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City of Sheffield
—  City & Metropolitan borough  —
Top: Sheffield from Meersbrook Park, middle left: Sheffield Cathedral, middle right: Shepherd Wheel, bottom left: Fargate, bottom right: Sheffield Winter Garden.

Coat of Arms of the City Council
Nickname(s): "Steel City"
Motto: "Deo Adjuvante Labor Proficit" "With God's help our labour is successful"
Sheffield shown within England
Coordinates: 53°23′01″N 1°28′01″W / 53.38361°N 1.46694°W / 53.38361; -1.46694
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region Yorkshire and the Humber
Ceremonial county South Yorkshire
Admin HQ Sheffield City Centre
Founded ~8th century
Town charter 10 August 1297
City status 1893
Government
 - Type Metropolitan borough, City
 - Governing body Sheffield City Council
 - Lord Mayor Graham Oxley
 - Council Leader Paul Scriven (LD)
 - MPs: Clive Betts (L)
David Blunkett (L)
Richard Caborn (L)
Nick Clegg (LD)
Meg Munn (L)
Angela Smith (L)
Area
 - City & Metropolitan borough 142.1 sq mi (367.94 km2)
Population (2008 est.)
 - City & Metropolitan borough 534,500 (Ranked 3rd)
 Density 3,763.3/sq mi (1,453/km2)
 Urban 640,720
(Sheffield urban area)
 - Urban Density 10,228.4/sq mi (3,949.2/km2)
 - City Region 1,819,500
 - County 1,292,900
Time zone Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+0)
Postcode S
Area code(s) 0114
ISO 3166-2 GB-SHF
ONS code 00CG
OS grid reference SK355875
NUTS 3 UKE32
Demonym Sheffielders
Website www.sheffield.gov.uk

Sheffield (pronounced /ˈʃɛfiːld/ ( listen)) is a city and metropolitan borough of South Yorkshire, England. Its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. Historically a part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, the city has grown from its largely industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base. The population of the City of Sheffield is 534,500 (2008 est.),[1] but the wider Sheffield Urban Area, which extends beyond the city proper, had a population of 640,720 as of the 2001 census. Sheffield is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the English Core Cities Group.

During the 19th century, Sheffield gained an international reputation for its steel production. Many innovations were developed locally, including crucible and stainless steel, fuelling an almost tenfold increase in the population during the Industrial Revolution. Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1893, when it officially became the City of Sheffield. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in traditional local industries during the 1970s and 1980s, coinciding with the collapse of coal mining in the area.

The 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield and in other British cities. Sheffield's GVA (gross value added) has increased by 60% in recent years, standing at £8.7 billion in 2006. The economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber.

The City of Sheffield is near the confluence of five rivers, and much of it is built on hillsides with views either into the city centre or out onto the countryside. It is estimated that Sheffield has over two million trees, more per person than any other city in Europe; 61% of the city is green space.

Contents

History

Section of an illuminated manuscript showing a figure seated on a horse
Portrait of Chaucer as a Canterbury pilgrim in the Ellesmere manuscript of The Canterbury Tales

The area now occupied by the City of Sheffield has been inhabited since at least the late Upper Palaeolithic period, about 12,800 years ago.[2] The settlements that grew and merged to form Sheffield, however, date from the second half of the 1st millennium, and are of Anglo-Saxon and Danish origin.[3] In Anglo-Saxon times the Sheffield area straddled the border between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that King Eanred of Northumbria submitted to King Egbert of Wessex at the hamlet of Dore (now a suburb of Sheffield) in 829.[4] This event made Egbert the first Saxon to claim to be king of all England. After the Norman conquest, Sheffield Castle was built to protect the local settlements, and a small town developed that is the nucleus of the modern city.[5]

By 1296, a market had been established at what is now known as Castle Square,[6] and Sheffield subsequently grew into a small market town. In the 14th century Sheffield was already noted for the production of knives, as mentioned in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales,[7] and by the early 1600s it had become the main centre of cutlery manufacture in England outside of London, overseen by the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire.[8] From 1570 to 1584 Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor.[9]

During the 1740s, a form of the crucible steel process was discovered that allowed the manufacture of a better quality of steel than had previously been possible.[10] In about the same period, a technique was developed for fusing a thin sheet of silver onto a copper ingot to produce silver plating, which became widely known as Sheffield plate.[11] These innovations spurred Sheffield's growth as an industrial town,[12] but the loss of some important export markets led to a recession in the late 18th and early 19th century. The resulting poor conditions culminated in a cholera epidemic that killed 402 people in 1832.[3] The population of the town grew rapidly throughout the 19th century; increasing from 60,095 in 1801 to 451,195 by 1901.[3] The town was incorporated as a borough in 1842 and was granted a city charter in 1893.[13] The influx of people also led to demand for better water supplies, and a number of new reservoirs were constructed on the outskirts of the town. The collapse of the dam wall of one of these reservoirs in 1864 resulted in the Great Sheffield Flood, which killed 270 people and devastated large parts of the town.[14] The growing population led to the construction of many back-to-back dwellings that, along with severe pollution from the factories, inspired George Orwell in 1937 to write: "Sheffield, I suppose, could justly claim to be called the ugliest town in the Old World".[15]

A recession in the 1930s was halted by increasing international tensions as the Second World War loomed; Sheffield's steel factories were set to work manufacturing weapons and ammunition for the war effort. As a result, the city became a target for bombing raids, the heaviest of which occurred on the nights of 12 and 15 December 1940, now known as the Sheffield Blitz. More than 660 lives were lost and many buildings destroyed.[16]

In the 1950s and 1960s, many of the city's slums were demolished, and replaced with housing schemes such as the Park Hill flats. Large parts of the city centre were also cleared to make way for a new system of roads.[3] Increased automation and competition from abroad resulted in the closure of many steel mills. The 1980s saw the worst of this run-down of Sheffield's industries, along with those of many other areas of the UK.[17] The building of the Meadowhall shopping centre on the site of a former steelworks in 1990 was a mixed blessing, creating much needed jobs but hastening the decline of the city centre. Attempts to regenerate the city were kick-started when the city hosted the 1991 World Student Games, which saw the construction of new sporting facilities such as the Sheffield Arena, Don Valley Stadium, and the Ponds Forge complex.[3]

Sheffield is changing rapidly as new projects regenerate some of the more run-down parts of the city. One such, the Heart of the City Project, has initiated a number of public works in the city centre: the Peace Gardens were renovated in 1998, the Millennium Galleries opened in April 2001, the Winter Gardens were opened in May 2003, and a public space to link these two areas, the Millennium Square, was opened in May 2006. Additional developments included the remodelling of Sheaf Square, in front of the recently refurbished railway station. The new square contains The Cutting Edge, a sculpture designed by Si Applied Ltd[18] and made from Sheffield steel.

Governance

View across a garden containing people enjoying a sunny day towards a large Victorian building with a clock tower
Sheffield Town Hall and the Peace Gardens

Sheffield is governed at the local level by Sheffield City Council. It consists of 84 councillors elected to represent 28 wards—three councillors per ward. It is currently controlled by the Liberal Democrats, who gained the council from NOC at the English Local Election 2008; the Liberal Democrats took 45 seats to Labour's 36.[19] The Green Party took three council seats, whilst the Conservative party lost its single seat. Since the 2008 election, the leader of the council has been Paul Scriven.[20] The city also has a Lord Mayor; though now simply a ceremonial position, in the past the office carried considerable authority, with executive powers over the finances and affairs of the city council. The current (2009/10) Lord Mayor is Graham Oxley.[21]

For much of its history the council was controlled by the Labour Party, and was noted for its leftist sympathies; during the 1980s administration under David Blunkett, the area gained the epithet the "Socialist Republic of South Yorkshire".[22] However, the Liberal Democrats controlled the Council between 1999 and 2001 and took control again in the May 2008 local elections.[23]

The majority of council-owned facilities are operated by independent charitable trusts. Sheffield International Venues runs many of the city's sporting and leisure facilities, including Sheffield Arena and Don Valley Stadium. Sheffield Galleries and Museums Trust and the Sheffield Industrial Museums Trust take care of galleries and museums owned by the council.[24][25]

The city returns six Members of Parliament to the House of Commons, although this will be reduced to five at the 2010 election as one constituency, Hillsborough, will be abolished and its area redistributed among three other constituencies.[26]

International links

Sheffield is formally twinned with Anshan in China, Bochum in Germany, Donetsk in Ukraine, and Esteli in Nicaragua. There are more informal links with Kawasaki in Japan, Kitwe in Zambia, Kotli in Kashmir, and Pittsburgh in the United States.[27] Sheffield has also had close links with Poland, as ex-servicemen from that country who fought alongside British forces during the Second World War settled in the city.[28]

Geography

Sheffield is located at 53°23′N 1°28′W / 53.383°N 1.467°W / 53.383; -1.467. It lies directly beside Rotherham, from which it is separated largely by the M1 motorway. Although Barnsley Metropolitan Borough also borders Sheffield to the north, the town itself is a few miles further away. The southern and western borders of the city are shared with Derbyshire; in the first half of the 20th century Sheffield extended its borders south into Derbyshire, annexing a number of villages,[29] including Totley, Dore and the area now known as Mosborough Townships. Directly to the west of the city is the Peak District National Park and the Pennine hill range.

Sheffield is a geographically diverse city.[30] The city nestles in a natural amphitheatre created by several hills[31] and the confluence of five rivers: Don, Sheaf, Rivelin, Loxley and Porter. As such, much of the city is built on hillsides with views into the city centre or out to the countryside. The city's lowest point is just 29.27 metres (96 ft) above sea level near Blackburn Meadows, while some parts of the city are at over 500 metres (1,640 ft); the highest point being 548 metres (1,798 ft) at High Stones, near Margery Hill. However, 79% of the housing in the city is between 100 and 200 metres (330 and 660 ft) above sea level.[32]

Wide view from atop a hill over-looking a cityscape
Panorama from Meersbrook Park

Estimated to contain over two million trees,[33] Sheffield has more trees per person than any other city in Europe. It has over 170 woodlands (covering 10.91 sq mi/28.3 km2), 78 public parks (covering 7.07 sq mi/18.3 km2) and 10 public gardens. Added to the 52.0 square miles (134.7 km2) of national park and 4.20 square miles (10.9 km2) of water this means that 61% of the city is greenspace. Despite this, about 64% of Sheffield householders live further than 300 metres (328 yd) from their nearest greenspace, although access is better in less affluent neighbourhoods across the city.[34]

Sheffield also has a very wide variety of habitat, comparing favourably with any city in the United Kingdom: urban, parkland and woodland, agricultural and arable land, moors, meadows and freshwater-based habitats. There are six areas within the city that are designated as sites of special scientific interest.[35]

The present city boundaries were set in 1974 (with slight modification in 1994), when the former county borough of Sheffield merged with Stocksbridge Urban District and two parishes from the Wortley Rural District. This area includes a significant part of the countryside surrounding the main urban region. Roughly a third of Sheffield lies in the Peak District National Park (no other English city includes parts of a national park within its boundary),[36] and, according to Sheffield City Council, it is England's greenest city,[37] a claim that was reinforced when it won the 2005 Entente Florale competition.

Climate

The area's western and eastern boundaries influence its climate. The Pennines' high altitude creates an environment that is frequently cool, gloomy and wet, but the Pennines also cast a "rain shadow" across the area caused by the shelter they provide from the prevailing westerly winds. Rainfall varies from approximately 130 millimetres (5.1 in) to 270 millimetres (11 in) per month, with December usually having the highest rainfall and July, the lowest.

Mean annual temperatures depend on altitude and, to some extent, proximity to the coast. The coldest waters around the UK are found off NE England with sea surface temperatures varying from about 5 °C (41 °F) in winter to 13 °C (55 °F) in summer (compared to a range of 8 to 18 °C (46 to 64 °F) off SW England). Temperature shows both a seasonal and a diurnal variation. January is usually the coldest month, with mean daily minimum temperatures varying from below −0.5 °C (31 °F) over the highest ground to about 1.5 °C (34.7 °F) along the coast and in South Yorkshire. Minimum temperatures usually occur around sunrise and extreme minima have been recorded in winter, often in January or February. The late autumn / early winter minimum tends to exhibit more extreme differentials between maximum and minimum, with the lowest variation dropping precipitously from November to December. The extremes can be between minus 10–15 °C in January and February, and the extreme winter maximum at 15 to 20 °C (59 to 68 °F) in the same months. In the winter months (December–March), Sheffield has 67 days of ground frost.[38]

July and August are the warmest months, with mean daily maximum temperatures ranging from about 21 °C (70 °F) in South Yorkshire to less than 16 °C (61 °F) in the higher Pennines. Maximum temperatures are normally 2 or 3 hours after midday. Extreme maximum temperatures can occur in July or August, but are less common in NE England than areas further south. However, one example was the August 1990 heat wave, when temperatures of 33 °C (91 °F) occurred widely.

Climate data for Sheffield
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.3
(43)
6.5
(44)
9.0
(48)
12.0
(54)
15.8
(60)
18.8
(66)
20.5
(69)
20.1
(68)
17.3
(63)
13.4
(56)
9.0
(48)
6.8
(44)
12.8
(55)
Average low °C (°F) 1.4
(35)
1.3
(34)
2.5
(37)
4.1
(39)
6.9
(44)
9.8
(50)
11.8
(53)
11.7
(53)
9.8
(50)
7.1
(45)
3.9
(39)
2.2
(36)
5.9
(43)
Precipitation mm (inches) 81.5
(3.21)
64.3
(2.53)
64.8
(2.55)
60.9
(2.4)
59.2
(2.33)
65.9
(2.59)
58.8
(2.31)
68.6
(2.7)
66.0
(2.6)
74.2
(2.92)
76.6
(3.02)
86.3
(3.4)
813.4
(32.02)
Sunshine hours 48 52 108 125 178 175 200 180 125 90 50 20 1,351
Source: [39] 2009-17-02

Carbon footprint and climate change action

In collaboration with the Stockholm Environment Institute, Sheffield developed a carbon footprint (based on 2004/05 consumption figures) of 5,798,361 tonnes per year. This compares to the UK's total carbon footprint of 698,568,010 tonnes per year. The factors with the greatest impact are housing (34%), transportation (25%), consumer (11%), private services (9%), public services (8%), food (8%), and capital investment (5%).[40]

The Weston Weather station, established in 1882 and one of the longest running stations in Great Britain, has recorded weather for more than 125 years, and research reveals that Sheffield's climate is now changing faster than it has at any time during this period.[41] In 2007, Museums Sheffield (formerly the Sheffield Galleries and Museums Trust) began to promote "weather education" and community involvement in global climate change initiatives through its Whatever the Weather community programme—a collaboration between the trust, the Museum of Croydon and Tyne and Wear Museums.[42][43] From April to August 2007, a Whatever the Weather exhibition displayed at Weston Park Museum. Through a combination of educational events, community town meetings, and a smaller version of the exhibit that toured community festivals, the Whatever the Weather programme developed and promoted a variety of action awareness programs to help Sheffield residents respond to and cope with climate change. The exhibition, learning and community programs received funding from both the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) through the Climate Challenge Fund and the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF). The exhibition went on to show in Croydon and Sunderland.[42] Sheffield City Council has signed up to the 10:10 campaign.[citation needed]

Subdivisions

Sheffield Compared[44][45]
UK Census 2001 Sheffield South Yorkshire England
Total population 513,234 1,266,338 49,138,831
Foreign born 6.4% 8.9% 9.2%
White 91% 95% 91%
Asian 4.6% 2.6% 4.6%
Black 1.8% 0.9% 2.3%
Christian 69% 75% 72%
Muslim 4.6% 2.5% 3.1%
Hindu 0.3% 0.2% 1.1%
No religion 18% 14% 15%
Over 75 years old 8.0% 7.6% 7.5%
Unemployed 4.2% 4.1% 3.3%

Sheffield is made up of numerous suburbs and neighbourhoods, many of which developed from villages or hamlets that were absorbed into Sheffield as the city grew.[3] These historical areas are largely ignored by the modern administrative and political divisions of the city; instead it is divided into 28 electoral wards, with each ward generally covering 4–6 areas.[46] The electoral wards are grouped into six parliamentary constituencies, although this will be reduced to five at the 2010 election as one constituency, Hillsborough, will be abolished and its area redistributed among three other constituencies.[26] Sheffield is largely unparished, but Bradfield and Ecclesfield have parish councils, and Stocksbridge has a town council.[47]

Demographics

The United Kingdom Census 2001 reported a resident population for Sheffield of 513,234, a 1.9% decline from the 1991 census.[45] The city is part of the wider Sheffield Urban Area, which had a population of 640,720.[48] The racial composition of Sheffield's population was 91.2% White, 4.6% Asian, 1.8% Black, and 1.6% Mixed. In terms of religion, 68.6% of the population are Christian and 4.6% Muslim. Other religions represent less than 1% each. The number of people without a religion is above the national average at 17.9%, with 7.8% not stating their religion.[49] The largest quinary group is 20- to 24-year-olds (9.4%), mainly because of the large university student population.[50]

People from Sheffield are colloquially known to people in the surrounding towns of Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham, and Chesterfield as "dee-dars", which derives from the traditional pronunciation of the "th" in the dialectal words "thee" and "thou", still used, especially by older people, in South Yorkshire.[51] Many Yorkshire dialect words and aspects of pronunciation derive from old Norse[52] due to the Viking influence in this region.

Population change

The population of Sheffield peaked in 1951 at 577,050, and has since declined steadily. However, the mid-2007 population estimate was 530,300—representing an increase of about 17,000 residents since 2001.[53] The table below shows the population of Sheffield within its borders at that time.

Year 1801 1851 1901 1921 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
Population 60,095 161,475 451,195 543,336 569,884 577,050 574,915 572,794 530,844 528,708 513,234
Source: A Vision of Britain through Time[54]

"the largest village in England"

Although a city, Sheffield is widely informally known as "the largest village in England".[55][56][57] This nickname results from a confluence of topographical and demographic factors. It is the largest city in the U.K. that does not form the basis of a conurbation,[58] and is relatively geographically isolated, being cut off from other places by a ring of hills.[58][59] (Local folklore insists that, like Rome, Sheffield was built "on seven hills".[59]) The land surrounding Sheffield was unsuitable for industrial use,[55] and now includes several protected green belt areas.[60] These have served to restrict urban spread.[60] That topographical isolation and enclosure combines with a relatively stable population size and a low degree of mobility, yielding the "largest village in England" description.[55]

In 1956, Hunt stated that "Modern Sheffield, a flourishing industrial city with over half a million inhabitants and a world-wide reputation, still retains many of the essential characteristics of the small market town of about five thousand people from which it has grown in the space of two and a half centuries.". A 1970 survey has supported Hunt's characterization, with more Sheffield residents able to identify a "home area" within the city than people from other large county boroughs were, and greatly more Sheffield residents expressing an unwillingness to leave their city than people from other large county boroughs did. This latter unwillingness was noted, by the survey analysis, as far more characteristic of the response that would be obtained by surveying a "a small urban or rural authority rather than a large county borough".[55]

Sidney Pollard's analysis of the 1851 Census data caused him to describe Sheffield as "the most proletarian city in England" at the time, it having more people per 100,000 employed in manufacturing occupations (187.6 for Sheffield, as compared to 146.1 for Leeds) and fewer people per 100,000 employed in professional occupations (41 for Sheffield, as compared to 65.8 for Birmingham, and 43.1 for Leeds). He attributed this to the cutlery trade in the city, which was organized not on polarized Capital-versus-Labour lines, but as a complex network of contracts between cutlery workshops, craftsmen, and merchants, whose positive influence on community cohesion and equality lasted through the rise of the steel industry in the city later in the 19th century. Even by 1981, social polarization (as defined by the Census and Registrar-General) in Sheffield was far lower than in many other cities, with only 4.1% of the population having professional occupations, as opposed to 62.1% classified as skilled or unskilled manual labourers.[59]

Economy

Labour profile[61]
Total employee jobs 255,700
Full-time 168,000 65.7%
Part-time 87,700 34.3%
Manufacturing 31,800 12.4%
Construction 8,500 3.3%
Services 214,900 84.1%
Distribution, hotels & restaurants 58,800 23.0%
Transport & communications 14,200 5.5%
Finance, IT, other business activities 51,800 20.2%
Public admin, education & health 77,500 30.3%
Other services 12,700 5.0%
Tourism-related 18,400 7.2%

After many years of decline, the Sheffield economy is going through a strong revival. The 2004 Barclays Bank Financial Planning study[62] revealed that, in 2003, the Sheffield district of Hallam was the highest ranking area outside London for overall wealth, the proportion of people earning over £60,000 a year standing at almost 12%. A survey by Knight Frank[63] revealed that Sheffield was the fastest-growing city outside London for office and residential space and rents during the second half of 2004. Some £250 million was also invested in the city during 2005.

St Pauls Tower, a new, mixed use development which forms part of the St Pauls Place development. On the left of the picture is the new Q Park (Car Park), in the centre is the St Pauls tower itself and on the right is the Stoddard Building which belongs to the Sheffield Hallam University. At the bottom of the picture is Arundel Gate, the road passing through this area.
St Paul's Tower, under construction, 2009.

This can be seen by the current surge of redevelopments, including the City Lofts Tower and accompanying St Paul's Place, Velocity Living, and the Moor redevelopment,[64] the forthcoming NRQ and the recently completed Winter Gardens, Peace Gardens, Millennium Galleries, and many projects under the Sheffield One redevelopment agency. In 2006 the Sheffield economy was worth £8.7 billion (2006 GVA).[65]

The "UK Cities Monitor 2008" placed Sheffield among the top ten "best cities to locate a business today", the city occupying 3rd and 4th places respectively for best office location and best new call centre location. The same report places Sheffield in 3rd place regarding "greenest reputation" and 2nd in terms of the availability of financial incentives.[66]

Sheffield has an international reputation for metallurgy and steel-making.[67] Many innovations in these fields have been made in Sheffield, for example Benjamin Huntsman discovered the crucible technique in the 1740s at his workshop in Handsworth.[68] This process was rendered obsolete in 1856 by Henry Bessemer's invention of the Bessemer converter. Thomas Boulsover invented Sheffield Plate (silver-plated copper) in the early 18th century. Stainless steel was invented by Harry Brearley in 1912,[69] and the work of F. B. Pickering and T. Gladman throughout the 1960s, '70s, and '80s was fundamental to the development of modern high-strength low-alloy steels.[70] Further innovations continue, with new advanced manufacturing technologies and techniques being developed on the Advanced Manufacturing Park by Sheffield's universities and other independent research organisations.[71] Organisations located on the AMP include the Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC, a research partnership between the Boeing Company and the University of Sheffield), Castings Technology International (Cti) and TWI (The Welding Institute).[72]

While iron and steel have long been the main industries of Sheffield, coal mining has also been a major industry, particularly in the outlying areas, and the Palace of Westminster in London was built using limestone from quarries in the nearby village of Anston. Other areas of employment include call centres, the City Council, universities and hospitals.[61]

A city street lined with commercial buildings. There are tram tracks and a tram approaching in the middle distance.
High Street, Central Sheffield

Sheffield is a major retail centre, and is home to many High Street and department stores as well as designer boutiques.[73] The main shopping areas in the city centre are on The Moor precinct, Fargate, Orchard Square and the Devonshire Quarter. Department stores in the city centre include John Lewis, Marks and Spencer, Atkinsons, Castle House Co-op and Debenhams. Sheffield's main market is the Castle Market, built above the remains of the castle. Shopping areas outside the city centre include the Meadowhall shopping centre and retail park, Ecclesall Road, London Road, Hillsborough and the Crystal Peaks shopping centre.

Sheffield has a District Energy system that exploits the city's domestic waste, by incinerating it and converting the energy from it to electricity. It also provides hot water, which is distributed through over 25 miles (40 km) of pipes under the city, via two networks. These networks supply heat and hot water for many buildings throughout the city. These include not only cinemas, hospitals, shops, and offices but also universities (Sheffield Hallam University and the University of Sheffield), and residential properties.[74] Energy generated in a waste plant produces 60 MW of thermal energy and up to 19 MW electrical energy from 225,000 tonnes of waste.[75]

In a 2008 survey on spending potential, Meadowhall came 12th while Sheffield city centre came 28th.[76] In a 2004 survey on the top retail destinations, Meadowhall was 20th while Sheffield was 35th.[77]

Transport

National and international travel

Sheffield is linked into the national motorway network via the M1 and M18 motorways.[78] The M1 skirts the north-east of the city, linking Sheffield with London to the south and Leeds to the north, and crosses Tinsley Viaduct near Rotherham; the M18 branches from the M1 close to Sheffield, linking the city with Doncaster, Robin Hood Doncaster Sheffield Airport, and the Humber ports. The Sheffield Parkway connects the city centre with the motorways.

Major railway routes through Sheffield railway station include the Midland Main Line, which links the city to London via the East Midlands, the Cross Country Route which links the East of Scotland and Northeast of England with the West Midlands and the Southwest, and the lines linking Liverpool and Manchester with Hull and East Anglia.[79] Train operating companies serving Sheffield are provided by East Midlands Trains, Cross Country Trains, First TransPennine Express, and Northern Rail.[80]

Sheffield is also served by a number of coach services. National Express Coaches provides most services, using Sheffield Interchange, Meadowhall Interchange and Meadowhead Bus stop as pick up/drop off points. Sheffield Interchange handles most services and is the start point/terminus for a number of them.[81][82][83]

The Sheffield and South Yorkshire Navigation (S&SY) is a system of navigable inland waterways (canals and canalised rivers) in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire.[84] Chiefly based on the River Don, it runs for a length of 43 miles (69 km) and has 29 locks. It connects Sheffield, Rotherham, and Doncaster with the River Trent at Keadby and (via the New Junction Canal) the Aire and Calder Navigation.[85]

The closest international airport to Sheffield is Doncaster Sheffield Airport, which is located 18 miles (29 km) from the city centre. The airport opened on 28 April 2005 and is served mainly by budget airlines. It handles about one million passengers a year.[86] Leeds Bradford International Airport and East Midlands Airport: Nottingham, Leicester, Derby lie within one hour's drive of the city, and Manchester Airport is connected to Sheffield by a direct train every hour.[87]

Local travel

Arundel Gate, an ex-dual carriageway that now hosts numerous new bus stops. At the top of the image is the Conran/St Pauls Tower, below which there is the Crucible theatre which hosts the World Snooker Championships and is currently under refurbishment. Beneath this is the Arundel Gate Mini Interchange, which is the hub for all bus services operating on this busy road.
The new Arundel Gate Mini Interchange

The A57 and A61 roads are the major trunk roads through Sheffield.[78] These run east–west and north–south respectively, crossing in the city centre, from where the other major roads generally radiate spoke-like. An inner ring road, mostly constructed in the 1970s and extended in 2007 to form a complete ring,[88] allows traffic to avoid the city centre, and an outer ring road runs to the east, south-east and north, nearer the edge of the city, but does not serve the western side of Sheffield.[78]

Sheffield does not have as extensive a suburban and inter-urban railway network as other comparable British cities.[89] However, there are several local rail routes running along the city's valleys and beyond, connecting it with other parts of South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire and Derbyshire. These local routes include the Penistone Line, the Dearne Valley Line, the Hope Valley Line, and the Hallam Line. As well as the main stations of Sheffield and Meadowhall, there are four suburban stations, at Chapeltown, Darnall, Woodhouse, and Dore.[90]

A Sheffield Supertram in current blue, orange and red Stagecoach livery. The tram shown is crossing Park Square bridge and Fitzalan Square and Castle Square can be seen in background, as can tram tracks and numerous commercial buildings.
A Sheffield Supertram

A popular light rail system, currently operated by Stagecoach Supertram opened in 1994. It's network consists of three lines, from Halfway to Malin Bridge, from Meadowhall to Middlewood, and from Meadowhall to Herdings Park, with all three lines running via the city centre.[91]

Sheffield's local bus infrastructure has its main hub at Sheffield Interchange. Other bus stations lie at Halfway, Hillsborough and Meadowhall. A flurry of new operators were created after deregulation in 1986,[92] though a series of mergers has reduced the number. First South Yorkshire, part of FirstGroup, became by far the largest bus operator and in recent years implemented a series of fare rises and service cuts which saw bus ridership drop.[93][94] Recent developments have seen Stagecoach Sheffield taking over Yorkshire Terrier, Andrews and parent company Yorkshire Traction, thus forming one company and in the process expanding their bus services in the city. This has resulted in increased competition, and price drops on certain routes.[95] A zero-fare bus service—the FreeBee—operates on a circular route around the city centre from the Sheffield Interchange.[96]

In 2008, the Bus Rapid Transit Scheme between Sheffield and Rotherham was approved by the Yorkshire and Humber Assembly's Regional Transport Board. There are plans for two routes; one (the Northern route) via Meadowhall and Templeborough, and the other via the developing employment centre and Waverley.[97]

Although hilly, Sheffield is compact and has few major trunk roads running through it. It is on the Trans-Pennine Trail, a National Cycle Network route running from Southport in the north-west to Hornsea in the East Riding.[98]

Sport

Old, faded, photograph showing 15 gentlemen posing seated on some steps at the front of a building
Sheffield F.C. in 1890

Sheffield has a long sporting heritage. In 1857 a collective of cricketers formed the world's first-ever official football club, Sheffield F.C.,[99] and by 1860 there were 15 football clubs in Sheffield, with the first ever amateur league and cup competitions taking place in the city.[100] There are now three professional clubs in the Football League: Sheffield United, Sheffield Wednesday and Rotherham United. The two Sheffield clubs were formed from cricket clubs and play in the Football League Championship; Rotherham, who play in Football League Two, have recently moved to play at Sheffield's Don Valley Stadium for the next 3–4 years following a dispute with their previous landlord at their traditional home ground of Millmoor, Rotherham. There are also two major non-league sides: Sheffield F.C. and Hallam F.C., which also formed from cricket clubs, although Sheffield F.C. now play just outside the city in nearby Dronfield. These are the two oldest club sides in the world and, in addition, Hallam F.C. still play at the world's oldest football ground near the suburb of Crosspool. Sheffield and Hallam contest what has become known as the Sheffield derby, whilst United and Wednesday contest the Steel City derby.

Interior of a sports stadium. There is a running track surrounding a central grassed area. In the distance there are stands full of people
Don Valley Stadium during the World Student Games in 1991

Many of Sheffield's sporting facilities were built for the World Student Games, which the city hosted in 1991. They include the Don Valley International Athletics Stadium, the largest athletics stadium in the UK with a capacity of 25,000,[101] Sheffield Arena, and the Ponds Forge international diving and swimming complex.

An Ice Hockey layout at the Sheffield Arena
Ice Hockey at Sheffield Arena

There are also facilities for golf, climbing, and bowling, as well as a newly inaugurated (2003) national ice-skating arena (IceSheffield). The Sheffield Ski Village is the largest artificial ski resort in Europe.[102] The city also has three indoor climbing centres. Sheffield was the UK's first National City of Sport and is now home to the English Institute of Sport (EIS).[103]

Sheffield also has close ties with snooker, with the city's Crucible Theatre being the venue for the World Snooker Championships.[104] The English squash open is also held in the city every year. The International Open and World Matchplay Championship bowls tournaments have both been held at Ponds Forge.[105] The city also hosts the Sheffield Eagles rugby league, Sheffield Tigers rugby union, Sheffield Sharks basketball, Sheffield University Bankers hockey, Sheffield Steelers ice hockey and Sheffield Tigers speedway teams.

English 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cup bid

Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield
Hillsborough Stadium, proposed World Cup venue

Sheffield was selected as a candidate host city by the English Football Association (FA) as part of the English 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cup bid on 16 December 2009.[106] Hillsborough Stadium was chosen as the proposed venue for matches in Sheffield.[107]

Culture and attractions

Music

Sheffield City Hall, a Neo-classical design with a large portico and prominent pillars which were damaged when a bomb fell on the ajoining Barkers Pool during World War II. It is a grade II* listed building
Sheffield City Hall

Sheffield has been the home of several well-known bands and musicians, with an unusually large number of synth pop and other electronic outfits originating from the city.[108] These include The Human League, Heaven 17, ABC, and the more industrially inclined Cabaret Voltaire. This electronic tradition has continued: techno label Warp Records was a central pillar of the Yorkshire Bleeps and Bass scene of the early 1990s, and has gone on to become one of Britain's oldest and best-loved dance music labels. There was a thriving goa trance scene in the early 1990s. More recently, other popular genres of electronic music such as bassline house have originated in the city.[109] Sheffield is home to a number of high-profile nightclubs—Gatecrasher One was one of the most popular nightclubs in the north of England until its destruction by fire on 18 June 2007.[110]

Sheffield Arena

Artists such as Pulp, Def Leppard, Joe Cocker, Richard Hawley, The Longpigs, Milburn, Moloko, and Bring Me the Horizon, along with many other popular and alternative musicians, were born in Sheffield. Recently several indie bands, including Arctic Monkeys and The Long Blondes, have emerged from the city as part of what the NME dubbed the New Yorkshire movement.[111]

In 1999, the National Centre for Popular Music, a museum dedicated to the subject of popular music, was opened in the city.[112] It was not as successful as was hoped, however, and later evolved to become a live music venue; then in February 2005, the unusual steel-covered building became the students' union for Sheffield Hallam University.[113] Live music venues in the city include the Harley Hotel, Leadmill, West Street Live, the Boardwalk, Dove & Rainbow, The Casbah, The Cremorne, Corporation, New Barrack Tavern, The Runaway Girl, the City Hall, the University of Sheffield, the Studio Theatre at the Crucible Theatre, the O2 Academy Sheffield, and The Grapes.[114][115][116][117][118][119]

Sheffield is home to several local orchestras and choirs, such as the Sheffield Symphony Orchestra, the Sheffield Philharmonic Orchestra, the City of Sheffield Youth Orchestra, and the Sheffield Philharmonic Chorus.[120][121][122][123]

Sheffield now hosts a number of major festivals, most notably the Grin Up North Sheffield Comedy Festival.[124]

Attractions

Side of city square with two theatre buildings. One is low and modern with tables and chairs outside it, the other is tall and decorative, there is a small dome atop its corner crowned with a statue
The Lyceum and Crucible Theatres

Sheffield has two large theatres, the Lyceum Theatre and the Crucible Theatre, which together with the smaller Studio Theatre make up the largest theatre complex outside London.[125] There are four major art galleries, including the Millennium Galleries, which hosts the collection of the Guild of St George founded by John Ruskin, and visiting exhibitions from the Victoria and Albert Museum and Tate collections.[126] The Sheffield Walk of Fame in the City Centre honours famous Sheffield residents past and present in a similar way to the Hollywood version.[127]

Interior of a glasshouse. The structure of the building consists of large curved wooden beams. There are many plants, including palm trees
Sheffield Winter Gardens

The city also has a number of other attractions such as the Sheffield Winter Garden and the Peace Gardens. The Botanical Gardens recently underwent a £7 million restoration.[128] There is also a city farm at Heeley City Farm and a second animal collection in Graves Park that is open to the public.[129][130] The city also has several museums, including the Weston Park Museum, the Kelham Island Museum, the Sheffield Fire and Police Museum, Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet, and Shepherd Wheel.

There are about 1,100 listed buildings in Sheffield (including the whole of the Sheffield postal district).[131] Of these, only five are Grade I listed. Fifty-nine are Grade II*, but the overwhelming majority are listed as Grade II.[132] Compared to other English cities, Sheffield has few buildoing with the highest Grade I listing—Liverpool, for example, has 26 Grade I listed buildings. This situation led the noted architecture historian Nikolaus Pevsner, writing in 1959, to comment that the city was "architecturally a miserable disappointment", with no pre-19th century buildings of any distinction.[133] By contrast, in November 2007, Sheffield's Peace and Winter Gardens beat London's South Bank to gain the Royal Institute of British Architects' Academy of Urbanism "Great Place" Award, as an "outstanding example of how cities can be improved, to make urban spaces as attractive and accessible as possible".[134]

Sheffield has many parks, including Millhouses Park, Endcliffe Park and Graves Park, the latter of which is the largest in the city.[135][136][137]

Valley Centertainment is a leisure and entertainment complex in the Don Valley. It was built on land previously occupied by steel mills near what is now Meadowhall and the Sheffield Arena. It is home to several restaurants, bars, a cinema multiplex, and a bowling alley.[138]

Media and film

Grey skyscraper with a glass curtain wall. Some of the windows have had coloured blinds added to make a mosaic-like picture of a flower

Sheffield has two commercial newspapers, The Star and Sheffield Telegraph, both published by Johnston Press PLC. The Star has been published daily since 1897; the Sheffield Telegraph, now a weekly publication, originated in 1855.[139]

Five local radio stations broadcast in the city. The professional services are BBC Radio Sheffield, the independent Hallam FM, and its sister station Magic AM. Sheffield is also home to two FM licensed community radio stations: Sheffield Live 93.2, and Burngreave Community Radio on 103.1.

HBS Radio (Hospital Broadcasting Sheffield) broadcasts a 24hr service to the Royal Hallamshire, Jessop Wing, Northern General and Weston Park Hospitals. HBS is operated by volunteers from studios at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital and is provided free to bedside terminals via Hospedia and on medium wave 1431am from a transmitter at the Northern General Hospital.

The films and plays The Full Monty, Threads, Looks and Smiles, When Saturday Comes, Whatever Happened to Harold Smith? and The History Boys are set in the city.[140] F.I.S.T. also included several scenes filmed in Sheffield. The documentary festival Sheffield Doc/Fest has been run annually since 1994 at the Showroom Cinema,[141] and in 2007 Sheffield hosted the Awards of the International Indian Film Academy.[142]

Education

Sheffield has two universities, the University of Sheffield and Sheffield Hallam University. The two combined bring about 54,000 students to the city every year.[143][144] Sheffield has two further education colleges, The Sheffield College and Longley Park Sixth Form College. The Sheffield College is organised on a federal basis and was originally created from the merger of six colleges around the city, since reduced to just four: Sheffield City (formerly Castle)[145] near the city centre, Hillsborough, serving the north of the city and Norton and Peaks to the south.

There are also 137 primary schools, 25 secondary schools—of which 7 have sixth forms—and a sixth-form college, Longley Park Sixth Form College.[146] The city's five independent private schools include Birkdale School and the Sheffield High School for Girls.[147]

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ The mid-2007 population estimate for the City of Sheffield was 530,300 according to the Office for National Statistics. This figure includes the whole area included in the city. Some population figures, for example those given at List of English cities by population use just the urban core of the city and are therefore lower.
  2. ^ Pike, Alistair W.G.; Gilmour, Mabs; Pettitt, Paul; Jacobid, Roger; Ripoll, Sergio; Bahn, Paul; Muñoz, Francisco (2005). "Verification of the age of the Palaeolithic cave art at Creswell Crags, UK". Journal of Archaeological Science 32 (11): 1649–1655. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2005.05.002. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Vickers, J. Edward (1999). Old Sheffield Town. An Historical Miscellany (2nd ed.). Sheffield: The Hallamshire Press Limited. ISBN 1-874718-44-X. 
  4. ^ In an entry dated 827 the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states "Egbert led an army against the Northumbrians as far as Dore, where they met him, and offered terms of obedience and subjection, on the acceptance of which they returned home" (transcription). Most sources (for example Vickers, Old Sheffield Town) state that the date given in the chronicle is incorrect, and that 829 is the more likely date for this event.
  5. ^ Hunter, Joseph (1819). "Sheffield under De Busli and De Lovetot". Hallamshire: The History and Topography of the Parish of Sheffield in the County of York. London: Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mayor, and Jones. pp. 24–29. 
  6. ^ "Markets history - 1700's and before". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/business-economy/markets/history-and-visits/history-of-the-markets-in-sheffield/markets-history---1700s-and-before. Retrieved 7 October 2008. 
  7. ^ Geoffrey Chaucer in The Reeve’s Tale from his book The Canterbury Tales wrote: "Ther was no man, for peril, dorste hym touche. A Sheffeld thwitel baar he in his hose. Round was his face, and camus was his nose"
  8. ^ Hey, David (1997). "The Establishment of the Cutlers Company". in Clyde Binfield & David Hey. Mesters to Masters: a History of the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire. Oxford University Press. pp. 12–25. ISBN 0198289979. 
  9. ^ Leader, John Daniel (1880). Mary queen of Scots in captivity: a narrative of events from January 1569, to December, 1584, whilst George Earl of Shrewsbury was the guardian of the Scottish Queen. Sheffield: Leader & Sons. OCLC 57701910. 
  10. ^ Tweedale, Geoffrey (1986). "Metallurgy and Technological Change: A Case Study of Sheffield Specialty Steel and America, 1830–1930". Technology and Culture (The Johns Hopkins University Press on behalf of the Society for the History of Technology) 27 (2): 189–222. 
  11. ^ Phillips, Helen L. (2004). "Boulsover, Thomas (1705–1788)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/53918. 
  12. ^ Southall, Aidan William (2000). "The transformation of the city: from the Feudal to the Capitalist mode of production, and on to the apocalypse". The city in time and space. Cambridge University Press. pp. 306–419. ISBN 0521784328. 
  13. ^ "History of the Lord Mayor". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/your-city-council/lord-mayor/history-of-lord-mayor. Retrieved 19 September 2007. 
  14. ^ Harrison, Samuel (1864). A complete history of the great flood at Sheffield on March 11 & 12, 1864. S. Harrison. OCLC 2905832. 
  15. ^ Orwell, George (1937). "Chapter 7". The Road to Wigan Pier. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd. 
  16. ^ Walton, Mary; Lamb, Joseph Percy (1980). Raiders over Sheffield: the story of the air raids of 12th & 15th December 1940. Sheffield: Sheffield City Libraries. ISBN 0900660554. OCLC 7273086. 
  17. ^ Taylor, Ian R.; Evans, Karen & Fraser, Penny (1996). "The catastrophic decline of Sheffield's industrial district". A tale of two cities: global change, local feeling and everyday life in the North of England : a study in Manchester and Sheffield. Taylor & Francis. pp. 63–72. ISBN 0415138299. 
  18. ^ "SI (Chris Knight, Keith Tyssen and Brett Payne) with Keiko Mukaide 'Cutting Edge', 2006". Public Art Research Archive, Sheffield Hallam University. http://public-art.shu.ac.uk/sheffield/kni420.html. Retrieved 15 March 2007. 
  19. ^ "Elections '08: Sheffield results". The Star (Johnston Press Digital Publishing). 2 May 2008. http://www.thestar.co.uk/headlines/ELECTIONS-3908-Sheffield-results.4046448.jp. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 
  20. ^ "Lib Dems take power in Sheffield". BBC News Online (BBC). 2 May 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/south_yorkshire/7378924.stm. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 
  21. ^ "The Lord Mayor". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/your-city-council/lord-mayor/current-lord-mayor. Retrieved 19 September 2007. 
  22. ^ Price, David (2008). "Blunkett and the Socialist Republic of South Yorkshire". Sheffield Troublemakers: Rebels and Radicals in Sheffield History. Chichester: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. pp. 149–160. ISBN 978-1-86077-569-7. 
  23. ^ Harston, Jonathan G. (2005). "Sheffield City Council Members: 1974–2004". mdfs.net. Jonathan G. Harston. http://mdfs.net/Docs/Sheffield/Members/1974.htm. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 
  24. ^ "Introducing Museums Sheffield". Museums Sheffield website. Sheffield Galleries & Museums Trust. http://www.museums-sheffield.org.uk/coresite/html/background.asp. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 
  25. ^ "The Story of the Trust". Sheffield Industrial Museums Trust website. Sheffield Industrial Museums Trust. http://www.simt.co.uk/trust/trust-2.html. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 
  26. ^ a b "Boundary changes threaten Labour women". The Guardian. 7 December 2006. http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2006/dec/07/labour.uk. Retrieved 7 October 2008. 
  27. ^ "International Links". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/international-links. Retrieved 7 October 2008. 
  28. ^ "Polish club shuts its doors after 50 years". The Sheffield Telegraph (Johnston Press Digital Publishing). 15 February 2008. http://www.sheffieldtelegraph.co.uk/news/Polish-club-shuts-its-doors.3781854.jp. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 
  29. ^ Harston, Jonathan G. (2005). "The borders of Sheffield from 1843 to 1994". http://mdfs.net/Docs/Sheffield/Borders/. Retrieved 26 December 2005. 
  30. ^ "Case Study - Sheffield, UK". Greenstructures and Urban Planning. European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research. http://web.archive.org/web/20071229084359/http://www.map21ltd.com/COSTC11/sheffield-case.htm. Retrieved 26 September 2005. 
  31. ^ It is often stated that Sheffield is built on seven hills (for an example, see George Orwell's The Road to Wigan Pier). However, a study by J.G.Harston found there to be eight.
  32. ^ Beer, A. R. (2000). "Sheffield Metropolitan District - Major Greenspace and other Land Use Statistics". Greenstructure and Greenspace in Urban Planning. Map21 Lrd.. http://web.archive.org/web/20080104062412/http://www.map21ltd.com/COSTC11/arb-sheff.htm. Retrieved 19 July 2009. 
  33. ^ "Trees & Woodlands in Sheffield". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/parks-woodlands--countryside/trees--woodlands. Retrieved 11 August 2006. 
  34. ^ Barbosa O, Tratalos J, Armsworth, PR, Davies RG, Fuller RA, Johnson P, Gaston KJ (2007). "Who benefits from access to green space? A case study from Sheffield, UK.". Landscape and Urban Planning 83: 187–195. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.04.004
  35. ^ "About Us - Trees & Woodlands Section". Sheffield City Council website. Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/parks-woodlands--countryside/trees--woodlands/about-the-trees--woodlands-section. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 
  36. ^ "New village officer will boost rural communities". Peak District National Park Authority. 22 June 2009. http://www.peakdistrict.gov.uk/index/news/news-display-page.htm?id=19530. Retrieved 7 August 2009. 
  37. ^ "Gardens and Open Spaces". Sheffield City Council website. Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/tourist-information/visitor-attractions/green-spaces-gardens. Retrieved 2009-09-28. 
  38. ^ "North East England: climate". Met Office. http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/ne/. Retrieved 16 September 2009. 
  39. ^ "Sheffield 1955-2000 averages". Sheffieldweather.co.uk. http://sheffieldweather.co.uk/html/averages_1955_onwards.html. Retrieved 17 February 2009. 
  40. ^ "Sheffield's Carbon Footprint". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/environment/climate-change. Retrieved 16 September 2009. 
  41. ^ Boon, Gaynor (2008). "Is Sheffield’s weather changing?: Some recent trends in the weather". Museums Sheffield. http://www.museums-sheffield.org.uk/coresite/html/climate_change.asp. Retrieved 16 September 2009. 
  42. ^ a b "Whatever the Weather". Museums Sheffield. http://www.museums-sheffield.org.uk/coresite/html/climate_change.asp. Retrieved 16 September 2009. 
  43. ^ "Whatever the Weather" (Microsoft Word document). Museum of Croydon. http://www.museumofcroydon.com/asset_arena/textual/ck/croydon_wtw_teachers_pack.doc. Retrieved 14 September 2009. 
  44. ^ United Kingdom Census 2001 (2001). "South Yorkshire (Met County)". statistics.gov.uk. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/profiles/2C-A.asp. Retrieved 11 July 2007. 
  45. ^ a b United Kingdom Census 2001 (2001). "Sheffield (Local Authority)". neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadAreaSearch.do?a=7&c=&i=1001&m=0&enc=1&areaSearchText=sheffield&areaSearchType=13&extendedList=true&searchAreas=Search. Retrieved 11 July 2007. 
  46. ^ "Sheffield's Ward Boundaries". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/your-city-council/elections/ward-boundaries. Retrieved 29 December 2005. 
  47. ^ "Types of Elections". Sheffield City Council website. Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/your-city-council/elections/types-of-elections. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 
  48. ^ "Usual Resident population: Census 2001, Key statistics for urban areas". ONS. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/StatBase/Expodata/Spreadsheets/D8271.xls. 
  49. ^ "Sheffield". Census 2001. Office for National Statistics. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/profiles/00cg.asp. Retrieved 21 December 2005. 
  50. ^ "Mid-2005 Population Estimates; Quinary age groups and sex for Primary Care Organisations (PCOs) for England; estimated resident population (experimental). On boundaries as at 1 October 2006". National Statistics. Office for National Statistics. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/StatBase/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=9585&Pos=&ColRank=1&Rank=128. Retrieved 2 April 2007. 
  51. ^ Alexander, Don (2001). Orreight Mi Ol': observations on dialect, humour and local lore of Sheffield & District. Sheffield: Northern Map Distributors. ISBN 1-901587-18-5.  It had largely died out by the time of the Survey of English Dialects.
  52. ^ "Yorkshire Dialect Words of Old Norse Origin". The Vikings. The Viking Network. http://www.viking.no/e/england/e-yorkshire_norse.htm. Retrieved 5 January 2005. 
  53. ^ "Population estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland". National Statistics Online. Office for National Statistics. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/Product.asp?vlnk=15106. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 
  54. ^ "Sheffield District: Total Population". A Vision of Britain Through Time. Great Britain Historical GIS Project. http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/data_cube_page.jsp?data_theme=T_POP&data_cube=N_TOT_POP&u_id=10076882&c_id=10001043&add=N. Retrieved 16 August 2009. 
  55. ^ a b c d John Baldwin, A. E. Bottoms, and Monica A. Walker (1976). The urban criminal: a study in Sheffield. Social science paperbacks. 159. Taylor & Francis. pp. 47. ISBN 0422748706. 
  56. ^ Clyde Binfield, ed (1993). The History of the City of Sheffield, 1843–1993: Society. 2. Sheffield Academic Press. pp. 5. ISBN 1850754314. 
  57. ^ Jacqueline Lesley Burgoyne and David Clark (1984). Making a go of it: a study of stepfamilies in Sheffield. Routledge. pp. 45. ISBN 0710203187. 
  58. ^ a b William A. Hampton (1970). Democracy and community: a study of politics in Sheffield. Oxford University Press. pp. 28. 
  59. ^ a b c Ian R. Taylor, Karen Evans, and Penny Fraser (1996). A tale of two cities: global change, local feeling and everyday life in the North of England : a study in Manchester and Sheffield. International library of sociology. Routledge. pp. 28,87–88. ISBN 0415138280. 
  60. ^ a b Peter H. Mann (1965). An approach to urban sociology. International library of sociology and social reconstruction (2nd ed.). Taylor & Francis. pp. 91. ISBN 0710034539. 
  61. ^ a b "Labour Market Profile: Sheffield". Nomis official labour market statistics. Office for National Statistics. http://www.nomisweb.co.uk/tml/rep.aspx?template=labour_market_profile.htm&pt=486&st=-1&aKv=2038432027&aNm=Sheffield&printable=yes. Retrieved 5 April 2007.  Data is taken from the ONS annual business inquiry employee analysis and refers to 2005
  62. ^ "Wealth hotspots 'outside London'". BBC News Online (BBC). 7 July 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/3871857.stm. Retrieved 4 January 2010. 
  63. ^ "Sheffield 'hotbed' for investment". BBC News Online (BBC). 6 November 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/south_yorkshire/4314628.stm. Retrieved 4 January 2010. 
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  66. ^ UK Cities Monitor 2008. Cushman & Wakefield. 2008. 
  67. ^ There are numerous sources showing the international reputation of Sheffield for metallurgy, and in particular steel and cutlery manufacture. Some examples are: the Oxford English Dictionary, which begins its entry for Sheffield, "The name of a manufacturing city of Yorkshire, famous for cutlery"; and the Encyclopaedia Britannica, which in its entry for Sheffield states that by 1830 Sheffield had earned "recognition as the world centre of high-grade steel manufacture". David Hey in the preface to his 1997 book Mesters to Masters: A History of the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire. (Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-828997-9) states "It (Sheffield) was known for its cutlery wares long before the incorporation of the Cutlers' Company in 1624, and long before it acquired an international reputation as the steel capital of the world."
  68. ^ Mezenin, N. (1972). "Huntsman". Metallurgist (New York: Springer) 16 (7): 510–512. doi:10.1007/BF00731738. 
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  79. ^ Routes 53, 51, 29 and 49 respectively. See "Network Rail Timetable Map" (PDF). Network Rail website. Network Rail. May 2009. http://www.nationalrail.co.uk/tocs_maps/maps/trainoperators.pdf. Retrieved 7 August 2009.  (Key to routes at "List of tabel numbers and routes" (PDF). Network Rail website. Network Rail. May 2009. http://www.networkrail.co.uk/browse%20documents/eNRT/May09/List%20of%20Table%20Nos.%20and%20Routes.pdf. Retrieved 7 August 2009. )
  80. ^ "2009 Great Britain National Rail Passenger Operators" (PDF). National Rail Enquiries. ATOC Limited. June 2009. http://www.nationalrail.co.uk/tocs_maps/maps/trainoperators.pdf. Retrieved 7 August 2009. 
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  104. ^ "World Snooker to stay at Crucible". BBC Sport (BBC). 28 April 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/snooker/8022313.stm. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 
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  109. ^ Collins, Hattie (29 November 2007). "Deep down and dirty". The Guardian. http://music.guardian.co.uk/urban/story/0,,2218668,00.html. Retrieved 16 December 2007. 
  110. ^ "Nightclub collapses in city fire". BBC News Online (BBC). 18 June 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/south_yorkshire/6765331.stm. Retrieved 21 July 2009. 
  111. ^ Huhn, Mary (13 May 2007). "Pub Pals: Arctic Monkeys Take Their Sheffield Local Wherever They Go". New York Post (NYP Holdings, Inc.). http://www.nypost.com/seven/05132007/entertainment/music/pub_pals_music_mary_huhn.htm. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 
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  113. ^ "Doomed pop centre opens as union". BBC News (BBC). 13 February 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/south_yorkshire/4261863.stm. Retrieved 18 July 2009. 
  114. ^ Dunn, David (1 May 2008). "10 top music venues in Sheffield". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2008/may/01/uk.bars. Retrieved 11 August 2009. 
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  116. ^ "Corporation – Info". Corporation. http://www.corporation.org.uk/info.php. Retrieved 11 August 2009. 
  117. ^ "Venues". Sheffield Theatres. http://www.sheffieldtheatres.co.uk/index.cfm?fuseaction=content.view&SectionID=2&CategoryID=10&ContentID=2. Retrieved 11 August 2009. 
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  119. ^ "The Octagon Centre". The University of Sheffield Corporate Information and Computing Services. The University of Sheffield. http://www.shef.ac.uk/cics/octagon. Retrieved 13 August 2009. 
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  122. ^ "The Sheffield Philharmonic Orchestra Welcomes You". Sheffield Philharmonic Orchestra. http://www.sheffieldphilharmonic.org.uk/. Retrieved 11 August 2009. 
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  126. ^ "Millennium Gallery". Museums Sheffield website. Sheffield Galleries & Museums Trust. http://www.museums-sheffield.org.uk/coresite/html/millennium.asp. Retrieved 8 August 2009. 
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Coordinates: 53°23′01″N 1°28′01″W / 53.38361°N 1.46694°W / 53.38361; -1.46694


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in the north of England. It is so named because of its origins in a field on the River Sheaf that runs through the city. Historically a part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, the city has grown from its largely industrial roots to encompass a wide economic base. The population of the City of Sheffield is estimated at 530,300 people (2007 est.) people, and it is one of the eight largest English cities outside London, which form the English Core Cities Group.

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  • Ther was no man, for peril, dorste hym touche. A Sheffeld thwitel baar he in his hose. Round was his face, and camus was his nose;
  • This town of Sheffield is very populous and large, the streets narrow, and the houses dark and black, occasioned by the continued smoke of the forges, which are always at work: Here they make all sorts of cutlery-ware, but especially that of edged-tools, knives, razors, axes, &. and nails;
    • Daniel Defoe, A Tour Through the Whole Island of Great Britain, (1724).
  • Some houses are brick, some stone, and there is a fair number of pretty ones; but they are lost in such a multitude of shapeless huts and outlandish factory-buildings that Sheffield could never pass for a fine town.
    • Alexandre and François La Rochefoucauld, Diaries, translation in Norman Scarfe, Innocent Espionage: The LA Rochefoucauld Brothers' Tour of England in 1785
  • If the people of Sheffield could only receive a tenth part of what their knives sell for by retail in America, Sheffield might pave its streets with silver.
  • Generally in Sheffield the average of the comfort of the lower classes is above that of most other places; we have not yet got into the abominable way of cellars or of many families living in the same house.
    • John Parker, Parliamentary Select Committee on Public Walks: Minutes of Evidence (1833), quoted in Clyde Binfield et al, The History of the City of Sheffield 1843-1993: Volume One: Politics, (1993).
  • What a beautiful place Sheffield would be, if Sheffield were not there!
    • Walter White, A Month in Yorkshire, (1861).
  • There is no more public spirit in Sheffield than there is in the smallest village of Yorkshire.
    • Thomas Moore, Sheffield Independent, 16 April 1870, quoted in Clyde Binfield et al, The History of the City of Sheffield 1843-1993: Volume One: Politics, (1993).
  • I see a pretty state of things in your Municipality. Everything is mean, petty, and narrow in the extreme. What a contrast to Leeds!
    • Anthony John Mundella, letter of October 1871 to Robert Leader, quoted in Clyde Binfield et al, The History of the City of Sheffield 1843-1993: Volume One: Politics, (1993).
  • ...the town of Sheffield is of great antiquity, and its manufactures are of world-wide reputation, especially that of cutlery, which has been celebrated for more than 500 years.
    • Petition for city status to Queen Victoria from Sheffield Town Council, 1 February 1893.
  • The progress of Sheffield in my lifetime has been something wonderful. Why, in my young days it was a little bit of a place of no consequence and no trade. When I think of the small notions and little minds of the public men of old Sheffield I can hardly realise that the City has become the fine important flourishing place it is today, one of the largest Cities of the Empire.
    • Frederick Mappin, 1905, quoted in Sidney Pollard, A History of Labour in Sheffield, (1959).
  • It could justly claim to be called the ugliest town in the Old World: its inhabitants, who want it to be pre-eminent in everything, very likely make that claim for it … And the stench! If at rare moments you stop smelling sulphur it is because you have begun smelling gas.

COST Action C11 by European Commission

The European Commission's COST Action C11 (2004 - European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) cites, in its conclusions on "Case studies in Greenstructure Planning" involving 15 European countries. It says ...

  • Sheffield is fortunate to have one of the strongest green structures of any city in the UK. This green structure, which at its core is linked by watercourses, underlies the City. The effectiveness of the river system as the core of the green structure is supplemented by: the agricultural area, the moorland, the woodlands and water features which lie outside the built-up area. The public open spaces within the built-up area and extensive private gardens, which cover much of the surface of the City outside its core area, are also linked to this system.
  • All the features of the green structure in effect work together to make the City more environmentally sustainable: for example, together they act as a sponge to reduce flash flooding; they support a relatively high level of biodiversity, particularly because of the extent of the gardens and the existence of the natural corridors along the rivers; the valleys drain cooler air down from the hilltops towards the city centre and the industrial areas beyond, improving air quality and also temperatures in the summer in the built-up core.

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

View of Sheffield City Centre
View of Sheffield City Centre

Sheffield [1] is a city in Yorkshire in the north of England. The population is 525,800 making Sheffield one of the United Kingdom's and Europe's biggest cities. Around 1.75 million people live in the wider metropolitan area (South Yorkshire) which includes Rotherham, Barnsley, and Doncaster.

Sheffield is a major industrial, cosmopolitan and cultural city renowned for its green open spaces, creative talents, galleries, sport facilities and cutlery.

Sheffield lies in the most southerly part of Yorkshire, with Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, and Lincolnshire to the west, south, and east. The nearest well-known cities (all 1 hour away or less, by train) are Manchester (west), Leeds (north), York (north east), Hull (east), and Derby and Nottingham (south). The M1 motorway runs past Sheffield's Meadowhall Shopping Centre to the east of the city centre, the beautiful Peak District extends to within the western city boundary, and the green South Pennines area ("Last of the Summer Wine country") lies just to the north.

  • The West End Dubbed so by poet John Betjamin, The West End reaches from Glossop Road, past the University of Sheffield, up to Weston Park and the museum, and to the trendy student suburb that is Broomhill.
  • Devonshire Quarter Stylish area stuffed to bursting with boutiques and outlets, as well as pubs, bars, cafes, and restaurants. As well as the thriving Devonshire Street there is also the recently built West One complex which contains several bars, restaurants and shops.

Understand

Sheffield on and in between seven hills, and it is thanks to this landscape that Sheffield exists today. Even before the Industrial Revolution, the villages around Sheffield were established as centres of industry and commerce thanks to fast flowing rivers and streams that brought water down from the Peak District. The valleys through which these flowed were ideally suited for man-made dams that could be used to to power water mills. A walk along the Rivelin Valley from Malin Bridge tram stop or along the Porter Valley out from Endcliffe Park towards the Peak District will reveal some of these old dams.

Sheffield city centre lies where these rivers and valleys meet. The city has expanded out along the valleys and over the hills between, creating leafy neighbourhoods and suburbs within easy reach of the city centre. Each valley that stretches out from the city centre has its own character, from the densely industrial Don Valley to the north-east, to the green and cosmopolitan residential streets around the Ecclesall Road on the Porter Valley in the south-west.

Sheffield's industry really took off when the railways arrived, allowing for the mass import of raw materials and export of finished products. The crucible technique of making exceptionally high quality steel was invented here by Benjamin Huntsman in 1852, and for decades it was to give Sheffield the economic advantage over other steel producing cities. Sheffield is still the home to a number of cutlery and blade manufacturers (including Swann Morton), and Sheffield steel can be found in surgical equipment and kitchen drawers the world over.

However, the economic recession of the 1980s hit Sheffield hard, and large numbers of workers were left unemployed by the changing shape of heavy industry in Britain. The combination of the resilient spirit of Sheffield people in these bleak times made the city famous in the black comedy 'The Full Monty', which was set and filmed in and around Sheffield. Sheffield is the largest city in the county of South Yorkshire, and Sheffield residents are proud of their perceived character: South Yorkshire residents pride themselves on a warmth and hospitality that isn't found in other northern cities. Visitors to Sheffield may find this most noticeable in the affectionate terms that slip into everyday conversation. Even when making a simple purchase in a store or market, you can expect to be called 'love' at least once.

Sheffield is adapting as it becomes a more confident post-industrial city. Grand visions have routinely been proposed or initiated by the city or county councils, and European funding has been used on a number of public infrastructure projects that have shaped the city. This is nothing new, however, since many would argue that post-war town planners did more damage to the face of Sheffield than the Luftwaffe did during the heavy nights of World War II aerial bombing. Bold housing projects such as the world famous (and now listed) Park Hill made Sheffield famous for the feverish vision with which architects and planners sought to reshape the city in the second half of the twentieth century. In reality, this left much of Sheffield with a poorly maintained legacy of failed utopian concrete fantasies, but this braveness and edginess is cited by many as being a fundamental part of Sheffield's character. Now, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, a number of commercial developers are making big marks on the cityscape, with large apartment complexes that aim to correct the errors through planning policy of similar developments seen in Manchester and Leeds. Whether the formula works in Sheffield remains to be seen: with so many affordable and attractive suburbs within easy reach, it may be difficult to turn Sheffield's compact city centre into a mixed area of commerce and residential properties.

Even if the built environment of Sheffield leaves something to be desired, a deliberate strategy of investing in and promoting academic achievement has begun to influence the demographic make-up of the city. Sheffield is not only is the city home to two universities (the University of Sheffield and Sheffield Hallam University) with excellent ratings in both teaching and research, it is also proving to be an increasingly attractive place for graduates to settle in. Sheffiled is increasingly prosperous and economically active.

Culturally, Sheffield's location and edgy environment has nurtured a superb reputation for music. Sheffield is home to Jarvis Cocker, Human League, Def Leppard, ABC, Baby Bird, Pulp, Arctic Monkeys, Milburn, Bromheads Jacket, The Long Blondes, and Little Man Tate to name just a few. The larger-than-average student population (over 60,000) means that nightlife is always lively, and suitably different to that of Leeds and Manchester. Sheffield's proximity to the Peak District National Park (one third of Sheffield lies within the Peak District) makes it an ideal city base for an outdoor-orientated holiday.

Sheffield Tourist Information Centre is at 14 Norfolk Row in the city centre.

Get in

By plane

The nearest airport to Sheffield with scheduled services is Robin Hood Doncaster Sheffield, one of the youngest airports in the UK [2] (airport code: DSA), approximately 35 minutes' drive away from the centre of Sheffield. To reach Sheffield by public transport from the airport, take the Airport Arrow bus [3] (every hour from 06.05 - 23.05 Monday to Saturday, 09.05 - 18.05 on Sundays) to Doncaster railway station and travel by train to Sheffield. Airlines that serve the airport include:

  • FlyBe [4]: Belfast City
  • FlyGlobespan [5] Toronto
  • Ryanair [6]: Dublin, Gerona, Alicante
  • Thomas Cook [7] Gran Canaria, Naples, Palma, Ibiza, Tenerife, Tunisia, Turkey (Dalaman)
  • Thomsonfly [8]: Alicante, Bulgaria (Bourgas), Bulgaria (Plovdiv), Bulgaria (Varna), Corfu, Cyprus (Larnaca), Cyprus (Paphos), Faro, Florida (Sanford), Gerona, Gran Canaria, Ibiza, Jersey, Malaga. Malta, Menorca, Mexico (Cancun), Naples, Palma, Prague, Reus, Rhodes, Salzburg, Tenerife, Tunisia, Turin, Turkey (Bodrum), Turkey (Dalaman), Verona, Zakynthos.
  • WizzAir [9] Warsaw, Katowice/Cracow, Gdansk, Poznan.

Nottingham East Midlands Airport [10] (IATA: EMA) is approximately one hour south of Sheffield on the M1 motorway. There are six daily bus services between Sheffield and the airport, operated by National Express [11].

Manchester Airport [12] (IATA: MAN) is further away than either Robin Hood or Nottingham EMA, but it is served by an direct train [13] every hour from Sheffield. To it is approximately 70 minutes drive from Sheffield city center and it offers the widest choice of long haul destinations in the north of England, including several daily flights to North America. Destinations are too numerous to list here, see the link for full details.

Leeds Bradford Airport [14] can be reached in under an hour by car and a little more by train and bus from Sheffield via Leeds.

By train

Sheffield station (formerly known as Sheffield Midland) is to the south-east side of the city centre, at the bottom of a steepish pedestrianised street (Howard Street) that leads to the city centre. A major redevelopment of the public spaces between the station at the city centre was completed in early 2007, creating a new public square immediately outside the station and improving the pedestrian route to the city centre. You can reach the city centre on foot in less than ten minutes, or in about five minutes by tram or the free city centre bus ("Free Bee": every seven minutes).

Trams stop next to the station (Sheffield Station/Sheffield Hallam University stop), directly outside the end of the pedestrian bridge that crosses over the platforms (there is a lift, but no escalator, from the station concourse and platforms).

Most long-distance coaches and city buses, including the free bus, stop at the Sheffield Interchange: two minutes walk from the station (across the pelican crossing and through the covered walkway) or the nearby streets.

Routes

Timetables, fare information, and live departure boards for all train services can be found on the website of National Rail [15].

There are hourly high-speed services to and from London St. Pancras (Via Derby/Nottingham, and Leicester) operated by East Midlands Trains [16]. Sheffield also lies near the heart of Britain's cross country rail network, with twice hourly services from the south, south-west and midlands (Devon, Dorset, Berkshire and the West Midlands) to the north-east and Scotland (Tyne and Wear, Edinburgh, Aberdeen). All long-distance north-south services that do not call in London are operated by Cross Country Trains [17]. Sheffield is also at the centre of a large and well-served west (Lancashire, Merseyside, Greater Manchester, Manchester Airport) to east (Lincolnshire, East Riding of Yorkshire, Norfolk) network. Other services through the city are provided by East Midlands Trains Connect service [18], Northern Rail [19] and Transpennine Express [20]. Under the name "Megatrain", the Megabus company now offers "the earlier you book, the cheaper" seats in its chartered carriages on some offpeak EastMidland trains to and from London.

Summary of services:

  • London St. Pancras, once per hour, operated by East Midlands Trains.
  • Scotland, Tyne and Wear, and North Yorkshire twice per hour, operated by Cross Country Trains.
  • Birmingham New Street and the West Midlands once per hour, operated by Cross Country Trains.
  • Southwest (Bristol Temple Meads/Devon) once per hour, operated by Cross Country Trains.
  • Manchester Picadilly and Manchester Airport once per hour by Transpennine Express.
  • Manchester Piccadilly and Liverpool once per hour by East Midlands Trains.
  • Hope Valley (Peak District) stations once per hour, operated by Northern Rail (continues to Manchester Piccadilly, but this is a stopping service on commuter-quality trains: not designed to serve through-travellers).
  • West Yorkshire up to three times an hour, operated by Virgin Trains (intercity quality and speed) fastest) and Northern Rail (commuter quality and speed).
  • Nottinghamshire once per hour, operated by East Midlands Trains.
  • Derbyshire up to four times an hour, operated by Northern Trains.
  • South Wales direct to Cardiff Central Station and Newport, operated by Cross Country Trains.

By car

Sheffield sits beside the M1 motorway and is most easily reached from junction 33, which connects to the city centre via the Sheffield Parkway. A convenient park and ride tram stop is located close to the city end of the Parkway, and if you're only visiting for the day, you are strongly recommended to use it.

Fifteen miles further north on the M1, you can connect with the M62, the main route from places (North Wales, Liverpool and Manchester) and east (Hull ferries to mainland Europe).

For the more scenic route from Manchester, the Snake or Woodhead Passes (A57 and A628) make for a breath-taking trip through the Peak District National Park. It is also possible to use the Peak District as the scenic route to Bakewell and Sheffield from Birmingham (via Lichfield and Ashbourne) or Stoke on Trent (via Leek and Longnor). Beware that the route becomes very busy over holiday periods, and can be treacherous during cold or snowy weather.

Sheffield provides a park and ride service aswell as station car parking, see National Park and Ride Directory [21].

By bus

Sheffield Interchange is the city's hub for local and national bus services, and is located two minutes walk from Sheffield's railway station. National Express [22] operate long distance services to all parts of the country, including a regular service to London Golders Green and Victoria.

The discount long distance bus operator Megabus [23] does not serve the Sheffield city centre, but offers several services each day to central London from the Sheffield Meadowhall Interchange. Meadowhall is twenty minutes away from the city centre by tram, or five minutes by an equally frequent train. Megabus departures may not be listed on departure screens at the Meadowhall Interchange: services generally depart from the same bay as National Express services.

By boat

Excellent visitor moorings for canal boats at the Victoria Quays basin.

Get around

On foot in the City Centre

Sheffield's city centre has seen significant work done to prioritise pedestrian access, including, amongst other things, excellent linkage from the train station to the city centre and a comprehensive city-centre map and signage system. Most things to see and do can be reached on foot. Sheffield walking directions can be planned online with the walkit.com [24] walking route planner.

Tram

The city has a modern tram network with three lines that serve north-western (Uni of Sheffield, Hillsborough, Malin Bridge and Middlewood), south-eastern (Crystal Peaks, Hackenthorope and Halfway) and north-eastern (Attercliffe, Don Valley Stadium/Arena and Meadowhall) suburbs of the city.

  • The blue line runs from Malin Bridge via the city centre to the Railway Station and Halfway
  • The yellow line runs from Meadowhall via the city centre to Middlewood
  • The purple line merges the eastern end of the two other lines, running from Herdings Park to Meadowhall.

Tickets are purchased from the conductor after you board; retain these for inspection. Notices at your tram stop will indicate the route and fare needed for your destination.

A single ticket within the town centre boundary (between Granville Road, The University of Sheffield, and Hyde Park) costs £1.40. After that, fares increase to £1.70, £2.10, or £2.70 depending on how far you travel. Children under 5 travel free and those 5 to 11 travel for 40p, irrespective of the distance travelled. Concessions are available only to applicable residents of Sheffield. Senior citizens travel for free except on weekdays before 9 am on any mode of public transport. For those without concessions, it often works out cheaper to buy a Dayrider ticket, which costs £3.00 and allows unlimited travel on all trams and Stagecoach buses in Sheffield. A £12.00 Megarider ticket is also available, allowing unlimited travel for a week.

Bus

Buses are almost exclusively operated by the large public transit operators First Group and Stagecoach. They generally run every 10-20 minutes during the day, and every 20–60 minutes in the evening. A network of twelve 'Overground' bus routes is offered by First, with a high frequency of service (less than every ten minutes through the day). Buses are generally reliable if rather expensive. It is advisable to arrive a few minutes before the bus is scheduled to depart.

Each bus company offers its own range of tickets. Without a concession, you will pay more the farther that you travel. If you plan to use the bus or tram more than once in a day, Stagecoach offer a bus and tram Dayrider ticket for £3.00 and First buses offer an FirstDay ticket for £3.50. If you wish to use all the public transport in the city, regardless of operator, then you must purchase a DayRider costing £4.50.

There are a variety of week and month passes available for either a single bus or bus/tram company, or for all transport including rail. Stagecoach currently offer a flat fare of 50p for students in possession of a valid student card (including the ISIC). Additionally, Stagecoach are offering a limited-time 70p fare for all single journeys for everyone else on certain routes. Another route offering 50p student fares is First's number 80, which shuttles between the two universities and the station via Ecclesall, Broomhill and the city centre. It runs every 10 minutes on weekdays until 7pm, with a more limited evening service.

For further travel information call Travel South Yorkshire from 7am to 10pm seven days a week or log on to Traveline [25].

Rail

There is a decent network of suburban rail services serving the Sheffield City region, all of which depart from Sheffield station. Services are operated by Northern, and depart to Barnsley via Meadowhall, Chapeltown, Elsecar, and Wombwell, to Doncaster, via Meadowhall, Rotherham, Swinton, Mexborough, and Conisborough, to Chesterfield via Dronfield, to the Hope Valley via Dore, and to Nottinghamshire via Darnall, Woodhouse, Kiveton Bridge, and Kiveton Park.

  • Millennium Galleries, Arundel Gate, [26]. M–Sa 8am-5pm (exhibitions from 10am), Su 11am-5pm. Bank holiday Mondays 10am-5pm, closed 25, 26 Dec and 1 Jan. Sheffield's largest art gallery, opened in 2001. The Craft and Design Gallery shows the work of past and present craftsmen and designers. The Metalwork Gallery showcases Sheffield's metal industries. The Ruskin Gallery hosts the collection of the Guild of St George, which was established in Sheffield by John Ruskin in the 19th century. The Special Exhibition Gallery hosts touring exhibitions from galleries like the Tate Gallery and the Victoria and Albert Museum. Millennium Galleries also provide a convenient through-route and escalator ride to take some of the sting out of the walk up from the station. Free.
  • Winter Garden, 90 Surrey Street (adjacent to Millennium Galleries), [27]. Daily 8am-6pm. A glass and timber temperate conservatory in the city centre with exotic plants and palm trees. Temperatures are kept relatively cool in summer and warm in winter. A coffee bar makes it a nice place to sit, particularly if the weather outside is not so nice. A visitor information stall is in the gardens, as well as on Norfolk Row nearby. Free.
  • Peace Gardens. Located next to the Town Hall (not the City Hall) in the centre of the city and near the Winter Garden. The rising and falling fountains and grassed areas make this small piece of open space a popular place in summer.
  • Graves Gallery, Surrey St (above the Central Library), [28]. M–Sa 10am–5pm. Home to British, European, Islamic and Chinese art. Free.
  • Tudor Square. This very central pedestrianized square is home to Sheffield's main cultural attractions and the UK's second largest theatre complex. Noteworthy are the Lyceum Theatre built in Victorian times; Crucible Theatre, home to the World Snooker Championships; Central Library, [29], a grand 1930s library with an impressive volume of books, topped by the Graves Art Gallery; the Library Theatre with many shows by excellent local drama groups; and another entrance to the Winter Gardens.
  • The Norfolk Heritage Trail A signed route linking a range of historical buildings and open spaces with connections to the Dukes of Norfolk. It runs for 2 ¾ miles from Manor Lodge to the Cathedral and is mainly downhill.
  • Sheffield Botanical Gardens [30]. Located just off the cosmopolitan Ecclesall Road, the recently restored Victorian gardens are a tranquil green oasis from the hustle of the city centre with grand conservatories designed by the architect of the Crystal Palace.
  • Sheffield General Cemetery, [31]. Historically important Victorian cemetery sited between Cemetery Road and Ecclesall Road. Last "home" of 87,000 people, including Sheffield's influential citizens such as steel manufacturer Mark Firth and Chartist Samuel Holberry. Many of the graves are unmarked pauper graves, some with 40 or more burials. This is a beautiful and fascinating spot, where visitors can enjoy some wildness near the centre of town.
  • Kelham Island Museum, Alma Street (off Corporation Street), [32]. M-Th 10am-4pm, Su 11am-4.45pm. The industrial and social history of Sheffield. Main attraction is the massive 3-cylinder rolling mill engine (in steam every hour) from the River Don Steelworks. Next to the famous Fat Cat real ale pub (and conveniently located for many of the upper Don valley "real ale trail" pubs). Adult £4, free during Sheffield school holidays.
  • Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet, [33]. The early industrial history of Sheffield. Water-powered grinding wheels, trip hammers, etc. A few miles out in the suburbs on the Bakewell road. Check website for "operating" days and special "fayres".
  • Canal Basin. An attractive basin straddled by a warehouse. Colourful narrowboats to look at. Boat trips in Summer. Hotel adjacent for refreshments.
  • London Road. Sheffield's unofficial Chinatown, this buzzing road just outside the City Centre is home to Sheffield's vibrant Chinese community and there are many Oriental restaurants, supermarkets and stores as well as the Sheffield Chinese community centre. There is also a growing Turkish community with many Turkish supermarkets and restaurants here.
  • Weston Park Museum, Western Bank (one mile from city centre), [34]. M-Sa 10am-5pm, Su 11am-5pm, closed 25, 26 Dec and 1 Jan. Formerly the Sheffield City Museum, it reopened in 2006 after extensive refurbishment. A pleasant and modern museum, particularly suitable for children. Galleries on Sheffield, the Arctic, natural history, art and treasures. There is also a gallery with changing displays. Free.
  • Weston Park, Western Bank (one mile from city centre), [35]. This grand 5 hectare park located next to the University of Sheffield's main campus is home to the Weston Park Museum. There is a bandstand, tennis courts and water features within the park. The park plays host to many events during summer. A £2 million revamp of the park was completed in 2008.
  • Burngreave. This former industrial suburb is home to large African, South Asian and Caribbean communities, with many religious, cultural and shops for these communities based here.
  • Dore. One of Sheffield's most prosperous suburbs home to several mansions and local celebrities.

Do

Sheffield is a vibrant, cosmopolitan city and boasts a large range of shopping. There are a large number of cinemas, pubs and night clubs.

  • Sheffield Ski Village [36]. Sheffield is well known as a key World sporting destination and is home to Europe's largest outdoor artificial ski slope. The Sheffield ski village offers the chance to enjoy snow activities on the hills overlooking Sheffield. Due to under going extensive redevelopment.
  • iceSheffield. A big indoor ice sports centre near the attractions of the Lower Don Valley. Two full-sized ice pads for ice sports and recreational skating.
  • Ponds Forge. A huge swimming pool by the train station and the huge roundabout by the motorway junction with Olympic sized pool, diving pool and fun pool with waves, flumes and lazy river
  • Sheffield City Hall. The impressive 1930s City Hall was recently refurbished and is home to many concerts, performances and travelling shows and is located in the elegant Barkers Pool in the city centre which is home to Sheffield's cenotaph.
  • Showroom cinema. One of the largest independent cinemas in the UK. Located in the Cultural Industries Quarter. Also holds a café-bar.

Sport

Sheffield is home to a number of top sporting teams, and Sheffield was recently given the honour of being named United Kingdom's National City of Sport. Sporting teams include:

  • Sheffield United [37] are a football team that play in the English Championship. Their home games are played at Bramall Lane. The Blades are generally seen as the best supported team in the city, and regularly attract crowds of 25,000+.
  • Sheffield Wednesday [38] are a football team that plays in the English Championship. Their home games are played at Hillsborough Stadium. Wednesday brought the last piece of silverware to the city in 1991 when they won the league cup final, beating Manchester United 1-0 at the old Wembley stadium in front of 77,629.
  • Sheffield Eagles [39] are a Rugby League team that plays in National League One, having recently been promoted from National League 2. The Eagles play their home games at Don Valley Stadium.
  • Sheffield Steelers [40] are an Ice Hockey team that plays its matches in the UK Elite League. Their home games are played at the Sheffield Arena [41].
  • Sheffield Sharks [42] are a Basketball team that plays in the British Basketball League. Their home games are played at Ponds Forge International Sports Centre [43].
  • Sheffield Tigers [44] are a Speedway team, who take part in the English Premier League. Their races take place at Owlerton Stadium.

Learn

There are two major universities in Sheffield:

  • University of Sheffield [45] - An older "red brick" university spanning part of the city centre and most of the suburb of Broomhill.
  • Sheffield Hallam University [46]- A modern ex-polytechnic and focuses on Engineering, Management and Computing courses. It is also one of the largest universities in the country, with nearly 30,000 students.

Also, Sheffield College [47] is the largest college in the country.

Work

Though Sheffield's past was largely based in the manufacturing sector, the emphasis has moved to services. A number of government offices and large businesses (Insight, Dixons Group and Freemans) operate their headquarters or regional centres in Sheffield. There are a large number of call centres in and around the city (eg Virgin Media & Ant Marketing).

Buy

Sheffield city centre is quite compact, so the city's suburbs (even ones quite close to the centre) have largely managed to thrive and maintain their character and commercial individuality.

City Centre

The centre, though small, packs in a lot of national and individual shops. The main axis of central shopping streets runs in a gently curving line from north-east to south-west. From north to south you will find:

  • the inexpensive Castle Market area, where a large indoor market is open every day except Sunday
  • the High Street, where buses and trams run up hill towards the Cathedral
  • the pedestrianized Fargate, where many chain stores can be found
  • the Peace Gardens, which is bordered with bars, cafes and a few other shops
  • and finally the Moor, which is Sheffield's broad pedestrianised discount shopping area.

Heading west from the Cathedral is West Street, where many pubs and bars can be found. One block south and parallel to West Street is Division Street, the spine of the so-called Devonshire Quarter. Here you'll find a decent selection of small independent shops and cafes. Despite the draw of nearby Meadowhall, the city centre has retained some significant department stores and chain shops including H & M,Debenhams, TK Maxx, River Island, HMV, Marks and Spencer,Virgin and Sheffield's very own and interestingly quirky Atkinsons.

For after-shopping relaxation, note that apart from Thursday nights (when most shops stay open late) most of the city centre shops close at around 5:30pm, and the city centre focus then shifts to the clubs and bars along Division Street and West Street.

Suburbs

Ecclesall Road is an area of individual fashion shops, bars, cafes and restaurants running from the inner ring road out to the slightly more student-orientated and bohemian Hunters Bar roundabout.

Broomhill is a fairly self-contained area: a curious and pleasant mix of "studenty" and "leafy suburb". Only a mile from the city centre (past the university), it has an interesting mix of shops from inexpensive to trendy. Music lovers should make time for the impressive second-hand music collection at Record Collector on the Fulwood Road.

Meadowhall

Once the largest shopping mall in the country, Meadowhall has been blamed for a steep decline in the fortunes of city centre shops. Shops generally stay open till 8pm; fast-food restaurants and stay open until 10pm. During the Christmas holidays, all the shops stay open till 10pm, but the centre becomes very packed and is not recommended to the less sturdy shopper, those in large groups, or families with multiple extra-large baby-buggies. There's also a food court. - See Meadowhall Shopping Centre: [48]

From Sheffield centre, Meadowhall can be reached easily via the Supertram [49] by taking the Yellow/Purple Route service to 'Meadowhall' or via local Bus or Train (less than 10 minutes from Sheffield station) South Yorkshire Passenger Transport website: [50]. From farther away, use train or long-distance coach (many of both stop at the Meadowhall Interchange), or drive to Junction 34 of the M1.

Crystal Peaks

A smaller alternative to Meadowhall on the Southern edge of Sheffield, Crystal Peaks [51] shopping centre has many shops and is adjacent to a good selection of 'out of town' superstores such as Comet and JD Sports. Crystal Peaks can be reached via the Blue Route tram to 'Halfway', or by local buses, or by car (junction 30 of the M1).

Eat

There are many good, cheap places to eat in and around the city. If you would rather stay in and still want to have a taste of what Sheffield has to offer, you can always opt for food from one of the takeaways in Sheffield. Usually prices range from £7 to £20 for a meal for two.

  • Aslans, West Street. Infamous Halal kebab shop that serves piles of salty meat. See if you can find yourself (or get yourself) on the walls packed with photographs of customers.
  • Aunt Sally's Clarkehouse Road. 2 for 1 on all main meals.
  • Balti King, Fulwood Road, Broomhill. Long standing Indian restaurant and take-away. Popular with students, huge well menu of good dishes.
  • Broomhill Friary, Whitham Road. Fantastic chip shop, located in the Broomhill suburb of the city.
  • The Interval between Western Bank and Glossop Road. The Interval is the cafe-bar of the University of Sheffield Union of Students. Much more pleasant atmosphere than the main student bar (Bar One) downstairs, the Interval is open to the public all day (students only after 6pm) and serves a good value menu of snacks and meals. Also popular for the meat and vegetarian hangover breakfasts and Sunday lunches at the weekend.
  • Spoilt For Choice Ecclesall Road. Good sandwich shop.
  • UK Mama, Fulwood Road, Broomhill. Superb African restaurant. Complicated menu and specials (especially for students on different nights of the week) but excellent food and African drums to try out.
  • Baan Thai on Ecclesall Road is an excellent Thai restaurant.
  • BB's, Division Street. A long standing favourite of families and students in Sheffield's city centre. A small family run business that does decent Italian food and is reasonably priced. Bring your own beer and wine.
  • Cafe Rouge, Norfolk Street (on the Peace Gardens) and Ecclesall Road. Reliable and classy chain of French bistro-restaurants.
  • Cubana, 34 Trippet Lane. Absolute diamond just off the bottom of west street. Live Cuban music most nights, large range of tapas, amazing atmosphere. Small and sexy. Great first date restaurant. http://www.cubanatapasbar.co.uk/
  • East One, in the West One plaza. Japanese canteen-style restaurant with huge stir fries and soups. Shame about the badly design and echo-ey space it occupies.
  • The Ha-Ha Bar on the Peace Gardens in the town centre. Fresh, albeit expensive pub food.
  • Kashmir Curry House Spital Hill, beyond the Railway Arches. Good curry house, bring your own beer/wine.
  • The Mangla Spital Hill. Basic decor similar to the Kashmir Curry House, bring your own beer/wine.
  • Polonium Abbeydale Road. Polish restaurant that was thrown rather humorously into the media spotlight following the (unrelated) Polonium poisoning of a former Russian spy. Most definitely not named after a radioactive material. Good food.
  • Las Iguanas West One, Fitzwilliam Street. Great party atmosphere and lovely Latin American food. Best place for a night out in Sheffield.
  • La Gondola, Carver Street. Highly recommended for Italian cuisine.
  • The Old Vicarage, Ridgeway Village. Sheffield's only Michelin-starred restaurant; probably the best food in Sheffield. Expect to pay around £55 per head excluding wine.
  • Wasabisabi, London Road. Very popular Japanese restaurant; highly recommended.
  • Nonna's, Ecclesall Road. Robust and authentic Italian dishes in busy surroundings. Speciality home-made pastas.
  • Fat Cat on Kelham Island for excellent Sunday meals and wide choice of real ale.
  • Poacher's Arms in the Hope Valley which has an excellent Sunday Carvery.

Drink

Pubs

Sheffield is well known for its large number of pubs (Public Houses); from dark and Victorian to sleek and modern; and from traditional real-ale haven to noisy standing-room-only bar, you can easily find a pub in Sheffield to suit your taste in beer, music and company. However, most city-centre pubs are more oriented towards fast drinking students and clubbers; on West Street in particular (linking the university with the city centre) you will find many pubs and bars which during the week become busy with students and younger customers. Finding quieter pubs in which to sample something other than the usual chain-pub lager requires delving a little deeper beneath the surface.

For the severely unimaginative, you'll find the usual Wetherspoons and All Bar One chain pubs, throughout the city centre serving cheap lager and ales and reasonably priced food in a smoke (and atmosphere) free environment.

Hybrid bar-pubs manage to maintain something of a pub atmosphere, and sell real ale at reasonable prices, while still pulling in the crowds. They are used as much by people who want a good range of beer at good prices, as by "yoofs" after a good night out. They are probably doing a good job of persuading at least some lager drinkers to switch to traditional ales.

  • The Washington on Fitzwilliam St nr Devonshire Green...great muso pub...used to be owned by Nick Banks from the band "Pulp"...Relaxed atmosphere...varied dj nights..open till 1am every night except sunday till midnight...large beer garden and smoking area at the back of the pub
  • The Frog & Parrot on Division Street offers the strongest legal ale in the UK, a dark syrupy mixture that is worth trying at least once.
  • The Devonshire Cat on Wellington Street, just south of Devonshire Green, offers the city's largest range of beers and ciders, including dozens of imported European beers. Also has 2 guest ciders on tap at all times. The city centre sister pub to the remoter Fat Cat on Kelham Island.
  • Porter Cottage Sharrowvale Roa. Indie jukebox, normal ales but amazing atmosphere. Landlady Mandy will know your life history by the time u leave. Get in early to get a decent table.

Sheffield's real gems are the handful of surviving traditional pubs and free houses, which generally have more room to sit down, quieter (or no) music, and real hand pumped ales.

  • The Brown Bear on Norfolk Street (close to the Sheffield Theatres and Winter Garden) offers what must be the cheapest beer in the city and an incredible mix of both theatre goers and local people.
  • The Red Deer on Pitt Street (just off Mappin Street), is another civilised dive with good range of beers, warming fireplaces, a small garden and friendly cats.
  • Fagans on Broad Lane is a cosy chintz-free Irish pub with regular live music.
  • The Dog and Partridge on Trippet Lane may offer impromptu Irish or Folk music in the back room.
  • The Bath Hotel on Victoria Street (just off West Street) is tiny, free of piped music and friendly.
  • The Sportsman on Denby Street is popular with local customers and will probably have some rock music on the jukebox.

There are more warm and welcoming traditional pubs in Sheffield's suburbs. North-west of the city centre, in Crookes and Walkley (popular with students as places to live) are:

  • The Hallamshire House on Commonside is reputedly the only pub in Sheffield still housing a full-sized snooker table.
  • The Walkley Cottage on Bole Hill Road is friendly with good range of beer and good food.
  • Noah's Ark on Crookes has a good atmosphere and mix of students and locals.
  • The Freedom House has two halves: a lively "pool table-and-lager" side, and a quieter "grandmothers's living room" side.
  • The Nottingham House or "The Notty" as it is better known has recently re-opened after an extensive refurbishment. Catering for locals,visitors and students alike, it really is a pub worth a visit. Home-made pies are a speciality and real ales are aplenty. Occasional live music on Thursday nights with acts from near and far. Pool table is very good value at 50p.

Real ale fans from great distances come to "do" the real ale trail of Sheffield's Upper Don Valley, a route stretching from near the city centre almost to Hillsborough. The trail calls at:

  • The Kelham Island Tavern has won best Pub in Britain from Camra
  • The Fat Cat, hidden away on Alma Street, also a great stop for Sunday lunch.
  • The Wellington (used to be known as Cask and Cutler) on Henry Street.
  • The Gardeners Rest on Neepsend Lane (recently re-opened following the great flood of 2007).
  • Hillsborough HotelA welcoming pub with a brewery underneath and hotel rooms above.
  • The New Barrack Tavern, A pub owned by Castle Rock and full of Character.
  • The Harlequin, The latest addition to The Ale Trail, more open plan and possibly less off putting to people who aren't used to real ale pubs than the others might seem.

The trail roughly parallels the tram route from the city centre to Hillsborough, so getting there and back is easy. All these pubs have a huge range of British draught real ales (some brewed by the pub) and most have a selection of bottle-conditioned beers from continental Europe (especially Belgium).

  • The Sheaf View on Gleadless Road is a real ale hotspot. Famous for serving the south side of Sheffield with the local breweries and other guest ales with knowledgeable bar staff. Has a reputation for friendly Sheffield folk to relax there after hiking and climbing in the peaks. So called because of possible view of the Sheaf River although now obstructed by newer buildings.

Bars

Visiting Sheffield, you might be led to believe that students go out every day of the week. These are some of the more popular pubs.

  • Bungalows & Bears (formerly the Central fire station) Division St. Retro-chic bar with fantastic atmosphere, amazing music and great veggy food menu. 2nd hand "retro" clothing market on a Sunday. Free board games (Tequilla Jenga is recommended). Applauding toilets. Frequented by the Arctic Monkeys, trendies and students alike.
  • Bai Hoi Mappin st. Great atmosphere in this "Buddha Bar" noted for its oriental theme, good range of cocktails.
  • The Green Room Division st. Compact bar, great range of bottled beers, great live indie music on a wednesday.
  • The Lounge West st. Great cocktails & coffees. Popular by day. Serves food at lunchtime: really excellent cooking at a very reasonable price.
  • Muse West st. Relaxed quieter bar with comfy seating, for those avoiding the student pub crawls.
  • Varsity West st/Ecclesall rd. Standard studenty chain bar, complete with inflatable sheep machines in the toilets.
  • Vodka Revolution West:one. Popular with "orange" good-looking people but don't let that put you off, good range of drinks and affordable food menu by day. Decent DJ sets and adjoining pool room.
  • Tequilla Bar West St. They sell tequila. Large cocktail menu, 2 for 1 on a Thursday. Avoid the lethal stairs down to the toilets.
  • Forum Division St. Unique trendy cafe/bar (and shops and pool bar) open late most nights. Expensive. Amazing outdoor patio onto the Devonshire Green.
  • The Common Room Division st. Large pool/sports bar. 12 American pool tables. Cheap drinks weekdays between 5 and 8 and a good cocktail menu.
  • Yates Division st. Poor-performer (even for a chain bar). Attempt to avoid.
  • Crystal Carver st. Expensive bar, amazing décor. Anti-studenty (except Wednesdays)
  • Ruby Lounge Division st. Popular cocktail bar, good music and reasonably priced. Basement to be converted into a nightclub.
  • Ask Barkers pool. Studenty during week, chavy by weekend. What's that? MC hammer is being played for the 4th time tonight?....ill get my coat.
  • Stardust Carver st. Stick to the floor and laugh at your Uni clubmates.
  • The Cutler Carver st. Local choice, no students. bitter (people).
  • Corner house Carver st. (aka city bar) good seating, standard drinks.
  • Bar One Glossop Road, near the University tram stop. The main bar of the University of Sheffield Student Union, which is understandably always full of students, and which is also one of the most profitable union bars anywhere in the country. In the evenings you will need a Sheffield student card (or a friend who has one to sign you in) to gain admission. Cheapest drinks on a Monday. Large, cheap, pool room.
  • Interval Glossop Road, near the University tram stop. The second bar of the University of Sheffield Student Union, offering a more cosmopolitan atmosphere with local real ales, wine and food.
  • The Hubs Inside Sheffield Hallam Union (the former National Centre for Popular Music) so easy to find. It looks like a big, silver, flying spaceship, close to the train station. Not as big or impressive on the inside as it is on the outside, a relatively small union bar.
  • Cavendish West Street (locally referred to as 'The Chavendish'). A scream/yellowcard bar (you get discounted drinks if you buy or have a friend with a yellowcard, which costs £1 to NUS card holders). Serves decent food; a cheap student pub/bar with pool tables.
  • The York Broomhill. Another scream/yellowcard place with a slightly more pubby atmosphere
  • Fox and Duck Broomhill. An off campus pub owned by the University of Sheffield Student Union but frequented by a more mixed crowd.
  • The Harley On Glossop Road by the University tram stop. Open Late til 4am on event nights. Hosts several Electro events such as Club Pony on the second Friday of every month.
  • The Stockroom The cosiest new bar in town...Leadmill Rd...200 yards from The Leadmill...very close to the train station...Live bands most nights...Weekend Party nights with great dj's...
  • Bar Max West Street, near West Street tram stop. Another late bar with a small dance floor, though fairly expensive for Sheffield prices.
  • Reflex West Street (near City Hall tram stop). More a free and cheesy club with 70s and 80s music than a bar.
  • The Central Station. Division Street. An old fire station, and in fact it still feels like one. Big dance floor; popular and often busy.
  • Walkabout West Street, near City Hall tram stop. Australia themed bar. Very popular, fairly cheap, but can get a bit claustrophobic. Better as calling point on a pub crawl than a place for staying in.
  • The Bedroom West Street, near City Hall tram stop. Cheap with good cocktails. Monday is a "rock/emo/hardcore" night, the rest of the week varies and there is an RnB night on a Friday. Takes its name from the four poster bed on the dance floor.
  • Gay bars There are a small number of gay bars, clubs and gay-nights, whose location and names change on a regular basis. Consult Yorkshire's gay paper Shout! [52] for the latest listing.

Clubs

Unlike Sheffield's dense strip of student bars along West Street, the city's night clubs are more spread out around the city centre, especially in the former industrial buildings which been so popular with music venues.

  • Boardwalk Snig Hill. Live music and event club, The Boardwalk has been a live music venue for over 30 years. Joe Cocker, The Clash, Ian Dury and The Blockheads, The Sex Pistols, Nick Lowe, David Gray etc
  • Casbah Wellington st.
  • Charles street Charles st.
  • Uniq Carver st.
  • Under the Boardwalk Snig Hill.
  • DQ Fitzwilliam St. Holding legendary clubnights such as 'Threads'. Open late every night, notable for its "afterparty" till 4am after HedKandi.
  • The Leadmill Leadmill Road, close to Sheffield station and Sheffield Hallam University. A Sheffield institution made famous by its live music line-up. Live gigs most nights of the week which are immediately followed by club nights. Concert-goers get free entry to the club night after their show. Indie night on a Saturday, with relatively cheap drinks for a nightclub.
  • Tuesday Club not actually a nightclub, but simply worth a mention, Tuesdays held at SUSU, well known drum n bass night, attracting famous artists from around the country.
  • Plug (formerly .Zero). Smart club, open late (6am on Fridays and Saturdays) and popular on a Thursday night (when huge queues are to be expected). Nights span anything from raves to live music.
  • The Limit (formerly Niche) Opposite Plug. The Niche was briefly closed following a shooting incident (exceptionally rare in Sheffield's nightlife) and has now reopened with rigourous security. Security staff frisk everyone who walks through the door. If that bothers you, it is one to avoid.
  • Corporation Milton Street. A dirty rock club with dirty cheap vodka, just the way the locals like it. There's 'Skool Disco' every Wednesday night (free admission in school uniform) and metal/goth on Saturdays. Fridays is skate and metal downstairs and indie upstairs. Mondays are popular with the student crowd, playing music everyone seems to know.
  • Embrace Nightclub. Formally Kingdom, a new five room modern nightclub (one over 25's cocktail bar) of various themes catering for all music tastes
  • Fuel A gay club, open Thursday to Sunday, Eyre Street near the Moor. Thursday is "student disco" with cheap drink, Friday is pop and cheese in one room and indie/alternative in another, Saturday is electro/house/entertainers/dancers, and Sunday is a chill out night.
  • Club Sssh The wicker. Various nights from raves to regular gay nights.
  • Banus Barkers Pool. Hip-hop club.
  • Fusion/Foundry and Octagon (the clubs of the University of Sheffield Union of Students) Western Bank. A fiercely active union night club that packs in students from from Tuesday to Saturday. The Tuesday Club is a surprisingly pricey hip-hop and drum & bass night that pulls in many big names. Roar on Wednesday night is big on cheap alcopops and inebriated sports teams. The Fuzz Club on a Thursday is a reliable and well known indie night. Famous for featuring big names before they were famous (e.g. the Killers). Friday is Space in the Octagon, a "chart" night, while visiting club nights and Climax, South Yorkshire's biggest gay club rotate monthly in the Fusion/Foundry. Saturdays is Pop Tarts, hosting 2 rooms (one is 70s and "rock and roll", the other 80s and 90s).
  • Etap Hotel Sheffield Arena, 298 Attercliffe Common, Sheffield, [53]. WiFi available. From £35 (breakfast £2.95).  edit
  • Nether Edge Hotel, 21-23 Montgomery Rd, Nether Edge, Sheffield (less than a mile SSW of the city centre), [54]. checkin: 2pm; checkout: 10am. From about £39 including breakfast.  edit

Hotels in the city centre include:

  • Novotel and Mercure Hotel (near the Winter Garden and Peace Garden)
  • Holiday Inn (a quieter location not far from the Canal Basin)
  • Hilton (next to the Holiday Inn)
  • Premier Travel Inn, Ibis, Bristol (near the Markets area and Canal Basin)

Stay safe

As with the rest of the UK, in any emergency call 999 or 112 (from a land-line if you can) and ask for Ambulance, Fire or Police when connected.

The city has one of the lowest crime rates in the country, despite being home to one of the most notorious estates in the country, The Manor Estate. Some local people say to avoid Park Hill and Pittsmoor, but those areas not as bad as that, and the average tourist would not go there anyway as there are no attractions there or nearby. There are adequate police patrols at all times of the day, and the town also boasts (if this is a matter for boasting) an extensive network of CCTV cameras. Although some areas not too far from the centre are undesirable, any central areas or main shopping suburbs will feel perfectly comfortable during the day. After hours, some peripheral parts of the city centre may seem a little quiet and lonely, but any well-lit street with plenty of people about (this means in effect the area centred on the Town Hall, between West Street to the north and Arundel Gate to the south) will be as safe as any city centre in the UK if the usual precautions are taken.

Get out

Leeds the other big Yorkshire city, only an hour away by train/coach/car, handy for the Yorkshire Dales.

Peak District

Sheffield is the perfect city base to explore the Peak District, not only because it is the closest city to the northern half of "the Peaks" (some of the national park lies within the city boundary) but also because bus and train links from Sheffield into the Peaks are excellent for such rural services. Popular services run back to Sheffield quite late (some until 11 pm), making it feasible for Sheffielders and visitors to put a day's hard work or shopping behind them or a long summer's evening "walking in the Peaks". The popularity of the Peaks as a destination for Sheffielders at leisure is underlined by the fact that many routes provide a better service at weekends (particularly on Sunday) than during the week - making a full day in the fresh air very easy to arrange.

Briefly, the Peak District ("The Peaks") is a beautiful "National Park" of moors with open access for hikers; stone-walled green hills and sheep-filled fields crossed by paths for ramblers; hillside tracks and country lanes for cyclists; and a network of tiny hamlets, small villages, country churches, and market towns. All the settlements have their own charm and history, and nearly all have at least one pub for lunch and beer, or a tea shop for afternoon tea and cakes.

  • The Fox House pub is well-served with daytime and evening buses from Sheffield (many routes meet here), and it is only a very short drive out of town. It is situated just where the view of the Peak District opens up as you come over the hill from Sheffield, so you can walk along the high bits without having to climb up there! It is a great place to have a drink before going walking/running/climbing in some great terrain, and to return to for a meal and a drink while waiting for your bus back.
  • Hathersage and Grindleford are very close to Sheffield on the "Hope Valley" train line. One evening, get a return ticket to Hathersage for about £3.50, and walk from Grindleford Station to Hathersage Church (Little John's Grave!) along the riverside path (1 to 2 hours, plus time in the country pubs at both ends). If you get an early enough train you can eat at the Grindleford Station Cafe (famous for huge mugs of tea, filling food, and bossy notices everywhere).
  • Edale is a pretty village at the head of a beautiful valley, overlooked by the famous Kinder Scout and Mam Tor. There is one pub in the centre of the village at the start of the Pennine Way, and another by the railway station where you can drink moderately until the closing time train (11pm) back to Sheffield (Hope Valley line, 40 minutes from Sheffield).
  • Castleton is on the other side of Mam Tor, so is a short, but steep walk from Edale with beautiful views along the way. It is home to the only Blue John mine in the world as well as four major caves/caverns which tourists can visit. Each has a very different feel, from the natural splendour of Peak Cavern to the disconcerting underground river trip (and well-rehearsed guides' patter) of Speedwell. Castleton has an excellent bus service, and though not directly on the Hope Valley line, train tickets are accepted on the bus between Castleton and Hope Station (which is!).
  • Eyam ("Eem") village comes with a fascinating history and a sad but brave story: it chose to quarantine itself when plague struck in the 17th century. Whole families died, but the plague did not spread. The stone where food was deposited, in exchange for money left in vinegar-filled holes can still be seen. There is a museum detailing this and the rest of the village's history, and Eyam Hall is an interesting house to visit.
  • Bakewell is gentle and pretty (quite Jane Austen-ish). It is good for riverside strolls, country shopping, and spending all day in tea shops trying out the rival versions of "Real, Genuine, Proper, Original, etc etc Bakewell puddings. Chatsworth House and Haddon Hall are nearby for "how-the-rich-lived"-buffs and history-buffs respectively.
  • "Sheffield's Lake District" is a rather fanciful name (which has never really stuck) for the Bradfield valley just north of the city centre. True, the moors, green hills, villages, and country pubs really are very beautiful, and make for lovely walks, rides, and drives — but it has to be admitted that there is a distinct lack of mountains (unlike Cumbria) and that the "lakes" are really reservoirs. The area really (really! honest!) is a "secret" — it can be a surpise to first-time visitors even from the south of Sheffield, especially when they realise that this area is not only officially part of Sheffield, but that it is also in the Peak District. It is very well served (right until pub closing time) by a circular bus route from Hillsborough interchange (tram from the city centre): ask for Upper Bradfield, Lower Bradfield, or Dungworth (yep, that's what it's called!).
  • Matlock (shops), Matlock Bath (riverside walks, a "seaside prom", and a cable car), and Cromford (Arkwright's Mill, the first factory !) are closer to Chesterfield, but are easily reached by car from Sheffield.
  • The South Pennines will look familiar to anyone who has seen "Last of the Summer Wine". Holmfirth is 40 minutes drive away (direct bus on Sundays) for anyone who wants to see Compo's cafe (actually, an excellent "sit down chippy") or Nora Batty's step, or just the stone buildings of Holmfirth set in a beautiful green valley surrounded by rolling hills.
  • The Dukeries of north Nottinghamshire is an area of country parks and stately homes.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SHEFFIELD, a city, and municipal, county and parliamentary borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 1582 M. N.N.W. from London. Pop. (1901) 409,070. It is served by the Midland, Great Central and Great Northern railways, and has direct connexion with all the principal lines in the north of England. The principal stations are Victoria (Great Central) and Midland. Sheffield is situated on hilly ground in the extreme south of the county, and at the junction of several streams with the river Don, the principal of which are the Sheaf, the Porter, the Rivelin and the Loxley. The manufacturing quarter lies mainly in the Don valley, while the chief residential suburbs extend up the picturesque hills to the south. The centre of the city, with the majority of the public buildings, lies on the slope south of the Don, and here are several handsome thoroughfares. The older portions were somewhat irregular and overcrowded, but a great number of improvements were effected under an act of 1875, and have been steadily continued. There is an extensive system of tramways, serving the outlying townships. The parish church of St Peter is a cruciform building, mainly Perpendicular. The original Norman building is supposed to have been burned during the wars of Edward III. with the barons, and the most ancient existing part is the tower, dating from the 14th century. A restoration in 1880, when transepts and a W. front were added, improved the church by demolishing the galleries and other heavy internal fittings. There are a number of interesting mural monuments; and the Shrewsbury chapel contains a fine tomb of the 4th earl of Shrewsbury, who founded it in the 16th century. Of the principal public buildings, the town hall was opened by Queen Victoria in 1897. It is a fine building in the style of the Renaissance, surmounted by a lofty tower, which is crowned by an emblematic statue in bronze. The Cutlers' hall was built in 183 2 and enlarged in 1857 by the addition of a magnificent banqueting hall. The handsome corn exchange, in Tudor style, and the market hall were acquired from the duke of Norfolk by the corporation. Among several theatres, the Theatre Royal was originally erected in 1793. Others are the Alexandra, Lyceum and Alhambra. There are extensive barracks. Literary and social institutions include the Athenaeum (1847), with news-room and library; the literary and philosophical society (1822), the Sheffield club (1862), the Sheffield library, founded in 1777, and the free library (1856), with several branches. The public museum and the Mappin art gallery are situated in Weston Park; and in Meersbrook Hall is the fine Ruskin museum, containing Ruskin's art, mineralogical, natural history, and botanical collections, and some original drawings and valuable books. These are in the custody of the corporation. Beyond St Peter's church relics of antiquity are few, but there remains a part of the manor-house of Hallam, dating from the 16th century. In the S. of the city is Broom Hall, a fine ancient half-timbered building.

The educational establishments are important. University College, constituted by that title in 1897, was founded in 1879 as the Firth College by Mark Firth (1819-1880), an eminent steel-manufacturer. This institution was enlarged in 1892, and comprised, besides the college, a technical department (1886) occupying the buildings of the former grammar school, and equipped with metallurgical laboratories, steel works, iron foundry, a machine and fitting shop, &c.; and a medical school, together with a school of pharmacy. In 1903 the foundation was laid of a building, at Western Bank, to contain the departments of medicine, arts, pure science, commerce, &c. When the college became dissociated in 1904 from the Victoria University, Manchester, of which it had formed a constituent, the necessary financial and other preparations were taken in hand to enable the college to be incorporated as the Sheffield University, and it was opened as such by King Edward VII. Other educational institutions are the free writing school (1715, rebuilt in 1827), the boys' charity school (founded 1706), the girls' charity school (1786), the Church of England educational institute, the Roman Catholic reformatory (1861), the Wesley College, associated with London University, Ranmoor College of the Methodist New Connexion, the mechanics' institute, and the school of art.

Among numerous medical or benevolent institutions may be mentioned the general infirmary, opened in 1797; the public hospital, erected in 1858 in connexion with the Sheffield medical school established in 1792; the school and manufactory for the blind, 1879, and the South Yorkshire lunatic asylum, 1872. Among many charities founded by citizens the most noteworthy is the Shrewsbury hospital for twenty men and twenty women, originally founded by the 7th earl of Shrewsbury (d. 1616), but greatly enlarged by successive benefactions.

Among public monuments are the statue of Queen Victoria before the town hall; the statue to James Montgomery the poet (1771-1854), chiefly erected by the Sunday school teachers of Sheffield; the monument in Weston Park to Ebenezer Elliot (1781-1849), known as the Corn Law rhymer; the column to Godfrey Sykes the artist (1825-1866); the monument to those who died during an outbreak of cholera in 1833; and the monument to the natives of Sheffield who fell in the Crimean War. Sir Francis Chantrey, the eminent sculptor, was born (1781) and died (1842) near Norton in Derbyshire, in the neighbourhood of Sheffield, which was the scene of his earlier work.

Sheffield is well supplied with parks and public grounds. In the western suburbs is Weston Park, occupying the grounds of Weston Hall, purchased by the corporation in 1873. The Firth Park, of 36 acres, on the N.E. of the city, was presented by Mark Firth, and was opened in 1875 by King Edward VII. and Queen Alexandra when prince and princess of Wales. There are botanical gardens of 18 acres in the western suburbs. A park and other recreation grounds have been presented by the duke of Norfolk as lord of the manor. To the N.W., towards Penistone, is Wharncliffe, retaining much of the characteristics of an ancient forest, and overlooking the valley of the Don from bold rocky terraces and ridges. The Bramall Lane cricket ground in Sheffield is the scene of many of the Yorkshire county cricket matches. The prosperity of Sheffield is chiefly dependent on the manu facture of steel. The smelting of iron in the district is supposed to date from Roman times, and there is distinct proof carrying it back as far as the Norman Conquest. The town had become famed for its cutlery by the 14th century, as is shown by allusions in Chaucer. There was an important trade carried on in knives in the reign of Elizabeth, and the Cutlers' Company was incorporated in 1624. In early times cutlery was made of blister or bar steel; afterwards shear steel was introduced for the same purpose; but in 1740 Benjamin Huntsman of Handsworth introduced the manufacture of cast steel, and Sheffield retains its supremacy in steel manufacture, notwithstanding foreign competition, especially that of Germany and the United States, its trade in heavy steel having kept pace with that in the other branches. It was with the aid of Sheffield capital that Henry Bessemer founded his pioneer works to develop the manufacture of his invention, and a large quantity of Bessemer steel is still made in Sheffield. The heavy branch of the steel manufacture includes armour plates, rails, tyres, axles, large castings for engines, steel shot, and steel for rifles. The cutlery trade embraces almost every variety of instrument and tool - spring and table knives, razors, scissors, surgical instruments, mathematical instruments, edge tools, files, saws, scythes, sickles, spades, shovels, engineering tools, hammers, vices, &c. The manufacture of engines and machinery is also largely carried on, as well as that of stoves and grates. The art of silver plating was introduced by Thomas Bolsover in 1742, and specimens of early Sheffield plate are highly prized. Among the other industries of the town are tanning, confectionery, cabinetmaking, bicycle-making, iron and brass founding, silver refining, the manufacture of brushes, combs, optical instruments, horse-hair cloth, and railway fittings, and testing. The Cutlers' Company (1624) exercises, by acts of 1883-1888, jurisdiction in all matters relating to the registration of trade marks, over all goods composed in whole or in part of any metal, wrought or unwrought, as also over all persons carrying on business in Hallamshire and within 6 m. thereof. There are numerous collieries in the neighbourhood.

Sheffield is the seat of a suffragan bishop in the diocese of York. The town trust for the administration of property belonging to the town dates from the 14th century, and in 1681 the number and manner of election of the "town trustees" was definitely settled by a decree of the Court of Chancery. Additional powers were conferred on the trustees by an act passed in 1874. The town first returned members to parliament in 1832. In 1885 the representation was increased from two to five members, the parliamentary divisions being Attercliffe, Brightside, Central, Ecclesall and Hallam. The county borough was created in 1888, and in 1893 the town became a city. The corporation consists of a lord mayor (the title was conferred on the chief magistrate in 1897), 16 aldermen, and 48 councillors. Area, 23,662 acres.

At the time of the Domesday Survey the four manors of Grimesthorpe, Hallam, Attercliffe and Sheffield (Escafeld) made up what is now the borough of Sheffield. Of these Hallam was the most important, being the place where Earl Waltheof, the Saxon lord of the manors, had his court. After the Conquest the earl was allowed to retain his possessions, and when he was executed for treason they passed to his widow Judith, niece of William the Conqueror, of whom Roger de Bush was holding Hallam with the three less important manors at the time of the Domesday Survey. From him the manors passed to the family of de Lovetot, but in the reign of Henry II., William de Lovetot, the 2nd lord, died without male issue, and his property passed to his daughter Maud, afterwards married to Gerard de Furnival. By the end of the 14th century Sheffield had become more important than Hallam, partly no doubt on account of the castle which one of the Furnivals had built here. Thomas de Furnival, great-great-grandson of Gerard and Maud, in 1296 obtained a grant of a market every Tuesday and a fair every year on the eve, day and morrow of Holy Trinity, and in the following year he gave the inhabitants a charter granting them the privileges of holding the town at a fee-farm rent of L3, 8s. 94d. yearly, of having a court baron held every three weeks, and of freedom from toll throughout the whole of Hallamshire. From the Furnivals the manor passed by marriage to John Talbot, afterwards earl of Shrewsbury, whose descendant the 6th earl was entrusted with the care of Mary Queen of Scots during her twelve years' imprisonment in Sheffield castle. In the reign of Edward VI. the property belonging to the town which had been amalgamated with other land left to the burgesses in trust for certain charitable uses was forfeited to the crown under the act for the suppression of colleges and chantries, but on their petition it was restored in 1554 by Queen Mary, who at the same time incorporated the town under the government of twelve capital burgesses.

See Victoria County History, Yorkshire: Joseph Hunter, Hallamshire: the history and topography of the parish of Sheffield (1869).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Etymology

Old English for 'open land by the river Sheaf'.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Sheffield

Plural
-

Sheffield

  1. A city in Yorkshire, England.

Translations


Simple English

File:Sheffield
Some famous places in Sheffield. Top: Sheffield from Meersbrook Park, middle left: Sheffield Cathedral, middle right: Shepherd Wheel, bottom left: Fargate, bottom right: Sheffield Winter Garden.

Sheffield is a big city in a region called South Yorkshire in the North of England. 534,500 people live there. Sheffield is in the middle of lots of hills. The city centre is where the River Sheaf meets the River Don, and Sheffield gets its name from the River Sheaf. The city is east of the Peak District National Park. It is estimated that Sheffield has over two million trees, which is more than any city in Europe per each person. 61% of the city is green space, such as parks and forests.

The area of Sheffield used to be the Anglo-Saxon shire of Hallamshire, the city itself was founded later.

Sheffield is famous for making cutlery (like knives and spoons). People in Sheffield have made cutlery for a very long time (a Sheffield-made knife is referred to in Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales", a book from the middle ages). Sheffield is also famous for making steel. Benjamin Huntsman discovered the crucible technique for making steel in 1740. In 1856, Henry Bessemer invented the Bessemer Converter steelmaking furnace. Henry moved to Sheffield to make steel. Later, in 1912, Harry Brearly invented stainless steel in Sheffield.

The first football team in the world is from Sheffield, Sheffield F.C., set up in 1857. Sheffield currently has two big professional football teams: Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday.

There are lots of famous bands from Sheffield. Some of them are Pulp, the Human League, Def Leppard and the Arctic Monkeys. Michael Palin is also from Sheffield.

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