muslim territories.

^ Nevertheless, the proposed changes were condemned by parts of the Muslim and Jewish community, and legal challenges to the new law remain a distinct possibility.

.In the Western world, societies changed from the agricultural to the industrial stage, new social and political ideas emerged, and social models slowly shifted from hierarchical towards egalitarian.^ But critics said the new insignia was a sop to political correctness and warned that it may be the first step towards it replacing cross and crescent.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was far more a political expansion than a religious one, similar to (and coinciding with) the Spanish conquest of the New World and the Russian conquest of northern Asia.

^ The world war against Nazi Aryan supremacism was a continuing war that involved military, propaganda, educational, political, economic, and social changes throughout Europe.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Ottoman Empire and the rest of the Muslim world were in decline, and calls for reform became louder.^ The Ottoman Empire and the rest of the Muslim world were in decline and calls for reform became louder.

^ And when the Ottoman Empire lost control over Bulgaria, it left behind a huge Muslim population in Bulgaria.

^ The colonialists or the secularists forced all the so-called reforms in those Muslim countries.
  • Muslim Intellectuals and the Sharia Debate in Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nigerdeltacongress.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Muslim countries, codified state law started replacing the role of scholarly legal opinion.^ In Muslim countries, codified state law started replacing the role of scholarly legal opinion.

^ Now, a new sharia-inspired law in Afghanistan -- a country supposedly liberated by the United States in 2001-02 -- seems to allow men to rape their wives.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Secularists believe the law of the state should be based on secular principles, not on Islamic legal theory.

.Western countries sometimes inspired, sometimes pressured, and sometimes forced Muslim states to change their laws.^ Now, a new sharia-inspired law in Afghanistan -- a country supposedly liberated by the United States in 2001-02 -- seems to allow men to rape their wives.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the fundamentalist Muslim argues that these laws are the word of God and are written in stone and can never be changed.
  • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The crux of the problem remains to be: the systems (gov, familial,etc) in Muslim majority countries are NOT responsive to social and cultural changes.

.Secularist movements pushed for laws deviating from the opinions of the Islamic legal scholars.^ The Secondary Sources of Islamic Law There are other acceptable means of deriving Islamic legal injunctions, besides the four primary sources.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ March 7 was One Law for All's first warning to the British government and the political Islamic movement.
  • The Jawa Report v3.0 Beta Archives 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC mypetjawa.mu.nu [Source type: News]

^ Hanbal hold a position of importance with the scholars of Hadth and Islamic Law.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

.Islamic legal scholarship remained the sole authority for guidance in matters of rituals, worship, and spirituality, while they lost authority to the state in other areas.^ Islamic legal scholarship remained the sole authority for guidance in matters of rituals, worship and spirituality, while they lost authority to the state in other areas.

^ By any state or any other religion, for that matter.
  • SHARIAH RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND POLITICS IN ISLAM 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.alislam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It clarifies beliefs in great detail and discusses forms of worship and legal matters in broad terms.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Muslim community became divided into groups reacting differently to the change.^ When news of this protest swept through the UK, non-Muslims there became enraged at the thought of their brave troops members being disrespected by this group.

^ The weakest within the Muslim community, namely the women, will be coerced (into participating) by their community ," said Tarek Fatah, founder of the congress during his group's submission to Boyd earlier this week.
  • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Qamar Bhatti, director of the Muslim Arbitration Tribunal (MAT), which runs the courts, admitted discussions were taking place with lawyers and Muslim community groups in Scotland.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

This division persists until the present day (Brown 1996, Hallaq 2001, Ramadan 2005, Aslan 2006, Safi 2003, Nenezich 2006).
.
  • Secularists believe that the law of the state should be based on secular principles, not on Islamic legal theory.
  • Traditionalists believe that the law of the state should be based on the traditional legal schools.^ This is a universal principle in Islamic law.

    ^ Shari’a is not at all a “religious law” but a blend of political theory and penal law that relies for the punishment of violators on the sword of the state.
    • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In matters of finance, public administration, criminal law and international law, secular-based Western laws have been followed -- with some amendments for local conditions.
    • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

    .However, traditional legal views are considered unacceptable by some modern Muslims, especially in areas like women's rights or slavery.^ In the West, yes, some Muslim women are erudite and educated, they sparkle as writers and speakers, as scientists and educators.
    • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I am completely non sectarian and non racist but this mad scheme must have no legal standing whatsoever in our country, however much it upsets some of our muslim citizens.
    • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If the Muslims don't like our legal system ...
    • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

    [84]
  • .
  • Reformers believe that new Islamic legal theories can produce modernized Islamic law[85] and lead to acceptable opinions in areas such as women's rights.^ Besides, the principles of Islamic laws are discriminatory to women's right.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The point is this: though many factors contribute to a drop in crime rates (and their rise), it is possible to see such a decrease without Islamic law.
    • Top ten reasons why sharia is bad for all societies -- Islam and human rights 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The permanence and stability of these basic principles and the flexibility allowed in their application give Islamic Law a distinction not shared by any other modern legal system, because most of these other systems, while they attempt to respond to the needs of the day through continuous revision and reform, are sorely in need of a measure of substance and of sound principles, so that change and reform do not lead to the demise of their basic principles and fundamentals.
    • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

    [86] However, traditionalists believe that any departure from the legal teachings of the Qur'an as explained by the Prophet Muhammad and put into practice by him is an alien concept that cannot properly be attributed to "Islam".

Background

According to Noah Feldman, a law professor at Harvard University, the legal scholars and jurists who once upheld the rule of law were replaced by a law governed by the state due to the codification of Sharia by the Ottoman Empire in the early 19th century:[64]
.
How the scholars lost their exalted status as keepers of the law is a complex story, but it can be summed up in the adage that partial reforms are sometimes worse than none at all.^ At the same time, there are laws which considerably place women worse off than men, which means that women can be refused the right to a divorce.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now its all about how it was all a big waste of time because “fundamentalist” now rule the country and Iraqi’s are worse off than before.
  • Democrats & Liberals:: Basra Under Sharia Law 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.watchblog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am saying its better for US to see what happens than it is to sit here and keep saying how terrible and wrong everything is while ignoring any and all success.
  • Democrats & Liberals:: Basra Under Sharia Law 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.watchblog.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the early 19th century, the Ottoman empire responded to military setbacks with an internal reform movement.^ Moreover, the Ottoman empire was the bastion of the Islamic empire in the 17, 18 and 19 century–so the former trace of Byzantine is superseded by Islamic culture there.
  • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ottoman Empire and the rest of the Muslim world were in decline and calls for reform became louder.

The most important reform was the attempt to codify Shariah. .This Westernizing process, foreign to the Islamic legal tradition, sought to transform Shariah from a body of doctrines and principles to be discovered by the human efforts of the scholars into a set of rules that could be looked up in a book.
Once the law existed in codified form, however, the law itself was able to replace the scholars as the source of authority.^ Western Court rules Islamic law discriminatory .

^ Where that will is defined in form of certain laws or principles, that is called Shariah.
  • SHARIAH RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND POLITICS IN ISLAM 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.alislam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, when in 2003 the Islamic Institute of Civil Justice announced its intention to begin offering arbitration services based on Islamic family law, a great debate ensued.
  • Keeping the faith? - Haaretz - Israel News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.haaretz.com [Source type: Original source]

Codification took from the scholars their all-important claim to have the final say over the content of the law and transferred that power to the state.

Contemporary practice

.There is tremendous variety in the interpretation and implementation of Islamic Law in Muslim societies today.^ Belief in the Lord with, 'an obligation for Muslims to implement Islamic law'.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Ontario, Canada there was a call to implement the Shariah laws for Muslims.

^ There is tremendous variance in the interpretation and implementation of Islamic law in Muslim societies today.

.Liberal movements within Islam have questioned the relevance and applicability of sharia from a variety of perspectives; Islamic feminism brings multiple points of view to the discussion.^ More recently, liberal movements within Islam have questioned the relevance and applicability of sharia from a variety of perspectives.

^ Scotland 10/10/2008 08:39:09 299 Unimpressed one, the problem with Islam is that all Islamic laws are based on the religion form the historical point of view not acceptable in the secular world.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At this point, they will work to get the ruling government to allow them to rule themselves (within their ghettos) under Sharia, the Islamic Law.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some of the largest Muslim countries, including Indonesia, Bangladesh and Pakistan, have largely secular constitutions and laws, with only a few Islamic Law provisions in family law.^ When they deal with the family law of Muslim countries, which are based on Sharia.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The obligations imposed by Islamic Law are few.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fundamentalist Islamic law expands in Pakistan .
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

.Turkey has a constitution that is officially strongly secular.^ Turkey has a constitution that is strongly secular.

.India and the Philippines are the only countries in the world that have separate Muslim civil laws, wholly based on Sharia.^ When they deal with the family law of Muslim countries, which are based on Sharia.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Work only for Muslims and shari’a law.
  • Michelle Malkin » “Banks are helping sharia make a back-door entrance” 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: General]

^ Sharia "law" is repugnant to civilized people.

.In India, Muslim civil laws are framed by the Muslim Personal Law board while in the Philippines, it is framed by the Code of Muslim Personal Laws.^ No reasonable person would object to Muslims deciding to establish a purely voluntary institution to oversee the resolution of civil disputes in very limited circumstances in a way that does not contradict the civil law.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Much ado about Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Muslim group on the fence but cautious re Sharia law in Ontario < /h2> Canadian Muslim Civil Liberties Association .
  • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Civil rights cases fall to the secular courts (but I think civil rights tend to be better preserved in Jewish Law, but that's just my personal stance.
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC fora.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, the criminal laws in both the countries are uniform.^ The legal system in Dubai is however, a combination of Sharia, civil and criminal laws, while in other emirates only Sharia is implemented.

^ However, criminal law and family law should remain the monopoly of sovereign Western states.
  • From Magna Carta to Sharia Law – Britain’s Decline | The Brussels Journal 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.brusselsjournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.In September 2008, certain newspapers in the United Kingdom sensationally alleged that the government had "quietly sanctioned" the recognition of Sharia courts.^ Indeed, the precedent of legal sharia-finance transactions was used by the hapless archbishop of Canterbury to buttress his argument that introducing sharia in the United Kingdom was unavoidable.
  • Sharia Finance 101 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ On September 19, 2008, newspaper De Telegraaf reported that 173 men in Amsterdam are registered as having two legal wives, two men even have three wives.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The government has quietly sanctioned the powers for sharia judges to rule on cases ranging from divorce and financial disputes to those involving domestic violence.
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC fora.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, this is not really a submission to Sharia law but applies to situations where both sides in a legal dispute freely choose a Sharia court as a binding arbitrator rather than taking a matter before the official courts.^ Who decides what Sharia Law to apply?
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Much ado about Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ EU judges want Sharia law applied in British courts .
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sharia court of Law!
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

.The decision does not break new ground: the decisions of similar Jewish beth din court arbitrations have been recognized in England for over 100 years.^ When Islamic groups sought to establish similar courts in which decisions would be based on shari’a and their decisions officially recognized by Ontario law they met with opposition from protest groups.
  • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Islamic sharia courts are currently taking place in England, and due to kick in here next year.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For centuries, experts in Jewish have debated to what extent this can be carried, and what it means regarding using a secular court over a Jewish court for arbitration.
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC fora.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

[87] .Neither party can be forced into arbitration by a Sharia or a Jewish court.^ This constant attempt (wehich is not understood by the average journalist) to claim Sharia, jewish etc courts exist here is part of the propaganda to wear people down.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ EsotericWombat wrote: The article talks about criminal proceedings being abandoned after arbitration took place in the Sharia court.
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC fora.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anything which allows any community to retreat into itself is a bad thing, whether it is Catholic schools or Sharia courts.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most countries of the Middle East and North Africa maintain a dual system of secular courts and religious courts, in which the religious courts mainly regulate marriage and inheritance.^ Most countries of the Middle East and North Africa maintain a dual system of secular courts and religious courts, in which the religious courts mainly regulate marriage and inheritance.

^ He has reported from Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Middle East, traveling most recently to Syria and Jordan to write about the Iraqi refugee crisis.
  • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If writers like Sanusi are allowed to get their way, Islam will be eliminated gradually from the lives of the Muslims that: is the aim of the modernization project in Muslim countries of Asia and Middle East.
  • Muslim Intellectuals and the Sharia Debate in Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nigerdeltacongress.com [Source type: Original source]

.Saudi Arabia and Iran maintain religious courts for all aspects of jurisprudence, and the Mutaween (religious police) assert social compliance.^ Saudi Arabia and Iran maintain religious courts for all aspects of jurisprudence, and religious police assert social compliance.

^ Saudi Arabia: New rules for the religious police .
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If people want shariah law, let them move back to Saudi Arabia, Iran or some other country where Shariah is the law of the land.

.Laws derived from sharia are also applied in Afghanistan, Libya and Sudan.^ Who decides what Sharia Law to apply?
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Much ado about Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Laws derived from sharia are also applied in Sudan , Libya and Afghanistan .

^ The Sharia'a is the divine law of Islam as derived from the Quran and Sunnah 1 and also Qiyaas and Ijma 2 ....
  • Guernsey, Offshore, Understanding Sharia�a Compliant Trusts�.In Guernsey And Beyond - GuernseyFinance - 28/05/2009, Trusts 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.mondaq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sharia law is officially recognised by the justice system in Israel in matters of personal status of Muslims (e.g.^ Does 'Sharia law' apply to any person outside the Muslim communities?
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Muslim Group opposes sharia law .
  • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Separate arbitration tribunals to settle family matters under Sharia/Muslim family law will ghettoize and further marginalize vulnerable women.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

marriage, divorce, guardianship.) Judges' salaries are paid by the state.[88] .Some states in northern Nigeria have reintroduced Sharia courts.^ Some states in northern Nigeria have reintroduced Sharia courts.

^ Even though he was tried in Katsina State, he was hanged in neighboring Kaduna State prison, as this is the only center equipped to carry out executions in northern Nigeria.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to some crazy Brits Sharia courts aren't as cumbersome as the English legal system.
  • The Jawa Report v3.0 Beta Archives 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC mypetjawa.mu.nu [Source type: News]

[89] .In practice the new Sharia courts in Nigeria have most often meant the re-introduction of harsh punishments without respecting the much tougher rules of evidence and testimony.^ In practice the new Sharia courts in Nigeria have most often meant the re-introduction of relatively harsh punishments without respecting the much tougher rules of evidence and testimony.

^ In 2003, for example, a Malaysian court ruled that, under Sharia law, a man may divorce his wife via text messaging as long as the message was clear and unequivocal.

^ During the past Ontario election, the Left wing New Democratic Party proposed the introduction of sharia tribunals in Ontario.
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC fora.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

.The punishments include amputation of one/both hands for theft and stoning for adultery and apostasy.^ Both were sentenced to death by stoning for adultery.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Like hand amputation for theft and stoning for adultery.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The punishments include amputation of one/both hand (s) for theft , stoning for adultery , and execution for apostasy .

[citation needed]
.Many, including the European Court of Human Rights, consider the punishments prescribed by Sharia in some countries to be barbaric and cruel.^ EXAMPLES OF SOME SHARIA LAWS. Modern laws are based on human rights.
  • Can Sharia (Islamic Law) work in the 21st Century? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sharia law has probably got some good points but what makes it dangerous, and I’m including in this a lot of the extremist crap I read on this site, is its inflexibility, severity and medieval barbarity.In New Zealand, which has just gone way Right in their general election, some people are supporting sheep/human interfaces recognised by law.
  • Sharia Finance 101 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Feb 7th, 2008 at 10:30 pm Report comment In 2003 the European Court of Human Rights ruled that "that sharia is incompatible with the fundamental principles of democracy", because the sharia rules on inheritance, women’s rights and religious freedom violated human rights as established in the European Convention on Human Rights.
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Islamic scholars argue that, if implemented properly, the punishments serve as a deterrent to crime.^ Many consider the punishments prescribed by Sharia as being barbaric and cruel; Islamic scholars argue that, if implemented properly, the punishments serve as a deterrent to crime.

^ According to you, Islamic law permits public slavery "as punishment for war crimes."
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Sharia Law Enforced in Texas! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While the practice of honor killing is common in many Muslim countries, some Islamic leaders and scholars condemn the practice of honor killing, and argue the practice is not based on religious doctrine.

[90] .In international media, practices by countries applying Islamic law have fallen under considerable criticism at times.^ In international media, practices by countries applying Islamic law have fallen under considerable criticism at times.

^ Then he will place the world under Islamic Law.

^ A country should be united under that countrys laws.
  • From Magna Carta to Sharia Law – Britain’s Decline | The Brussels Journal 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.brusselsjournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.This is particularly the case when the sentence carried out is seen to greatly tilt away from established standards of international human rights.^ This is particularly the case when the sentence carried out is seen to greatly tilt away from established standards of international human rights.

^ As with the other cases described above, their sentences had not been carried out.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All the defendants in cases known to Human Rights Watch are men; almost all are from a poor background.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.This is true for the application of the death penalty for the crimes of adultery, blasphemy, apostasy and homosexuality, amputations for the crime of theft, and flogging for fornication or public intoxication.^ This is true for the application of the death penalty for the crime of adultery, and other such punishments such as amputations for the crime of theft and flogging for fornication or public intoxication.

^ The death penalty cases which have attracted the most public attention so far have been the cases of two women sentenced to death by stoning for adultery, Safiya Husseini in Sokoto State, and Amina Lawal in Katsina State.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Contrary to claims made in court, Islam DOES prescribe the death penalty for apostasy.

[91]
.A bill proposed by lawmakers in the Indonesian province of Aceh would implement Sharia law for all non-Muslims, the armed forces and law enforcement officers, a local police official has announced.^ All Muslims are forced to follow Sharia Law?
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]
  • xkcd • View topic - Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC fora.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Needless to say this is also forced on non-muslims.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Implementation and enforcement of Sharia law.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

The news comes two months after the Deutsche Presse-Agentur warned of "Taliban-style Islamic police terrorizing Indonesia's Aceh".[92][93][94]
.The interpretation of Islamic jurisprudence varies in different modern nations.^ Like Jewish law and Christian canon law, Islamic law is interpreted differently by different people in different times and places.

^ Of course child marriage is not only a problem which affects Saudi Arabia because sadly many young children are victims in various different nations.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, Islamic jurisprudence, or Shariah, is a completely different thing.

.In the English-speaking world and in Islamic countries with a history of British rule, for example, Islamic finance has been relatively successful due to the common-law nature of Islamic jurisprudence being compatible with English common law.^ During the 19th century the history of Islamic law took a sharp turn due to new challenges the Muslim world faced: the West had risen to a global power and colonized a large part of the world, including Muslim territories.

^ In 2003, for example, a Malaysian court ruled that, under Sharia law, a man may divorce his wife via text messaging as long as the message was clear and unequivocal.

^ Second, what’s one example of a country in the world today that has the percentage Muslim population you’ve named (or higher), which includes a substantial Islamic orthodoxy, in which the Sharia issue shows signs of being resolved in favor of individual rights and freedoms?

On the other hand, Islamic finance has been relatively unsuccessful in certain regimes such as Iran, Pakistan, and Sudan, which, according to Lawrence Rosen and Mahmoud A. El-Gamal, have diverged from the common-law nature of Islamic jurisprudence and instead interpret "a common-law variant as if it were a civil law system."[14] For example, modern Iranian law is based on an "Islamic civil code" influenced by the Napoleonic code and German civil code.[95] According to the Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams, "In some of the ways it has been codified and practised across the world, it has been appalling and applied to women in places like Saudi Arabia, it is grim."[96]
A prominent Islamic jurist explains the common-law nature of Islamic jurisprudence:
.
"It must be understood that when we claim that Islam has a satisfactory solution for every problem in any situation in all times to come, we do not mean that the Holy Quran and Sunna of the Holy Prophet or the rulings of Islamic scholars provide a specific answer to each and every minute detail of our socioeconomic life.^ The Council on Foreign Relations' (CFR) March 2008 study "Islam: Governing Under Sharia" states that Sharia law is based on 4 primary sources: (1) the Islamic Qur'an; (2) "the hadith, or record of the actions and sayings of the Prophet Mohammed, whose life is to be emulated"; (3) "ijma, the consensus of Islamic scholars"; and (4) "qiyas, a kind of reasoning that uses analogies to apply precedents established by the holy texts to problems not covered by them."
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have been a member of the Church of England all my life, but as long as this idiot is our nominal head, I will never go to another Church of England service.
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ There is no separation between the religious and the political in Islam; rather Islam and Sharia constitute a comprehensive means of ordering society at every level.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

.What we mean is that the Holy Quran and the Holy Sunna of the Prophet have laid down the broad principles in the light of which the scholars of every time have deduced specific answers to the new situations arising in their age.^ It is God’s word in the context of the environment of people living at the time the revelations were being made to the holy prophet.
  • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As for those issues that Islamic Law does not cover in particular, it deals with them in broad terms, making it possible for the particulars of the law to be ascertained in light of general, flexible principles.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only after the flight to Madinah, the Prophet laid down the laws.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

.Therefore, in order to reach a definite answer about a new situation the scholars of Shariah have to play a very important role.^ Dr Malik said: "My concern is that there will be some young Muslims who will definitely get very angry and upset about this .
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the New Order Regime, debate about the implementation of sharia law was tightly covered up.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It will be some time before the truth will be allowed to play its all-important role of rectifying our current mistakes and preparing the way for the next ones.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

.They have to analyze every question in light of the principles laid down by the Holy Quran and Sunna as well as in the light of the standards set by earlier jurists enumerated in the books of Islamic jurisprudence.^ Every place where the 40 heroes are memorialized, they are depicted as symbolically damned, cast out of the symbolic Islamic heavens.

^ The foundations and principles of most of these legal systems are exposed to change and substitution so much that they become the targets of sport and corruption for those who are in a position to set down such legislation.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So, leaving that alone, what is left with of Shariah is the general principle as enunciated in the Holy Quran, in the light of which an attempt would be made to islamisize the country's laws.
  • SHARIAH RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND POLITICS IN ISLAM 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.alislam.org [Source type: Original source]

This exercise is called Istinbat or Ijtihad. ... [T]he ongoing process of .Istinbat keeps injecting new ideas, concepts and rulings into the heritage of Islamic jurisprudence."^ No one loses face, and that is important for keeping the peace.” There is, of course, a more developed form of Islamic jurisprudence that constitutes Sharia.

^ The Muslim Brotherhood is based on the ideology of Islamic supremacism based on activism towards converting the world into a global caliphate ruled by Islam.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Their is absolutely no intention to assimilate into the cultures that afforded them economic opportunities not to be found when Islamic theocracies rule.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

[97]
Another significant difference between the classical and modern systems of Islamic law is that classical Islamic law was "independent of any state mechanism", while modern Islamic law is "controlled by the state because the state often controls the legal scholars." According to Sameer S. Vohra, "This control mechanism results in a lack of the sort of pluralism that once made the Islamic legal system as innovative and fluid as its United States counterpart."[35]

Contemporary issues

Democracy and human rights

.Several official institutions in democratic countries, such as the European Court of Human Rights, argue that Sharia is incompatible with a democratic state.^ Feb 7th, 2008 at 10:30 pm Report comment In 2003 the European Court of Human Rights ruled that "that sharia is incompatible with the fundamental principles of democracy", because the sharia rules on inheritance, women’s rights and religious freedom violated human rights as established in the European Convention on Human Rights.
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ In 2001 , nearly two months before the 9/11 attacks, the European Court of Human Rights determined that "the institution of Sharia law and a theocratic regime, were incompatible with the requirements of a democratic society."
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The introduction of sharia law in Britain raises complex questions, as some of its basic tenets are incompatible with the fundamental principles of our liberal democracy and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

These incompatibilities have been clarified in several legal disputes.
In 1998 the Constitutional Court of Turkey banned and dissolved Turkey's Refah Party on the grounds that the "rules of sharia", which Refah sought to introduce, "were incompatible with the democratic regime," stating that "Democracy is the antithesis of sharia." On appeal by Refah the European Court of Human Rights determined that "sharia is incompatible with the fundamental principles of democracy".[98][99][100] Refah's sharia based notion of a "plurality of legal systems, grounded on religion" was ruled to contravene the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. It was determined that it would "do away with the State's role as the guarantor of individual rights and freedoms" and "infringe the principle of non-discrimination between individuals as regards their enjoyment of public freedoms, which is one of the fundamental principles of democracy". It was further ruled that, according to Christian Moe:
.
"[T]he Court considers that sharia, which faithfully reflects the dogmas and divine rules laid down by religion, is stable and invariable.^ In 2003, for example, a Malaysian court ruled that, under Sharia law, a man may divorce his wife via text messaging as long as the message was clear and unequivocal.

^ This constant attempt (wehich is not understood by the average journalist) to claim Sharia, jewish etc courts exist here is part of the propaganda to wear people down.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anybody not satisfied with a ruling from the sharia court can appeal to a civil court.

.Principles such as pluralism in the political sphere or the constant evolution of public freedoms have no place in it.^ It is no secret to the world that the American public has been politically polarized for over a decade.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sharia is in conflict with our Constitution , violating such principles as freedom of speech and press, freedom of religion, equality under the law, and more.

^ Those who cling to such ideas are nothing but obscurantists and have no place in a modern world.

[...] .It is difficult to declare one's respect for democracy and human rights while at the same time supporting a regime based on sharia, which clearly diverges from Convention values, particularly with regard to its criminal law and criminal procedure, its rules on the legal status of women and the way it intervenes in all spheres of private and public life in accordance with religious precepts."^ They must repeal all laws based on Sharia that violate divine human rights.
  • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sharia law controls every single aspect of your private and public life.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sharia law has the legal status of rules of a tiddlywinks club.
  • Pajamas Media » Sharia Law Not Coming to Britain — Yet 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[101]
.On the other side, legal scholar L. Ali Khan concludes "that constitutional orders founded on the principles of Sharia are fully compatible with democracy, provided that religious minorities are protected and the incumbent Islamic leadership remains committed to the right to recall".[102][103] However, Christian Pippan argues, that this contradicts the political reality in most Islamic states.^ However, the best Sharia reform is Christianity.
  • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We need protection from Sharia Islamic Law."
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Feb 7th, 2008 at 10:30 pm Report comment In 2003 the European Court of Human Rights ruled that "that sharia is incompatible with the fundamental principles of democracy", because the sharia rules on inheritance, women’s rights and religious freedom violated human rights as established in the European Convention on Human Rights.
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

."While constitutional arrangements to ensure that political authority is exercised within the boundaries of Sharia vary greatly among those nations",[104] most existing models of political Islam have so far grossly failed to accept any meaningful political competition of the kind that Khan himself has identified as essential for even a limited conception of democracy.^ Sharia Law and globalization of political Islam .
  • International Campaign Against Shari'a Court in Canada 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC nosharia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each of Islam's five pillars (declaration of belief, prayer, fasting, Islamic tax and Hajj the pilgrim to Mecca once in life) is essentially non-political.
  • Can Sharia (Islamic Law) work in the 21st Century? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The case has caused outrage in the British press and has been seized on by far right political parties, being branded “the madness of multiculturalism” by the British National Party.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

.Khan, writes Pippan, dismisses verdicts as from the European Court of Human Rights or the Turkish Constitutional Court "as an expression of purely national or regional preferences."^ However, according to the National Human Rights Commission, a further appeal had been filed on his behalf to the Federal Court of Appeal in Kaduna.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The National Human Rights Commission was set up by the federal government in 1996 to monitor human rights developments and advise the government on human rights policies.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Human Rights Watch interview, Shari’a Court of Appeal, Kano, July 31, 2003.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

[105]
.Several major, predominantly Muslim countries criticized the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) for its perceived failure to take into account the cultural and religious context of non-Western countries.^ I am a Muslim living in a predominantly Muslim country .
  • Muslims Against Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.reformislam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If any non-muslim were to attempt to introduce their laws into a muslim country, guess what?
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a non-Muslim country, Muslims should have less rights than non-Muslims .
  • Muslims Against Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.reformislam.org [Source type: Original source]

.Iran claimed that the UDHR was a "a secular understanding of the Judeo-Christian tradition", which could not be implemented by Muslims without trespassing the Islamic law.^ Belief in the Lord with, 'an obligation for Muslims to implement Islamic law'.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The seven words, " with an obligation for Muslims to implement Islamic law ", were omitted.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1981, the Islamic supremacist Republic of Iran effectively issued a Sharia-based declaration of war on such ideas "when its representative affirmed that the UDHR represented a secular interpretation of the Judeo-Christian tradition which could not be implemented by Muslims; if a choice had to be made between its stipulations and 'the divine law of the country,' Iran would always choose Islamic law."
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

.Therefore the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, a group representing all Muslim majority nations, adopted the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, which diverges from the UDHR substantially, affirming Sharia as the sole source of human rights.^ Muslim Group opposes sharia law .
  • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

^ WOMEN-RIGHTS UNDER SHARIA TODAY. SHARIA-POLICE BEATING MUSLIM WOMEN. Use permitted by Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan - rawa.org It is important to note that all criticisms of Islam and its defense mainly rotate around Sharia's approach to women rights.
  • Can Sharia (Islamic Law) work in the 21st Century? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Each of Islam's five pillars (declaration of belief, prayer, fasting, Islamic tax and Hajj the pilgrim to Mecca once in life) is essentially non-political.
  • Can Sharia (Islamic Law) work in the 21st Century? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: Original source]

.This declaration was severely criticized by the International Commission of Jurists for allegedly gravely threatening the inter-cultural consensus, introducing intolerable discrimination against non-Muslims and women, restricting fundamental rights and freedoms, and attacking the integrity and dignity of the human being.^ It is against justice, women, non-Muslims and often violates the Quran.

^ Muslims and non-Muslims should have equal rights .
  • Muslims Against Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.reformislam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Discrimination against women .
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Freedom of speech

.Qadi 'Iyad ibn Musa al-Yahsubi argues that Sharia does not allow freedom of speech on such matters as criticism of Muhammad and that such criticism is considered blasphemy against Muhammad.^ Sharia does not allow freedom of speech on such matters as criticism of the prophet Muhammad.

^ Muslims Against Sharia call on Senator Obama to distance himself from al-Qaeda supporters .

^ One reason for the Mohammed cartoon riots was that Islam does not allow any skepticism or critical thought.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

He writes:
.
"The Qur'an says that Allah curses the one who harms the Prophet in this world and He connected harm of Himself to harm of the Prophet.^ The Qur'an says that Allah curses the one who harms the Prophet in this world and He connected harm of Himself to harm of the Prophet.

^ Sachedina, one of world's finest Islamic scholars says, - "It is undeniable that Sharia is anti-women".
  • Can Sharia (Islamic Law) work in the 21st Century? 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Not quite famous: Who goes on reality TV? ‘Sick’ narcissists, one expert says .

.There is no dispute that anyone who curses Allah is killed and that his curse demands that he be categorized as an unbeliever.^ There is no dispute that anyone who curses Allah is killed and that his curse demands that he be categorized as an unbeliever.

^ This is treating unbelievers as subhumans who have no right to think about or express our opinion on matters that concern us.

^ The first pillar in Islamic faith is the declaration called “Shahda” that there is no god but Allah and that Mohammed is his prophet.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

The Judgment of the unbeliever is that he is killed. [...] .There is a difference between ...^ There is a difference between ...

^ But there is a vast difference between Sharia in Islamic countries and Christian meddling in the US legal system.
  • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are many more differences between the traditional Christian and the traditional Judaic and Islamic mindsets that I do not have time to go into.
  • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

harming .Allah and His Messenger and harming the believers.^ Allah and His Messenger and harming the believers.

^ In this regard, Allahs Messenger (peace be upon him) said: There should be no harm and no harming of others.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is attested to by Allahs words (translation): O you who believe, do not ask about things that if they were made clear to you would cause you harm.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

.Injuring the believers, short of murder, incurs beating and exemplary punishment.^ Injuring the believers, short of murder, incurs beating and exemplary punishment.

.The judgment against those who harm Allah and His Prophet is more severe – the death penalty."^ The judgement against those who harm Allah and His Prophet is more severe -- the death penalty.

^ When it came to those who were against Him He was not at all shy in venting His righteous anger.
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Geller: Rifqa Bary, who recently turned seventeen, converted to Christianity from Islam – bringing upon herself Islam’s death sentence for those who leave Islam.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

[106]

Homosexuality

.Homosexual activity is illicit under Sharia; however, the prescribed penalties differ from one school of jurisprudence to another.^ One school website links to al-Qaeda; another directs pupils to a scholar who advocates the murder of Jews[...
  • The Jawa Report v3.0 Beta Archives 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC mypetjawa.mu.nu [Source type: News]

^ Therefore, under Sharia law, married men prone to infidelity should consider child molestation before cheating with another woman.
  • The Jawa Report v3.0 Beta Archives 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC mypetjawa.mu.nu [Source type: News]

^ According to the Sharia, if one causes the death or injury of another person accidentally or intentionally, he or she has to pay blood money or diya.

.For example, these countries may allow the death penalty for sodomy and homosexual activities: Iran[107], Mauritania[108], Nigeria[109], Saudi Arabia[110], Somalia[111], Sudan[citation needed], United Arab Emirates[citation needed], and Yemen[citation needed].^ Now, a new sharia-inspired law in Afghanistan -- a country supposedly liberated by the United States in 2001-02 -- seems to allow men to rape their wives.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ See Amnesty International report “Nigeria: the death penalty and women under the Nigerian penal systems,” February 2004.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example in democratic countries like America, there are also movements and groups like these.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

In contrast in Indonesia (outside of Aceh province[112]) homosexuality and sodomy are legal.[113]

Women

.In terms of religious obligations, such as certain elements of prayer, payment of zakat, observance of the Ramadan fast and pilgrimage, women are treated no differently from men.^ I pray five times a day; I fast during Ramadan; I pay my obligatory zakat (wealth) tax and no one has a right to accuse me of being non-religious .
  • Notes on The Ontario Shariah situation 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.rodmer.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No reciprocal effort was made to use gender neutral language to extend rights traditionally enjoyed by men to women.

^ Sharia law conflicts with the principle of equal treatment of women and men, because women are treated as unequal in regard to family law and rights of inheritance.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are, however, some exceptions made in the case of prayers and fasting.^ Grand Island, Neb., began facing harassment, and in some cases termination, after requesting that their break schedules be adjusted to allow them to perform their daily prayers.

^ By July 2004, lawyers had helped filed appeals on behalf of some of those sentenced, but there was still no progress on their cases.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Judges have also failed to investigate allegations of rape made by female defendants in adultery cases and have ended up punishing some women who claimed to have been victims of rape.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

They are also forbidden to perform salah (prayer) during menstruation.
.Islam has no clergy, but women do not traditionally become Imams or lead prayer.^ No reciprocal effort was made to use gender neutral language to extend rights traditionally enjoyed by men to women.

^ In Sunni Islam there is no clergy and therefore "in the sense of a state ruled by the Church or by priests, Islam was not and could not be a theocracy.
  • Muslim Intellectuals and the Sharia Debate in Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nigerdeltacongress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the spirit of Islam he believes that the government will become good - no longer will be a country for corrupt and evil men.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In practice, it is much more common for men to be scholars than women.^ Men should have more rights than women .
  • Muslims Against Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.reformislam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Women should have more rights than men .
  • Muslims Against Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.reformislam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This was especially true of his Cairo speech where he made it clear that Muslims, who are not a threat to the West, were much more worthy of priority than the jihadists who seek destruction.

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Early Muslim scholars such as Abū Ḥanīfa and Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari held that there is nothing wrong with women holding a post as responsible as that of judge.^ There is nothing wrong with Sharia reform.
  • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Salafis believe that the traditional schools were wrong, and therefore failed, and strive to follow the generation of early Muslims.

^ In fact, such "recommendations from American Muslims" are completely wrong about America and its identity.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Islam does not prohibit women from working, as it says "Treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers."^ They will even be treated very well.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Islam does not prohibit women from working, but emphasizes the importance of housekeeping and caring for the families of both parents.

^ Some 300 Afghan women have been pelted by stones as they gathered to protest a new law that critics say legalises marital rape.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

[114] .Married women may seek employment although it is often thought in patriarchal societies that the woman's role as a wife and mother should have first priority.^ A person may marry, even in the Church, divorce, and then remarry civilly without seeking a declaration of nullity.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Sharia Law Enforced in Texas! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This shows that stifling free speech which may offend “religious sensibilities” has real victims, in the form of mutilated and/or dead women, and married little girls.

^ In every modern society the primary group or the dominant elite "seeks to impose its values, its role expectation, its norms upon the individual"[lxxxiii].
  • Muslim Intellectuals and the Sharia Debate in Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.nigerdeltacongress.com [Source type: Original source]

.Islam unequivocally allows both single and married women to own property in their own right.^ Islam does not prohibit women from working, but emphasizes the importance of housekeeping and caring for the families of both parents.

^ Men inherit both moveable and immovable property from a deceased spouse, while women inherit only moveable property from a deceased spouse.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both Muslims and Jews should have the Right to Return and reclaim their property .
  • Muslims Against Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.reformislam.org [Source type: Original source]

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Islam grants to women the right to inherit property.^ Sharia law conflicts with the principle of equal treatment of women and men, because women are treated as unequal in regard to family law and rights of inheritance.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Men inherit both moveable and immovable property from a deceased spouse, while women inherit only moveable property from a deceased spouse.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes, this might be public property, but you don't have any rights, dhimmi, when Islam is in da house.
  • The Jawa Report v3.0 Beta Archives 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC mypetjawa.mu.nu [Source type: News]

(See widow inheritance.) .However, a woman's inheritance is different from a man's, both in quantity and attached obligations.^ A Muslim man may marry a woman of the People of the Book ( 5 :5); traditionally, however, Islamic law forbids a Muslim woman from marrying a non-Muslim man unless he converts to Islam.

^ The unfortunate Saudi woman was not raped by the man she met, but rather by a different group of men who abducted the couple.

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] For instance, a daughter's inheritance is half that of her brothers,[citation needed] Sharia law requires family members females or males to support each other as needed; compare female inheritance in Salic law.^ The sister-in-law was said to have "disgraced" the family because she fled after being beaten and her first child murdered by her husband, the mother's brother.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Separate arbitration tribunals to settle family matters under Sharia/Muslim family law will ghettoize and further marginalize vulnerable women.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He said the application of certain Islamic Shariah laws regarding inheritance and other family affairs in the proposed area was possible, although Islamic laws regarding criminal offences would not be considered.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

.
Islamic jurists have traditionally held that Muslim women may enter into marriage with only Muslim men,[115] although some contemporary jurists question the basis of this restriction.
^ Intriguing insights into a dominant male Islamic theocracy where where men are intimidating and threatening and where women are segregated, submissive, and subjugated.
  • The Jawa Report v3.0 Beta Archives 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC mypetjawa.mu.nu [Source type: News]

^ This fundamental American value is the antithesis of Islamic supremacism, where freedom of religion is not permitted, where terrorism is lauded as "martyrdom," where "blasphemy" and "apostasy" is punishable by death, where women and non-Muslims are second class citizens, where children are forced into marriage, where girls and women are murdered for "honor," and where the only way - is the Sharia way.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This should be proof to all men and women of any free country that Islamists intend to absorb our culture by slowing and carefully inserting their Islamic beliefs into our governmental system.

[115][116][117] .On the other hand, the Qur'an allows Muslim men to marry any woman of the People of the Book, a term that includes Jews, Sabians, and Christians, but the catch is that they have to be chaste.^ The 'people of the book' are christians and jews.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But a Muslim woman can not marry except a Muslim man.
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The Koran contains verses that represent mutually exclusive concepts, i.e., "Respect the People of the Book" vs. "Do not take Jews or Christians for friends."
  • Muslims Against Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.reformislam.org [Source type: Original source]

[115][118] .Furthermore since children have to be brought up in Islamic lifestyles, women have no choice but to convert.^ They have been set up in mosques, Islamic centres and converted premises such as shops.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The reason for this is that the issues where consensus has taken place are few, since there is no way that it could occur after the earliest eras of Islamic history.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since no one seems to be able to tell with certainty who is a Jihadist, how is anyone to tell whether someone is an Islamic Supremacist?

.However, fiqh law has held that it is mukrah (reprehensible) for a Muslim man to marry a non-Muslim woman in a non-Muslim country.^ Take the example of a mixed marriage: A Muslim man can marry any non-Muslim woman.
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ If any non-muslim were to attempt to introduce their laws into a muslim country, guess what?
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But a Muslim woman can not marry except a Muslim man.
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

[115]
.In 2003 a Malaysian court ruled that, under Sharia law, a man may divorce his wife via text messaging as long as the message was clear and unequivocal.^ A Saudi man has divorced his wife by text message, a newspaper said on Thursday.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the law a man can divorce his wife by saying "I divorce you" three times.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sharia courts: are their rulings breaching British law?
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

[119] .The divorced wife always keeps her dowry from when she was married, and is given child support until the age of weaning.^ However, on the other hand it is deemed to be Islamic to marry a young child of 8 years of age or 9 years of age, irrespective if the male is 30 years old or 40 years old, or even older.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the examples quoted are laws banning a Muslim woman from marrying a non-Muslim unless he converts to Islam and the removal of a wife's property rights in the event of divorce.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is a man who divorces his wife can not remarry her except if she marries another man first.
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

The mother is usually granted custody of the child.[120] .The divorced wife also receives spousal support for three months after the divorce until it can be determined whether she is pregnant.^ Under the law a man can divorce his wife by saying "I divorce you" three times.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Topics of Islamic law

Shariah may be divided into five main branches:
  • ibadah (ritual worship)
  • mu'amalat (transactions and contracts)
  • adab (morals and manners)
  • i'tiqadat (beliefs)
  • 'uqubat (punishments)[121]
  • Human interaction, or al-mu'amalat includes:
    • Financial transactions as applied to Sharia-compliant Islamic finance
    • Endowments
    • Laws of inheritance
    • Marriage, divorce, and child care
    • Foods and drinks (including ritual slaughtering and hunting)
    • Penal punishments
    • Warfare and peace
    • Judicial matters (including witnesses and forms of evidence)

Dietary

.Islamic law does not present a comprehensive list of pure foods and drinks.^ The Subject Matter of Islamic Law Islamic Law is a comprehensive system covering the human beings relationship with his Creator, with his fellow human beings, and with his society and nation.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Islamic Law is the broadest, most comprehensive system of legislation in the world.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Islamic Law does not impose any obligations of great severity or difficulty.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

However, it prohibits:[123]
.
  • swine, blood, meat of dead animals and animals slaughtered in the name of someone other than God.
  • slaughtering an animal in any other way except in the prescribed manner of tazkiyah (cleansing) by taking God's name, which involves cutting the throat of the animal and draining the blood.^ My blood is now halal which means because I am now a Christian, I am from a Muslim background, it is an honor, if they love god more than me, they have to do this."

    ^ (A central justice system has yet to take off anywhere other than the capital, Kabul).

    ^ I do not think God is more offended by Muslims destroying property in his name than Quranic verses written on paper.
    • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

    Causing the animal needless pain, slaughtering with a blunt blade or physically ripping out the esophagus is strictly forbidden. Modern methods of slaughter like the captive bolt stunning and electrocuting are also prohibited.
  • intoxicants
The prohibition of dead meat is not applicable to fish and locusts.[124][125][126] .Also hadith literature prohibits beasts having sharp canine teeth, birds having claws and talons in their feet,[127] Jallalah (animals whose meat carries a stink in it because they feed on filth),[128] tamed donkeys,[129] and any piece cut from a living animal.^ "Even the heathen will not be worse off, because they will be permitted to carry out their beliefs.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tantawi added that women who wear the burka have to abide by the rules of the country they live in, especially because it is not an obligation in Islam.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most people have no objection to people moving here, but one would think that if an individual wanted to live in a country it would be because they like that country and what it has to offer.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

[123][130]

Sports

.Modern-day sports are permitted and encouraged in Islam providing that it doesn't become the main focus of a Muslim's life.^ Joan: Why is it since 9-11 the Muslims don't seem to say anything against Islam but have become more assertive of their belief and laws?

^ Nothing will please the Muslim world unless we become the "United States of Islam" .
  • The Jawa Report v3.0 Beta Archives 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC mypetjawa.mu.nu [Source type: News]

^ Its main mission is to invite the Islamic community to return to Islam as described in the Koran and the Sunnah of the Prophet and to call for the establishing of Islamic sharia law in real life.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

.The encouragement and participation of sports among both men and women have been recorded in Hadith.^ Men inherit both moveable and immovable property from a deceased spouse, while women inherit only moveable property from a deceased spouse.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While the General Presidency for Sport and Youth Welfare has the authority over men's gyms, it has not been allowed to regulate those for women, according to the report.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The exception is Zamfara State, where a law was passed in 2001 prohibiting “indecent dressing in public” as well “indecent hair cuts” for both men and women.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

The term 'sport' denotes activities Muhammad encouraged, such as archery, swimming, horse-riding, wrestling, etc.

Archery

Muhammad strongly encouraged the learning and practice of archery. .Uqbah Bin Amir also narrates that he heard Muhammad say: "Whoever gives up archery after having learnt it, is not of us."^ Pakistani Taliban in Swat say won't give up guns .
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The problem with us is that we give a certificate of good character for this, that we say to him: 'Off you go.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When we protest, they shut us up, saying we have no authority to speak about Islam.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

.On another occasion, Muhammad once passed by a group of his companions who were competing in archery.^ The introduction of the sharia law has been a key government promise and a demand of the armed opposition groups who rejected the passing of the Sharia bill by parliament as a plot.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

He encouraged them saying, "Shoot and I am with you."
.Muhammad is reported to have also said: "There is blessing in the forelocks of horses."^ "There's no such thing as honor killing in the Koran," said Islamic Society of Central Florida President Imam Muhammad Musri.

[131]

Swimming

`Abd Allah ibn `Umar narrates that Muhammad once said "Teach your sons swimming and archery and riding the horse." This relates to the Talmudic requirement that sons be taught how to swim and may best be understood as a requirement to teach one's children those skills necessary to survive and thrive.

Racing

Muhammad himself used to race his wife[citation needed]. .Aisha said: "I raced with the Prophet and beat him in the race.^ And it was proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever changes his religion, execute him.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari in his Saheeh.

Later when I had put on some weight, we raced again and he won. Then the Prophet said, 'This cancels that', referring to the previous occasion."[citation needed]

Games of chance/card playing

.Muhammad is reported to have said: "He who plays with dice is like the one who handles the flesh and blood of swine."^ And if the father and the old man deserve death for their horrible deeds, then what can be said about Abu Bakr as-Siddiqui and Muhammad who's examples was being followed?
  • The Jawa Report v3.0 Beta Archives 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC mypetjawa.mu.nu [Source type: News]

^ From what I remember it was something jurists said was understand a fortiori by one having a mother who was a slave.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Sharia Law Enforced in Texas! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I know one shouldn’t judge a book by its cover but Williams looks like one of those poor mad souls who frighten children.
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Abd-Allah ibn Amr reported that Muhammad prohibited all games of chance and card playing that caused financial gain or loss.^ It is merely a major milestone on the road that cannot stop short of subjecting all Britons, regardless of faith, to the stricutres of Allah’s commandment and Muhammad’s example.
  • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

[132]

Marriage and divorce

There are two types of marriage mentioned in the Qur'an: nikah and nikah mut‘ah. .The first is more common; it aims to be permanent, but can be terminated by the husband in the talaq process, or by the wife seeking divorce (khul').^ This is an invidious form of discrimination, and the City of Dearborn will have to justify it in the lawsuit that I and the Thomas More Law Center have filed against it to permanently end this violation of the First Amendment.

^ He should resign and, if he still wishes to promote the adoption of Sharia Law within the parliamentary process, seek election to the House of Commons on that basis.
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Muslims in the GTA are monitoring the case of a Toronto woman whose bid to sponsor a new husband to Canada was nixed because a religious "talaq" divorce of her first spouse is not recognized in Ontario.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

In nikah the couples inherit from each other. .A legal contract is signed when entering the marriage.^ This can include the marriage contract entered into in a Muslim country or a battle of who under Islamic law have the right to seek divorce.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

.The husband must pay for the wife's expenses.^ Rulings have included condemning homosexuals to harsh beatings, ordering a wife to have sex with her husband “even if she is busy in the kitchen” and warnings that Muslims must not join the police.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

In Sunni jurisprudence, the contract is void if there is a determined divorce date in the nikah, whereas, in Shia jurisprudence, nikah contracts with determined divorce dates are transformed in nikah mut'ah. .For the contract to be valid there must be two witnesses under Sunni jurisprudence.^ Jane: I would hate to see the British buckle under the demand that there should be two sets of laws in the land.

^ It does not stipulate which types of contracts are valid and must be fulfilled and which types are invalid.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now open the Quran - Chapter Twalak verse 1 -2 - keeping two witnesses is a must for a divorece.

.There is no witness requirement for Shia contracts.^ There were no witnesses, only the complainant.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There were no witnesses.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no requirement for them to wear the abaya in public, though many do.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

Nikah mut'ah is considered haraam (forbidden) by Sunni Muslims. .It means "marriage for pleasure". Under Shia jurisprudence a nikah mut'ah is the second form of marriage recognized by the Shia.^ He believes Sharia law should be recognized under British law for personal matters like marriage and divorce, issues that make up the bulk of his work at the council.

It is a fixed term marriage, which is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the marriage is automatically dissolved. .There is controversy about the Islamic legality of this type of marriage, since Sunnis believe it was abrogated by Muhammad, while Shias believe it was forbidden by Umar and hence that ban may be ignored since Umar had no authority to do so.^ There is no doubt about that.
  • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Secondary Sources of Islamic Law There are other acceptable means of deriving Islamic legal injunctions, besides the four primary sources.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Medieval scholasticism and Communist propaganda are examples of authoritative thought where there is no room in the public forum to disagree with the authority and if you do, you will be punished in some way.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

The Qur'an itself doesn't mention any cancellation of the institution. .Nikah mut'ah sometimes has a preset time period to the marriage, traditionally the couple do not inherit from each other, the man usually is not responsible for the economic welfare of the woman, and she usually may leave her home at her own discretion.^ It does so with regard to inheritance, the divorce procedure due to an accusation of adultery, certain prescribed punishments, and the prohibited degrees of marriage, among other injunctions that do not change with the passage of time.
  • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because our children’s future is best preserved within the traditional understanding of marriage, we call for a constitutional amendment that fully protects marriage as a union of a man and a woman, so that judges cannot make other arrangements equivalent to it.” .
  • Sharia Finance 101 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ For some scholars a woman's testimony may have been deemed at a fraction to that as a man's.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Sharia Law Enforced in Texas! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nikah mut'ah also does not count towards a maximum of wives (four according to the Qur'an).^ A Muslim man is allowed to marry a maximum of four wives.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.The woman still is given her mahr, and the woman must still observe the iddah, a period of four months at the end of the marriage where she is not permitted to remarry in the case she may have become pregnant before the divorce took place.^ A person may marry, even in the Church, divorce, and then remarry civilly without seeking a declaration of nullity.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Sharia Law Enforced in Texas! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the earliest and most publicized cases was that of Bariya Ibrahim Magazu, a teenage girl who had become pregnant and was accused of pre-marital sex.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Women have been disproportionately affected in adultery cases, because of different standards of evidence required: a man facing charges of adultery must have been seen in the act by four independent witnesses before he can be convicted, whereas a woman can be found guilty on the basis of pregnancy alone.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

This maintains the proper lineage of children.
Requirements for Islamic Marriages:
.
  • These are guidelines; Islamic law on divorce is different depending on the school of thought.^ I am disgusted that we are about to allow sharia law and islamic schools in Scotland.
    • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This can include the marriage contract entered into in a Muslim country or a battle of who under Islamic law have the right to seek divorce.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The difference in views within Islamic Sharia law about stoning is not about the punishment itself but rather over nuances which include the size of stones required for a proper stoning.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    [133]
  • The man who is not currently a fornicator may marry only a woman who is not currently a fornicatress or a chaste woman from the people of the Book.
  • The woman who is not currently a fornicatress may marry only a man who is not currently a fornicator.
  • The fornicator may marry only a fornicatress – and vice versa.
  • The Muslim woman may marry only a Muslim man.
  • The guardian may choose a suitable partner for a virgin girl, but the girl is free to contest and refuse.
  • The guardian may not marry the divorced woman or the widow if she did not ask to be married.
  • It is obligatory for a man to give bride wealth (gifts) to the woman he marries – "Do not marry unless you give your wife something that is her right."[133]
  • A woman who wishes to be divorced usually needs the consent of her husband. .However, most schools allow her to obtain a divorce without her husband's consent if she can show the judge that her husband is impotent.^ Three of Britain’s most senior judges intervened, ruling the marriage could not be legal under English law, as the man was unable to give his consent.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In practice, most (if not all) those who obtain either also obtain a divorce in the civil courts, which is far easier to do.
    • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ A judge in Saudi Arabia has said husbands are allowed to slap their wives if they spend lavishly, a Saudi newspaper reported this past weekend.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    If the husband consents she does not have to pay back the dower..February 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]
  • Men have the right of unilateral divorce.^ At the same time, there are laws which considerably place women worse off than men, which means that women can be refused the right to a divorce.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Allowing polygamy and giving men the right to divorce their wives with just one word without recourse to law is disgusting.

    .A divorce is effective when the man tells his wife that he is divorcing her.^ A Saudi man has divorced his wife by text message, a newspaper said on Thursday.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Under the law a man can divorce his wife by saying "I divorce you" three times.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That is a man who divorces his wife can not remarry her except if she marries another man first.
    • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    .At this point the husband must pay the wife the "delayed" component of the dower.
  • A divorced woman of reproductive age must wait four months and ten days before marrying again to ensure that she is not pregnant.^ This means that if a non-Muslim man falls in love with a Muslim woman (does happen) then he must take up Islam to lawfully in the eyes of Sharia be her husband.
    • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ Some 6 months ago, Dr. Trifkovic gave us a rulling handed down by a German family court (custody battle and divorce proceedings) where a Muslim husband was acquitted of wife beatings and allowed custody of children….
    • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Witness for a husband is not a condition to divorce his wife - Codified Islamic Law# 344, Vol 1.

    Her ex-husband should support her financially during this period..February 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]
  • If a man divorces his wife three times, he can no longer marry her again unless she marries another man and they got divorced (only in a way that this divorce is not intended for the woman to re-marry her first husband) the woman could re-marry her first husband.^ What ever the cause, the man then says" I divorce thee" three times and the divorce is done.
    • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ Under the law a man can divorce his wife by saying "I divorce you" three times.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That is a man who divorces his wife can not remarry her except if she marries another man first.
    • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    [citation needed]
.Several hadith urge strongly against beating one's wife, such as: "How does anyone of you beat his wife as he beats the stallion camel and then embrace (sleep with) her?^ When the UK government invited Muslims here the Qur'an had been around for 1300 years and was clear for anyone to see what Muslims are, what our religion is and how it does it."
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Muslims Against Sharia is one such organisation.
  • Pajamas Media » Sharia Law Not Coming to Britain — Yet 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No matter what you think of the president, Tony Snow is really one of the good guys, and you know how difficult that is to find in Washington.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

(Muhammad al-Bukhari, English Translation, vol. 8, hadith 68, pp. .42-43), "I went to the Apostle of Allah and asked him: What do you say (command) about our wives?^ Lee what are you talking about?” he asked.
  • FOX Toledo Online Blogs » Sharia Davis 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.foxtoledo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edinburgh 09/10/2008 10:43:17 Scythia: I don't know what you are complaining about.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Come on, don’t you see any changes in me at all, from the little girl you grew up with?” I asked him seriously.
  • FOX Toledo Online Blogs » Sharia Davis 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.foxtoledo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He replied: Give them food what you have for yourself, and clothe them by which you clothe yourself, and do not beat them, and do not revile them. (Sunan Abi Dawood, Book 11, Marriage (Kitab Al-Nikah), Number 2139)". Others hadiths do indicate that husbands have a right to discipline their wives in a civilized manner to a certain extent:
Fear Allah concerning women! .Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah, and intercourse with them has been made lawful unto you by words of Allah.^ It made veiling an obligatory eternal law of Allah.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edinburgh 09/10/2008 09:54:19 Sharia law is innately superior to man made law for the simple reason that it is the Law of Allah.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Sharia law is innately superior to man made law for the simple reason that it is the Law of Allah.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

.You too have right over them, and that they should not allow anyone to sit on your bed whom you do not like.^ Any way didnt you mis spell your name it should be a P as the front not a z 108 Zish, .
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ House of Lords, they should not be allowed to schools which are primarily for the indoctrination of children."
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Should non-white Americans' use of the term "white supremacism" been censored, because they did not have the right to "slur" all whites with a supremacist ideology?
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

But if they do that, you can chastise them but not severely. .Their rights upon you are that you should provide them with food and clothing in a fitting manner.^ Through this organization, he provided donations of basic foods, clothing and medicine to the areas of conflict in Ambon, Poso and the Middle East.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

(Narrated in Sahih Muslim, on the authority of Jabir ibn Abd-Allah.)

[134]

.If the husband senses that feelings of disobedience and rebelliousness are rising against him in his wife, he should try his best to rectify her attitude by kind words, gentle persuasion and reasoning with her.^ Lisa filed a divorce case against her husband, and requested deporting him.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They told him that the case had been tried under the old penal code, whereas it should have been tried under Shari’a.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Dr Butt "discriminated" against people on the basis he "disapproved of their attitude to the requirements of Islam" and "did not act in the best interests of his patients", the panel found.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

.If this is not helpful, he should sleep apart from her, trying to awaken her agreeable feminine nature so that serenity may be restored, and she may respond to him in a harmonious fashion.^ They told him that the case had been tried under the old penal code, whereas it should have been tried under Shari’a.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.If this approach fails, it is permissible for him to smack her lightly with his hands, avoiding her face and other sensitive parts.^ It cannot be on the face or other sensitive areas.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Every part of my body was covered except for my face and hands.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand the environment of the place he grew up in influenced him not a little.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

.In no case should he resort to using a stick or any other instrument that might cause pain and injury.^ Calls for the ambiguous term of "progress" are frequently the last resort of scoundrels who genuinely have no useful ideas or values to offer to their people.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As with other types of sentences, no overall statistics are available and cases of flogging are so common that they are often not reported at all.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Zish "if I were"" is conditional and has to do with a case or tense that is no longer used except for things like this.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

Penalties

.In accordance with the Qur'an and several hadith, theft is punished by imprisonment or amputation of hands or feet,[135] depending on the number of times it was committed and depending on the item of theft.^ Amputation is an extreme form of cruel punishment which is prohibited in several international conventions.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Like hand amputation for theft and stoning for adultery.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to residents of Zamfara State, Jangebe was given money, rice, and maize by the state government, after publicly stating that he was happy with Shari’a and welcoming the punishment after his hand was amputated.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, before the punishment is executed two eyewitnesses under oath must say that they saw the person stealing.^ Saudi Arabia is currently facing fierce criticism before the Human Rights Council in Geneva, for practicing of corporal punishment as well as for its high rate of executions.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Somali women in Mogadishu say al-Shabab has warned them that they would face punishment if they wore bras under their abayas because the group considers bras to be Western garments and un-Islamic.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, will it have a better chance of stopping if Muslims continue to practice as a nation that was created by God to punish the Jews or if they accept God's Son?
  • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

.If these witnesses cannot be produced then the punishment cannot be carried out.^ "The rise of these Islamic elements is an indicator that there is an awareness of carrying out Islamic sharia law," he stated.
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Islamic Jihad Groups and Islamic Sharia Law in Indonesia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These prisoners have become hostages to the new political dilemma facing the state governor: he is unwilling to order their amputations to be carried out, yet is not prepared to order their release.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of these, one has been carried out; five have been overturned on appeal; and, at the time of writing, four are still in appeal.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.October 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Witnesses must be either two men, or, if only one man can be found, one man and two women.^ Work includes issuing fatwas - religious rulings on matters ranging from why Islam considers homosexuality a sin to why two women are equivalent to one male witness in an Islamic court.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On September 19, 2008, newspaper De Telegraaf reported that 173 men in Amsterdam are registered as having two legal wives, two men even have three wives.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some investors have opened women-only gyms calling them beauty salons or, in one case, a "natural treatment clinic," Arab News said.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

Several requirements are in place for the amputation of hands, so the actual instances of this are relatively few[citation needed]; they are:
  • There must have been criminal intent to take private (not common) property.
  • The theft must not have been the product of hunger, necessity, or duress.
  • The goods stolen must: be over a minimum value, not haraam, and not owned by the thief's family.
  • Goods must have been taken from custody (i.e. not in a public place).
  • There must be reliable witnesses.
  • The punishment is carried out even if the thief repents. [said by Muhammad]
.All of these must be met under the scrutiny of judicial authority.^ We must use all the time which is left to us in these next few days preparing to meet this attack.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No one is stopped from consulting the religious authority of their choice for mediation but civil law must over ride all else.
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Under it, the government must set up Sharia courts in the Malakand division of the NWFP, which covers seven districts in all, including Swat.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

[Qur'an 5:38][136]
.In accordance with hadith, stoning to death is the penalty for married men and women who commit adultery.^ Both were sentenced to death by stoning for adultery.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The punishment for adultery is death by stoning.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There have been a number of other cases of women accused of adultery who, if found guilty, could have faced a death sentence.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, there are several conditions related to the person who commits it that must be met.^ There you will be met by well dressed manicured individual who will be happy to offer you legal servicing from a well stocked menu of the latest trendy laws!!
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There must also be good missionaries but I have not met one that did not try to convert me and completely sure the absolute truth of their religious teachings.
  • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the state Shari’a penal codes contain a section stating that an act committed by a person who is insane or involuntarily intoxicated should not be considered an offense.
  • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.One of the difficult ones is that the punishment cannot be enforced unless there is a confession of the person, or four male eyewitnesses who each saw the act being committed.^ For adultery, there must be four witnesses who saw the act of penetration, he said.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Women get reduced quotients and cannot testify against men unless endorsed by a male, and a woman's word is worth only half that of a man.

^ Married with four little ones of her own, she has a spunk and personality that’s rife with humor.
  • FOX Toledo Online Blogs » Sharia Davis 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.foxtoledo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All of these must be met under the scrutiny of judicial authority[137] For unmarried men and women, the punishment prescribed in the Qur'an and hadith is 100 lashes.^ "These punishments are prescribed in Islam.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These punishments, or “Ta’zir” (less serious than the “hudud” or “Qiyas”, which are punishable by death penalty”) are left to the discretion of the judge who can prescribe penalties based on knowledge of Qur’an.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness."
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

[138]
.The "four witness" standard comes from the Qur'an itself, a revelation Muhammad announced in response to accusations of adultery leveled at his wife, Aisha: "Why did they not produce four witnesses?^ Where did they all gather, Muhammad?
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I don’t care to see women imprisoned because they report a rape but cannot come up with 4 male Muslim witnesses.
  • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jews, Christians, and pagans are subject to Shari’a, too, and from Muhammad’s standpoint they cannot invoke the judgments and moral principles of prior revelations (4:60).
  • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

Since they produce not witnesses, they verily are liars in the sight of Allah."[Qur'an 24:13]
Punishments are authorized by other passages in the Qur'an and hadiths for certain crimes (e.g., extramarital sex, adultery), and are employed by some as rationale for extra-legal punitive action while others disagree:
“The woman and the man guilty of adultery or fornication—flog each of them with hundred stripes: Let no compassion move you in their case, in a matter prescribed by God, if ye believe in God and the last day.”[Qur'an 24:2] “Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful (deed) and an evil, opening the road (to other evils).”[Qur'an 17:32]
.In most interpretations of Sharia, conversion by Muslims to other religions, is strictly forbidden and is termed apostasy.^ Muslim religion is the most misunderstood religion in the world.
  • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HIndus have thier own religion, do not impose it on others and do not believe in conversions.
  • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sharia forbids any change of religion to a Muslim, he/she should be killed.
  • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Muslim theology equates apostasy to treason, and in most interpretations of sharia, the penalty for apostasy is death.^ Harvard Muslim chaplain sees "wisdom" of Islamic death penalty for apostasy .
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Sharia abuses, the death threats for blasphemy, apostasy, must be recognized as terrorist threats to civilization.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most Muslim countries, including Iran, have adopted an interpretation of Sharia involving restrictions on women movements, multiple marriages, beheading for murder, beatings for adultery and drinking.
  • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the time of Muhammad, treason and apostasy were considered one and the same; nowadays, many scholars differentiate between treason and apostasy, believing that the punishment for apostasy is not death, while the punishment for treason is death.^ "We have to grow the school at the same time so that the next generation will be one that attends the mosque.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We believe that there are many paths to god, not just one.
  • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One has to read about the cannibalism during the Crusades by the Christians to see what Christians were like once upon a time too.
  • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

.In many Muslim countries, the accusation of apostasy is even used against non-conventional interpretations of the Qur'an.^ The protection is from Muslims who might be otherwise qualified to harass/kill a non-Muslim if even after repeated active persuasion that non-Muslim rejects Islam.

^ Many Muslims and non-Muslim Brits have trod cautiously around the issue.

^ It is against justice, women, non-Muslims and often violates the Quran.

The severe persecution of the famous expert in Arabic literature, Nasr Abu Zayd, is an example of this.
Insulting Muhammad or blasphemy has also resulted in the death penalty.[139]

Customs and behaviour

Practitioners of Islam are generally taught to follow some specific customs in their daily lives. .Most of these customs can be traced back to Abrahamic traditions in Pre-Islamic Arabian society.^ But these modest beginnings point to a far grander vision: an Islamic cultural, educational and recreational center near the city’s most hallowed piece of land.

^ For centuries, these indigenous, pre-Islamic peoples constituted the great majority of the population of the Islamic lands.

^ The 4-year-old institution observes Muslim rules, traditions and customs to service the growing Islamic population in not only southeast Michigan but North America.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

[140] .Due to Muhammad's sanction or tacit approval of such practices, these customs are considered to be Sunnah (practices of Muhammad as part of the religion) by the Ummah (Muslim nation).^ In fact, such terrorism is institutionalized in nations that support Islamic supremacism; many of these nations are directly or indirectly funded by millions of American dollars.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Local and national periodicals have written articles substantiating these practices.” (DNR Online, 3 Aug 09) .
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If Islam was this incredibly barbaric, violent religion, then why are only a handful of so-called Muslims actually taking part in violence?

It includes customs like:
.
  • Saying "Bismillah" (in the name of God) before eating and drinking.^ When I said that Christianity says all men are created equal it was in the sense that you state: namely man is made in the image of God, and not in the sense of the American constitution.
    • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the name of the greatest people that have ever trod this earth, I draw the line in the dust and toss the gauntlet before the feet of tyranny, and I say segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever."
    • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Feb 7th, 2008 at 11:08 pm Report comment Though fully appreciative of the historical irony, I can only say "In the name of God, go!"
    • Rowan Williams supports Sharia – Telegraph Blogs 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    [141]
  • Using the right hand for drinking and eating.[142]
  • .
  • Saying "As-Salamu Alaykum" (peace be upon you) when meeting someone and answering with "Wa 'alaikumus salam" (and peace be upon you).^ If he were among us today, what would Prophet Mohamad ‘Peace upon him’ say about us during his yearly Ramadan lecture (Khotbeh)?

    ^ I can say that if someone does refuse material help to non-Christians in an arbitrary manner, he is acting in a decidedly non-Christian fashion and they will have to answer for it, someday.
    • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I would say Idaho is almost never the answer, because what if somebody asks, “What state is Pocatello in,” and you’ve ruled out Idaho ever being the answer, what can you say?
    • Sharia Finance 101 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

    [143]
  • .
  • Saying "Alhamdulillah" (all gratitude is for only God) when sneezing and responding with "Yarhamukallah" (God have mercy on you).^ When I said that Christianity says all men are created equal it was in the sense that you state: namely man is made in the image of God, and not in the sense of the American constitution.
    • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After all God is omniscient, they would say, and to argue that this omniscient being COULD NOT come up with a set of laws to befit all times but instead handed a set to befit only the times in which Mohammed lived, they would say, insults God.
    • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All Gerin would say was, "There are more and more of them, not only in big cities, but in rural settings as well.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    [144]
  • .
  • Saying the "Adhan" (prayer call) in the right ear of a newborn and the Iqama in its left.
  • In the sphere of hygiene, it includes:
    • Clipping the moustache
    • Cutting nails
    • Circumcising the male offspring[145][146]
    • Cleaning the nostrils, the mouth, and the teeth[147] and
    • Cleaning the body after urination and defecation[148]
  • Abstention from sexual relations during the menstrual cycle and the puerperal discharge,[Qur'an 2:222] and ceremonial bath after the menstrual cycle, and Janabah (seminal/ovular discharge or sexual intercourse).^ "As long as the husband is not traveling, he has the right to have sexual intercourse with his wife every fourth night," the law says in part.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    [Qur'an 4:43][Qur'an 5:6]
  • Burial rituals include funeral prayer[149] of bathed[150] and enshrouded body in coffin cloth[151] and burying it in a grave.[152]

Rituals

There are two festivals that are considered Sunnah.[152][153]
Rituals associated with these festivals are:[152]
  • Sadaqah (charity) before Eid ul-Fitr prayer.[154]
  • The Prayer and the Sermon on Eid day.
  • Takbirs (glorifying God) after every prayer in the days of Tashriq (Normally these days are considered to be the ones in which pilgrims stay at Mina once they return from Muzdalifah i.e. 10th, 11th , 12th, and 13th of Dhu al-Hijjah.)
  • .
  • Sacrifice of unflawed, four legged grazing animal of appropriate age after the prayer of Eid al-Adha in the days of Tashriq.^ Eid al-Adha celebrates the willingness of Ibrahim - known as Abraham to Christians and Jews - to sacrifice his son.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The holidays are Eid al-Fitr, which marks the end of Ramadan, and Eid al-Adha.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But the 12% Muslim student body won't get Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha off says the mayor, saying, (USA Today, 17 Jul 09) .
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    [155]

Dress codes

The Qur'an also places a dress code upon its followers. .The rule for men has been ordained before the women: “say to the believing men to lower their gaze and preserve their modesty, it will make for greater purity for them and Allah is well aware of all that they do.”[Qur'an 24:30] Allah then says in the Qur'an, “And say to the believing women that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts and do not display their ornaments except what appears thereof, and let them wear their khumūr over their bosoms, and not display their ornaments except to their husbands...”[24:31] All those men in whose presence a woman is not obliged to practise the dress code are known as her mahrams.^ They want all the world for Allah.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sharia is the legal code ordained by Allah for all mankind.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They believe that when that happens they will rule over those lands very much like the early Muslims had done in 7th and 8th Century when the few nomads of Arabia appointed themselves Caliphs and Viziers of the lands of the Byzantine and Persian Empires.

.Men have a more relaxed dress code: the body must be covered from knee to waist.^ All women, regardless of religion, had to wear the so-called burkini (or burquini) - an outfit consisting of head scarf, tunic and trousers - while men had to be covered from the navel to the knees.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The effects of that decision were seen earlier this month when a Gaza court ruled that female lawyers must wear traditional head coverings and dresses when practicing law.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For instance, the books used in Saudi Arabia say that women must cover their face and body to conform with Islam's tenets.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, under (strict interpretation of) Sharia Law, women are required to cover all of their bodies except hands and face.^ Afghan women's law under review .
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This covers everything but the face, feet and hands.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sharia Law or ‘One law for all’?
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

.The rationale given for these rules is that men and women are not to be viewed as sexual objects.^ America has a deserved pride and respect in our military and in the men and women who sacrifice their lives for these values.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The rules were put in place for weekend swimming sessions geared to Muslims in which men and women swam separately.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is done through publicly staged floggings, stoning and executions of men and women for committing adultery or other sexual acts.
  • In Good Faith: Guest post: Reconsidering Sharia - A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith - baltimoresun.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Men are required to keep their guard up and women to protect themselves.^ Women must be responsible and veil themselves not to attract molestation by men.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because we ought to protect human rights, the equality of men and women and freedom.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Much ado about Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Saudi experts and companies that recruit women to work in the country say it is a “myth” that western women are required to walk behind men.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

.In theory, should either one fail, the other prevents the society from falling into fitna (temptation or discord).^ We accommodate the animist beliefs of our indigenous traditional owners - I fail to see why a multicultural society should not investigate why Islamic courts cannot be also be accommodated.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Much ado about Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ It should be the case that immigrants come here and are free to practice their beliefs AND expected to integrate into society.
  • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But one plane plunged in to the Pentagon in Virginia, and two others slammed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York.
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are many different opinions, however, as to whether the veil or headscarf is a real Qur'anic obligation.^ "On this basis, the tribunal is of the opinion that there is a real chance that this could place the applicant at risk of facing arrest, detention and ill-treatment."
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dean Koh had said something about that while there are obvious differences among the many different legal systems, they also share some common legal concepts."
  • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are many more differences between the traditional Christian and the traditional Judaic and Islamic mindsets that I do not have time to go into.
  • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some scholars such as Yusuf al-Qaradawi claim it is, while others, such as Mohammed Arkoun, Soheib Bencheikh, Abdoldjavad Falaturi, Jamal al Banna claim it isn't.^ Sultan serves on the board for two of Qaradawi’s organizations along with al-Malawi, the International Association of Muslim Scholars and the European Council for Fatwa and Research.

^ Dewidar and Sheik al-Gamei'a's interviews shared some themes, such as blaming Islam's poor image in America on a Zionist-controlled press.

^ Such "Islamic scholars" increasingly provide the "expert opinions" to U.S. government agencies, to the United Nations, to law enforcement agencies, and to other national and international organizations.
  • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

However, the first group appears dominant: "Jamal al Banna has been for a number of years one of the few mainstream Muslim scholars to argue that the Muslim headscarf, or hijab, is not an Islamic obligation." [156]

See also

Specific issues
Schools of Jurisprudence

Notes

  1. ^ (Badr 1978)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h (Makdisi 1999)
  3. ^ a b c d e (Badr 1978, pp. 196-8)
  4. ^ Law of God, Bibleinfo.com.
  5. ^ http://www.mareeg.com/fidsan.php?sid=11068&tirsan=3
  6. ^ The Second Era of Ijtihad, 1 St. Thomas University Law Review 341
  7. ^ Sharia Law
  8. ^ H.A.R. Gibb, "The Sharia", p.5 accessed 16 April 2009
  9. ^ Hunt Janin and Andre Kahlmeyer in Islamic Law: the Sharia from Muhammad's Time to the Present by Hunt Janin and Andre Kahlmeyer, McFarland and Co. Publishers, 2007, p.3
  10. ^ The Sharia and the nation state: who can codify the divine law?, p.2 Accessed 20 September 2005
  11. ^ Al-Islam.org by the Ahlul Bayt DILP - Hawza - Advanced Islamic Studies
  12. ^ Weiss (2002), pp.3,161
  13. ^ Weiss (2002), p.162
  14. ^ a b c (El-Gamal 2006, p. 16)
  15. ^ a b c d Makdisi, John (2005), Islamic Property Law: Cases and Materials for Comparative Analysis with the Common Law, Carolina Academic Press, ISBN 1594601100 
  16. ^ a b c d Coulson, Noel James. .A history of Islamic law (Islamic surveys).^ The law is suffused with religion,' says David Powers, a professor of Islamic law and history at Cornell University."
    • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

    Oxford: University Press, 1964.
  17. ^ a b c Dien, Mawil Izzi. .Islamic Law: From Historical Foundations To Contemporary Practice.^ "We believe that the Islamic Saudi Academy is not only teaching shariah law, it is practicing shariah law," Lafferty charged.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2004.
  18. ^ Liebesny, Majid &, and Herbert J. (Editors) Khadduri. .Law in the Middle East: Volume I: Origin and Development of Islamic Law.^ Banking in the Western Hemisphere is different than banking in the Middle East, except at the University Islamic Financial in Ann Arbor.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The lecture, "Islamic Law of Muslim Minorities in the West" was sponsored by the Middle East Studies Center and the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    Washington D.C.: The Middle East Institute, 1955.
  19. ^ a b c d e Berg, Herbert. "Islamic Law." Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History 3 (2005): 1030. In History Reference Center[database online]. Available from Snowden Library (accessed February 11, 2008).
  20. ^ Hallaq 1997, Brown 1996, Aslan 2006
  21. ^ a b Mukul Devichand (24 September 2008). "Is English law related to Muslim law?". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/7631388.stm. Retrieved 2008-10-05. 
  22. ^ (El-Gamal 2006, pp. 15-6)
  23. ^ a b Hussain, Jamila (2001), "Book Review: The Justice of Islam by Lawrence Rosen", Melbourne University Law Review 30 
  24. ^ (Gaudiosi 1988)
  25. ^ (Gaudiosi 1988, pp. 1237-40)
  26. ^ (Gaudiosi 1988, p. 1246)
  27. ^ (Hudson 2003, p. 32)
  28. ^ (Gaudiosi 1988, pp. 1244-5)
  29. ^ Jackson, Sherman (January 1995), "Review: Islamic Law and Jurisprudence: Studies in Honor of Farhat J. Ziadeh by Nicholas Heer Sherman Jackson", Journal of Near Eastern Studies 54 (1): 68–9, doi:10.1086/373733 
  30. ^ (Badr 1984, pp. 167-8)
  31. ^ Makdisi, John (1985-6)), "Formal Rationality in Islamic Law and the Common Law", Cleveland State Law Review 34: 97–112 
  32. ^ Islam, Muhammad Wohidul (1998), "Dissolution of Contract in Islamic Law", Arab Law Quarterly 13 (4): 336–368, doi:10.1163/026805598125826184 
  33. ^ (Makdisi 1999, pp. 1703-16)
  34. ^ Quraishi, Asifa (2006), "Interpreting the Qur'an and the Constitution: Similarities in the Use of Text, Tradition, and Reason in Islamic and American Jurisprudence", Cardozo Law Review 28: 67–121 [68] :
    "This article identifies several types of interpretive methods that appear prominently in both Islamic and American jurisprudence, and will then follow the legal debates between them within each system, noting the significant parallels along the way. Specifically, we will study: (1) plain meaning literalism, (2) historical understanding "originalism," and (3) reference to underlying purpose and spirit."
  35. ^ a b c (Vohra 2006, p. 348)
  36. ^ (Vohra 2006, p. 349)
  37. ^ al-Hibri, Azizah Y. (1998-1999), "Islamic and American Constitutional Law: Borrowing Possibilities or a History of Borrowing", University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law 1 (3): 492–527 
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  39. ^ al-Hibri, Azizah Y. (1998-1999), "Islamic and American Constitutional Law: Borrowing Possibilities or a History of Borrowing", University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law 1 (3): 492–527 [512-3] 
  40. ^ al-Hibri, Azizah Y. (1998-1999), "Islamic and American Constitutional Law: Borrowing Possibilities or a History of Borrowing", University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law 1 (3): 492–527 [525-7] 
  41. ^ (Weeramantry 1997, p. 132)
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  49. ^ (Badr 1978, pp. 196)
  50. ^ (Badr 1978, pp. 197)
  51. ^ a b c d (Weeramantry 1997, p. 136)
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  54. ^ a b (Weeramantry 1997, p. 138)
  55. ^ a b (Weeramantry 1997, pp. 136-7)
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  89. ^ "The Judiciary". Online Nigeria. 2007-05-01. http://www.onlinenigeria.com/government/index.asp?blurb=141. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  90. ^ "Debate rages over women and Sharia". BBC News. 2003-06-11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/2977446.stm. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  91. ^ Human rights violations under Shari’a in northern Nigeria
  92. ^ Draft law on Indonesia's Aceh province to impose Islamic law on all residents, Associated Press / The Sacramento Bee, May 24, 2006
  93. ^ Indonesia's dilemma by Vaudine England, The Standard - China's Business Newspaper, May 6, 2006
  94. ^ Taliban-style Islamic police terrorizing Aceh, Deutsche Presse Agentur / ASAP Aceh News, March 10, 2006
  95. ^ Zarrokh, Ehsan (June 30, 2007), Private Relations in Iranian Islamic Civil Code, Social Science Research Network, http://ssrn.com/abstract=997578, retrieved 2008-02-22 
  96. ^ "Archbishop slams detention regime". BBC News. 2008-02-21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/cambridgeshire/7256143.stm. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  97. ^ (El-Gamal 2006, p. 17)
  98. ^ Judgement in the case of Refah Partisi and Others v. Turkey, Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights, February 13, 2003
  99. ^ Hearing of the European Court of Human Rights, January 22, 2004 (PDF)
  100. ^ ECHR press release Refah Partisi (2001)
  101. ^ Refah Revisited: Strasbourg's Construction of Islam, by Christian Moe, Norwegian Institute of Human Rights, published at the site of The Strasbourg Conference
  102. ^ Will The European Court of Human Rights Push Turkey Toward Islamic Revolution? by Professor Ali Khan
  103. ^ L. Ali Khan, A Theory of Universal Democracy: Beyond the End of History, The Hague, Kluwer Law International, 2003, ISBN 90-411-2003-3
  104. ^ Nathan Brown, Islamic Constitutionalism in Theory and Practice in Cotran, Eugene and Adel Omar Sherif (eds.), Democracy, the Rule of Law and Islam, London, Kluwer Law International, 1999
  105. ^ Bookreview of Khan's "A Theory of Universal Democracy: Beyond the End of History" by Christian Pippan for "The European Journal of International Law"
  106. ^ The proof of the necessity of killing anyone who curses the Prophet or finds fault with him, masud.co.uk
  107. ^ [http://www.gaylawnet.com/laws/ir.htm#sodomy Laws: Iran, GayLawNet
  108. ^ [http://www.gaylawnet.com/laws/mr.htm#sodomy Laws: Mauratania, GayLawNet
  109. ^ [http://www.gaylawnet.com/laws/ng.htm#sodomy Laws,: Nigeria, GayLawNet
  110. ^ Laws: Saudi Arabia, GayLawNet
  111. ^ [http://www.gaylawnet.com/laws/so.htm#sodomy Laws:Somalia, GayLawNet
  112. ^ "Aceh passes stoning law". The Staits Times. 14 September 2009. http://www.straitstimes.com/Breaking%2BNews/SE%2BAsia/Story/STIStory_429633.html. Retrieved 22 December 2009. 
  113. ^ Rough Guide to South East Asia: Third Edition. Rough Guides Ltd. August 2005. p. 74. ISBN 1843534371. http://www.roughguides.com/. 
  114. ^ the last sermon of Muhammad
  115. ^ a b c d On Christian Men marrying Muslim Women
  116. ^ Imam Khaleel Mohammed's defense of inter-faith marriage
  117. ^ Asharq Al-Awsat Interviews Sudanese Islamist leader Dr. Hassan Turabi
  118. ^ Qur'an, [Qur'an 5:5]
  119. ^ Malaysia permits text message divorce - BBC
  120. ^ Who has more right to custody in Islam?
  121. ^ Lashing, stoning, mutilating: Islamic law is barbaric and outdated. Defend the case of Islam.
  122. ^ mu`amalat laws according to five major schools of jurisprudence and The Majallah
  123. ^ a b Ghamidi(2001), The dietary laws
  124. ^ Sunan ibn Maja 2314
  125. ^ Al-Sunan al-Sughra 59
  126. ^ Al-Zamakhshari. Al-Kashshaf, vol. 1, (Beirut: Daru'l-Kitab al-'Arabi), p. 215
  127. ^ Sahih Muslim 1934
  128. ^ Al-Sunan al-Sughra 4447
  129. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 4199
  130. ^ Sunan Abi Dawood 2858
  131. ^ Mumtaz Ali Tajddin S.Ali , Horse-Racing in Islam, ismaili.net
  132. ^ Prohibited Sports
  133. ^ a b Islamic Law, الشريعة الإسلامية, islamic law sharia
  134. ^ The Book of Pilgrimage (Kitab Al-Hajj)
  135. ^ Qur'an 5:38
  136. ^ Islamic Law: Myths and Realities, by Denis J. Wiechman, Jerry D. Kendall, and Mohammad K. Azarian, muslim-Canada.org
  137. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 8:82:815, Sahih al-Bukhari 8:82:826
  138. ^ Qur'an 24:2, Sahih al-Bukhari 8:82:818
  139. ^ What has been the punishment for Blasphemy in Islam?
  140. ^ Ghamidi(2001), Sources of Islam
  141. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi 1513
  142. ^ Sahih Muslim 2020
  143. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 6234
  144. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 6224
  145. ^ Sahih Muslim 257
  146. ^ Sahih Muslim 258
  147. ^ Sahih Muslim 252
  148. ^ Sunan Abi Dawood 45
  149. ^ Ghamidi, Various types of the prayer
  150. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 1254
  151. ^ Sahih Muslim 943
  152. ^ a b c Ghamidi (2001), Customs and Behavioral Laws
  153. ^ Sunan Abu Da'ud 1134
  154. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 1503
  155. ^ Ghamidi, The Ritual of Animal Sacrifice
  156. ^ Dead link p. 75

References

.
  • Badr, Gamal Moursi (Spring 1978), "Islamic Law: Its Relation to Other Legal Systems", The American Journal of Comparative Law 26 (2 [Proceedings of an International Conference on Comparative Law, Salt Lake City, Utah, February 24–25, 1977]): 187–198, doi:10.2307/839667 
  • Badr, Gamal Moursi (Winter 1984), "Islamic Criminal Justice", The American Journal of Comparative Law 32 (1): 167–169, doi:10.2307/840274 
  • Bakhtiar, Laleh and Kevin Reinhart (1996).^ The Secondary Sources of Islamic Law There are other acceptable means of deriving Islamic legal injunctions, besides the four primary sources.
    • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Islamic Law is the broadest, most comprehensive system of legislation in the world.
    • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Islamic Law covers all aspects of Law covered by man-made positive law as well as other issues that such man-made laws do not touch upon.
    • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Encyclopedia of Islamic Law: A Compendium of the Major Schools.^ I am disgusted that we are about to allow sharia law and islamic schools in Scotland.
    • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Schools of thought were formed in this period, which is the stage that Islamic Law as a science was established.
    • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ During this period, studies in Islamic Law broadened considerably, especially in the field of Comparative Law and in the critical study of the major classical works in the field.
    • Sharia Law - www.TurnToIslam.com 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.turntoislam.com [Source type: Original source]

    Kazi Publications, ISBN 1567444989
  • Brown, Daniel W. (1996). .Rethinking traditions in modern Islamic thought.^ Each of these features marks a point of contrast, and possibly of conflict, with the traditional Islamic vision of society, and each has played a vital part in creating the modern world.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The course deals with the development of Islamic legal tradition after the emergence of Islam and how Sharia's role changed in the modern Muslim nation states.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    Cambridge University Press, UK. ISBN 0-521-65394-0
  • Dahlén, Ashk (2003). .Islamic Law, Epistemology and Modernity, Routledge.^ Islamic Shariah law is a barbaric Stone Age system of law that is incompatible with modern secular societies.

    ^ Islamic shariah is a barbaric code of "law" that has no place in a modern secular society.

    ISBN 978-0415945295
  • Doi, Abd ar-Rahman I., and Clarke, Abdassamad (2008). .Shari'ah: Islamic Law.^ Section 130 of the Zamfara State Shari’ah Penal Code Law, 2000.
    • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Section 39 of the Bauchi State Shari’ah Penal Code Law, 2001.
    • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Section 134 of the Zamfara State Shari’ah Penal Code Law, 2000, and section 129 of the Kano State Shari’a Penal Code Law 2000.
    • "Political Shari'a"? Human Rights and Islamic Law in Northern Nigeria: V. Human rights violations under Shari�a in northern Nigeria 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd., ISBN 978 1 842000 85 3 (paperback), ISBN 978 1 842000 87 8 (hardback)
  • El-Fadl, Khaled Abou (2003), Reasoning with God: Rationality and Thought in Islam, Oneworld, ISBN 1851683062
  • Kafadar, Cemal (1996), Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-20600-2
  • Mumisa, Michael (2002) Islamic Law: Theory & Interpretation, Amana Publications, ISBN 1-59008-010-6
  • Musa, A. Y. Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave, 2008
  • El-Gamal, Mahmoud A. (2006), Islamic Finance: Law, Economics, and Practice, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521864143 
  • Gaudiosi, Monica M. (April 1988), "The Influence of the Islamic Law of Waqf on the Development of the Trust in England: The Case of Merton College", University of Pennsylvania Law Review 136 (4): 1231–1261, doi:10.2307/3312162 
  • Ayaz, Maryam (2007), "Sharia'h and Profits", Apvision Revolutionary Islamic Profitability Models
  • Ghamidi, Javed (2001).^ We need protection from Sharia Islamic Law."
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Divorce via text message under Sharia Law:- Getting a quickie divorce has taken on a whole new meaning in Malaysia after it was decided that a man can divorce his wife with a text message........said as long as the message was clear and unambiguous it was valid under Islamic Sharia law.25 April 2006 Religious authorities in at least two Persian Gulf countries, the United Arab Emirates and Qatar, upheld divorce by text message in rulings between 2001 and 2003.
    • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Shari’a is not at all a “religious law” but a blend of political theory and penal law that relies for the punishment of violators on the sword of the state.
    • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

    Mizan. Dar al-Ishraq. OCLC 52901690. 
  • Hudson, A. (2003), Equity and Trusts (3rd ed.), London: Cavendish Publishing, ISBN 1-85941-729-9 
  • Coulson, Noel James. .A history of Islamic law (Islamic surveys).^ The law is suffused with religion,' says David Powers, a professor of Islamic law and history at Cornell University."
    • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

    Oxford: University Press, 1964.
  • Dien, Mawil Izzi. .Islamic Law: From Historical Foundations To Contemporary Practice.^ "We believe that the Islamic Saudi Academy is not only teaching shariah law, it is practicing shariah law," Lafferty charged.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2004.
  • Liebesny, Majid &, and Herbert J. (Editors) Khadduri. .Law in the Middle East: Volume I: Origin and Development of Islamic Law.^ Banking in the Western Hemisphere is different than banking in the Middle East, except at the University Islamic Financial in Ann Arbor.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The lecture, "Islamic Law of Muslim Minorities in the West" was sponsored by the Middle East Studies Center and the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Washington D.C.: The Middle East Institute, 1955.
  • Berg, Herbert.^ According to a 2008 report from the Institute of International Education, study abroad to the Middle East increased by 7 percent nationally.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    "Islamic Law." Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History 3 (2005): 1030. In History Reference Center[database online]. .Available from Snowden Library (accessed February 11, 2008).
  • Makdisi, John A. (June 1999), "The Islamic Origins of the Common Law", North Carolina Law Review 77 (5): 1635–1739 
  • Safi, Omid (2003).^ Sacramento 10/10/2008 00:17:17 If I remember correctly, the Acts of Union specified that English Common Law would reign in England, and Scots Law in Scotland.
    • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Scotland 09/10/2008 11:51:19 I wouldnt worry too much about Sharia law or an Islamic take over of the West as its already dominated by a very vocal and active Jewish Yiddish horde.
    • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Scots law allows you to be atheist, Islamic law doesn't common sense should tell you not to be in a hurry to ensure your demise and all others like you!
    • Sharia courts set to bring Muslim law to bear in Scottish cities - Scotsman.com News 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC news.scotsman.com [Source type: Original source]

    Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism. Oneworld Publications. .ISBN 1-85168-316-X
  • ash-Shafi`i, Muhammad ibn Idris (1993), Risala: Treatise on the Foundations of Islamic Jurisprudence, Islamic Texts Society, ISBN 0946621152
  • Shahin, Omar (2007), The Muslim Family in Western Society: A Study in Islamic Law (English), Cloverdale Corporation, ISBN 978-1-929569-30-4
  • Vohra, Sameer S. (2006), "An American Muslim's Right to Die, Incorporating Islamic Law into the Debate", Journal of Legal Medicine 27 (3): 341–359, doi:10.1080/01947640600870932 
  • Weeramantry, Judge Christopher G. (1997), Justice Without Frontiers: Furthering Human Rights, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9041102418 
  • Weiss, Bernard G. (2002).^ Islamic scholar Robert Spencer further defines Sharia law as follows: "The precepts of Sharia are derived from the commandments of the Quran and the Sunnah (the teachings and precedents of Muhammad as found in the reliable hadiths and the Sira).
    • Crossroads in History: The Struggle against Jihad and Supremacist Ideologies 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.unitedstatesaction.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Although Sharia, or Islamic law, has been in practice in many parts of Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province and its tribal areas, its official expansion into a region less than 100 miles from Islamabad, the capital, last month has unnerved secular groups, human-rights activists and Western officials.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Although Sharia, or Islamic law, has been in practice in many parts of Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province and its tribal areas, its official expansion into a region less than 100 miles from Islamabad, the capital, last month has unnerved secular groups, human rights activists and Western officials.
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    Studies in Islamic Legal Theory. Boston: Brill Academic publishers. ISBN 9004120661. 

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Islamic law article)

From Wikiquote

For other uses, see Islamic laws.
.Islamic laws are expressions of Allah's will according to Islamic belief.^ Islamic laws are expressions of Allah 's will according to Islamic belief.
  • Islamic law - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Halal : Correct according to Islamic law.
  • Glossary of Islamic Terms 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.crossroad.to [Source type: Original source]

^ At least according to Islamic law.
  • The Jawa Report v3.0 Beta Archives 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC mypetjawa.mu.nu [Source type: News]

.Sharia is the core of Islamic laws.^ Sharia (Islamic law) Navigator .
  • Shariah (Islamic Law) News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ NEWS ABOUT: Islamic Sharia law .
  • Islamic Sharia law – News Stories About Islamic Sharia law - Page 1 | Newser 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: News]

^ Sharia is the entire body of Islamic law.
  • What Is Sharia Law? | eHow.com 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Sourced

Human life

.
  • Islamic law protects human life.^ Islamic law protects human life.
    • Islamic law - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We need protection from Sharia Islamic Law."
    • Sharia Law/Stealth Jihad News 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.cicentre.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, life ceased to be nomadic and undertook an urban transformation which in turn created matters not originally covered by Islamic law.
    • Sharia Law? [Archive] - Matt-Hughes.com Official Forums 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.matt-hughes.com [Source type: Original source]

    .While we condemn the killing of any Muslim and of any believer, whether Muslim or not, we also condemn manifestations of aggression against the peaceful and innocent, anywhere in the world....Allah forbade any man from striking fear in another man's heart, from killing another man, and from oppressing another man.^ While we condemn the killing of any Muslim and of any believer, whether Muslim or not, we also condemn manifestations of aggression against the peaceful and innocent, anywhere in the world....Allah forbade any man from striking fear in another man's heart, from killing another man, and from oppressing another man.
    • Islamic law - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Another move banned the activities of the Ahmadiyah sect, an offshoot of Islam with followers around the world that some devout Muslims consider heretical to the religion.
    • Asia Times Online :: Southeast Asia news and business from Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The protection for non-Muslims is withdrawn if a non-Muslim commits adultery with a Muslim woman or marries her, leads a Muslim away from Islam, kills a Muslim, or says anything derogatory about Allah, the Prophet, or Islam.
    • Annaqed - Sharia Law and the US Constitution 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.annaqed.com [Source type: Original source]

Criminal justice & Qisas

.
  • Cultural pluralism has its benefits -- up to a point.^ Cultural pluralism has its benefits -- up to a point.
    • Islamic law - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .While civilized people can reasonably disagree about the regulation of head scarves, or the appropriate boundaries for inflammatory speech, nobody in mainstream American society...would tolerate a state-sanctioned blinding imposed by a western court....So how can anyone condone such judicial-sponsored mutilation abroad?^ What content would be appropriate for the state to recognise sharia courts as covering?

    ^ A month ago the Guardian revealed that the government was considering setting arbitrary criteria to define extremists [in Britain], such as support for sharia law – an approach that would have branded many mainstream [British] Muslims enemies of the people.
    • The Guardian�s lead editorial calls sharia law 'mainstream' - Tom Gross 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC media.nationalreview.com [Source type: News]

    ^ People should be granted the right to choose between Sharia or Civil courts based on people’s right in belief according to UN Human Rights Charter.
    • Women's Petition Committee: Appointment of Sharia Judges as political gifts for religious groups | Bahrain Center for Human Rights 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.bahrainrights.org [Source type: Academic]

Palestine

.
  • Palestine is an Arab and Islamic land, and nobody is allowed to forsake any part of Palestine.^ Palestine is an Arab and Islamic land, and nobody is allowed to forsake any part of Palestine.
    • Islamic law - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Failure to acknowledge that they are part of this war underscores the state of fear and denial that the Arab dictatorships continue to live in with regards to the threat from Islamic radicals.

    ^ There is precedent for allowing Islamic law for Muslims within a Christian state: it was part and parcel of the colonial world, notably, in Algeria.
    • Britain Adopts Shari’a : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Any agreement or negotiations that grant the Jews any rights in Palestine are null and void from the perspective of Islamic law.^ Any agreement or negotiations that grant the Jews any rights in Palestine are null and void from the perspective of Islamic law.
    • Islamic law - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Liberals have not, and will not learn that Radical Islamics are not the least bit interested in negotiating.  By Shari law, this Archbishop will qualify to be one of the first decapitated.  .

    ^ "So if we can look at common British law from that perspective, as evolving, why can’t we look at Islamic law also as evolving, rather than thinking of it only in historical terms,’’ he said, explaining that the law has evolved to allow women their rights.
    • News | Islamic law challenges Western freedom: report 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.alarabiya.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Our religion does not accept such an agreement, and nor do our national interest or the interest of humanity.^ Our religion does not accept such an agreement, and nor do our national interest or the interest of humanity.
    • Islamic law - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Though Sharia Finance does not profit from interest, or ‘prohibited’ items such as pork, alcohol, gambling, etc., it does fund global Jihad.
    • Sharia Finance | Fighting Radical Islam 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.radicalislam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Sharia Finance | Fighting Radical Islam 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.radicalislam.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As a nation of immigrants, there is a certain appeal to the idea of multiculturalism where people of different backgrounds are accepted in our communities.
    • Annaqed - Sharia Law and the US Constitution 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.annaqed.com [Source type: Original source]

Sex

.
  • The noble Islamic law deals with all issues.^ The noble Islamic law deals with all issues.
    • Islamic law - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are concerns that women who agree to go to tribunal courts are getting worse deals because Islamic law favours men.
    • Revealed: UK’s first official sharia courts -Times Online 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]
    • Sharia Courts in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC forum.nin.com [Source type: Original source]
    • “Islamic law has been officially adopted in Britain, with sharia courts given powers to rule on Muslim civil cases.” « Feminist Law Professors 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC feministlawprofs.law.sc.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Stealth Sharia « Because No One Asked 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC becausenooneasked.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Point of View: Revealed: UK's first official sharia courts 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.pointofview.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It covers issues including worship, commercial dealings, marriage and penal laws.
    • Archbishop of Canterbury: 'Sharia law unavoidable in Britain' 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.christiantoday.com [Source type: News]
    • News -- UK: Archbishop's Sharia comments: "Recipe for disaster" 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC naijanet.com [Source type: News]

    .One of the most important issues is protecting women's honor - indeed, defending families, and protecting societies and generations from the flames of vice, from the removal of the veil, from the volcanoes of debauchery, from the storms of evil, from the armies of harlotry, from the voracity of pleasure, and from bestial libertinism.^ One of the most important issues is protecting women's honor - indeed, defending families, and protecting societies and generations from the flames of vice, from the removal of the veil , from the volcanoes of debauchery, from the storms of evil , from the armies of harlotry, from the voracity of pleasure, and from bestial libertinism.
    • Islamic law - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Many of the laws that Sharia courts and religious tribunals aim to avoid have been fought for over centuries in order to improve the rights of those most in need of protection in society.
    • Campaign Against Sharia Law Launched in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.aina.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Scoop: Launch of Campaign against Sharia law in Britain 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.scoop.co.nz [Source type: News]

    ^ It is important for all of us to remember that: • Protecting our wealth is one of the key objectives of Shariah.
    • Shariah finance - Gaining Ground: India Must Be Vigilant as Islamic Finance Grows - Investment International 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.investmentinternational.com [Source type: General]

    .The most dangerous weapon which the enemy has raised against us - with which he tore to pieces our established order, and with which he soiled our spiritual and social purity - is the terrible deluge of all manner of vice, which is considered a form of moral terrorism against the values, ideals, and virtues of the Islamic nation.^ The most dangerous weapon which the enemy has raised against us - with which he tore to pieces our established order, and with which he soiled our spiritual and social purity - is the terrible deluge of all manner of vice, which is considered a form of moral terrorism against the values, ideals, and virtues of the Islamic nation.
    • Islamic law - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Because if we remember history, women actually had to fight against these values in order to secure their rights….And women even today have to fight in secular democracies against discrimination of these levels.
    • Does Sharia Law Promote Women's Rights? :: Middle East Forum 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A unique form of socially responsible investment , Islam makes no division between the spiritual and the secular, hence its reach into the domain of financial matters.
    • Working With Islamic Finance 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.investopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .(This war is waged) by means of the licentious satellite channels and the vile spider webs of the Internet, whose gloom fills the sky with darkness and spreads its stench in all directions, and by means of those hidden computer discs, which are the cauldron of sin, consumed by the old, young, and inexperienced.^ (This war is waged) by means of the licentious satellite channels and the vile spider webs of the Internet , whose gloom fills the sky with darkness and spreads its stench in all directions, and by means of those hidden computer discs, which are the cauldron of sin , consumed by the old, young, and inexperienced.
    • Islamic law - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ According to the Koran, sharia means that, “ those women on whose part you fear disobedience, admonish them, and send them to their beds and beat them” (Koran 4:34).

    ^ February 2008 at 21:10 Yes, of course it was all about about Christianity, he wants to wage holy war on secularism and he used sharia as a spearhead and an example.
    • New Statesman - The archbishop, sharia and gay rights 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.newstatesman.com [Source type: Original source]

Subjugation

.
  • [T]errorists themselves repeatedly and consistently explain and justify their actions by reference to the teachings of Islam – particularly to the imperative, deeply embedded within the Islamic tradition, to subjugate all non-Islamic polities under the rule of Islamic Sharia law.^ Under Sharia Law lyrics and mp3 .
    • Under Sharia Law lyrics and mp3 | Bracks Blasphemy Law threatens Victorians freedoms 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.brookesnews.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sharia law forbids any and all artistic expression that is offensive to Islam.
    • Political Islam // Articles // Sharia 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.politicalislam.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Encyclopedia sharia sharia, the religious law of Islam.
    • http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/society/A0844725.html 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wife beating

.
  • We must know that [wife] beating is a punishment in Islamic religious law....^ We must know that [wife] beating is a punishment in Islamic religious law....
    • Islamic law - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sorry, J, but we DO know something of Islamic law.
    • The Volokh Conspiracy - Sharia Law Enforced in Texas! 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Shari'a is the body of Islamic religious law.
    • Sharia - Your Path To The Water Of Life?  Islamic Law Resources & Information Directory 28 January 2010 0:50 UTC www.sharia.ws [Source type: Original source]

    Islam is a religion that forbids beating the face even of beasts. It is forbidden to beat even a donkey on its face....[The Koran says:] "and beat them." This verse is of a wondrous nature. .
    • Friday Sermon on Qatar TV: With Some Women, Life is Impossible Unless You Carry a Rod.^ Unless shariah supporters are able to carry the support of women groups with them, their chances of success are remote.

      ^ Ulil adds that many aspects of shariah must be questioned; for example, some do carry the potential for discrimination against women.
      • Chapter 7. A Vision of Shariah–Led Prosperity: PKS Attitudes to the Implementation of Islamic Law 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC epress.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

      ^ So, once you accept something, which is impractical to be imposed, then this will always lead to various troubles and it is impossible for you to carry on without further complications.
      • SHARIAH RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND POLITICS IN ISLAM 19 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.alislam.org [Source type: Original source]

      MEMRI (August 2004).

External links

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to Shari'a article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Alternative spellings

Etymology

Arabic شريعة way to the water

Noun

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shari'a
  1. (Islam) traditional Islamic religious law; it covers the totality of religious, political, social and private life making no distinction between religion and life, in other words between transgressions of moral rules (sin) and of social rules.

Translations


Simple English

'''Sharia (Arabic: شريعة) is the body of Islamic law. The term means "way" or "path"; it is the legal framework within which the public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Muslim principles of jurisprudence.

Sharia deals with all aspects of day-to-day life, including politics, economics, banking, business law, contract law, sexuality, and social issues.

There is not a strictly codified uniform set of laws that can be called Sharia. It is more like a system of several laws, based on the Qur'an, Hadith and centuries of debate, interpretation and precedent.

Contents

Sections of Sharia law

Sharia law is divided into three main sections:

  1. Faith (Aqida).
  2. Ethics (Akhlaq).
  3. the acts of muslim which divided into two sections;-
    1. The acts of worship, or al-ibadat, these include:
      1. Ritual Purification (Wudu)
      2. Prayers (Salah)
      3. Fasts (Sawm and Ramadan)
      4. Charities (Zakat)
      5. Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj)
    2. Human interaction, or al-mu'amalat, which includes:
      1. Financial transactions
      2. Endowments
      3. Laws of inheritance
      4. Marriage, divorce, and child care
      5. Foods and drinks (including ritual slaughtering and hunting)
      6. Penal punishments
      7. Warfare and peace
      8. Judicial matters (including witnesses and forms of evidence)

See mu`amalat laws according to 5 major schools of jurisprudence and The Majallah

Laws and practices under Sharia

Marriage laws

  • The Muslim man who is not currently a fornicator can only marry a Muslim woman who is not currently a fornicatress or a chaste woman from the people of the book.
  • The Muslim fornicator can only marry a Muslim fornicatress.
  • The Muslim woman who is not currently a fornicatress can only marry a Muslim man who is not currently a fornicator.
  • The Muslim fornicatress can only marry a Muslim fornicator.
  • The woman cannot marry without the consent of her guardian. If she marries, her husband becomes her new guardian.
  • The guardian may choose a suitable partner for a virgin girl, but the girl is free to contest and has the right to say 'no'.
  • The guardian cannot marry the divorced woman or the widow if she did not ask to be married.
  • "Do not marry unless you give your wife something that is her right." It is obligatory for a man to give bride wealth (gifts) to the woman he marries.[1]

The penalty for theft

In accordance with the Qur'an and several hadith, theft is punished by imprisonment or amputation of hands or feet, depending on the number of times it was committed and depending on the item of theft. However, before the punishment is executed two eyewitnesses under oath must say that they saw the person stealing. If these witnesses cannot be produced then the punishment cannot be executed.In addition, there are several conditions related to the theft, stolen items, and circumstances. All of these must be met under the scrutiny of judicial authority.[Qur'an 5:38][1]

The penalty for adultery

In accordance with hadith, stoning to death is the penalty for married men and women who commit adultery. In addition, there are several conditions related to the person who commits it that must be met. One of the difficult ones is that the punishment cannot be enforced unless there is a confession of the person, or four male eyewitnesses who each saw, simultaneously, the penis of the man inside the vulva of the woman. All of these must be met under the scrutiny of judicial authority. For unmarried men and women, the punishment prescribed in the Qur'an and hadith is 100 lashes.

Festivals

There are two festivals that are considered Sunnah.[2][3]

  1. Eid ul-Fitr
  2. Eid ul-Adha

Rituals associated with these festivals are:[2]

  • Sadaqah (charity) before Eid ul-Fitr prayer.[4]
  • The Prayer and the Sermon on Eid day.
  • Takbirs (glorifying God) after every prayer in the days of Tashriq (see footnote for def.)[5]
  • Sacrifice of unflawed, four legged grazing animal of appropriate age after the prayer of Eid ul-Adha in the days of Tashriq.[6]

Dietary laws

Islamic law does not present a comprehensive list of pure foods and drinks. However, it sanctions:[7]

  1. prohibition of swine, blood, meat of dead animals and animals slaughtered in the name of someone other than God.
  2. slaughtering in the prescribed manner of tazkiyah (cleansing) by taking God’s name.
  3. prohibition of intoxicants

The prohibition of dead meat is not applicable to fish and locusts.[8][9][10] Also hadith literature prohibits beasts having sharp canine teeth, birds having claws and tentacles in their feet,[11] Jallalah (animals whose meat carries a stink in it because they feed on filth),[12] tamed donkeys,[13] and any piece cut from a living animal.[14][7]

Muslim apostates

In most interpretations of Sharia, conversion by Muslims to other religions, is strictly forbidden and is termed apostasy. Muslim theology equates apostasy to treason, and in most interpretations of sharia, the penalty for apostasy is death.

In many Muslim countries, the accusation of apostasy is even used against non-conventional interpretations of the Quran. The severe persecution of the famous expert in Arabic literature, Prof. Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd, is an example of this. In some countries, Sunni and Shia Muslims often accuse each other of apostasy. The current civil strife in Iraq is explained by many in terms of the extremely harsh religious opposition between Sunnis and Shias in Iraq.

Notes

  1. Islamic Law: Myths and Realities, by Denis J. Wiechman, Jerry D. Kendall, and Mohammad K. Azarian, muslim-Canada.org
  2. Cite error: Invalid tag; no text was provided for refs named cul
  3. Sunan Abu Da'ud 1134
  4. Sahih Bukhari 1503
  5. Normally these days are considered to be the ones in which pilgrims stay at Mina once they return from Muzdalifah i.e. 10th, 11th , 12th, and 13th of Dhu al-Hijjah
  6. Ghamidi, The Ritual of Animal Sacrifice
  7. 7.0 7.1 Ghamidi(2001), The dietary laws
  8. Sunan ibn Maja 2314
  9. Nisai 59
  10. Al-Zamakhshari. Al-Kashaf, vol. 1, (Beirut: Daru’l-Kitab al-‘Arabi), p. 215
  11. Sahih Muslim 1934
  12. Nisai 4447
  13. Sahih Bukhari 4199
  14. Sunan Abu Da'ud 2858

References

  • Human Rights and Islamic Law
  • Laleh Bakhtiar and Kevin Reinhart (1996). Encyclopedia of Islamic Law: A Compendium of the Major Schools. Kazi Publications. ISBN 1-56744-498-9
  • Muhammad ibn Idris al- Shafi'i (1993). Risala: Treatise on the Foundations of Islamic Jurisprudence. Islamic Texts Society. ISBN 0-946621-15-2
  • Khaled Abou El Fadl 2003). Reasoning with God: Rationality and Thought in Islam. Oneworld. ISBN 1-85168-306-2
  • Cemal Kafadar (1996). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20600-2
  • Omid Safi (2003). Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-316-X
  • Mumisa, Michael (2002) Islamic Law: Theory & Interpretation. Amana Publications. ISBN 1-59008-010-6
  • Daniel W. Brown (1996). Rethinking traditions in modern Islamic thought. Cambridge University Press, UK. ISBN 0-521-65394-0
  • Human Rights Documents Archives
  • Weiss, Bernard G. (2002). Studies in Islamic Legal Theory. Boston: Brill Academic publishers. ISBN 90-04-12066-1. 

Other pages

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Sharia, which are similar to those in the above article.