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A ship (About this sound Audio (US) ) is a large vessel that floats on water. Ships are generally distinguished from boats based on size and cargo or passenger capacity. In traditional terms, ships were considered to be vessels which had at least one continuous water-tight deck extending from bow to stern. However, some modern designs for ships, and boats, have made that particular definition less accurate. Ships may be found on lakes, seas, and rivers and they allow for a variety of activities, such as the transport of people or goods, fishing, entertainment, public safety, and warfare.

Ships and boats have developed alongside mankind. In major wars, and in day to day life, they have become an integral part of modern commercial and military systems. Fishing boats are used by millions of fishermen throughout the world. Military forces operate highly sophisticated vessels to transport and support forces ashore. Commercial vessels, nearly 35,000 in number, carried 7.4 billion tons of cargo in 2007.[1]

These vessels were also key in history's great explorations and scientific and technological development. Navigators such as Zheng He spread such inventions as the compass and gunpowder. Ships have been used for such purposes as colonization and the slave trade, and have served scientific, cultural, and humanitarian needs. New crops that had come from the Americas via the European seafarers in the 16th century significantly contributed to the world's population growth.[2]

As Thor Heyerdahl demonstrated with his tiny craft the Kon-Tiki, it is possible to navigate long distances upon a simple log raft. From Mesolithic canoes to today's powerful nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, ships tell the history of human technological development.

Contents

Nomenclature

Main parts of ship. 1Smokestack or Funnel; 2Stern; 3Propeller and Rudder; 4Portside (the right side is known as starboard); 5Anchor; 6Bulbous bow; 7Bow; 8Deck; 9Superstructure

Ships can usually be distinguished from boats based on size and the ship's ability to operate independently for extended periods.[3] A commonly used rule of thumb is that if one vessel can carry another, the larger of the two is a ship.[4] As dinghies are common on sailing yachts as small as 35 feet (11 m), this rule of thumb is not foolproof. In a more technical and now rare sense, the term ship refers to a sailing ship with at least 3 square-rigged masts and a full bowsprit.

A number of large vessels are traditionally referred to as boats. Submarines are a prime example.[5] Other types of large vessels which are traditionally called boats are the Great Lakes freighter, the riverboat, and the ferryboat.[citation needed] Though large enough to carry their own boats and heavy cargoes, these vessels are designed for operation on inland or protected coastal waters.

History

Prehistory and antiquity

A raft is among the simplest boat designs.

The history of boats parallels the human adventure. The first known boats date back to the Neolithic Period, about 10,000 years ago. These early vessels had limited function: they could move on water, but that was it. They were used mainly for hunting and fishing. The oldest dugout canoes found by archaeologists were often cut from coniferous tree logs, using simple stone tools.

By around 3000 BC, Ancient Egyptians already knew how to assemble planks of wood into a ship hull.[6] They used woven straps to lash the planks together,[6] and reeds or grass stuffed between the planks helped to seal the seams.[6][7] The Greek historian and geographer Agatharchides had documented ship-faring among the early Egyptians: "During the prosperous period of the Old Kingdom, between the 30th and 25th centuries B. C., the river-routes were kept in order, and Egyptian ships sailed the Red Sea as far as the myrrh-country."[8] Sneferu's ancient cedar wood ship Praise of the Two Lands is the first reference recorded (2613 BCE) to a ship being referred to by name.[9]

In East Asia, by the time of the Zhou Dynasty ship technologies such as stern mounted rudders were developed, and by the Han Dynasty, a well kept naval fleet was an integral part of the military. Ship technology advanced to the point where by the medieval period, water tight compartments were developed. During the 15th century in the Ming Dynasty, one of the largest and most powerful naval fleet in the world was assembled for the diplomatic and power projection voyages of Zheng He. Elsewhere in Korea in the 15th century, one of the world's first iron-clads, the turtle ship, was also developed.

By about 2000 BC, Minoan civilization in Crete had evolved into a naval power exercising effective control of the sea in the eastern Mediterranean.[10] It is known that ancient Nubia/Axum traded with India, and there is evidence that ships from Northeast Africa may have sailed back and forth between India/Sri Lanka and Nubia trading goods and even to Persia, Himyar and Rome.[11] Aksum was known by the Greeks for having seaports for ships from Greece and Yemen.[12] Elsewhere in Northeast Africa, the Periplus of the Red Sea reports that Somalis, through their northern ports such as Zeila and Berbera, were trading frankincense and other items with the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula well before the arrival of Islam as well as with then Roman-controlled Egypt.[13]

Roman trireme mosaic from Carthage, Bardo Museum, Tunis.

The Swahili people had various extensive trading ports dotting the cost of medieval East Africa and Great Zimbabwe had extensive trading contacts with Central Africa, and likely also imported goods brought to Africa through the Southeast African shore trade of Kilwa in modern-day Tanzania.[14]

It is known by historians that at its height the Mali Empire built a large naval fleet under Emperor Mansa Musa in the late 13th and early 14th century.[15] Arabic sources describe what some consider to be visits to the New World by a Mali fleet in 1311.[16]

At about the same time, people living near Kongens Lyngby in Denmark invented the segregated hull, which allowed the size of boats to gradually be increased. Boats soon developed into keel boats similar to today's wooden pleasure craft.

The first navigators began to use animal skins or woven fabrics as sails. Affixed to the top of a pole set upright in a boat, these sails gave early ships range. This allowed men to explore widely, allowing, for example the settlement of Oceania about 3,000 years ago.

The ancient Egyptians were perfectly at ease building sailboats. A remarkable example of their shipbuilding skills was the Khufu ship, a vessel 143 feet (44 m) in length entombed at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around 2,500 BC and found intact in 1954. According to Herodotus, the Egyptians made the first circumnavigation of Africa around 600 BC.

The Phoenicians and Greeks gradually mastered navigation at sea aboard triremes, exploring and colonizing the Mediterranean via ship. Around 340 BC, the Greek navigator Pytheas of Massalia ventured from Greece to Western Europe and Great Britain.[17] In the course of the 2nd century BC, Rome went on to destroy Carthage and subdue the Hellenistic kingdoms of the eastern Mediterranean, achieving complete mastery of the inland sea, that they called Mare Nostrum. The monsoon wind system of the Indian Ocean was first sailed by Greek navigator Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 118 BC.[18] With 300 Greek ships a year sailing between Roman Empire and India, the annual trade may have reached 300,000 tons.[19]

The Battle of Lepanto, 1571, naval engagement between allied Christian forces and the Ottoman Turks.

Before the introduction of the compass, celestial navigation was the main method for navigation at sea. In China, early versions of the magnetic compass were being developed and used in navigation between 1040 and 1117.[20] The true mariner's compass, using a pivoting needle in a dry box, was invented in Europe no later than 1300.[21][22]

Renaissance

Until the Renaissance, navigational technology remained comparatively primitive. This absence of technology didn't prevent some civilizations from becoming sea powers. Examples include the maritime republics of Genoa and Venice, Hanseatic League, and the Byzantine navy. The Vikings used their knarrs to explore North America, trade in the Baltic Sea and plunder many of the coastal regions of Western Europe.

Towards the end of the fourteenth century, ships like the carrack began to develop towers on the bow and stern. These towers decreased the vessel's stability, and in the fifteenth century, the caravel, a descendent of the Arabic qarib which could sail closer to the wind, became more widely used. The towers were gradually replaced by the forecastle and sterncastle, as in the carrack Santa María of Christopher Columbus. This increased freeboard allowed another innovation: the freeing port, and the artillery associated with it.

A Japanese atakebune from the 16th century

In the sixteenth century, the use of freeboard and freeing ports become widespread on galleons. The English modified their vessels to maximize their firepower and demonstrated the effectiveness of their doctrine, in 1588, by defeating the Spanish Armada.

At this time, ships were developing in Asia in much the same way as Europe. Japan used defensive naval techniques in the Mongol invasions of Japan in 1281. It is likely that the Mongols of the time took advantage of both European and Asian shipbuilding techniques. In Japan, during the Sengoku era from the fifteenth to seventeenth century, the great struggle for feudal supremacy was fought, in part, by coastal fleets of several hundred boats, including the atakebune.

Model of a medieval Mogadishan ship.

During the Age of the Ajuuraan, the Somali sultanates and republics of Merca, Mogadishu, Barawa, Hobyo and their respective ports flourished, enjoying a lucrative foreign commerce with ships sailing to and coming from Arabia, India, Venetia,[23] Persia, Egypt, Portugal and as far away as China. In the 1500s, Duarte Barbosa noted that many ships from the Kingdom of Cambaya in what is modern-day India sailed to Mogadishu with cloths and spices, for which they in return received gold, wax and ivory. Barbosa also highlighted the abundance of meat, wheat, barley, horses, and fruit on the coastal markets, which generated enormous wealth for the merchants.[24]

Middle Age Swahili Kingdoms are known to have had trade port islands and trade routes[25] with the Islamic world and Asia and were described by Greek historians as "metropolises".[26] Famous African trade ports such as Mombasa, Zanzibar, and Kilwa[27] were known to Chinese sailors such as Zheng He and medieval Islamic historians such as the Berber Islamic voyager Abu Abdullah ibn Battua.[28] In the 14th century CE King Abubakari I, the brother of King Mansa Musa of the Mali Empire is thought to have had a great armada of ships sitting on the coast of West Africa.[29] This is corroborated by ibn Battuta himself who recalls several hundred Malian ships off the coast.[30] This has led to great speculation, with historical evidence, that it is possible that Malian sailors may have reached the coast of Pre-Columbian America under the rule of Abubakari II, nearly two hundred years before Christopher Columbus[31] and that black traders may have been in the Americas before Columbus.[32]

Replica of Magellan’s Victoria. Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition that circumnavigated the globe in 1519-1522.

Fifty years before Christopher Columbus, Chinese navigator Zheng He traveled the world at the head of what was for the time a huge armada. The largest of his ships had nine masts, were 130 metres (430 ft) long and had a beam of 55 metres (180 ft). His fleet carried 30,000 men aboard 70 vessels, with the goal of bringing glory to the Chinese emperor.

The carrack and then the caravel were developed in Iberia. After Columbus, European exploration rapidly accelerated, and many new trade routes were established.[33] In 1498, by reaching India, Vasco da Gama proved that the access to the Indian Ocean from the Atlantic was possible. These explorations in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans were soon followed by France, England and the Netherlands, who explored the Portuguese and Spanish trade routes into the Pacific Ocean, reaching Australia in 1606 and New Zealand in 1642.[34] A major sea power, the Dutch in 1650 owned 16,000 merchant ships.[35] In the 17th century Dutch explorers such as Abel Tasman explored the coasts of Australia, while in the 18th century it was British explorer James Cook who mapped much of Polynesia.

Specialization and modernization

The British Temeraire and French ships Redoutable and Bucentaure at the Battle of Trafalgar

Parallel to the development of warships, ships in service of marine fishery and trade also developed in the period between antiquity and the Renaissance. Still primarily a coastal endeavor, fishing is largely practiced by individuals with little other money using small boats.

Maritime trade was driven by the development of shipping companies with significant financial resources. Canal barges, towed by draft animals on an adjacent towpath, contended with the railway up to and past the early days of the industrial revolution. Flat-bottomed and flexible scow boats also became widely used for transporting small cargoes. Mercantile trade went hand-in-hand with exploration, self-financed by the commercial benefits of exploration.

During the first half of the eighteenth century, the French Navy began to develop a new type of vessel known as a ship of the line, featuring seventy-four guns. This type of ship became the backbone of all European fighting fleets. These ships were 56 metres (184 ft) long and their construction required 2,800 oak trees and 40 kilometres (25 mi) of rope; they carried a crew of about 800 sailors and soldiers.

RMS Titanic departs from Southampton. Her sinking would tighten safety regulations

During the 19th century the Royal Navy enforced a ban on the slave trade, acted to suppress piracy, and continued to map the world. A clipper was a very fast sailing ship of the 19th century. The clipper route fell into commercial disuse with the introduction of steam ships, and the opening of the Suez and Panama Canals.

Ship designs stayed fairly unchanged until the late nineteenth century. The industrial revolution, new mechanical methods of propulsion, and the ability to construct ships from metal triggered an explosion in ship design. Factors including the quest for more efficient ships, the end of long running and wasteful maritime conflicts, and the increased financial capacity of industrial powers created an avalanche of more specialized boats and ships. Ships built for entirely new functions, such as firefighting, rescue, and research, also began to appear.

In light of this, classification of vessels by type or function can be difficult. Even using very broad functional classifications such as fishery, trade, military, and exploration fails to classify most of the old ships. This difficulty is increased by the fact that the terms such as sloop and frigate are used by old and new ships alike, and often the modern vessels sometimes have little in common with their predecessors.

Today

The Colombo Express, one of the largest container ships in the world, owned and operated by Hapag-Lloyd of Germany

In 2007, the world's fleet included 34,882 commercial vessels with gross tonnage of more than 1,000 tons,[36] totaling 1.04 billion tons.[1] These ships carried 7.4 billion tons of cargo in 2006, a sum that grew by 8% over the previous year.[1] In terms of tonnage, 39% of these ships are tankers, 26% are bulk carriers, 17% container ships and 15% were other types.[1]

In 2002, there were 1,240 warships operating in the world, not counting small vessels such as patrol boats. The United States accounted for 3 million tons worth of these vessels, Russia 1.35 million tons, the United Kingdom 504,660 tons and China 402,830 tons. The twentieth century saw many naval engagements during the two world wars, the Cold War, and the rise to power of naval forces of the two blocs. The world's major powers have recently used their naval power in cases such as the United Kingdom in the Falkland Islands and the United States in Iraq.

The size of the world's fishing fleet is more difficult to estimate. The largest of these are counted as commercial vessels, but the smallest are legion. Fishing vessels can be found in most seaside villages in the world. As of 2004, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimated 4 million fishing vessels were operating worldwide.[37] The same study estimated that the world's 29 million fishermen[38] caught 85.8 million metric tons of fish and shellfish that year.[39]

Types of ships

Ships are difficult to classify, mainly because there are so many criteria to base classification on. One classification is based on propulsion; with ships categorised as either a sailing ship a Steamship or a motorship. Sailing ships are ships which are propelled solely by means of sails. Steamships are ships which are propelled by steam engines. Motorships are ships which are propelled by internal combustion engines as a means to propel itself. Motorships include ships that propel itself through the use of both sail and mechanical means.

Other classification systems exist that use criteria such as:

  • The number of hulls, giving categories like monohull, catamaran, trimaran.
  • The shape and size, giving categories like dinghy, keelboat, and icebreaker.
  • The building materials used, giving steel, aluminum, wood, fiberglass, and plastic.
  • The type of propulsion system used, giving human-propelled, mechanical, and sails.
  • The epoch in which the vessel was used, triremes of Ancient Greece, man' o' wars, eighteenth century.
  • The geographic origin of the vessel, many vessels are associated with a particular region, such as the pinnace of Northern Europe, the gondolas of Venice, and the junks of China.
  • The manufacturer, series, or class.

Another way to categorize ships and boats is based on their use, as described by Paulet and Presles.[40] This system includes military ships, commercial vessels, fishing boats, pleasure craft and competitive boats. In this section, ships are classified using the first four of those categories, and adding a section for lake and river boats, and one for vessels which fall outside these categories.

Commercial vessels

Commercial vessels or merchant ships can be divided into three broad categories: cargo ships, passenger ships, and special-purpose ships.[41] Cargo ships transport dry and liquid cargo. Dry cargo can be transported in bulk by bulk carriers, packed directly onto a general cargo ship in break-bulk, packed in intermodal containers as aboard a container ship, or driven aboard as in roll-on roll-off ships. Liquid cargo is generally carried in bulk aboard tankers, such as oil tankers, chemical tankers and LNG tankers.

Passenger ships range in size from small river ferries to giant cruise ships. This type of vessel includes ferries, which move passengers and vehicles on short trips; ocean liners, which carry passengers on one-way trips; and cruise ships, which typically transport passengers on round-trip voyages promoting leisure activities onboard and in the ports they visit.

Special-purpose vessels are not used for transport but are designed to perform other specific tasks. Examples include tugboats, pilot boats, rescue boats, cable ships, research vessels, survey vessels, and ice breakers.

Most commercial vessels have full hull-forms to maximize cargo capacity.[citation needed] Hulls are usually made of steel, although aluminum can be used on faster craft, and fiberglass on the smallest service vessels.[citation needed] Commercial vessels generally have a crew headed by a captain, with deck officers and marine engineers on larger vessels. Special-purpose vessels often have specialized crew if necessary, for example scientists aboard research vessels. Commercial vessels are typically powered by a single propeller driven by a diesel engine.[citation needed] Vessels which operate at the higher end of the speed spectrum may use pump-jet engines or sometimes gas turbine engines.[citation needed]

Naval vessels

American aircraft carrier Harry S. Truman and a replenishment ship

There are many types of naval vessels currently and through history. Modern naval vessels can be broken down into three categories: warships, submarines, and support and auxiliary vessels.

Modern warships are generally divided into seven main categories, which are: aircraft carriers, cruisers, destroyers, frigates, corvettes, submarines and amphibious assault ships. Battleships encompass an eighth category, but are not in current service with any navy in the world.[42]

Most military submarines are either attack submarines or ballistic missile submarines. Until the end of World War II , the primary role of the diesel/electric submarine was anti-ship warfare, inserting and removing covert agents and military forces, and intelligence-gathering. With the development of the homing torpedo, better sonar systems, and nuclear propulsion, submarines also became able to effectively hunt each other. The development of submarine-launched nuclear missiles and submarine-launched cruise missiles gave submarines a substantial and long-ranged ability to attack both land and sea targets with a variety of weapons ranging from cluster bombs to nuclear weapons.

Most navies also include many types of support and auxiliary vessels, such as minesweepers, patrol boats, offshore patrol vessels, replenishment ships, and hospital ships which are designated medical treatment facilities.[43]

Combat vessels like cruisers and destroyers usually have fine hulls to maximize speed and maneuverability.[44] They also usually have advanced electronics and communication systems, as well as weapons.

Fishing vessels

The Albatun Dos, a tuna boat at work near Victoria, Seychelles

Fishing vessels are a subset of commercial vessels, but generally small in size and often subject to different regulations and classification. They can be categorized by several criteria: architecture, the type of fish they catch, the fishing method used, geographical origin, and technical features such as rigging. As of 2004, the world's fishing fleet consisted of some 4 million vessels.[37] Of these, 1.3 million were decked vessels with enclosed areas and the rest were open vessels.[37] Most decked vessels were mechanized, but two-thirds of the open vessels were traditional craft propelled by sails and oars.[37] More than 60% of all existing large fishing vessels[45] were built in Japan, Peru, the Russian Federation, Spain or the United States of America.[46]

Fishing boats are generally small, often little more than 30 metres (98 ft) but up to 100 metres (330 ft) for a large tuna or whaling ship. Aboard a fish processing vessel, the catch can be made ready for market and sold more quickly once the ship makes port. Special purpose vessels have special gear. For example, trawlers have winches and arms, stern-trawlers have a rear ramp, and tuna seiners have skiffs.

In 2004, 85.8 million metric tons of fish were caught in the marine capture fishery.[47] Anchoveta represented the largest single catch at 10.7 million metric tons.[47] That year, the top ten marine capture species also included Alaska pollock, Blue whiting, Skipjack tuna, Atlantic herring, Chub mackerel, Japanese anchovy, Chilean jack mackerel, Largehead hairtail, and Yellowfin tuna.[47] Other species including salmon, shrimp, lobster, clams, squid and crab, are also commercially fished.

Modern commercial fishermen use many methods. One is fishing by nets, such as purse seine, beach seine, lift nets, gillnets, or entangling nets. Another is trawling, including bottom trawl. Hooks and lines are used in methods like long-line fishing and hand-line fishing). Another method is the use of fishing trap.

Inland and coastal boats

Passenger ship on the river Rhine

Many types of boats and ships are designed for inland and coastal waterways. These are the vessels that trade upon the lakes, rivers and canals.

Barges are a prime example of inland vessels. Flat-bottomed boats built to transport heavy goods, most barges are not self-propelled and need to be moved by tugboats towing or towboats pushing them. Barges towed along canals by draft animals on an adjacent towpath contended with the railway in the early industrial revolution but were out competed in the carriage of high value items because of the higher speed, falling costs, and route flexibility of rail transport.

Riverboats and inland ferries are specially designed to carry passengers, cargo, or both in the challenging river environment. Rivers present special hazards to vessels. They usually have varying water flows that alternately lead to high speed water flows or protruding rock hazards. Changing siltation patterns may cause the sudden appearance of shoal waters, and often floating or sunken logs and trees (called snags) can endanger the hulls and propulsion of riverboats. Riverboats are generally of shallow draft, being broad of beam and rather square in plan, with a low freeboard and high topsides. Riverboats can survive with this type of configuration as they do not have to withstand the high winds or large waves that are seen on large lakes, seas, or oceans.

Lake freighters, also called lakers, are cargo vessels that ply the Great Lakes. The most well-known is the SS Edmund Fitzgerald, the latest major vessel to be wrecked on the Lakes. These vessels are traditionally called boats, not ships. Visiting ocean-going vessels are called "salties." Because of their additional beam, very large salties are never seen inland of the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Because the largest of the Soo Locks is larger than any Seaway lock, salties that can pass through the Seaway may travel anywhere in the Great Lakes. Because of their deeper draft, salties may accept partial loads on the Great Lakes, "topping off" when they have exited the Seaway. Similarly, the largest lakers are confined to the Upper Lakes (Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie) because they are too large to use the Seaway locks, beginning at the Welland Canal that bypasses the Niagara River.

Since the freshwater lakes are less corrosive to ships than the salt water of the oceans, lakers tend to last much longer than ocean freighters. Lakers older than 50 years are not unusual, and as of 2005, all were over 20 years of age.[48]

The St. Mary's Challenger, built in 1906 as the William P Snyder, is the oldest laker still working on the Lakes. Similarly, the E.M. Ford, built in 1898 as the Presque Isle, was sailing the lakes 98 years later in 1996. As of 2007 the Ford was still afloat as a stationary transfer vessel at a riverside cement silo in Saginaw, Michigan.

Architecture

Some components exist in vessels of any size and purpose. Every vessel has a hull of sorts. Every vessel has some sort of propulsion, whether it's a pole, an ox, or a nuclear reactor. Most vessels have some sort of steering system. Other characteristics are common, but not as universal, such as compartments, holds, a superstructure, and equipment such as anchors and winches.

The hull

A ship's hull endures harsh conditions at sea, as illustrated by this reefer ship in bad weather.

For a ship to float, its weight must be less than that of the water displaced by the ship's hull. There are many types of hulls, from logs lashed together to form a raft to the advanced hulls of America's Cup sailboats. A vessel may have a single hull (called a monohull design), two in the case of catamarans, or three in the case of trimarans. Vessels with more than three hulls are rare, but some experiments have been conducted with designs such as pentamarans. Multiple hulls are generally parallel to each other and connected by rigid arms.

Hulls have several elements. The bow is the foremost part of the hull. Many ships feature a bulbous bow. The keel is at the very bottom of the hull, extending the entire length of the ship. The rear part of the hull is known as the stern, and many hulls have a flat back known as a transom. Common hull appendages include propellers for propulsion, rudders for steering, and stabilizers to quell a ship's rolling motion. Other hull features can be related to the vessel's work, such as fishing gear and sonar domes.

Hulls are subject to various hydrostatic and hydrodynamic constraints. The key hydrostatic constraint is that it must be able to support the entire weight of the boat, and maintain stability even with often unevenly distributed weight. Hydrodynamic constraints include the ability to withstand shock waves, weather collisions and groundings.

Older ships and pleasure craft often have or had wooden hulls. Steel is used for most commercial vessels. Aluminium is frequently used for fast vessels, and composite materials are often found in sailboats and pleasure craft. Some ships have been made with concrete hulls.

Propulsion systems

A bird's eye view of a ship's engineroom

Propulsion systems for ships fall into three categories: human propulsion, sailing, and mechanical propulsion. Human propulsion includes rowing, which was used even on large galleys. Propulsion by sail generally consists of a sail hoisted on an erect mast, supported by stays and spars and controlled by ropes. Sail systems were the dominant form of propulsion until the nineteenth century. They are now generally used for recreation and competition, although experimental sail systems, such as the turbosails, rotorsails, and wingsails have been used on larger modern vessels for fuel savings.

Mechanical propulsion systems generally consist of a motor or engine turning a propeller, or less frequently, an impeller. Steam engines were first used for this purpose, but have mostly been replaced by two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines, outboard motors, and gas turbine engines on faster ships. Nuclear reactors producing steam are used to propel warships and icebreakers, and there have been attempts to utilize them to power commercial vessels.

There are many variations of propeller systems, including twin, contra-rotating, controllable-pitch, and nozzle-style propellers. Smaller vessels tend to have a single propeller. Large vessels use multiple propellers, supplemented with bow- and stern-thrusters. Power is transmitted from the engine to the propeller by way of a propeller shaft, which may or may not be connected to a gearbox. Some modern vessels use electric motors connected directly to the propeller shaft, usually powered by generators. These electric systems are often more energy efficient than other systems where the engine is mechanically connected to the propeller.

Steering systems

The rudder and propeller on a newly built ferry

On boats with simple propulsion systems, such as paddles, steering systems may not be necessary. In more advanced designs, such as boats propelled by engines or sails, a steering system becomes necessary. The most common is a rudder, a submerged plane located at the rear of the hull. Rudders are rotated to generate a lateral force which turns the boat. Rudders can be rotated by a tiller, manual wheels, or electro-hydraulic systems. Autopilot systems combine mechanical rudders with navigation systems. Ducted propellers are sometimes used for steering.

Some propulsion systems are inherently steering systems. Examples include the outboard motor, the bow thruster, and the Z-drive. Some sails, such as jibs and the mizzen sail on a ketch rig, are used more for steering than propulsion.

Holds, compartments, and the superstructure

Larger boats and ships generally have multiple decks and compartments. Separate berthings and heads are found on sailboats over about 25 feet (7.6 m). Fishing boats and cargo ships typically have one or more cargo holds. Most larger vessels have an engine room, a galley, and various compartments for work. Tanks are used to store fuel, engine oil, and fresh water. Ballast tanks are equipped to change a ship's trim and modify its stability.

Superstructures are found above the main deck. On sailboats, these are usually very low. On modern cargo ships, they are almost always located near the ship's stern. On passenger ships and warships, the superstructure generally extends far forward.

Equipment

Shipboard equipment varies from ship to ship depending on such factors as the ship's era, design, area of operation, and purpose. Some types of equipment that are widely found include:

  • Masts can be the home of antennas, navigation lights, radar transponders, fog signals, and similar devices often required by law.
  • Ground tackle includes equipment such as mooring winches, windlasses, and anchors. Anchors are used to moor ships in shallow water. They are connected to the ship by a rope or chain. On larger vessels, the chain runs through a hawsepipe.
  • Cargo equipment such as cranes and cargo booms are used to load and unload cargo and ship's stores.
  • Safety equipment such as lifeboats, liferafts, fire extinguishers, and survival suits are carried aboard many vessels for emergency use.

Design considerations

Hydrostatics

Some vessels, like the LCAC, can operate in a non-displacement mode.

Boats and ships are kept on (or slightly above) the water in three ways:

  • For most vessels, known as displacement vessels, the vessel's weight is offset by that of the water displaced by the hull.
  • For planing ships and boats, such as the hydrofoil, the lift developed by the movement of the foil through the water increases with the vessel's speed, until the vessel is foilborne.
  • For non-displacement craft such as hovercraft and air-cushion vehicles, the vessel is suspended over the water by a cushion of high-pressure air it projects downwards against the surface of the water.

A vessel is in equilibrium when the upwards and downwards forces are of equal magnitude. As a vessel is lowered into the water its weight remains constant but the corresponding weight of water displaced by its hull increases. When the two forces are equal, the boat floats. If weight is evenly distributed throughout the vessel, it floats without trim or heel.

A vessel's stability is considered in both this hydrostatic sense as well as a hydrodynamic sense, when subjected to movement, rolling and pitching, and the action of waves and wind. Stability problems can lead to excessive pitching and rolling, and eventually capsizing and sinking.

Hydrodynamics

Fishing boat Dona Delfina

The advance of a vessel through water is resisted by the water. This resistance can be broken down into several components, the main ones being the friction of the water on the hull and wave making resistance. To reduce resistance and therefore increase the speed for a given power, it is necessary to reduce the wetted surface and use submerged hull shapes that produce low amplitude waves. To do so, high-speed vessels are often more slender, with fewer or smaller appendages. The friction of the water is also reduced by regular maintenance of the hull to remove the sea creatures and algae that accumulate there. Antifouling paint is commonly used to assist in this. Advanced designs such as the bulbous bow assist in decreasing wave resistance.

A simple way of considering wave-making resistance is to look at the hull in relation to its wake. At speeds lower than the wave propagation speed, the wave rapidly dissipates to the sides. As the hull approaches the wave propagation speed, however, the wake at the bow begins to build up faster than it can dissipate, and so it grows in amplitude. Since the water is not able to "get out of the way of the hull fast enough", the hull, in essence, has to climb over or push through the bow wave. This results in an exponential increase in resistance with increasing speed.

This hull speed is found by the formula:

\mbox{knots} \approx 1.34 \times \sqrt{L \mbox{ft}}

or, in metric units:

\mbox{knots} \approx 2.5 \times \sqrt{L \mbox{m}}

where L is the length of the waterline in feet or meters.

When the vessel exceeds a speed/length ratio of 0.94, it starts to outrun most of its bow wave, and the hull actually settles slightly in the water as it is now only supported by two wave peaks. As the vessel exceeds a speed/length ratio of 1.34, the hull speed, the wavelength is now longer than the hull, and the stern is no longer supported by the wake, causing the stern to squat, and the bow rise. The hull is now starting to climb its own bow wave, and resistance begins to increase at a very high rate. While it is possible to drive a displacement hull faster than a speed/length ratio of 1.34, it is prohibitively expensive to do so. Most large vessels operate at speed/length ratios well below that level, at speed/length ratios of under 1.0.

Vessels move along the three axes: 1. heave, 2. sway, 3. surge, 4. yaw, 5. pitching, 6. roll

For large projects with adequate funding, hydrodynamic resistance can be tested experimentally in a hull testing pool or using tools of computational fluid dynamics.

Vessels are also subject to ocean surface waves and sea swell as well as effects of wind and weather. These movements can be stressful for passengers and equipment, and must be controlled if possible. The rolling movement can be controlled, to an extent, by ballasting or by devices such as fin stabilizers. Pitching movement is more difficult to limit and can be dangerous if the bow submerges in the waves, a phenomenon called pounding. Sometimes, ships must change course or speed to stop violent rolling or pitching.

Lifecycle

A ship will pass through several stages during its career. The first is usually an initial contract to build the ship, the details of which can vary widely based on relationships between the shipowners, operators, designers and the shipyard. Then, the design phase carried out by a naval architect. Then the ship is constructed in a shipyard. After construction, the vessel is launched and goes into service. Ships end their careers in a number of ways, ranging from shipwrecks to service as a museum ship to the scrapyard.

Lines plan for the hull of a basic cargo ship

Design

A vessel's design starts with a specification, which a naval architect uses to create a project outline, assess required dimensions, and create a basic layout of spaces and a rough displacement. After this initial rough draft, the architect can create an initial hull design, a general profile and an initial overview of the ship's propulsion. At this stage, the designer can iterate on the ship's design, adding detail and refining the design at each stage.

The designer will typically produce an overall plan, a general specification describing the peculiarities of the vessel, and construction blueprints to be used at the building site. Designs for larger or more complex vessels may also include sail plans, electrical schematics, and plumbing and ventilation plans.

As environmental laws are strictening, ship designers need to create their design in such a way that the ship -when it nears its end-of-term- can be disassmbled or disposed easily and that waste is reduced to a minimum.

MS Freedom of the Seas under construction in a shipyard in Turku.

Construction

Ship construction takes place in a shipyard, and can last from a few months for a unit produced in series, to several years to reconstruct a wooden boat like the frigate Hermione, to more than 10 years for an aircraft carrier. Hull materials and vessel size play a large part in determining the method of construction. The hull of a mass-produced fiberglass sailboat is constructed from a mold, while the steel hull of a cargo ship is made from large sections welded together as they are built.

A ship launching at the Northern Shipyard in Gdansk, Poland

Generally, construction starts with the hull, and on vessels over about 30 meters, by the laying of the keel. This is done in a drydock or on land. Once the hull is assembled and painted, it is launched. The last stages, such as raising the superstructure and adding equipment and accommodation, can be done after the vessel is afloat.

Once completed, the vessel is delivered to the customer. Ship launching is often a ceremony of some significance, and is usually when the vessel is formally named. A typical small rowboat can cost under US$100, $1,000 for a small speedboat, tens of thousands of dollars for a cruising sailboat, and about $2,000,000 for a Vendée Globe class sailboat. A 25 metres (82 ft) trawler may cost $2.5 million, and a 1,000-person-capacity high-speed passenger ferry can cost in the neighborhood of $50 million. A ship's cost partly depends on its complexity: a small, general cargo ship will cost $20 million, a Panamax-sized bulk carrier around $35 million, a supertanker around $105 million and a large LNG carrier nearly $200 million. The most expensive ships generally are so because of the cost of embedded electronics: a Seawolf class submarine costs around $2 billion, and an aircraft carrier goes for about $3.5 billion.

Repair and conversion

An able seaman uses a needlegun scaler while refurbishing a mooring winch at sea

Ships undergo nearly constant maintenance during their career, whether they be underway, pierside, or in some cases, in periods of reduced operating status between charters or shipping seasons.

Most ships, however, require trips to special facilities such as a drydock at regular intervals. Tasks often done at drydock include removing biological growths on the hull, sandblasting and repainting the hull, and replacing sacrificial anodes used to protect submerged equipment from corrosion. Major repairs to the propulsion and steering systems as well as major electrical systems are also often performed at dry dock.

Vessels that sustain major damage at sea may be repaired at a facility equipped for major repairs, such as a shipyard. Ships may also be converted for a new purpose: oil tankers are often converted into floating production storage and offloading units.

Ship graveyard in France

End of service

Most ocean-going cargo ships have a life expectancy of between 20 and 30 years. A sailboat made of plywood or fiberglass can last between 30 and 40 years. Solid wooden ships can last much longer but require regular maintenance. Carefully maintained steel-hulled yachts can have a lifespan of over 100 years.

As ships age, forces such as corrosion, osmosis, and rotting compromise hull strength, and a vessel becomes too dangerous to sail. At this point, it can be scuttled at sea or scrapped by shipbreakers. Ships can also be used as museum ships, or expended to construct breakwaters or artificial reefs.

Many ships do not make it to the scrapyard, and are lost in fires, collisions, grounding, or sinking at sea. There are more than 3 million shipwrecks on the ocean floor, the United Nations estimates.[49] The Allies lost some 5,150 ships during World War II.[50]

Measuring ships

One can measure ships in terms of overall length, length of the ship at the waterline, beam (breadth), depth (distance between the crown of the weather deck and the top of the keelson), draft (distance between the highest waterline and the bottom of the ship) and tonnage. A number of different tonnage definitions exist and are used when describing merchant ships for the purpose of tolls, taxation, etc.

In Britain until Samuel Plimsoll's Merchant Shipping Act of 1876, ship-owners could load their vessels until their decks were almost awash, resulting in a dangerously unstable condition. Anyone who signed on to such a ship for a voyage and, upon realizing the danger, chose to leave the ship, could end up in jail. Plimsoll, a Member of Parliament, realised the problem and engaged some engineers to derive a fairly simple formula to determine the position of a line on the side of any specific ship's hull which, when it reached the surface of the water during loading of cargo, meant the ship had reached its maximum safe loading level. To this day, that mark, called the "Plimsoll Line", exists on ships' sides, and consists of a circle with a horizontal line through the centre. On the Great Lakes of North America the circle is replaced with a diamond. Because different types of water (summer, fresh, tropical fresh, winter north Atlantic) have different densities, subsequent regulations required painting a group of lines forward of the Plimsoll mark to indicate the safe depth (or freeboard above the surface) to which a specific ship could load in water of various densities. Hence the "ladder" of lines seen forward of the Plimsoll mark to this day. This is called the "freeboard mark" or "load line mark" in the marine industry.

Ship pollution

Ship pollution is the pollution of air and water by shipping. It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized, posing an increasing threat to the world’s oceans and waterways as globalization continues. It is expected that, “…shipping traffic to and from the USA is projected to double by 2020."[51] Because of increased traffic in ocean ports, pollution from ships also directly affects coastal areas. The pollution produced affects biodiversity, climate, food, and human health. However, the degree to which humans are polluting and how it affects the world is highly debated and has been a hot international topic for the past 30 years.

Oil spills

The Exxon Valdez spilled 10.8 million gallons of oil into Alaska's Prince William Sound.[52]

Oil spills have devastating effects on the environment. Crude oil contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment.[53] Marine species constantly exposed to PAHs can exhibit developmental problems, susceptibility to disease, and abnormal reproductive cycles.

By the sheer amount of oil carried, modern oil tankers must be considered something of a threat to the environment. An oil tanker can carry 2 million barrels (320,000 m3) of crude oil, or 62,000,000 gallons. This is more than six times the amount spilled in the widely known Exxon Valdez incident. In this spill, the ship ran aground and dumped 10.8 million gallons of oil into the ocean in March 1989. Despite efforts of scientists, managers, and volunteers, over 400,000 seabirds, about 1,000 sea otters, and immense numbers of fish were killed.[53]

The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation has researched 9,351 accidental spills since 1974.[54] According to this study, most spills result from routine operations such as loading cargo, discharging cargo, and taking on fuel oil.[54] 91% of the operational oil spills were small, resulting in less than 7 tons per spill.[54] Spills resulting from accidents like collisions, groundings, hull failures, and explosions are much larger, with 84% of these involving losses of over 700 tons.[54]

Following the Exxon Valdez spill, the United States passed the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90), which included a stipulation that all tankers entering its waters be double-hulled by 2015. Following the sinkings of the Erika (1999) and Prestige (2002), the European Union passed its own stringent anti-pollution packages (known as Erika I, II, and III), which require all tankers entering its waters to be double-hulled by 2010. The Erika packages are controversial because they introduced the new legal concept of "serious negligence".[55]

Ballast water

A cargo ship pumps ballast water over the side

When a large vessel such as a container ship or an oil tanker unloads cargo, seawater is pumped into other compartments in the hull to help stabilize and balance the ship. During loading, this ballast water is pumped out from these compartments.

One of the problems with ballast water transfer is the transport of harmful organisms. Meinesz[56] believes that one of the worst cases of a single invasive species causing harm to an ecosystem can be attributed to a seemingly harmless jellyfish. Mnemiopsis leidyi, a species of comb jellyfish that inhabits estuaries from the United States to the Valdés peninsula in Argentina along the Atlantic coast, has caused notable damage in the Black Sea. It was first introduced in 1982, and thought to have been transported to the Black Sea in a ship’s ballast water. The population of the jellyfish shot up exponentially and, by 1988, it was wreaking havoc upon the local fishing industry. "The anchovy catch fell from 204,000 tons in 1984 to 200 tons in 1993; sprat from 24,600 tons in 1984 to 12,000 tons in 1993; horse mackerel from 4,000 tons in 1984 to zero in 1993."[56] Now that the jellyfish have exhausted the zooplankton, including fish larvae, their numbers have fallen dramatically, yet they continue to maintain a stranglehold on the ecosystem. Recently the jellyfish have been discovered in the Caspian Sea. Invasive species can take over once occupied areas, facilitate the spread of new diseases, introduce new genetic material, alter landscapes and jeopardize the ability of native species to obtain food. "On land and in the sea, invasive species are responsible for about 137 billion dollars in lost revenue and management costs in the U.S. each year."[53]

Ballast and bilge discharge from ships can also spread human pathogens and other harmful diseases and toxins potentially causing health issues for humans and marine life alike.[57] Discharges into coastal waters, along with other sources of marine pollution, have the potential to be toxic to marine plants, animals, and microorganisms, causing alterations such as changes in growth, disruption of hormone cycles, birth defects, suppression of the immune system, and disorders resulting in cancer, tumors, and genetic abnormalities or even death.[53]

Exhaust emissions

Exhaust stack on a container ship.

Exhaust emissions from ships are considered to be a significant source of air pollution. “Seagoing vessels are responsible for an estimated 14 percent of emissions of nitrogen from fossil fuels and 16 percent of the emissions of sulfur from petroleum uses into the atmosphere.”[53] In Europe ships make up a large percentage of the sulfur introduced to the air, “…as much sulfur as all the cars, lorries and factories in Europe put together.”[58] “By 2010, up to 40% of air pollution over land could come from ships.”[58] Sulfur in the air creates acid rain which damages crops and buildings. When inhaled sulfur is known to cause respiratory problems and increase the risk of a heart attack.[58]

Ship breaking

Ship breaking or ship demolition is a type of ship disposal involving the breaking up of ships for scrap recycling, with the hulls being discarded in ship graveyards. Most ships have a lifespan of a few decades before there is so much wear that refitting and repair becomes uneconomical. Ship breaking allows materials from the ship, especially steel, to be reused.

Ship breaking near Chittagong, Bangladesh

In addition to steel and other useful materials, however, ships (particularly older vessels) can contain many substances that are banned or considered dangerous in developed countries. Asbestos and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are typical examples. Asbestos was used heavily in ship construction until it was finally banned in most of the developed world in the mid 1980s. Currently, the costs associated with removing asbestos, along with the potentially expensive insurance and health risks, have meant that ship-breaking in most developed countries is no longer economically viable. Removing the metal for scrap can potentially cost more than the scrap value of the metal itself. In the developing world, however, shipyards can operate without the risk of personal injury lawsuits or workers' health claims, meaning many of these shipyards may operate with high health risks. Protective equipment is sometimes absent or inadequate. Dangerous vapors and fumes from burning materials can be inhaled, and dusty asbestos-laden areas around such breahdown locations are commonplace.

Aside from the health of the yard workers, in recent years, ship breaking has also become an issue of major environmental concern. Many ship breaking yards in developing nations have lax or no environmental law, enabling large quantities of highly toxic materials to escape into the environment and causing serious health problems among ship breakers, the local population and wildlife. Environmental campaign groups such as Greenpeace have made the issue a high priority for their campaigns.[59]

See also

Model ships

Lists

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d UNCTAD 2007, p. x and p. 32.
  2. ^ "The Columbian Exchange". The University of North Carolina.
  3. ^ Cutler 1999, p. 620.
  4. ^ Cutler 1999, p. 611.
  5. ^ Chief of Naval Operations (March 2001). "The Saga of the Submarine: Early Years to the Beginning of Nuclear Power". United States Navy. http://www.navy.mil/navydata/cno/n87/history/subsaga5.html. Retrieved 2008-10-03. 
  6. ^ a b c Ward, Cheryl. "World's Oldest Planked Boats," in Archaeology (Volume 54, Number 3, May/June 2001). Archaeological Institute of America, [1].
  7. ^ The earliest known Egyptian boats date to 3000 B.C. and were found in Abydos in 1991. They consisted of planks joined by ropes passing through mortises. Similar boats dating to 2600 B.C. were found in 1954 and 1987 in pits at the Great Pyramid of Khufu in Giza. In 1894, Egyptian boats composed of planks joined by mortises and tenons were found in Dashur. See: http://www.abc.se/~m10354/uwa/wreckmed.htm#Khufu .
  8. ^ Agatharchides, in Wilfred Harvey Schoff (Secretary of the Commercial Museum of Philadelphia) with a foreword by W. P. Wilson, Sc. Director, The Philadelphia Museums. Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century, Translated from the Greek and Annotated (1912). New York, New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., pages 50 (for attribution) and 57 (for quote).
  9. ^ Anzovin, item # 5393, page 385 Reference to a ship with a name appears in an inscription of 2613 BCE that recounts the shipbuilding achievements of the fourth-dynasty Egyptian pharaoh Sneferu. He was recorded as the builder of a cedarwood vessel called "Praise of the Two Lands."
  10. ^ "Minoan civilization". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  11. ^ Aksum An African Civilization of Late Antiquity by Stuart Munro-Hay
  12. ^ "Aksum by MSN Encarta". Aksum by MSN Encarta. Encarta.msn.com. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564182/aksum.html. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  13. ^ Cultures and Customs of Somalia. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=2Nu918tYMB8C&pg=PA13&lpg=PA13&dq=medieval+Somali+sailors&source=bl&ots=P3s1IVhLJ2&sig=5IDkjvLob321LIDJ_rZziUDr4Eo&hl=en&ei=VAGNSaz-Dce_tgenhPSHCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result#PPA13,M1. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  14. ^ Historical Archaeology. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=cmaTt05CJ3wC&pg=PA242&lpg=PA242&dq=Great+Zimbabwe,+trade+port&source=web&ots=ELQWITSQBh&sig=csunYmjV_QorK-z4AMNK-0LXZTA&hl=en&ei=QfmMSeqjAYG4tweu9uiGCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  15. ^ [2]
  16. ^ Joan Baxter (13 December, 2000). ""Africa's 'greatest explorer'"". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1068950.stm. Retrieved 2008-02-12. 
  17. ^ Chisholm, 1911:703.
  18. ^ Greatest emporium in the world, CSI, UNESCO.
  19. ^ "The Origins of Globalization", Ivey Business Journal.
  20. ^ Li Shu-hua, “Origine de la Boussole 11. Aimant et Boussole,” Isis, Vol. 45, No. 2. (Jul., 1954), p.181
  21. ^ Frederic C. Lane, “The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass,” The American Historical Review, Vol. 68, No. 3. (Apr., 1963), p.615ff.
  22. ^ Chisholm, 1911:284.
  23. ^ Journal of African History pg.50 by John Donnelly Fage and Roland Anthony Oliver
  24. ^ East Africa and its Invaders pg.38
  25. ^ "Eastern and Southern Africa 500-1000 AD". Metmuseum.org. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/06/sfe/ht06sfe.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  26. ^ "Tanzanian dig unearths ancient secret by Tira Shubart". BBC News. 2002-04-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1924318.stm. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  27. ^ A History of Mozambique. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=vLzp_zs1t6cC&pg=PA245&lpg=PA245&dq=Swahili+trade+ports&source=web&ots=xaFMc5_8QA&sig=BE9b98sOE1jAjl927RiwTXVCHTw&hl=en&ei=efaMSdiXNdWDtweDr6mqCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=6&ct=result. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  28. ^ "Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354". Fordham.edu. 2001-02-21. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1354-ibnbattuta.html. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  29. ^ "West African Kingdoms". Kurahulanda.com. http://www.kurahulanda.com/west-african-kingdoms/west-african. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  30. ^ "The Story of Africa". Bbc.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/specials/1624_story_of_africa/page82.shtml. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  31. ^ Africa's Part in the Discovery of America by the New York Times
  32. ^ "Africa's 'greatest explorer' by BBC". BBC News. 2000-12-13. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1068950.stm. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  33. ^ "The European Golden Age of Shipping". Discovery Channel.
  34. ^ Love, Ronald S., "Maritime exploration in the age of discovery, 1415-1800", Greenwood guides to historic events, 1500-1900, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN 0313320438
  35. ^ "The Middle Colonies: New York ". Digital History.
  36. ^ UNCTAD 2007, p. 32.
  37. ^ a b c d UNFAO, 2007, p. 25.
  38. ^ UNFAO 2005, p.6.
  39. ^ UNFAO 2005, p.9.
  40. ^ Paulet, Dominique; Presles ,Dominique (1999) (in Français). Architecture navale, connaissance et pratique. Paris: Éditions de la Villette. ISBN 2-903539-46-4. 
  41. ^ UNCTAD 2007, p. xii uses a similar, but slightly more detailed classification system.
  42. ^ With the addition of corvettes, this is the categorization used at United States Navy. "U.S. Navy Ships". United States Navy. http://www.navy.mil/navydata/our_ships.asp. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  43. ^ Hospital Ship (definition via WordNet, Princeton University)
  44. ^ Cutter, 1999, p. 224.
  45. ^ UNFAO defines a large fishing vessel as one with gross tonnage over 100 GT.
  46. ^ UNFAO, 2007, p. 28.
  47. ^ a b c UNFAO, 2007, p. 11.
  48. ^ Office of Data and Economic Analysis, 2006, p. 2.
  49. ^ Arango, Tim (2007-09-11). "Curse of the $500 million sunken treasure". Money.cnn.tv. http://money.cnn.tv/2007/09/10/news/companies/odyssey_treasure_fortune.fortune/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-19. 
  50. ^ Sea Lanes in Wartime - The American Experience 1775-1945, 2nd edition, by Albion, Robert Greenhalgh and Pope, Jennie Barnes, Archon Books, 1968.
  51. ^ Watson, T. (2004, August 30). Ship pollution clouds USA's skies. USA Today. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2004-08-30-ship-pollution_x.htm
  52. ^ "Frequently asked questions about the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill". State of Alaska. http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/History/FAQ.htm. 
  53. ^ a b c d e Panetta, L. E. (Chair) (2003). America's living oceans: charting a course for sea change [Electronic Version, CD] Pew Oceans Commission.
  54. ^ a b c d "International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Statistics". Itopf.com. 2005-06-09. http://www.itopf.com/information-services/data-and-statistics/statistics/. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  55. ^ European Parliament. Directive 2005/35/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on ship-source pollution and on the introduction of penalties for infringements. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2005:255:0011:01:EN:HTML. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  56. ^ a b Meinesz, A. (2003). Deep Sea Invasion. The Impact of Invasive Species. PBS: NOVA. Retrieved November 26, 2006, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/algae/impact.html
  57. ^ National Research Council, Committee on the Ocean's Role in Human Health, Ocean Studies Board, Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources. (1999). From monsoons to microbes: understanding the ocean's role in human health. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press
  58. ^ a b c Harrabin, R. (2003, June 25). EU faces ship clean-up call. BBC News. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3019686.stm
  59. ^ "Shipbreaking". Greenpeace. March 16, 2006. http://www.greenpeaceweb.org/shipbreak/. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 

References

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SHIP, the generic name (O. Eng. scip, Ger. Schiff, Gr. cr/cdos, from the root skap, cf. "scoop") for the invention by which man has contrived to convey himself and his goods upon water. The derivation of the word points.to the fundamental conception by which, when realized, a means of flotation was obtained superior to the raft, which we may consider the earliest and most elementary form of vessel. The trunk of a tree hollowed out, whether by fire, or by such primitive tools as are fashioned and used with singular patience and dexterity by savage races, represents the first effort to obtain flotation depending on something other than the mere buoyancy of the material. The poets, with characteristic insight, have fastened upon these points. Homer's hero Ulysses is instructed to make a raft with a raised platform upon it, and selects trees "withered of old, exceeding dry, that might float 'lightly for him" (Od. v. 240). Virgil, glorifying the dawn and early progress of the arts, tells us, "Rivers then first the hollowed alders felt" (Georg. i. 136, ii. 451). Alder is a heavy wood and not fit for rafts. But to make for the first time a dug-out canoe of alder, and so to secure its flotation, would be a triumph of primitive art, and thus the poet's expression represents a great step in the history of the inven--tion of the ship.

Primitive efforts in this direction may be classified in the following order: (I) raftstloattng logs, or bundles of brushwood or reeds or rushes tied together; (2) dug-outshollowed trees; (3) canoes of bark, or of skin stretched on framework or inflated skins (balsas); (4) canoes or boats of pieces of wood stitched or fastened together with sinews or thongs or fibres of vegetable growth; (5) vessels of planks, stitched or bolted together with inserted ribs and decks or half decks; (6) vessels of which the framework is first set up, and the planking of the hull nailed on to them subsequently. All these in their primitive forms have survived, in various parts of the world, with different modifications marking progress in civilization. Climatic influences and racial peculiarities have imparted to them their specific characteristics, and, combined with the available choice of materials, have determined the particular type in use in each locality. Thus on the north-west coast of Australia is found the single log of buoyant wood, not hollowed out but pointed at the ends. Rafts of reeds are also found on the Australian coast. In New Guinea catamarans of three or more logs lashed together with rattan are the commonest vessel, and similar forms appear on the Madras coast and throughout the Asiatic islands. On the coast of Peru rafts made of a very buoyant wOod are in use, some of them as much as 70 ft. long and 20 ft. broad; these are navigated with a sail, and, by an ingenious system of centre boards, let down either fore or aft between the lines of the timbers, can be made to tack. The sea-going raft is often fitted with a platform so as to protect the goods and persons carried from the wash of the sea. Upright timbers fixed upon the logs forming the raft support a kind of deck, which in turn is itself fenced in and covered over. Thus the idea of a deck, and that of side planking to raise the freight above the level of the water and to save it from getting wet, are among the earliest typical expedients which have found their development in the progress of the art of shipbuilding. -

I. His~roav TO THE INVENTION OF STEAMSHIPS

Whether the observation of shells floating on the water, or of split reeds, or, as some have fancied, the nautilus, first suggested the idea of hollowing out the trunk of a tree, the practice ascends to a very remote antiquity in the history of man. Dugout canoes of a single tree have been foun.d associated with objects of the Stone Age among the ancient Swiss lake dwellings; nor are specimens of the same class wanting from the bogs of Ireland and the estuaries of England and Scotland, some obtained from the depth of 25 ft. below the surface of the soil. The hollowed trunk itself may have suggested the use of the bark as a means of flotation. But, whatever may have been the origin of the hark canoe, its construction is a step onwards in the art of shipbuilding. For the lightness and pliability of the material necessitated the invention of some internal framework, so as to keep the sides apart, and to give the stiffness required both for purposes of propulsion and the carrying of its freight. Similarly, in countries where suitable timber was not to be-found, the use of skins or other water-tight material, such as felt or canvas, covered with pitch, giving flotation, demanded also a framework to keep them distended and to bear the weight they had to carry. In the framework we have the rudimentary ship, with longitudinal bottom timbers, and ribs, and cross-pieces, imparting the requisite stiffness to the covering material. Bark canoes are found in Australia, but the American continent is their true home. In northern regions skin or woven material made watertight supplies the place of bark.

The next step in the construction of vessels was the building up of canoes or boats by fastening pieces of wood together in a suitable form. Some of these canoes, and probably the earliest in type, are tied or stitched together with thongs or cords. The Madras surf boats are perhaps the most familiar example of this type, which, however, is found in the Straits of Magellan and in Central Africa (on the Victoria Nyanza), in the Malay Archipelago and in many islands of the Pacific. Some of these canoes show a great advance in the art of construction, being built up of pieces fitted together with ridges on their inner sides, through which the fastenings are passedi These canoes have the advantage of elasticity, which gives them ease in a seaway, and a comparative immunity where ordinary boats would not hold together. In these cases the body of the canoe is constructed first and built to the shape intended, the ribs being inserted afterwards, and attached to the sides, and-having for their main function the uniting of the deck and cross-pieces with the body of the canoe. Vessels thus stitched together, and with an inserted framework, have from a very early time been constructed in the Eastern seas far exceeding in size anything that would be called a canoe, and in some cases attaining to 200 tons burthen.

From the stitched form the next step onwards is to fasten the materials out of which the hull is built up by pegs or treenails; and of this system early types appear among the Polynesian islands and in the Nile boats described by Herodotus (ii.. 96), the prototype of the modern nuggur. The raft of Ulysses described by Homer presents the same detail of construction. It is remarkable that some of the early types of boats belonging to the North Sea present an intermediate method, in which the planks are fastened together with pins or treenails, but are attached to the ribs by cords passing through holes in the ribs and corresponding holes bored through ledges cut on the inner side of each plank.

We thus arrive, in tracing primitive efforts in the art of ship construction, at a stage from which the transition to the practice of setting up the framework of ribs fastened to a timber keel laid lengthwise, and subsequently attaching the planking of the hull, was comparatively simple. The keel of the modern vessel may be said to have its prototype in the single log which was the parent of the dug-out. The side planking of the vessel, which has an earlier parentage than the ribs, may be traced to the attempt to fence in the platforms upon the sea-going rafts, and to the planks fastened on to the sides of dug--out canoes so as to give them a raised gunwale.1 The ribs of the modern vessel are the development of the framework originally inserted after the completion of the hull of the canoe or built-up boat, but with the difference that they are now priorin the order of fabrication. In a word, the skeleton of the hull is now first built up, and the skin, &c., adjusted to it; whereas in the earlier types of wooden vessels the outside hull was first constructed, and the ribs, &c., added afterwards.4 It is noticeable that the invention. of the outrigger and weather platform, the use of which is at the present time distributed from the Andaman Islands eastward throughout the whole of the South Pacific, has never made its way into the Western seas. It is strange that Egyptian enterprise, which seems at a very early period to have penetrated eastward down the Red Sea and round the coasts of Arabia towards India, should not have brought it to the Nile, and that the Phoenicians, who, if the legend of their migration from the shores of the Persian Gulf to the coast of Canaan be accepted, would in all probability, in their maritime expeditions, have had opportun.ities of seeing it, did not introduce it to the Mediterranean. That they did not do so, if they saw it at all, would tend to prove that even in that remote anticpiity both nations possessed the art of constructing vessels of atype superior to the outrigger canoes, both in speed and in carrying power.

The earliest representations that we have as yet of Egyptian vessels carry us back, according to the best authorities, to a period little short of 3000 years before Christ. Some of these are of considerable size, as is shown by the number of rowers, and by ,the cargo consisting in many cases of cattle. The earliest of all presents us with the peculiar mast of two pieces, stepped apart but joined at the top. In some the masts are shown lowered 1 Compare the planks upon the Egyptian war galleys, added so as to protect the rowers from the missiles of the enemy.

i It is curious that these two methods should still survive, and be in use, in the construction of light racing 8-oared boats. Some of these are built ribs first, and skin laid on afterwards; others, skin laid on moulds and framework first, and ribs inserted in the shell when turned over.

and laid along a high spar-deck. The larger vessels show on one side as many as twenty-one or twenty-two and in one case twenty-six oars, besides four or five steering., They show considerable camber, the two ends rising in a curved line which in some instances ends in a point, and in others is curved back and over at the stern and terminates in an ornamentation, very frequently of the familiar lotus pattern. At the bow the stem is sometimes seen to rise perpendicularly, forming a kind of forecastle, sometimes to curve backward and then forward again like a neck, which is often finished into a figure-head representing some bird or beast or Egyptian god. On the war galleys there is frequently shown a projecting bow with a metal head attached, but well above the water. This, though no doubt used as a ram, is not identical with the beak a fleur deau, which we shall meet with in Phoenician and Greek galleys. It is more on a level with the proembolion of the latter.

The impression as regards the build created by the drawings of the larger galleys is that of a long and somewhat wall-sided vessel with the stem and stern highly raised. The tendencies of the vessel to hog, or rise amidships, owing to the great weight fore and aft unsupported by the water, is corrected by a strong truss passing from stern to stern over crutches. The double mast of the earlier period seems in time to have given place to the single mast furnished with bars or rollers at the upper part, for the purpose apparently of raising or lowering the yard according to the amount of sail required. The sail in some of the galleys is shown with a bottom as well as a top yard. In the war galleys during action it is shown rolled up like a curtain with loops to the upper yard. The steering was effected by paddles, sometimes four or five in number, but generally one or two fastened either at the end of the stern or at the side, and above attached to an upright post in such a way as to allow the paddle to be worked by a tiller.

There are many remarkable details to be observed in the Egyptian vessels figured in Duemichens Fleet of an Egyptian Queen, and in Lepsiuss Denkmler. The Egyptian ship, as represented froln time to time in the period between 3000 and 1000 B.C., presents to us a ship proper as distinct from a large canoe or boat. It is the earliest ship of which we have cognizance. But there is a noticeable fact in connection with Egypt which we gather from the tomb paintings to which we owe our knowledge of the Egyptian ship. It is evident from these records that there were at that same early period, inhabiting the littoral of the Mediterranean, nations who were possessed of sea-going vessels which visited the coasts of Egypt for plunder as well as for commerce, and that sea-fights were even then not uncommon. Occasionally the combination of these peoples for the purpose of attack assumed serious proportions, and we find the Pharaohs recording naval victories over combined Dardanians, Teucrians and Mysians, and, if we accept the explanations of Egyptologists, over Pelasgians, Daunians, Oscans and Sicilians. The Greeks, as they became familiar with the sea, followed in the same track. The legend of Helen in Egypt, as well as the numerous references in the Odyssey, point not only to the attraction that Egypt had for the maritime peoples, but also to long-established habits of navigation and the possession of an art of shipbuilding equal to the construction of sea-going craft capable of carrying a large number of men and a considerable cargo besides.

But the development of the ship and of the art of navigation clearly belongs to the Phoenicians. It is tantalizing to find that the earliest and almost the only evidence that we have of this development is to be gathered from Assyrian representations. The Assyrians were an inland people, and the navigation with which they were familiar was that of the two great rivers, Tigris and Euphrates. After the conquest of Phoenicia, they had knowledge of Phoenician naval enterprise, and accordingly we find the war galley of the Phoenicians represented on the walls of the palaces unearthed by Layard and his followers in Assyrian discovery. But the date does not carry us to an earlier period than ~oo B.C. The vessel represented is a bireme war galley which is aphract, that is to say, has the upper tier of rowers unprotected and exposed to view. The apertures for the lower oars are of the same character as those which appear in Egyptian ships of a much earlier date, but without oars. The artist has shown the characteristic details, though somewhat conventionally. The fish-like snout of the beak, the line of the parodus or outside gangway, the wickerwork cancelli, the shields ranged in order along the side of the bulwark, and the. heads of a typical crew on deck (the irpoip~s looking out in front in the forecastle, an ~rL~rfl~, two chiefs by the mast, and, aft, the KXvcrT,~1 and Kv~3epv1~Tfls). The supporting timbers of the deck are just indicated. The mast and yard and fore and back stays, with the double steering paddle, complete the picture.

But, although there can be little doubt that the Phoenicians, after the Egyptians, led the way in the development of the shipwrights art, yet the information that we can gather concerning them is so meagre that we must go to other sources for the description of the ancient ship. The Phoenicians at an early date constructed merchant vessels capable of carrying large cargoes, and of traversing the length and breadth of the Mediterranean, perhaps even of trading to the far Cassiterides and of circumnavigating Africa. They in all probability (if not the Egyptians) invented the bireme and trireme, solving the problem by which increased oar-power and consequently speed could be obtained without any great increase in the length of the vessel.

It is, however, to the Greeks that we must turn for any detailed account of these inventions. The Homeric vessels were aphract and not even decked throughout their entire length. They carried crews averaging from fifty to a hundred and twenty men, who, we are expressly told by Thucydides, all took part in the labor of rowing, except perhaps the chiefs. The galleys do not appear to have been armed as yet with the beak, though later poets attribute thi~ feature to the Homeric vessel. But they had great poles used in fighting, and the term employed to describe these (vctiiucixa) implies a knowledge of naval warfare. The general characteristics are indicated by the epithets in use throughout the Iliad and the Odyssey. The Homeric ship is sharp (Ooi~) and swift (~,cema); it is hollow (KotAp, 7Xac/up?~, /.L~YctK?~Tfls), black, vermilion-cheeked (utxro7rapflos), dark-prowed (Kvavb~rpq.ipos), curved (Kopcevir, ~tu4~Xuroct), well-timbered (~i)o~rXuor), with many thwarts (iroXi~tryos, ~ear6~u,os). The stems and sterns are high, upraised, and resemble the horns of oxen (6pOoi~patpai). They present in the history of the shipping of the Mediterranean a type parallel with that of the Vikings vessels of the North Sea.

On the vases, the earliest of which may date between 700 and oo B.C., we find the bireme with the bows finished off into a beak shaped as the head of some sea monster, and an elevated forecastle with a bulwark evidently as a means of defence. The craft portrayed in some instances are evidently pirate vessels, and exhibit a striking contrast to the trader, the broad ship of burden (4rnpris ei~p~cI), which they are overhauling. The trireme, which was developed from the bireme and became the Greek ship of war (the long ship, vair /2aKp&, flays longa, par excellence), dates, so far as Greek use is concerned, from about 700 B.C. according to Thucydides, having been first built at Corinth. The earliest sea-fight that the same author knew of he places at a somewhat later date664 B.C., more than ten centuries later than some of those portrayed in the Egyptian tomb paintings.

The trireme was the war ship of Athens during her prime, and, though succeeded and in a measure superseded by the larger rates,-quadrireme, quinquereme, and so on, up to vessels of sixteen banks of oars (inhabit-is prope magnitudinis), yet, as containing in itself the principle of which the larger rates merely exhibited an expansion, a difference in degree and not in kind, has, ever since the revival of letters, concentrated upon itself the attention of the learned who were interested in such matters. The literature connected with the question of ancient ships, if collected, woo1d fill a small library, and the greater part of it turns upon the tonstruction of the trireme and the disposition of the rowers therein.

iSee Rawlinson, Ancient Monarchies, vol. ii. p. 176.

During the I9th century a fresh light was thrown upon the subject by the discovery (1834) at the Peiraeus of some records of the Athenian dockyard superintendents, belonging to several years between 3733 24 s.c. These were publishpd and admirably elucidated by Boeckh. Further researches were carried out by his pupil Dr Graser. Since the publication of Grasers notable work, Dc re navali veterurn, the subject has been copiously treated by A. Cartauld, Breusing, C. Torr and others. The references to ancient writers, and the illustrations from vases, coins, &c., have been multiplied, and, though the vexed question of the seating of the rowers cannot be regarded as settled, yet, notwithstanding some objections raised, it seems probable that something like Grasers solution, with modifications, will eventually hold the field, especially as practical experiment has shown the possibility of a set of men, seated very nearly according to his system, using their oars with effect, and without any interference of one bank with another.

On one point it is necessary to insist, because upon it depends the right understanding of the problem. The ancients did not employ snore than one man to an oar. The method employed on medieval galleys was alien to the ancient system. A. Jal, Admiral Fincati, Admiral Jurien de Ia Gravire and a host of other writers on the subject, some as recently as 1906, have been led to advocate erroneous, if ingenious, solutions of the problem, by neglect of, and in contradiction to, the testimony of ancient texts and representations, which overwhelmingly establish as an axiom of the ancient marine the principle of one oar, one man.

The distinction between aphract and cataphract vessels must not be overlooked in a description of the ancient vessels. The words, meaning unfenced and fenced, refer to the bulwarks which covered the upper tier of rowers from attack. In the aphract vessels these side plankings were absent and the upper tier of rowers was exposed to view from the side. Both classes of vessels had upper and lower decks, but the aphract class carried their decks on a lower level than the cataphract. The system of side planking with a view to the protection of the rowers dates from a very early period, as may be seen in some of the Egyptian representations, but among the Greeks it does not seem to have been adopted till long after the Homeric period. The Thasians are credited with the introduction of the improvement.

In our account of the trireme, both as regards the disposition of the rowers and the construction of the vessel, we have mainly, though not entirely, followed Graser. Any such scheme must at the best be hypothetical, based upon inference from the ancient texts, or upon necessities of construction, and in every case plenty of room will be left for the critic, along with the Horatian invitation, si quid novisti rectius istis, Candidus impertL

In the ancient vessels the object of arranging the oars in banks was to economize horizontal space, and to obtain an increase in the number of oars without having to lengthen the vessel. It has been reasonably inferred from a passage in Vitruvius i that the interscalmium, or space horizontally measured from oar to oar, was 2 cubits. This is exactly borne out by the proportions of an Attic aphract trireme, as shown on a fragment of a has-relief found in the Acropolis. The rowers in all classes of banked vessels sat in the same vertical plane, and seats ascending in a line obliquely towards the stern of the vessel. Thus in a trireme the thranite, or oarsman of the highest bank, was nearest the stern of the set of three to which he belonged. ~ext behind him and somewhat below him sat his zygite, or oarsman of the second bank; and next below and behind the zygite sat the thalamite, or oarsman of the lowest bahk. The vertical distance between these seats was probably 2 ft., the horizontal distance about 1 ft. The horizontal distance, it is. well to repeat, between each seat in the same bank was 3 ft. (the seat itself about 9 in. broad). Each man had a resting place for his feet, somewhat wide apart, fixed to the bench of the man on the row next below and iii front of him. In rowing, the upper hand, as is shown in most of the representations which remain, was held with the palm turned inwards towards the body. This is accounted for by the angle at which the oar was worked. The lowest rank used the shortest oars, and the difference of the length of the oars on board was caused by the curvature of the ships side. Thus, looked at from within, the rowers amidship seemed to be using the longest oars, but outside the vessel, as we are expressly told, all the oar-blades of the same bank took the water in the same longitudinal line. The lowest or thalamite oarports were 3 ft., the iygite 43/4 ft., the thranite 53/4 ft. above thewater. Each oar-port was protected by an ascoma or leather bag, which fitted over the oar, closing the aperture against the wash of the sea without impeding the action of the oar. The oar was attached by a thong (i-po-iri, ~poirwr,~p) to a thowl (cr,caXu6i). The port-hole was probably oval in shape (the Egyptian and Assyrian pictures show an oblong). We know that it was large enough for a mans head to be thrust through it.

The benches on which the rowers sat ran from the vessels side to timbers, which, inclined at an angle of about 64 towards the ships stern, reached from the lower to the upper deck. These timbers were, according to Graser, called the diaphragmata. In the trireme each diaphragma supported three, in the quinquereme five, in the octireme eight, and in the famous tesseraconteres forty seats of rowers, who all belonged to the same complexus, though each to a different bank. In effect, when once the principle of construction had been established in the trireme, the increase to larger rates was effected, so far as the motive power was concerned, by lengthening the diaphragmata upwards, while the increase in the length of the vessel gave a greater number of rowers to each bank. The upper tiers of oarsmen exceeded in number those below, as the contraction of the sides of the vessel left less available space towards the bows.

Of the length of the oars in the trireme we have an indication in the fact that the length of supernumerary oars (irsplssce) rowed from the gangway above the thranites, and, therefore, probably slightly exceeding the thranitic oars in length, is given in the Attic tables as 14 ft. 3 in. The thranites were probably about 14 ft. The zygite, in proportion to the measurement, must have been 103/4, the thalamite 73/4 ft. long. Comparing modern oars with these, we find that the longest oars used in the British navy are 18 ft. The university boat race has been rowed with oars 12 ft. 6 in. The proportion of the loom inboard was about one third, but the oars of the rowers amidship must have been somewhat longer inboard. The size of the loom inboard preserved the necessary equilibrium. The long oars, of the larger rates were weighted inboard with lead. Thus the topmost oars of the tesseraconteres, of which the length is given as 53 ft., were exactly balanced at the rowlock. (See OAR.)

Let us now consider the construction of the vessel itself. In the cataphract class the lower deck was I ft. above the water-line Below this deck was the hold, which contained a certain amount of ballast, and through an aperture in this deck the buckets for baling were worked, entailing a labor which was constant and severe on board an ancient ship at sea. The keel (rp6iric) appears to have had considerable camber. Under it was a strong false keel (xDwrua), very necessary for vessels that were constantly drawn up on the shore. Above the keel was the kelson, under which the ribs were fastened. These were so arranged as to give the necessary intervals for the oar-ports above. Above the kelson lay the upper false keel, into which the mast was step~ed. The stem (o-r&pa) rose from the keel at an angle of about 70 to the water. Within was an apron (~Xic~i), which was a strong piece of timber curved and fitting to the end of the keel and beginning of the stern-post and firmly bolted into both, thus giving solidity to the bows, which had to bear the beak and sustain the shock of ramming. The stem was carried upwards and curved generally backwards towards the forecastle and rising above it, and then curving forwards again terminated in an ornament which was called the acrostolion. The stern-post was carried up at a similar angle to the bow, and, rising high over the poop, was curved round into an ornament which was called aplustre (~Xaorov). But, inasmuch as the steering was effected by means of two rudders (sr~iiXia), one on either side, there was no need to carry out the stern into a rudder post as with modern ships, and the stern was left, therefore, much more free, an advantage in respect of the manivuvring of the ancient Greek man-of-war, the weapon being the beak or rostrum, and the power of turning quickly being of the highest importance.

Behind the aplustre, and curving backwards, was the cheniscus (xnvtrxoc), or goose-head, symbolizing the floating powers,of the vessel. After the ribs had been set up and covered in on both, sides with planking, the sides of the vessel were further strengthened by waling-pieces carried from stern to stem and meeting in front of the stern-post. These were further strengthened with additional balks of timber, the lower waling-pieces meeting about the water-level and prolonged into a sharp three-toothed spur, of which the middle tooth was the longest. This was covered with hard metal (generally bronze) and formed the beak. The whole structure of thebeak projected about 10 ft. beyond the stern-post. Above, it, but projecting much less beyond the stern-post, was the proembohon (s-posu$Xiov), or second beak, in which the prolongation of the upper set of walingpieces met. This was generally fashioned into the figure of a rams head, also covered with metal; and sometimes again between this and the beak the second line of waling-pieces met in another metal boss called the ,rposu~9oXts. These bosses, when a vessel was rammed, completed the work of destruction begun by the sharp beak at the water-level, giving a racking blow which caused it to heel over and so eased it off the beak, and releasing the latter before the weight of the sinking vessel could come upon it. At the point where the prolongation of the second and third waling-pieces began to converge inwards towards the stem on either side of the vessel stout catheads (~irwrtIci) projected, which were of use, not only as supports for the anchors, but also as a means of inflicting damage on the upper part of an enemys vessel, while protecting the side gangways of its own and the banks of oarsthat worked under them. The catheads were strengthened by strong balks of timber, which were fIrmly bolted to them under either extremity and both within and without, and ran to the ships side. Above the curvature of the upper walingpieces into the wpo~u,56Xuw were the cheeks of the vessel, generally painted red, and in the upper part of these the eyes (6~OaXuoL), answering to our hawse holes, through which ran the cables for the anchors. On either side the trireme, at about the level of the thranitic benches, projected a gangway (,rpoc3oi) resting against the ribs of the vessel. This projection was of about i8 to 24 in., which gave a space, increased to about 3 ft. by the inward curve of the prolongation of the ribs to form supports for the deck, for a passage on either side of the vessel. This gangway was planked in along its Outer side so as to afford protection to the seamen and marines, who could pass along its whole length without impeding the rowers. Here, in action, the sailors were posted as light-armed troops, and when needed could use the long supernumerary oars (ir~ptvcr,) mentioned above. The ribs, prolonged upwards upon an inward curve, supported on their upper ends the cross beams (cn-p<,,r,~p~s) which tied the two sides of the vessel together and carried the deck. In the cataphract class these took tho place of the thwarts (i~frya) which in the earlier vessels, at a lower level, yoked together the sides of the vessel, and formed also benches for the rowers to sit on, from which the latter had their name (luyIrai), having been the uppermost tier of oarsmen in the bireme; while those who sat behind and below them in the hold of the vessel were called OaXauIrai or OaXciffaK~,s (from OAauoc). In the trireme the additional upper tier was named from the elevated bench (~pavoi) on which they were placed (Opavlra~). On the deck were stationed the marines (tirifl~rai), fighting men in heavy armour, few in number in the Attic trireme in its palmy days, but many in the Roman quinquereme, when the ramming tactics were antiquated, and wherever, as in the great battles in the harbour at Syracuse, land tactics took the place of the maritime skill which gave victory to the ram in the open sea. The space occupied by the rowers was termed Iysc~nros. Beyond this, fore and aft, were the ,rapftp~,rtai, or parts outside the rowers. These occupied about 12 ft. of the bows and 15 ft. in the stern. In the fore part was the forecastle, with its raised deck. In the stern the decks (iicpia) rose in two or three gradations, upon which was a kind of deck-house for the captain and a seat for the steerer (Ku$cpP7~rfl1), who steered by means of ropes attached to the tillers fixed in the upper part of the paddles, which, in later times at least, ran over wheels (~poxiXiai), giving him the power of changing his vessels course with great rapidity. Behind the deck-house rose the flagstaff, on which was hoisted the pennant, and from which probably signals were given in the case of an admirals ship. On either side of the deck ran a balustrade (cancelli), which was covered for protection during action with felt (cilicium, -irapa.ppbuara TpLXiv&) or canvas (,r. Xsvth). Above was stretched a strong awning of hide (sarb.~Xvua),as a protection against grappling irons and missiles of all kinds. In Roman vessels towers were carried up fore and aft from which darts could be showered on the enemys deck; the heavy corvus or boarding bridge swung suspended by a chain near the bows; and the ponderous IsX4dc hung at the ends of the yards ready to fall on a vessel that came near enough alongside. But these were later inventions and for larger ships. The Attic trireme was built light for speed and for ramming purposes.

The dimensions of some dry docks discovered at Munychium and Zea, ship-houses as the ancients called them, afford some indications as to limitations of length and breadth in the Attic ships that used them. The measurements indicate for these houses about 150 ft. in length and 20 ft. in breadth. We may infer, therefore, that the ships housed in them did not exceed 150 by 20 ft. But there must necessarily have been some spare room in the dock houses, on either side and at both ends. Allowing 2 ft. on either side for passage room, and 10 ft. at either end, we should have room for a vessel of about 130 ft. in length including the beak, and of about 16 ft. beam. Adopting the 2 cubit interscalmium, the rowing space in the trireme (31 by 3) for the upper tier would equal 93 ft. Allowing 12 ft, for bows and 15 for stern and 10 ft. for beak, we have 130 ft. as the aggregate length of the war vessel of three banks of oars. This of course is conjectural, but we submit that it is a reasonable conjecture from the evidence which we possess. There was indeed every reason for keeping the vessel as short as was compatible with the necessary requirements, and it is to be remembered that it was constantly being hauled up on shore for the night and launched again in the morning. As to the interscalmium, it does not appear to exceed ~ ft. even in the largest boats now used in the royal navy. In the Chinese dragon boats, which are 73 ft. long and under 5 ft. beam, and have each 54 rowers or paddlers, it does not exceed 2 ft. 6 in An oarsman whose feet are nearly on a level with his seat, as in a modern racing eight, requires more room for the swing forward of the handle of his oar in the recovery, than a man whose feet rest on a level well below that of his seat. It is not likely that the ancient oarsman swung forward more than blue-jackets do now-a-days in a man-of-wars cutter. All the Attic triremes appear to have been built upon the same model, and their gear was interchangeable. The Athenians had a peculiar system of girding the ships with long cables (~nro~,uara), each trireme having two or more, which, passing through eyeholes in front of the stern-post, ran all round the vessel lengthwise immediately under the waling-pieces. They were fastened at the stern and tightened up with levers. These cables, ~ ~ ~ ~ .~- ~ ~ ~ 1-...;,~ ,-.c the vessel, and in action, in all probability, relieved the hull from part of the shock of ramming, the strain of which would be sustained by the waling-pieces convergent in the beaks. These rope-girdles are not to be confused with the process of undergirding or frapping, such as is narrated of the vessel in which St Paul was being carried to Italy. The trireme appears to have had two masts. In action the Greeks did not use sails, and everything that could be lowered was stowed below. The mainmasts and larger sails were often left ashore if a conflict was expected.

The crew of the Attic trireme consisted of from 200 to 225 men in all. Of these 170 were rowers54 on the lower bank (thalamites), 54 on the middle bank (zygites), and 62 on the upper bank (thranites),

the upper oars being more numerous because of the contraction of the space available for the lower tiers near the bow and stern. Besides the rowers were about IO marines (&irif3,~irat) and 20 seamen. The officers were the trierarch and next to him the helmsman (suj9~pvi~n-~s), who was the navigating officer of the trireme. The rowers descended into the seven-foot space between the liaphragmata and took their places in regular order, beginning with the thalamites. The economy of space was such that, as Cicero remarks, there was not room for one man more.

The improvement made in the build of their vessels by the Corinthian and Syracusan shipwrights, by which the bows were so much strengthened that they were able to meet the Athenian attack stem on (irpoo~3oXs~), caused a change of tactics, and gave an impetus to the building of larger vesselsquadriremes and quinqueremesin which increased oar-power was available for the propulsion of the heavier weights.

In principle these vessels were only expansions of the trireme, so far as the disposition of the rowers was concerned, but the speed could not have increased in proportion to the weight, and hence arose the variety of contrivances which superseded the ramming tactics of the days of Phormio. In the century that succeeded the close of the Peloponnesian War the fashion of building big vessels became prevalent. We hear of various numbers of banks of oars up to sixteen (knt~ei~pi~r)the big vessel of Demetrius Poliorcetes. The famous tesseraconteres or forty-banked vessel of Ptolemy Philopator, if it ever existed except in the imagination of Callixenus, was in reality nothing more than. a costly and ingenious toy, and never of any practical use. The story, however, of its construction indicates the perfection to which the shipwrights art had been carried among the ancients.

The Romans, who developed their naval power during the First Punic War, though it is clear from the treaty with Carthage, 509 B.C., that they had had some maritime interests and adventurings before that great struggle began, were deficient in the art of naval construction. A Carthaginian quinquereme, which had drifted ashore, served them for a model, and with crews taught to row in a framework set up on dry land they manned a fleet which was launched in sixty days from the time that the trees were felled. Their first attempt was, as might have been expected, a failure. But they persevered, and the invention of the corvus, by means of which boarding were o~pposed to ramming tactics, gave them under Duilius (260 B.C.)\ictory at Mylae, and eventually the command of the sea. From that time onwards they continued to build ships of many banks, and seem to have maintained their predilection for fighting at close quarters. The larger vessels with their turres, or castles, fore and aft, deserved Horaces description as alta navium propugnacula. The corvus and the dolphin were ready in action to fall on the enemys decks, and in Caesars battle with the Veneti off the coast of Gaul the falces, great spars with curved steel heads like a sickle, mowed through the rigging and let down the sails on which alone the foe depended for movement.

But the fashion of building big ships received a severe shock at the battle of Actium (31 B.C.), when the light Liburnian biremes, eluding the heavy missiles of the larger vessels, swept away their banks of oars, leaving them crippled and unable to move, till one by one they were burnt down to the waters edge and sank.i After this experience the Romans adopted the Liburnians as their principal model, and though the building of vessels with many banks continued for some centuries, yet the Liburnian type was so far dominant that ~ Ir~, .: t .1... ~L. ~. -.Q

the name was used generically, just as the name of trireme had been used before, to signify a man-of-war, without reference to the size of vessel or the number of banks of oars.

Meanwhile, with the peace of the Mediterranean ensured, for piracy was kept in abeyance by the imperial power, and with increased commercial activity, the building of large merchant vessels naturally followed. These were propelled by sails and not by oars, which, however, continued to furnish the principal motive power for the ship of war until the necessity for increasing its carrying power began to make it too unwieldy for propulsion by rowing.

The great corn ships, which brought supplies from Egypt to the capital, were, if we may take the vessel described by Lucian as a typical instance, 120 cubits long by 30 broad and 29 deep. The ship in which St Paul and his companions were wrecked carried 276 souls besides cargo. Even larger vessels than these were constructed by the Romans for the transport of marbles and great obelisks to Italy. These huge vessels carried three masts, with square sails, and on the main mast a topsail, which the corn ships from Alexandria alone were allowed to keep set when coming into the Italian port. All other merchant vessels were compelled to strike the sup parum.

But while the construction of large vessels for commercial purposes was thus developed, the policy of keeping the warvessel light and handy for manceuvring purposes prevailed, and, though vessels of three, four or even five banks were still built, the great majority did not rise above two banks. In the war with the Vandals (AD. 440470) we hear of ships of a single bank, with decks above the rowers. These, we are told, were of the type which at a later date were called Dromons (Sp6,uow~s) in allusion to their speedy qualities, a n.ame which gradually superseded the Liburnian, as indicating a man-of-war. During the following centpries the Mediterranean was the scene of constant naval activity. The rise of the Mussulman power, which by AD. 825 had mastered Crete and Sicily, made the maintenance of their fleet a matter of first importance to the emperors of the East, and as the Arab inroads became more threatening, and piracy more rife, so the necessity of improving their galleys as regards speed and armament became more and more pressing. It was during this period, and that very largely by the Arabs, that a great advance was made in the employment of what we should call artillery. The use of Greek fire and of other detonating and combustible mixtures, launched by siphons or in the form of bombs thrown by hand or machinery, led to various devices by way of protective armour, such as leather or felt casing, or woollen stuffs soaked in vinegar, and all such contrivances tended gradually to alter the character as well as the equipment of the war vessel.

During the same period the rise and growth of the Venetian republic mark the entrance on the scene of a new seafaring and shipbuilding power.

Meanwhile, the northern seas were breeding .a new terror. In the 5th century the Roman fleet which guarded the narrow entrance into the British Channel had disappeared. The Frankish power gradually established itself in Gaul. But behind the Franks still fiercer races, born to the use of oar and sail, were gathering for the invasion of the west and south. For a while it seemed as if the empire consolidated by Charlemagne would be able to withstand their inroads. Yet even in the year of his coronation (A.D. 800) the piratical Northmen had carried their ravages as far as Aquitaine. Charlemagne organized a naval force at Boulogne and at Ghent. But, though in alliance with the kings of Mercia and Wessex, he had not that control of the Channel which the possession of both shores had given to the Romans. The ships of the Vikings, propelled by oar and sail, were seagoing vessels of an excellent type. They were of various sizes, ranging from the skuta of about 30 oars to ask or skejd with 64 oars and a crew of 240, and to the still larger dreki or dragon boats, and the famous snekkjur or serpents, said to be represented on the Bayeux tapestry. Of these vessels we have fortunately, though of the smaller class, a typical instance in the well-known Viking ship discovered in 1880 in a tomb-mound at Gokstad near Christiania, of which the dimensions are given as: length 78 ft., beam 16 ft. 7 in., depth 5 ft. 9 in., with, high stem and stern; clinker-built of oak throughout, with 16 oars on either side. Of this type were the vessels large and small which had by the 9th century or even earlier found their way into the Mediterranean. Such were the fleets which continually infested the northern and western coasts of, Gaul, carrying swarms of the fierce Northmen who eventually came to stay, and gave their name to the portion of Neustria which they had wrested from the Frankish king (912). If, as is probable, the Danes who invaded England used the same class of vessel, Alfred the Great must, according to the Saxon Chronicle, be credited with improvements in construction, which enabled him to defeat them at sea (897). He built, we are told, vessels twice as long as those of the Danes, swifter, steadier and higher, some of them for 60 oars, and after his own design, not following either the Danish or Frisian types.

While the northern seas were thus full of activity and conflict, there, was little repose in the Mediterranean. The emperors of the West do not seem to have maintained their fleets or naval stations as they had been of old. Ravenna and Misenum were shorn of their ancient glories. But in the East things were different. There, as we have said, it was fully perceived that the maintenance of the empire depended upon sea power. The Tactica of the Emperor Leo (886911),(886911), followed by Constantine Porphyrogenitus (911959), give us full details as to tbe composition of a Byzantine fleet an.d its units. Dromons of two sizes and of two banks of oars are described, and, besides these, smaller Dromons of great speed are referred to as galleys or single-banked ships. In all these the rule was still one oar, one man, but the way was being prepared for improvements by which the medieval galley, still preserving a comparatively low freeboard, was enabled to equal or to surp~ss the manybanked vessel in speed, while it was gradually adapted to carry greater weight and more powerful means of offence.

The medieval man-of-war was essentially a one-banked vessel (j-iovacporov), but the use of longer oars or sweeps took the place of the smaller paddling oars of the ancient vessel, and altered greatly the angle at which the oars reached the water. It was the increase in the length and weight of the oar, requiring for its efficiency greaterpower than that of one man, which led to the employment of more than one man to an oar. With the longer oar the necessity arose of placing the weight at a greater distance from the power applying the lever. This was gained by the invention of the apostis, which was practically a framework standing out on each side of the hull and running parallel to it; a strong external timber, in which the thowls, against which the oars were rowed, were set. By this means it became possible not only to arrange the oars horizontally, in sets of three or more of different lengths (alla zenzile), instead of in banks one above the other obliquely, but still further to make an innovation, unknown to the ancients, which, while greatly increasing the length and substance of the oar, and its leverage, applied the strength of three or four men (or even up to seven with, the larger galleys and galleasses) for the motive power ~of each blade. As time went on oars of from 30 to 50 ft. came into vogue, the inboard portion of which was about one-third of the length, and furnished with handles (manettes) attached to the loom, while the men for each oar were arranged in steps (.alla scaloccio).

It must not be imagined that these developments took place all at once, or that any improvements in building, or in the method of propulsion, were generally adopted but by slow degrees. Moreover, as commerce increased and merchant vessels gained in size, the necessity of being able to defend themselves against piratical attacks became more and more cogent, a necessity which ultimately led the way to the supersessioxi of the galley by the sailing vessel. Yet the galley for centuries, especially in the Mediterranean, maintained its place as the ship of war par excellence, even when mixed fleets of galleys and sailing vessels were not uncommon. In the Atlantic and northern seas it was less en evidence, though even with the Spanish Armada some galleys arid galleasses were included in the invading fleet.

The period of the Crusades was one of great activity in shipbuilding, in which the Venetians and the Genoese were the leaders in the Mediterranean, but the enterprise of England under Richard Cceur de Lion (1189I 199) shows that in the northern seas great efforts were being made in the same direction, with the undoubted result that the English nation became more familiarized with the sea, and more eager for maritime adventure. Richards fleet which sailed from Dartmouth consisted of 110 vessels, and its total in the Mediterranean after reinforcement amounted to 230 vessels. Among these were Busses, or Dromons of large size, with masts and sails, ships of burden and triremes. Nor were the Saracens without great vessels, if the story of Richards destruction of a three-masted vessel, carrying reinforcements to Acre, on board of which there were no less than 1500 men, be true. The attack of a swarm of galleys upon the great ship as she lay becalmed reads almost like the attack of a swarm of torpedo boats upon a disabled battleship to-day.

The whole period of the Crusades was, as regards naval matters, one of mixed fleets, in which the sailing vessels were mostly merchant vessels armed for fighting purposes. The effect of the Crusades upon the seafaring races of northern Europe was that the revelation of the East and its traffic quickened their desire for adventure in that and other directions. Hence rivalries between them and the Mediterranean sea powers, and consequent improvement in sea-going vessels and in seamanship. The steering side-paddle gradually disappears, and the rudder slung at the stern becomes the usual means of directing the vessels course. The merchant vessels when prepared for war have fore-castles and stern-castles (compare the Roman turres) erected on them, of which the one survives in name, and the other in the quarter-deck of modern times. But a change was at hand which was destined to affect all classes, from the galley with its low freeboard to the alta propugnacula of the great sailing vessels.

The invention of gunpowder, and the consequent use of cannon on board ship, was the cause of many new departures in building and armaments. In the galleys we find guns mounted in the bows, and broadside on the upper deck, en barbette, fIring over the bulwarks. Soon, however, the need of cove1 suggested portholes cut for the guns, just as in the ancient galleys they had been cut for the oars. The desire to carry many guns led to many alterations in build, such as the tumble-home of the sides, and the desire for speed to many improvements in rig, as well as to an increase in the number of masts and consequently larger spread of sail. About1370-1380French, Venetians and Spaniards are using the new artillery in action, and the policy of maintaining a navy composed of sailing vessels built for the purposes of war, and not merely of armed merchant ships impressed for the emergency, soon began to take effect.

In England Henry V. (1413) built large vessels for his fleet, great ships, cogs, carracks, ships, barges and ballingers, some of which were of nearly 1000 tons, but the generality from 420 to 520 tons. In the list of his fleet no galleys seem to be included. Meanwhile in the south the type of vessel called caravel was being developed, in which Portuguese and Spaniards dared the Atlantic and made their great discoveries. It was in a vessel of this kind that Columbus (1492) sought to reach the Indies by a western route.i She was but little over 230 tons when fully laden. Her forecastle overhung the stem by nearly I 2 ft. Aft she had a half deck and a quarter deck. Her total length was 128 ft., her beam nearly 26 ft. She had three masts and a bowsprit. Her fore and main masts were square-rigged, but the mizzen had a lateen sail. The vessels in which Vasco da Gama first doubled the Cape of Good Hope (1497) were of the same type but larger. The ship of John Cabot (1497) in which he discovered Newfoundland must have been much smaller, as he had a crew of only eighteen men.

Among the results of these world-famous voyages and discoveries was naturally a great increase in maritime adventure.

1 See Sir G. V. Holmes, Ancient and Modern Ships, i. 87, to which the writer is indebted for many of the details concerning modern vessels.

In England during the Tudor times a great advance in shipbuilding is observable. Henry VII. with his new ships, the Regent and the Sovereign, and Henry Viii. with his Henry Grace a Dieu, or Great Harry, both came abreast of their times, but it is worthy of notice that the French then, as well as at a later period, were providing the best models for naval architecture. These big ships were arfiled at first with serpentines, and later with cannon and culverins. The representations of them show several tiers of guns, four or even five masts, and enormous structures by way of forecastles and deck-houses aft. As regards merchant vessels, the Genoese and the Venetians during the 15th and 16th centuries carried out great improvements. The carracks of the 16th century often reached as much as 1600 tons burden. There is a record of a Portuguese carrack captured by the English, of which the dimensions reached 165 ft. in length and 47 ft. in beam. She carried 32 pieces of brass ordnance and between 6oo and 700 passengers. The Spanish Armada (1588) was composed of 132 vessels, of which the largest was about 1300 tons and 30 under 100 tons. Four galleys and four galleasses accompanied the fleet. The opposing fleet consisted of 19l vessels of which only 34 belonged to the royal navy. Of these the largest was the Triumph of about jooo tons. The Ark, the flagship of the English admiral, was of 800 tons, carrying 55 guns. Among the armed merchant vessels employed with the fleet was the Buonaventure, the first English vessel that made a successful voyage to the Cape and India. The result to England of the defeat of the Spaniards was a great increase of mercantile activity. Merchants, instead of hiring Genoese or Venetian carracks, began to prefer building and owning home-built ships, and though the foreign merchant vessels appear to have been on a larger scale, yet, as sea-going craft, the English-built ships certainly held their own. We hear also during this period of many improvements in details, such as striking topmasts, the use of chain pumps, the introduction of studding, topgallant, sprit and top sails, also of the weighing of anchors by means of the capstan, and the use of long cables. In the men-of-war the lower tier of guns, which, as in the galleys, had been carried dangerously near the water-line, began to be raised. This improvement, however, does not seem to have been adopted in the English ships till after the Restoration. Meanwhile, in the Mediterranethi the galley was still in vogue, being only partially superseded by the great galleasses, six of which are recorded to have taken part in the battle of Lepanto (,5~I), in which the Venetians and their allies employed no less than 208 galleys with single banks and long sweeping oars. The contrast between the conditions and the character of the vessels used in. this battle and those engaged in the case of the Spanish Armada is interesting and instructive as typical of the different development of naval power in the inland and the open seas.

During the 17th century the expansion of trade and the increase of mercantile enterprise were incessant. The East India Company organized its fleet of armed vessels of about 600 tons, and fought its way through Portuguese obstruction to the Indian coast. The Dutch were also competing for the trade of the East and the West, and formed similar companies with this object in view. Conflicts owing to commercial rivalry and international jealousies were inevitable. Hence in the British navy the construction of large vessels such as the Prince Royal and the Sovereign of the Seas (see RIGGING), which may be considered as among the earliest types of the modern wooden manof -war. English oak afforded the best timber for shipbuilding, and skilful naval architects, such as Phineas Pett, succeeded in constructing the kind of sea-going war vessel which eventually gave England the superiority in its struggle with other naval powers in this and the following century. This, however, was by no means easily gained. The Dutch and the French were not slack in the building of merchant vessels and men-of-war. The capture of vessela from time to time on either side served to enlarge the area of improvement and to assist in the progress of the art of construction. The French navy especially, under the fostering care of Colbert, was greatly strengthened. During the 18th century it was constantly found that the dimensions of French ships exceeded those of British ships of the same date, and that French vessels were superior in speed. This led from time to time to an increase of the measurements of the various classes of vessels in the British navy. These were now rated according to the number of guns which they were constructed to carry.

A 90-gun ship of the line at the beginning of the 18th century averaged 164 ft. in length of gun deck, 47 ft. beam, and about 1570 tons, while the frigates now ran to 120 ft. with 34 ft~ beam and from 600 to 700 tons. These dimensions, however, were not always maintained, and towards the middle of the century the Admiralty seem to have recognized the consequent inferiority of their ships. The famous and ill-fated Royal George, launched in 1756, was the result of an effort to improve the lineof-battle ship of the period. She was 178 ft. in length, 52 ft. in beam, was of over 2000 tons, and carried 100 guns and a crew of 750 men. The Victory, Nelsons flagship, was built nearly ten years later. Her dimensions were 186 ft., 52 ft., 2162 tons, and she carried 100 guns. During the same period frigates, which were cruisers carrying their armament on one deck, were built to carry 32 or 36 guns, but in this class also the French cruisers were superior in speed and of larger dimensions. The remainder of the i 8th century and the beginning of the 19th witnessed a continuous rivalry in naval architecture, the French and Spanish models being constantly ahead of the British in dimensions and armament. In the American war (1812) the same disparity as regards dimensions became apparent, and the English frigates, and sloops used as cruisers, were generally outclassed, and in some instances captured, by American vessels of their own rate. This as usual led to the construction of larger vessels with greater speed, and though, after the conclusion of the long war, the activity of the royal dockyards slackened, yet the great three-deckers of the last period, before the adoption of steam power, had reached a length of over 200 ft., with more than 55 ft. beam, and over 3000 tons.

Meanwhile the mercantile navies of the world, but more especially of England, had largely increased. The East Indiaman, as the armed vessels of the East India Company were called, really performed the functions of merchant vessel, passenger ship, and man-of-war. But, where there was no monopoly, competition soon quickened the development of trading vessels. The Americans with their fast-sailing clippers again taught the English builders a lesson, showing that increased length in proportion to beam gave greater speed, while admitting of lighter rigging in proportion to tonnage, and of economy as regards the number of men required to work the ship. The English shipyards were for a long time unequal to the task of producing vessels capable of competing with those of their American rivals, and their trade suffered accordingly. But after the repeal of the Navigation Laws in 1850 things improved, and we find clippers from Aberdeen and from the Clyde beginning to hold their own on the long voyages to China and elsewhere.

At this epoch steam power appears in use on the scene, and the period of great viooden vessels closes with iron and steel taking their place in the construction of the hulls, while the sail gives way to the paddle and the screw.

LITERATUREI. For Ancient Ships:Duemicher, Fleet of an Egyptian Queen; Chabas, Etudes sur lantiquii histori-jue; Rawlinson, Ancient Monarchies; Scheffer, De militia navali veterum; Boeckh, Urkunden liber das Seewesen des attischen Staates; B. Graser, De re navali veterum; Idem, Das Model eines athenischen Fiinfreihenschiffes (Pentere) aus, der Zeit Alexanders des Grossen im KOniglichen Museum zu Berlin; Idem, Die Genimen des Koniglichen Museums zu Berlin mit Darstellungen antiker Schiffe; Idem, Die attested Schiffsdarstellungen auf antiken Munzen; A. Cartauld, La Trire athenienne; Breusing, Die Nautili der Alten; Smith, Voyage and Shipwreck of St Paul; C. Torr, Ancient Ships. 2. For medieval and modern shipping:A. Jal, Archologie navale and Glossaire naut~que; Jurien de la Gravihre, Derniers fours di la marine li rames (Paris, 1885); Fincati, Le Trsremi; C. de la Ronriere, Ilistoire de la marine francaise; Marquis de Folin, Bateaux c~ navires; W. Laird Clowes, The Royal Navy; W. S. Lindsay, History of Merchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce; Sir G. C. V. Holmes, Ancient and Modern Ships. (E. Wa.)

II. Hisio~ SINCE THE INTRODUCTION 01 STEAMSHIPS

Before steam was applied to the propulsion of, ships, the voyage from Great Britain to America lasted for some weeks; at the beginning of the 20th century the time had been~ reduced to about six days, and in 1910 the fastest vessels could do it in four and a half days. Similarly, the voyage to Australia, which took about thirteen weeks, had been reduced to thirty days or less. The fastest of the sailing tea-clippers rpquired about three months to bring the early teas from China to Great Britain; in 1910 they were brought to London. by the on-]inary P. & 0. service in five weeks. Atlantic liners now run. between England and America which maintain speeds of 25 and 26~cnots over the whole course, as compared with about 12 knots before the introduction of steam. The accommodation. in. the mesdern passenger ships is palatial compared with that in the correspnding wooden sailing ships of the middle of the I9th century.

The changes from sail power to steam power for propulsion, and from wood to iron and steel for constructional purpo~s, proceeded together, though at first very slowly. The marine steam engine was at first a very imperfect motor, and the services upon which steamships could be used to advantage were, in consequence, much restricted. There was, moreover, a national prejudice against the substitution of iron. for thc Wooden Walls of Old England.

It is recorded that an iron boat, intended apparently for passenger service, was built and launched on the river Foss, in Yorkshire, in 1777, and shortly afterwards iron was used for the shell plating of lighters for canal ~ of service. One of these, having its shell constructed j~i,, of plates five-sixteenths of an inch thick, was built near Birmingham in 1787. About the same time parts of wooden ships began to be replaced by iron, the first being beam knees. Early in the t9th century iron diagonal riders for providing the longitudinal strength were introduced by Sir Robert Seppings, and from this period down to the present day iron strengthenings for resisting both transverse and longitudinal strains have been generally used in wooden ships. The introduction of iron as a recognized material for ship construction is often given as dating from I818, when the lighter Vulcan was built on the Monkland canal, near Glasgow.

Among the early objections were: (I) from its weight iron could not be expected to float, and was therefore unsuitable for the construction of a floating body; (2) when a ship constructed of this material grounded and was exposed to bumping on a shore, the bottom would be easily perforated; (3) the bottom could not be preserved from fouling by weeds and barnacles; and (4) the iron affected the compass, making it untrustworthy, if not useless. Gradually, however, the material made its way, and the objections to it proved to be for the most part untenable. Objection (I), although often repeated, was proved to involve a fallacy. With regard to objection (2) it was found that iron ships might ground and be subjected to a great deal of bumping and rough usage without being destroyed, and that, on the whole, they were better off in this respect than. wooden ships. On more than one occasion when iron and wooden ships were stranded together by the same gale and in approximately the same circumstances, the iron ships were got off, and, apart from local injury, were found to be little the worse for the grounding, while the wooden ships were either totally wrecked, or, if got off, were strained to such an extent as to be beyond repair. The power of resistance of iron ships to the strains produced by grounding received, in 1846-1847, a remarkable confirmation in connection with the grounding of the Great Britain, the first large screw steamer built of iron. This ship had been initiated by, and built under the supervision of, Mr I. K. Brunel, who had bestowed much attention upon the details of her construction. In 1846 she ran ashore in Dundrum Bay, in Ireland, and settled on two detached rocks; and although she remained aground for eleven months, including a whole winter, she was subsequently got off and repaired, and afterwards did good service. As regards (3), the fouling of the bottom, this evil, although not preventable.

can be lessened materially by frequent cleaning and repainting, provided, of course, that docks are available. The fourth objection, the effect of iron on the compass, was very serious. After experimenting with the Rainbow at Deptford and the Ironsides at Liverpool, Sir G. B. Airy in 1839 read a paper on the subject before the Royal Society, and the rules which he gave for the correction of the error caused by the iron at once became the guide for future practice. Besides -the above, a further objection was raised which applied only to warships, namely, the nature of the damage which would be done to an iron ship by the enemys shot: this also was found to be less serious, when proper appliances were supplied, than the damage done in the same circumstances to a wooden. ship. Thus during the Chinese \Var in 1842 the Nemesis, an iron vessel, was able to repair her damage from shot in twenty-four hours at the scene of the fight, while some wooden ships had to go to Bombay, the nearest port at which repairs could be carried out.

Steel, as a material for shipbuilding, was introduced under modern conditions of manufacture during the years 1870-1875.

It is a homogeneous metal, stronger than iron, and of intro- a more uniform and more trustworthy character.

07~Z. Its quality is to a considerable extent independent of the skill of those employed in its manufacture, whereas iron is produced by a laborious and unhealthy process, and is largely dependent for its quality on the skill of the workmen. Among the advantages which experience has proved iron and steel to possess over wood for the purposes of ship construction are: (I) the structure of the ship has less weight; (2) it has greater durability; (3) the requisite general and local strengths are much more easily obtained.

The importance of the first of these advantages can scarcely be overstated. The primary object of a particular ship is to carry cargo or passengers, or both, from place to place, at a given speed (in the case of a warship, the armament, ammunition,armour,&c.,constitute the weight to be carried); and since at the maximum draught at which the vessel can properly and safely proceed on her passage the total weight of vessel, cargo, &c. ,complete, must be a definite quantity, namely, the weight of the water displaced by the ship, it follows that the less the weight required for the structure of the ship, the greater is that available for the cargo, &c.

As to durability, in wooden ships the chief source of deterioration is dry-rot, in iron or steel ships the wasting of the surfaces, especially of such portions of the outer surfaces of the bottom plating as are frequently left bare of pa.nt and exposed to the sea, and of the inner surfaces of the bottom in machinery spaces, &c. If dry-rot can be prevented, the life of the wooden ship will be lengthened; so also will the life of the iron or steel ship if the surfaces can be kept covered with paint, to prevent the corrosive action of air and water. With both wood and iron or steel ships, if the parts which have become deteriorated can be removed and replaced, this is usually worth doing when the deterioration is only local. At the end of the 1 8th century the preservation of wood was not so well understood as it is at the present day, and teak, one of the most durable of woods, was, in Great Britain at least, little known. The ships for the Royal Navy as then constructed were only expected to be available for service some fifteen or twenty years. The ships built for the East India Company made, on an average, four voyages, which occupied eight years. This at one time was considered the vessels life, so far as the Companys service was concerned; but subsequently, if on examination at the expiration of that time they appeared worth repairing, this was done, and they were allowed to make two more voyages. It was unusual for one of these ships to make ~more thaii six voyages; after this they were sold or broken up.

In certain cases, however, ships lasted a considerable length of time; a number of vessels built in the 17th century continued in the service of the Royal Navy until the middle of the 18th century, though with a reduced number of guns, and specimens of the old wooden battleships which served in the fleet in the earlier part of the last century are still to be found in the naval and other ports as training vessels, hospital ships, &c. The best-known example is Nelsons Victory (fig. 1, Plate XIII.). Laid down in 759, she had been afloat 40 years before she took part in the battle of Trafalgar, and to-day flies the flag of the commander-in-chief at Portsmouth. Of small wooden merchant vessels there are instances of the attainment of very remarkable ages. Lloyds Register for1909-1910shows one sailing vessel, the Olivia of 94 tons, as having been built as early as in 1819, two vessels built in the twenties, and twelve built between 1830 and 1840. The collier brig Brotherly Love, of South Shields, was over one hundred years old when she was broken up; and the schooner Polly built in 1805, was still sailing in 1902; as also was the brig Hvalfisken, built at Calmar in Sweden in 1801. The dimensions of the last vessel are, length, 88 ft. 8 in.; breadth, 21 ft. 2 in.; depth of hold, 14 ft. 7 in.; and her gross tonnage, 2ff. The oldest vessel afloat in 1910 was said to be the Danish sloop Constance a small wooden sailing vessel built in 1723 and still employed in the coasting trade of Denmark. This vessel is 52 ft. 6 in. long, 14 ft. 8 in. beam, 6 ft. 8 in. depth in hold and of 35 tons gross.

In the cases of these very old wooden vessels it should be remembered that many portions of the original structures have been replaced by continual repairs. We have less experience concerning the life of iron and steel ships when taken care of,and in most instances ships have been condemned and broken up only because they were obsolete; but after twenty or even forty years service, those parts which by accident or intention had remained properly covered and protected were found very little the worse for wear. Thus the inner surface of the outside plating of such vessels, coated with cement, have been found to be in as good condition as when the ships were first built. The hulls of many of the early iron vessels still afloat are known to be in excellent condition. The Himalaya, an iron vessel of 3453 tons and 700 h.p., 6 guns, length 340 ft. 5 in., breadth 46 ft. 2 in., depth 24 ft., built by Mare of Blackwall in 1853 for the P. & 0. Steam Packet Co., and purchased by the Admiralty, was actively employed, chiefly as a troop-ship, until 1896, when she was converted into a coal depot, it being found that her plating and framing were almost as good as new. Known as C. 60, she seemed likely in 1910 to survive for many years in her new service. The Warrior the first British iron battleship, built in 1861, was converted into a floating workshop forty years later at Portsmouth, where in 1910 she was known as Vernon III. The hull and framing of the vessel were then practically as sound as when first put together. Experience up to 1910 with vessels built of mild steel indicates that this is more liable to surface corrosion than iron, especially where exposed to the action of bilge water and coal ashes in boiler rooms. Some owners on this account require the plating for the tank tops under the boilers to be of iron in, vessels otherwise built of mild steel, although the iron is inferior in strength and costs more than the mild steel.

That general and local strength are more easily obtained in an iron or steel ship than in a wooden one follows partly from the fact that the weight required for the structure is less in the former than in the latter, and also from the fact that iron and steel are more suitable materials for the purpose. They can be obtained in almost any desired shape, the parts can be readily united to one another with comparatively little loss of strength, and great local strength can be provided in very little space.

For some purposes, and in some markets, wood is still in favor. In scientific expeditions to the Polar regions, it is of the highest importance to avoid any disturbance of the compass, and this can be ensured by constructing the vessel of wood, with metal fastenings. The Fram, built in 1892 for Nansens Arctic expedition, was of wood, her outside planking, in three thicknesses, amounting in the aggregate to from 24 in. up to 28 in.; she was 117 ft. long, rigged as a threemasted schooner, and provided with auxiliary machinery working a screw propeller. The America, fitted out for the Ziegler expedition to the North Pole, was an old Dundee whaler (the Esquimaux), and was reported to be still a stout ship with timbers as sound as on the day they were put in thirty-six years before. She is 157 ft. long, 291/2 ft. beam, 193/4 ft. deep, net tonnage 466; her engines have a nominal horse-power of 100, and she has a liftin,g screw. In 1901 the Discovery, a wooden vessel, 172 ft. in length, was built at Dundee for Antarctic exploration, under Captain Robert Scott, R.N.,1 and a wooden vessel for similar service was constructed in Germany, and in 1910 the Terra Nova (Plate I., fig. 2), a wooden Dundee whaler, 187 ft. long, barque-rigged and fitted with auxiliary steam power, which had already seen service in the Far South, carried to the Antarctic regions an expedition also led by Captain Scott. Some wooden sailing vessels are still built in the United States and employed in the coasting and other trades. One of these, the Wyoming, the largest wooden sailing vessel ever built, was launched in December 1909 at Bath. She was a six-masted schooner 350 ft. long, 50 ft. wide and 30 ft. deep. Wood is also in favor for most of the large and palatial river steamers of the Western states of America.

Some progress had been made in the introduction of steam propulsion. before the end of the 18th century, but Steam the advance became more rapid in the I9th. In propulsion. the early steam vessels paddle-wheels only were used for propulsion.

In1801-1802the Charlotte Dundas, one of the earliest steam vessels, was constructed by Symington in Scotland. She proved her capability for towing purposes on the Forth and Clyde canal. Fulton now made his experiments in France, and after visiting Scotland and witnessing the success of the Charlotte Dundas, constructed the Clermont on the Hudson river in America in 1807. The engines fcr this vessel were obtained from Boulton&Watt, of England. She ran as a passenger boat between New York and Albany, and at the end of her second season proved too small for the crowd that thronged to take passage in her. In 1809 the Phoenix made the passage from Hoboken, in New Jersey, to Philadelphia, and was thus the first steamer to make a sea voyage. In 1812 Bell began running his steamer Comet, with passengers, between Glasgow, Greenock and Helensburgh: she was 42 ft. long, ii ft. broad, 51/2 ft. deep, and her engine had one cylinder II in. in diameter, with a 16-in, stroke. Owing to the success achieved by these and other vessels in America and Great Britain, steamers soon began to make their appearance on many of the principal rivers of the world. Early in 1814 there were five steamboats on the Thames, and the steamboat Margery, built on the Clyde, was brought through the Forth and Clyde canal and round by the east coast to the Thames. In the same year a writer in the Gentlemans Magazine was able to say: Most of the principal rivers in North America are navigated by steamboats; one of them passes 2000 m. on the great river Mississippi in twenty-one days, at the rate of 5 m. an hour against the descending current. In 1816 the first steam passengerboat ran across the English Channel from Brighton to Havre, and a line of steamers was started to run between New York and New London. All of these vessels were built of wood; but in 1820 the first iron steatnship, the Aaron Manby, was constructed and employed in a direct service between London and Paris. In 1822 a return was made to the House of Commons showing the times occupied by steamers as compared with sailing vessels on some thirty coasting routes; the average speed given for steamers in the best of these was from eight to nine knots, while the average time taken varied from one-half to one-sixth (or even less) of the time taken by the sailing vessels.

Steam vessels were employed at a very early date upon the mail services, for besides being very much quicker than the sailing vessels, they were practically independent of the direction of the wind, and to a considerable extent of the weather; consequently the regularity of their nassages contrasted very favorably with the irregular times kept by the sailing vessels. The mail service across the Irish Channel, between Holyhead and Dublin, was especially uncertain in the days of the sailing packets, frequently occupying three or four days, and occasionally as much as seven and nine days. All this was altered when in 1821 the steamers Royal Sovereign and Meteor were placed on the service. The advantages were so apparent that steam mail packets between Great Britain and the Continent, and on many other services, were soon established. The mail boats had been for many years owned by the crown, but in 1833 the carrying of the mails to and from the Isle of Man, and between England and Holland and Hamburg, was entrusted to private companies. Marked improvement in the services, and especially in the boats employed, resulte~l from the competition to secure the distinction and other advantages of carrying His Majestys mails. An intermediate stage followed, extending over a comparatively short period, during which the crown etill held many of the mail boats, while in a considerable number of cases the mail services were let to private companies. After this the British government abandoned altogether the policy of being the owners of the boats, and the mail services have since been competed for by private companies.

The Savannah was the first steamship to cross the Atlantic. She ran from Savannah to Liverpool in 1819 in twenty-five days, under steam, however, only for a portion of the time. She was built at New York as a sailing ship, but before launching was fitted with steam power, the paddle-wheels being arranged to be removed and placed on deck when not required. She was 130 ft. long, 26 ft. broad, 161/2 ft. deep and of about 380 tons. The success of the Enterprise, of 470 tons, which made the voyage from London to Calcutta by the Cap~a of Good Hope in 1825 in 103 sailing days, is noteworthy. The distance is 11,450 nautical miles, and the vessel was under steam for 64 clays and under sail for 39 days. The steamer afterwards (1829-1830) made the trip between Bombay and Suez in 54 days, in furtherance of a scheme to reach the former place from London by the Red Sea route. The year 1838 witnessed the successful transatlantic voyages of the steamers Sirius and Great Western. The latter vessel, built under the advice of I. K. Brunel, the engineer of the Great \Vestern Railway Company, was the first steamer actually constructed for the transatlantic service. She was built of wood, her dimensions beinglength 212 ft., breadth 351/2 ft., depth 233/4 ft. and tonnoge 1340 B.O.M.; and her total displacement on a draught of i6 ft. 8 in. was 2300 tons. Although not originally built for the service, the Sirius was subsequently placed on it at the recommendation of Mr MGregor Laird of Birkenhead. This vessel also was built of wood, and was 178 ft. long, 251/2 ft. broad, 183/4 ft. deep and her tonnage was 703. Mr Lairds arguments in favor of placing the vessel on the transatlantic service throw light on the steaming capabilities of vessels of that day. He pointed to the steamers Dundee and Perth making ii m. per hour, in all weathers, winter and summer, fair and foul; and to the other vessels making from 10 to 101/2 m. per hour. He based his estimate for the coal required on the voyage on a speed of 10 m. per hour and a coal consumption of 30 tons per day, which gave 525 tons f or the whole voyage. Finally, he allowed 800 tons, corresponding to the difference of the displacement at 15 ft. load draught and at II ft. light draught, so that he had a margin of 275 tons for contingencies.

All the vessels just named were propelled by paddle-wheels. The screw propellei had been advocated as a means of propulsion by many inventors in England, France and America during the latter half of the 18th and the early part of the f9th century; a number of experiments had been made, but these had not been brought to a successful issue, as no suitable steam engine was available for driving the propeller. Benjamin Franklin, in 1775, drew attention to the inefficiency of side paddle wheels as a means of propulsion, and proposed as an alternative to set the steam engine to pump water in at the bow and force it out at the stern, the water passing along a trunk. In 1782 a boat 80 ft. long, fitted with this means of propulsion by James Rumsey, was driven at 4 m. an hour on the river Potomac, and a number of other vessels similarly fitted followed. In 1839 Dr Ruthven took out a patent for this method of propulsion in which the piston pump was replaced by a centrifugal pump; and in 1865 the Nautilus, a vessel of this type, so impressed the British Admiralty of the day that an armoured gunboatthe Waterwitch was provided with this system of propulsion. She was built of iron, 162 ft. long, 32 ft. broad, 13 ft. 9 in. deep, was double-ended and fitted with bow and stern. rudders, but was otherwise similar to the armoured gunboat Viper built at the same time and fitted with a screw propeller. Many trials were carried out with the Waterwitch and Viper, but the system adopted in the former was not repeated because of the great advances made in connection with the screw propeller. -

Many useful experiments appear to have been carried out b.y Colonel John Stevens in the United States in the early years of the I9th century, but, although some beautiful The screw models of propellers made by him still remain, the propeller.

system was not generally adopted until its commercial possibilities were more successfully demonstrated by Captain John Ericssonformerly an officer in the Swedish army and F. P. Smith of England. Smith took out his patent for the propulsion of ships by means of a screw fitted in a recess formed in the deadwood, in May 1836, and in July of the same year Ericsson, then practising as a civil engineer in London, took out his patent. Small vessels were built and fitted by both inventors and both were tested in the Thames. In 1838 Captain Robert F. Stockton, on behalf of the U.S. Navy, ordered two iron boats of Messrs Lairds of Birkenhead, to be supplied with steam engines and screw propellers of Ericssons design. The first boat was named the Robert F. Stockton, and arrived at New York under sail early in 1839, with her machinery on board. The machinery was fitted in her at Bordentown, and under the name of New jersey the boat afterwards served as a tow boat on the river Delaware. She was 70 ft. long, 10 ft. beam and 6 ft. 9 in. draught, and could steam about 10 m. an hour. Ericsson had the satisfaction of seeing his plans very largely adopted in the American Navy, but the mercantile marine adhered with great pertinacity to the paddle-wheel.

Fincham, writing in 1851, says that in England engineers were reluctant to admit the success of the screw propeller, and adds: A striking instance of prevailing disinclination to the screw propeller was shown on the issue of a new edition of the Encyclopaedia, in which the article on steam, navigation contained no notice whatever of the subject.

Smith, however, persevered, and with the assistance of some influential people of the daynotably Messrs Rennie & Co. formed the Ship Propeller Company, and in 1838 built the Archimedes, a vessel of 237 tons burthen, to illustrate the value of the plan. The length of the vessel was 106 ft. 8 in., breadth 21 ft. 10 in., depth in hold 13 ft., draught of water 9 ft. 6 in., h.p. 80 nominal, but only 66 could be developed. A speed of about 73/4 knots could usually be maintained, but on one run of 30 m. under very favorable circumstances a speed of 10-9 m. was reported. In 1840 she was placed at the disposal of the Admiralty for experiment, and the trials were favorably reported on. She afterwards passed into the hands of Brunel, who was so satisfied with the results of further trials that he modified the design of the Great Britain steamship then in hand (1843), and fitted her with a screw propeller instead of paddle-wheels as originally intended. The success of this and other vessels was sufficient to largely influence public opinion in favor of the propeller, and the Admiralty took the important step of building the Rattler, a vessel of 888 tons and 200 H.P., to test the system. She was practically a repeat of the Alecto, as far as her hull and the power of her machinery were concerned, but she was propelled by a screw propeller, whereas the Alecto was propelled by paddle-wheels. These vessels were tested together at sea in March 1845, when. the Rattler proved the faster vessel; but the great test took place on Thursday, 3rd April following, when the two vessels were secured stern to stern, and it was found that with the engines of both ships working at full power the Rattler towed the Alecto astern at a speed of s~ knots.t In. a few years the screw almost entirely superseded the paddle-wheel for war vessels, and in 1854, during the war with Russia, Great Britain possessed a screw steam fleet, including all classes of ships, built of wood.

The performances of the Greet l~Vestern and other vessels had demonstrated that ships could traverse the oceans of the world by steam power alone, but great advance had to be made in the marine engine before the ordinary trade could be carried on by its means with economy. In the early maline engines only one cylinder was provided, and various means were employed for transmitting the power to snaclilnery. the paddle shaft; later came the oscillating cylinder engine and the diagonal engine, the latter being the type of paddle engine now most frequently adopted in Great Britain. With the introduction of the screw propeller the arrangements became much modified. At first the engines were run at comparatively low speeds, as in paddle-boats, gearing being supplied to give the screw shaft the number of revolutions rctjuired, but direct-acting two-cylinder engines gradually replaced the geared engines. The compound engine was first adapted successfully to marine work by John Elder in 1854, and in time directacting vertical engines, with one high and one low pressure cylinder, became the common. type for all ships. The boiler pressure, moreover, in 1854, had been raised to 42 lb per sq. in. The further change, accompanying still higher pressures of steam, from compound to triple-expansion engines was, like inan.y other changes, foreseen and in some measure adopted by various workers at about the same time, but the first successful application of the principle was due to Dr A. C. Kirk. In 1874 he fitted a three-crank triple-expansion. engine in the Pro pontis. The boiler used proved a failure, but in 1882 he fitted a similar set of engines in the Aberdeen, with a boiler pressure of 125 It), and the result was entirely successful.

Continuous improvements have enabled engineers to produce machinery of less and less weight for the same power, and at the same time to reduce the spaces required for its accommodation, the vibration. due to the working of tl~e engines, and the consumption of fuel per horse power. For engines of high power, quadruple expansion has sometimes been adopted, while scientific methods of balancing have been employed, improved qualities of steel and bronze have been introduced, the rate of revolution has been increased, and forced lubrication fitted. In the boilers higher steam pressures have been used, superheating in some cases being resorted to; the rate of combustion has been accelerated by supplying air under pressure in the stokehold or in the furnaces, and in some cases by placing fans in. the exhaust to draw the air and products of combustion more rapidly through the fires; the former being known as forced draught and the latter as induced draught. In the Navy, with the view of saving weight, water-tube boilers have been adopted, but boilers of this type have not yet been generally fitted in the mercantile marine. Steam pressures now in common use vary from too to 180 lb per sq. in.. in. cargo .ships; from 140 to 220 lb in passenger ships, including the large Atlantic liners; from 210 to 300 lb in large warships where water-tube boilers are used; while in destroyers and other classes of warships in which small tube water-tube boilers are used it varies from I 8o to 250 lb per sq. in.

A century ago the reciprocating steam engine was slowly making its way as a means of propulsion as an auxiliary to, or as a substitute for sail powerthe steam being obtained by burning wood or coal. In 1815 nine small steam vessels, having an. aggregate tonnage 01786 tons, were built and registered in the United Kingdom; in 1825 24 steam vessels were built, having an aggregate of 3003 tons; in 1835 86 vessels were built, having an aggregate of 10,924 tons. In. 1910 the reciprocating steam engine, after reaching a very high degree of perfection and universal adoption, was being largely replaced by the turbine, coal was being replaced to a considerable extent by oil as a fuel for raising steam, and steam itself was being challenged as a motive agent by the development of the internal combustion engine.

Ill. STATISTICS

For some years before 1870 the total tonnage of sailing ships built each year in the United Kingdom had been about equal to that of steam ships, but then a great change took place; Decrease 541 sailing vessels, amounting to 123,910 tons, were added to the register of the United Kingdom, while 433 of sailing tonnage.

steam ships, amounting to 364,860 tons, were added; the steam tonnage thus added being nearly three times that of sailing vessels. A uniform rate of increase of production of steam vessels was on the whole maintained after 1870, but, as will be seen by referring to Table I. and fig. 3, considerable fluctuations have occurred, the falling off in steam tonnage being simultaneous with increases of sailing tonnage and vice versa down to 1895. The dotted lines on fig. 3 show approximately the average output for 50 years of sailing and steam tonnage separately and combined. Roughly speaking it may be said that from 1860 to 1895 the output of sailing tonnage fell from about 200,000 tons per annum to 100,000 tons; during the later nineties the falling off was more rapid, and between 1900 and 1910 the output varied between 15,000 and 30,000 tons.

The average tonnage of the sailing vessels built in the United Kingdom in 1860 was 206 tons; this increased with a fair degree of regularity to 532 tons in 1890, 749 tons in 1891 Average and 963 tons in 1892, after which a rapid decrease took size of place, and by 1898 the average size had fallen to 75 tons; sailing vessels.

there were fluctuations after this date, but the average never rose above 163 tons and these vessels are practically restricted to the coasting trac,l~ and pleasure purposes.

Although the building of large sailing vessels of wood and steel has almost ceased in the United Kingdom, the sizes of the largest of such vessels built abroad have continued to increase. Under the influence of the shipbuilding bounties granted in France between 1895 and 1902 something like f 50 sailing vessels of from 2000 to 3500 tons each were built, but few since. In Germany and in America a few large sailing vessels continue to be built.

Lloyds Register for 1841 ~ves a table of the Steam Vessels belonging to England Scotlai,~,. and Ireland in the years 1814 to 1839, which shows that in 1839 there were 720 vessels of a total tonnage of 79,240 tonS owned in the United Growth Kingdom. Between 1839 and 186o considerable numbers of steam of steam ships were built for various services, and the pro- tonnage. duction from 1860 is shown by fig. 3 and Table I. The tonnage added to the Register in 1860 amounted to 93,590 tons, rising over four years to 293,140 tons in 1865; after a gradual decline extending over three years to 100,000 tons it again rose till 1872 when nearly 500,000 tons were added. In 1876 it had fallen to about 200,000 tons; then came the great rise extending to 1883, when it reached a maximum of 885,495 tons. A rapid decrease followed, and in i886 it had fallen practically to what it had been ten years before. In another three years the figure was again what it had been in 1883; and for a period of seventeen years, with much smaller fluctuations than previously, great increases were maintained. In 1906 a maximum of 1,428,793 tons was reached, when another rapid fall occurred over two yearsthe minimum reached being 600,837 tons in 1908. The fluctuations in output, shown by fig. 3, synchronize approximately with the improvements and depressions in trade.

The average tonnage of British steam vessels rose slowly from 80 tons in i813 to 102 tons in 1830, and to 473 tons in 1860, reaching a maximum of 1442 tons in 1882. During the next four Average years it fell gradually to 896 tons, rising again to 1515 sIze, of tons in 1890, and the average tonnage built since 1890 has ste~~ remained, with a certain amount of fluctuation, nearly ships. 1500 tons. These figures may be taken as roughly representing the average tonnage of the ships produced throughout the world; but as in these averages large numbers of comparatively small vessels are included, the vast increase in the numbers of large-sized vessels which have been built, especially during recent yearv, is not adequately represented. Of the vessels built in 1890 only I % exceeded 8000 tons in displacement, whereas the vessels of over 8000

TABLE I -Showing the Number, Tonnage (Gross and Average), added to the Register of the United K

Wood and Composite. Iron.

Mode ______ _________ ______

Year. of - Gross T Gr Propulsion. No. Tounage~ No. Tonr Sail -. - 786 154,130 32 I~

I860 Steam - - 49 7,050 149 86,

Sail - - - 8o6 160,430 116 88,

i862~ Steam - - 38 5,780 344 287,

8 Sail - - - 478 72,970 63 50,

I ~0 Steam - - 51 7,290 382 357,

8-- 1 Sail 373 46,060 193 206,

i/3~ Steam - 66 8740 291 281,

88 1 Sail, - - 273 18,f59 39 40,

i 0? Steam - 20 1,779 362 447,

88 ul .~. 266 17,841 144 i6o, 2~ Steam. 37 2,751 177 148,

8 SemI -. 142 7,704 6 5,

1 90 / Steam - 26 1,326 110 40,

s Sail ... 156 8,541 3 I,

i 91 ? Steam - - 25 1,212 167 31,

18(1 5 Sail - - - 151 8,372 6 5,

~ 1 Steam - - 19 1,026 86 18,

18 Sail - - 154 7,980 4

Steam - 27 1,551 64 12,

18 Sail - - 155 7,570 3,

Steam - - 26 1,183 65 12,

18 - Sail - - 150 7,529 9

Steam.. 35 1,579 66 9,

r8 6 l Sail - 161 7,519 5

~ 1 Steam 17 591 79 II,

is 5 Sail - - 183 8,317 2

Steam, - 33 1,58! 63 9,

mS 8 Sail - - 196 8,813 6

Steam - 20 765 8o 13,

18 5 Sail - - 165 7,342 2

)t~) I Steam - - 29 1,497 64 12,

1900 Sail -.. 159 8,718 5

/ Steam 64 3,809 86 16,

190i Sail - - 146 7,826 2

Steam - 83 5,479 14 2

1902 5 Sail ... 142 7,479

Steam - 71 4,098 32 5

1 03 5 Sail - - - 139 7,637 -

Steam - 68 4,034 3

Sail - - - 161 8,626 - -

~~ Steam - 52 2,961 5

I 0~ Sail - - 130 7,962 - -

9 2 Steam - 45 1,840 2

1 06 Sail - - 104 5,731 2

Steam - - 110 6,242 I

1 07 Sail ... 121 7,017 -

~) Steam 196 15,069 - -

I 08 l Sail io8 4,93!

1 Steam - - 142 9,056 1

i 0 Sail -.. 75 3,362 -

~ Steam - - 92 3,880 - -

The above table is based upon information supplied to md Description of all Vessels (excluding Warships) built in and ngdom during each year enumerated.

Steel. Totals.

Average ss Gross Gross Gross age. Nc. Tonnage. No. Tonnage. Tonnage.

190 - - - - 818 168,420 206

540 - - - 198 93,590 473

)70 -. - - 922 249,400 270

6o -. -. 382 293,140 767

)4o - - -. 541 123,910 229

570 - - 433 364,8b0 843

~10 - - 566 252,170 446

590 - - 357 29o,f30 813

)15 4 1,671 316 59,845 189

589 26 36,493 408 485,661 ff90

)34 27 30,569 437 208,444 477

~o8 122 154,249 336 305,508 909

)iI 59 96,374 207 109,989 532

~44 432 817,Ofo 568 858,480 1515

c44 93 i78,593 252 188,678 749

I8i 388 730,051 580 762,644 1315

~21 128 260,874 285 274,367 963

)37 365 660,847 470 680,810 1449

~m8 66 113,097 224 121,495 542

~58 328 622,099 419 636,108 1518

107 67 83,167 225 90,944 404

W0 389 75I,668 480 765,251 1594

782 32 4I,3f3 191 49,624 260

/79 379 736,412 480 747,888 1558

792 36 37,709 202 46,020 228

593 398 750,106 494 762,290 1543

132 34 28,48, 219 37,030 169

~74 366 658,646 462 670,20! 1451

798 40 8,456 242 18,067 75

554 546 996,8,4 646 1,011,233 1565

182 6o 11,757 227 19,281 85

184 534 1,152,999 627 1,i66,68o 1861

420 46 8,598 210 17,736 84

375 476 1,102,890 626 1,123,074 1794

174 54 22,118 202 30,118 149

474 469 1,115,227 566 1,123,180 1984

- 63 25,985 205 33,464 163

870 476 1,109,511 579 1,119,479 1933

- 60 15,077 199 22,714 114

537 538 943,333 609 947,904 1556

- 51 15,166 212 23,792 112

827 519 1,016 324 576 1,020,112 177!

- 36 7,125 166 15,087 9!

147 567 1,204,293 614 1,206,280 2964

330 42 8,810 148 14,871 100

79 66o 1,422,472 771 1,428,793 1853

- 45 8,228 166 15,245 92

629 1,182,566 825 1,197,635 1452

97 58 18,468 167 23,496 141

483 415 591,298 558 600,837 1077

44 11,020 119 14,382 121

383 752,424 475 756,304 1592

Lloyds Registry by the Registrar-General of Shipping.

e years from 1860 to 1879 inclusive (only net tonnages having been based on the relation of srns~ to set for the years 1882 and io~

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tons built in 1900 made up 12% of the whole tonnage. Jn 1890 there were no vessels built whose displacement exceeded 9000 tons; in 1900 such vessels constituted I 13/4% of the whole, and about 3/4% of the whole were over 16,000 tons. The year 1908 was notable for the number of large vessels launched; fo British and 4 German FIG. 3.Gross tonnage of all sailing and steam merchant vessels hi added to the register of the United Kingdom during each year from 186 The dotted lines may be taken as representing the average produc year to year.

vessels were launched whose tonnage averaged about 15,000 tons each, their tons displacement being about 50% greater. In 191 0 there were afloat more than So vessels exceeding 12,000 tons, and having an average tonnage of more than 15,500 tons each (see Table XI. page 885). Six of these vessels were over 20,000 tons and had an average gross tonnage of 25,640 tons each. The tonnage of the largest vessels has almost continuously increased, and vessels with a tonnage of 45,000 tons are now being built, the fully loaded displacement of the vessels being more than 50,000 tons.

Fig. 4 shows the tonnage of wood, composite, iron and steel vessels added to the Register year by year since 1860, and figures Tonna e for a number of the years are given in Table I. The burn J tonnage of wood and composite vessels added in 1860 wood fr~i, was 161,180, increasing to 166,210 tons in 1865 and and steel then falling away at a fairly uniform rate until in 1880

only 19,938 tons were reported, and since that date practically no increase in output of this class of tonnage has taken place. The tonnage of iron ships produced in 186o was about 63% of that of wood ships; while wood shipbuilding fell off, iron shipbuilding increased, and in 1870 the tonnage of iron ships was more than five times that of wood and composite ships. The output of iron ships iiicreased until 1883, when a maximum of 856,990 tons was reached. Steel had now come into use, and iron shipbuilding fell away rapidly, amounting only to 50,579 tons in 1888; this figure fell to 10,679 tons in 1895, and since then very few vessels have been built of iron. Steel, which had been used in shipbuilding to a limited extent for special purposes for some eight years, came into use for the hulls of merchant ships in the later seventies. In 1880 the tonnage built38,164 tonswas 41/2% of that of iron ships, by 1885 the ratio was 60%, and in 1890 the tonnage of steel ships, 913,484 tons, v-as just 20 times that of iron ships. From that date the statistics of steel shipbuilding are practically those of steam vessels above given. -

From Table II., which gives the distribution of ownership of existing merchant vessels and other vessels, excepting warships, it Th appears that the total tonnage of the worlds shipping, e~, excluding vessels under 100 tons and the wood vessels on wor S, the Great Lakes of America, is about 42 millions. Of this total, rather less than one-ninth is in sailing vessels, and d dl ~ the remainder in steam vessels. Taking the number of bUf ships instead of their aggregate tonnage, the sailing vessels are 27% of the whole. Out of the 42 million tons, Great Britain and her colonies own about 19 millions, or 451/8% of the whole, 18 millions being steamers and I million sailing vessels.

Fio. 4.Gross tonnage of all wood, composite, iron and steel vessels built in and added to the register of the United Kingdom du year from 1860 to 1910.

Next to Great Britain, the largest shipowning country in the world is the United States of America, with 5 million tons of shipping, 12% of the total. Then come in order Germany, with nearly 41/2 millions, io1/2% of the total; Norway, with 4.8%; France, with 4.5%; Italy, with 3.2%; Japan, with 2.7%; Holland, Sweden and Russia with 2~4 to 2f %; and Austria-Hungary, Spain and Denmark each with abotit 1.8%. The leading particulars as to the distribution of ownership of the merchant shipping throughout the world for 1873, 1890, 1900 and 1910 respectively are represented graphically in the block diagrams given in fig. 5, which have been constructed from particulars given in Table II. and similar tables for the other years named. The total tonnage owned in these years, excluding vessels under 100 tons and wood vessels on the Great Lakes of America, is represented by -I- squares drawn to scale, in duplicate, and divided up LI I -~ amongst the countries owning shipping in proportion to ~/ ~ their ownership. Parts of each holding are shaded in the %,/j~ ~i squares on the right so as to show what portion is ~~ sailing tonnage and what steam tonnage, and in the squares on the left so as to show the distribution of the total as regards materials of construction in each country. The total tonnage owned is given for each -. year named, and the percentages owned by various countries are tabulated between the pairs of squares.

ut in and The tonnage of the shipping of the world has advanced Dto i910. at an increasing rate for many years; the character of non from this advance may be gathered from the data given in fig. 5.

In 1873 Great Britain and her colonies owned 43-25%, and in 1890 52.35%; but although the advance in the shipping of Great Britain and her colonies has continued approximately at the same uniform rate, such has been the increasing rate of the advance of the worlds shipping that the percentage owned by the British Empire fell to 49.1% in 1900 and to 45~36 in 1910. This increasing rate of advance of the tonnage of the worlds shipping is shown by Table III. The remarkable rate at which the shipping of the United States and Germany has advanced will also be seen.

TABLE III.R ate of Increase of the Worlds Shipping.

Year. 1873.1890.1900.1910.

Worlds tonnage (tons). - - 17,545,563 22,151,651 29,043,728 41,914,765

Worlds tonnage taking 1873 as 100 - - - - 100 126 165 240

Average rate of increase per annumfromf873 - - f~5% 24% 3-8%

Proportion owned by Britain. 43.25% 52.35 ~o 49.1% 45.36%

Proportion owned by United States -. - 14.27% 8.23 0/ 9.47% 12-06%

Proportion owned byGermany - 5-88% 7.08% 9-13% 10-34%

Table IV. gives the output, for the year 1909, of merchant and other vessels throughout the world, excluding warships, all ships of less than 100 tons and the wood vessels of the Great Worlds Lakes of North America. The block diagrams in fig. 6 are out constructed in tile same way as the diagrams in fig. 5, gncl of ships are arranged to show the output of the principal shipbuilding countries of the world in 1900 and in 1909, the reference square for scale representing one-tenth the amount of that of fig. 5. The total output for the year 1900 was 2,343,854 tons, of which 1,509,837 tons, or 65%of the whole, was built in the United Kingdom; 303,339 tons or 13% was built by the United States of America; 9.4% by Germany and 5.4% by France. In 1Q09 the total output was 1,551,532 tons, of which 971,113 tons or 635% was built in the United Kingdom; 178,402 or I I5% was built in the United States of America; Germany built 8., %; France only 3%; the output of Holland and Belgium has risen from .s.. 1.38% in 1900 to 4.34% in 1909; and Japan appears with 298% instead of about ~6% in 1900.

American Ship ping.Under the Registration Laws of the United States vessels may be (a) registered; (b)

~ ,,,~,) enrolled; or (c) licensed. The proportion of vessels coming under these three headings as given by the United States ~ Commissionerof Navigation, 30th June 1909, is shown in Table V.

It will be seen that the Registered Tonnage includes only vessels engaged in the Foreign Trade and in Whale Fisheries, which amount in the total to 1633 vessels of 887,505 tons and include the smallest vessels crossing the ha ~ St Lawrence equally with ocean liners. Two hundred u~erc ach and twenty-seven of the registered vessels are less than ring e 100 tons, and only ni,ue are over 1o,oc~ tons, narnel?r the Minnesota, Manchuria, Mongolia, Siberia and Korea on the Pacific, and the St Louis and St Paul, New York and Philadeiphia on the Atlantic routes. The Enrolled Tonnage includes vessels engaged in tlie coasting trade and local fisheues which are over 20 tons; and the Licensed Tonnage vessels similarly engaged, but of a size not exceeding 20 tons. The whole of the tonnage included is officially described as tonnage - e 0 00 00 00 00 -* 0)0~ N (CC 00 0 0- 0 0 t 1 ~;a ~-g ~, ~ ~ ~ ii 0 ~ ~- 00a CC NO o~ 66 o~ :~o 6

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FIG. 5.Distribution of ownership of merchant shipping through Table II. for 1910. The tonnages for 1900 and 1890 are prepar(

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Sailing. S

Class. - ________ _______

- No. Tons. No.

a) Registered:

Foreign trade -. - - 445 225,376 490

\Vhale fisheries. 25 5,682 8,

Total -. - 470 231,058 498

(b) Enrolled:

Coasting trade -. - - 3799 1,391,965 6,327

Cod and mackerel fisheries - 341 33,232 91

Total -.. - 4140 1,425,197 6,418

(c) Licensed:

Coasting trade - - - 4672 50,986 4,241

Cod and mackerel fisheries. 430 3,835 484

Total -. - 5102 54,82f 4,725

Grand Total, - 9712 f,7i1,o76 11,641

documented in the United States, and the division is based on the trade on which the vessels are employed, and not as in the United Kingdom on the character of the vessels and their fitness to engage in trade to distant countries or on more local service.

By the United States Navigation Laws all trade between American ports no matter how far they are separatedsuch as New York to San Francisco, or from either of these ports to Honolulu or Manilais declared to be coasting trade. None but United States vessels are allowed to engage in this trade, which in recent years has developed so rapidly as to employ the main part of the American Mercantile Marine; it demands large numbers of ocean-going vessels, and many vessels have been transferred from the Foreign Trade to meet the de.nand.

Wo~c~.

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Japan France ________ .~/cr~Pay ____________ Italy At4strLa-JfttflgQrl therCoun2rie.i Scale L I ic FIG. 6.Merchant shipping built in each of the countries of the ~ on the figures given in Lloyds Regis ,ited States Shipping. 30th June 1909.

earn. Canal. Barge., Total.

Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons.

575,226 -. .. 665 77,921 1,600 878,523

3,300 - - .... .. 33 8,982

578,526 -.. - 665 77,921 1,633 887,505

4,099,087 745 80,951 2769 767,839 13,640 6,339,842

7,979 -. .. - - -. 432 41,2II

4,107,066 745 80,951 2769 767,839 14,072 6,381,053

58,470 - - .. 156 1,744 9,069 111,200

5,162.. -. .. - - 914 8,997

63,632 .. - - 156 1,744 9,983 120,197

4,749,224 745 80,951 3590 847,504 25688 7,388,755

Lloyds Register for1909-1910gives the following figures for United States shipping, excluding all vessels under 100 tons and all wooden vessels on the Great Lakes :

Number. Tons.

On Sea Coasts - - 2899 2,791,282

Northern Lakes - - 583 2,118,276

Philippines - - - 108 44,254

____________________ 3590 4,953,812

Large numbers of American vessels are not included in the American Returnssuch as yachts, boats and lighters employed within the ~5team ~Sa:ftnq 88r74 1~.Z6~Ia Steam Sailin9

97.33 2~e7z o,ooo Ton$.

orld in 1900 and in 1909. The tonnages are gross, and are based :er; see notes appended to Table IV.

limits of any harbour; canal boats and barges without sails or motive power employed entirely within any State; barges and boats on the rivers and lakes of the United States which do not carry passengers and do not trade to any foreign territory. None of these vessels are registered, enrolled or licensed. A census of shipping taken in i889 revealed the fact that at that date the tonnage of these undocumented vessels amounted to just half the total shipping of the United States; since then their numbers have greatly decreased because of the improved means of transport by rail.

The distribution of the total documented shipping on the coasts of the United States in 1909 is shown by Table VI. The Atlantic TABLE VI,~United States Shipping documented in 1909. No. of Ships. Tons.

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 17,203 3,500,394

Porto Rico -.. - 83 8,740

Pacific 3,378 915,357

Hawaii 43 50,120

Northern Lakes. - - 3,199 2,782,481

Western Rivers - - - 1,782 162,663

Total -. - 25,688 7,388,755

Coasts employ 67% of the number and 47% of the tonnage; the Great Lakes 12% of the number and nearly 38% uf the tonnage. The total includes a great number of wooden sailing vesses as shown by Table VII., which also shows that the coasting trade employs over I,ooo.ooo tons of wooden steamships and over 3,000,000 tons of steel steamships (Enrolled and Licensed vessels), while the steel TABLE VII.Details of Ships documented in Uni,~ed States in 1909.

Steam. Sailing. Barges.

No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons.

Registered \Vood 349 71,474 448 185, 728 644 72,277

Metal 149 507,052 22 45, 330 2i 5,644

Enrolled and Licensed Wood 9,431 1,084,690 9135 1,281,064 2804 687,924

Metar 1,712 3,086,008 207 198,954 121 81,659

Total Documented Vessels. 11,641 4,749.224 97I2 i,711,76 3590 ~

Grand rotal 25,688 Vessels. 7,388,755 Tons.

steamships in the Foreign Trade only reach a total of just over 500,000 tons (Registered Vessels).

Though the American Mercantile Marine has greatly varied in the rate of its growth (see Table VIII.), very great increases have taken place from time to time, and after 188o the average rate of increase was very considerable, the increase in thirty years amounting to 3,300,000 tons or over 8o%. In the nine years1900-1909the increase was 2,220,000 tons, which is more than 40% of the total in TABLE VIII.Growth of United States Shipping.

Total Tons. Increase in Ten Years.

Year.

Documented. Tons. Percentage.

1790 478,377

1800 972,492 +494,115 +1033

i81o 1,424,783 +452,291 +465

1820 1,280,167 144,616 I0~1

1830 1,191,776 88,391 6.9

1840 2,180,764 +988,988 +82~i 1850 3,535,454 +1,354,690 +62I

1860 5,353,868 +1,818,414 +5I~4

i87o 4,246,507 1,107,361 206

1880 4,068,034 178,473 4~2

1890 4,424,497 +356,463 +8~8

1900 5,164,839 +740,342 +16-8

Increase in Three Years, Tons. Percentage.

1903 6,087,345 +922,506 +17-9

1906 6,674,969 +587,624 + 97

1909 7,388,755 +713,786 +Io~

1900. The increase of the general commerce of the United States in these periods was, however, so vast that, notwithstanding the great increases of tonnage, increasing proportions of the tonnage were absorbed by the home or coastwise trade, and the percentage of United States shipping carrying United States commerce to foreign ports was steadily reduced, as shown by Table IX.

From 1895 to 1908 very great progress was made in the output of ships in the United States; in 1901 a maximum of 483,489 tons was reached; decreases occurred until 1905, when a minimum of 330,316

tons was reported, but a rapid recovery took place; and in I908 the unprecedented American total of 614,216 tons was made. In 1909

the output fell off. Out of a total of 1247 vessels of 238,090

tons, built and documented during the year ending June 30, 1900, TABLE IX,Additions to and Employment of United States Shippinf.

Average Tonnage Average percent age Average percentage of Ships built per of t,nited States of United States Period. Annum in the Commerce carried in tonnage trading in United States. tJniL~d States Ships. United States Ports.

f8io 102,452 - .

1810-1820 89,797 - - - -

1820-1830 89,372 90-2 88~2

1830-1840 ff8,960 839 68.7

1840-1850 185,309 78-t 66.6

1850-1860 366,603 71.2 65.4

1860-1870 299,690 38f 50.4

1870-1880 253,800 262 29.0

1880-1890 220,197 15.2 21O

1890-1900 235,698 fI~2 22.5

1901-1903 462,824 87 22~0

1904-1906, 375,868 Jf~5 22.3

1907 471,332 10-6 22~O

1908 614,216 9.8 22-0

1909 238,0902 9-5 22-0

Maximum recorded. 2 Lowest for ten years.

61,000 tons consisted of barges and canal boats, nearly 30,000 tons consisted of sailing vessels, 798 vessels of 47,353tons are classed as river steamers, 17 steamers of 84,428 tons were built in the Great Lakes, and only 6 steam vessels of 16,427 tons were built for ocean trade, while no vessel was registered as built for the foreign trade, Canadian Shipping.A steamboat service between Montreal and Quebec was commenced in November 1809, two years before the Comet was set to work on the Clyde, and in 1816 the steamer Frontenac commenced running on the Lakes and a number of other vessels followed. During the middle of the 19th century Canada turned out large numbers of wooden ships, the output in 1874 being 487 ships of 183,010 tons. As wood shipbuilding dinainished the output fell off. In 1900 only 29 steam and sailing ships of over 100 tons were built, amounting in the aggregate to 7751 tons. Afterwards improvements took place, and in 1907 59 vessels of 38,288 tone were launched. Among the largest ships built in Canada are the passenger and freight vessel 1-larmonic of 5240 tons gross, and the Midland Prince, a cargo vessel of 6636 tons grossboth built at Ontario. Smaller vessels are built to pass through the canals from the lakes to the sea, such as the Haddington of 1603 tons built at Toronto.

Japanese Ship ping.Recent years have seen a considerable development of shipbuilding in Japan. Several small vessels were built previous to 1898, but in that year the Hitachi Maru, a steamer of 6000 tone, was built by the Mitsu Bishi Works.

Lloyds Register Reports show that in the five-year period1895-1899there were launched 6t ships with a tonnage of 45,661; in 1900-1904, 279 ships (tonnage 138,052); and in 1905-1909, 414

(tonnage 252,512).

The figures quoted by various authorities for the amount of ship. ping owned in Japan vary considerably, particularly as regards sailing vessels. Large numbers of wood sailing vessels are, however, passing away, their places are being taken by steel steamers of the highest class in great variety and increasing tonnage, and the finest and fastest vessels now on service in tha Pacific Ocean are Japanese liners built in Japan. Lloyds Register shows that in 5900 Japan possessed 503 steam vessels of 524,125 tons gross, while in 1908 she possessed 861 steam vessels of no less than 1,150,858 tonsan increase of 120% in eight years.

German ShippingFor many years the mercantile marine of Germany has progressed at a very great rate, large numbers of vessels being built in Germany and in the United Kingdom for German owners. The average output in Germany per annum from 1895 to 1899 was 84 ships of a total tonnage of 139,000 tons; from 1900 to 1904, 114 ships of 204,600 tons; and from 1905 to 1909i 149 ships of 241,000 tons. The total net tonnage owned in 1870 was about 982,000 tons, and this was doubled by 1900, i.e. in thirty years. The total tonnage of Germany in 1900 was 2,905,782 tons, taking gross steam and net sailing tonnage; in 1910 the total on the same basis was 4,333,186 tons, an increase of nearly 50% in the ten years.

IV. MERcHANT VESSELS

Sailing Ships.Generally speaking, so far as the distribution of sails is concerned, except as regards the abolition of studding-sails, the sailing ships of to-day differ little frcm those which existed in the middle of the I9th century, and in the case of many types at a much earlier period. The change from wood to iron and steel resulted, of course, in some changes in rig, to suit the longer and larger vessels; and steel masts, with wire rope standing rigging and various labor-saving appliances, have been introduced. The larger ships also carry steam winches for various purposes, steam windlasses, and steam steering gear, but the general appearance of the vessels has changed very little.

BargesRivers and canals abound with barges of various types, such as the Thames barge, the Tyne wherry or keel, and the Dutch galliot or pink. The Thames barge, which may be taken as a representative cessel of this class, has a length of from 70 to 80 ft., and a carrying capacity of from 100 to 120 tons on about 6 ft. draught. Like the Dutch galliot, she is provided with lee-boards, and is foreand-aft rigged with sprit-sail and jigger.

In recent years the use of barges or lighters has been extended beyond river and canal servce, and rapidly increasing numbers are now used, in addition, for sea transport. For example, on the east coast of England lighters of about 500 tons carrying capacity are used in the coal trade. The system has been carried much farther on the Great Lakes of North America, where cargo barges are in use of over 350 ft. in length, and approaching 5ooo tons displacement when loaded. On the east coast of the United States barges, built sometimes of wood and sometimes of steel, are employed, carrying from 2000 to 4000 tons of coal, oil, grain, &c.

Smacks or Cutters.This type of rig is still largely adopted in the merchant service for small vessels, usually called smacks, of a length, say, from 6o to 90 ft., and a displacement from 150 to 200 tons. They are single-masted, sharp-built vessels, provided with fore-and-aft sails only, and fitted with a running bowsprit; they have no standing jib stay. Such vessels were at one time generally used for coasting passenger traffic. The term cutter is also applied to an open sailing boat carried on board ship.

Schooeers, Brigs and Brigantines.A schooner (fig. 7, Plate I.) is usually a two-masted vessel, with yards only on the foremast and fore-and-aft sails on the main. The foresail is not bent to the yard, but is set flying. In some cases there are no yards at all and the schooner is then called a fore-and-aft schooner, a schooner with yards being sometimes called a square-rigged schooner. Before the days of steam, two- and three-masted schooners known as Fruiterers, were extensively employed in the fruit trade from the Western Islands, Italy, Malta and other orange-growing countries to London. in the fifties as many as three hundred were thus employed; they kept their place till the eighties, and some even yet survive the introduction of steam as a motive power. They were beautifully modelled craft, and very fast under canvas. A brig is a two-masted vessel having yards, or square-rigged on both masts. A brigantine is a two-masted vessel having the foremast square-rigged, as in a brig, the main mast being rigged as in a schooner. Much of the coasting trade of the world is carried on by schooners, brigs and brigantines. These vessels were formerly employed in the Baltic, and to some extent in the West Indies and the Mediterranean. Schooners such as the above are usually from So to 100 ft. long, 20 to 25 ft. broad, iO to 15 ft. deep, and have a gross tonnage of I30 to 200 tons. Brigs are generally larger, varying in tonnage from 200 to 350 tons; they are from 90 to 115 ft. long, from 24 to 30 ft. broad, and froni 12 to 18 ft. in depth of hold. Brigantines usually occupy, as to size, a position intermediate between schooners and brigs.

Vessels somewhat larger than two-masted schooners and brigs, but of a similar form, are often rigged as three-masted schooners and as the so-called barquentines. The former is like a schooner with a third or mizzen mast added, this being rigged fore and aft, as is the main mast. The latter resembles a brigantine with a third mast added, which is also fore-and-aft rigged. - The two rigs thus very nearly resemble each other: both types are square-rigged on the foremast, and fore-and-aft rigged on the main and mizzen; but while in the former the foresail is set flying, in the latter it is bent to the yard.

Larget vessels than these are sometimes fitted with four, five, six and even seven masts, as fore-and-aft schooners. A large number of vessels fitted in this manner are much in favor for the coasting trade of America. Fig. 8 (Plate I.) shows the Helen ~V. Martin, a five-masted wooden schooner, built in 1900 in the United States; she is 280 ft. 6 in. long, 44 ft. 9 in. broad and 2! ft. depth of hold, and her gross tonnage is 2265. Another vessel built at the same time, also of wood, and named the Eleanor A. Percy, is 323 ft. 5 in, long, 50 ft. broad and 24 ft. 8 in. depth of hold, with a gross tonnage of 3402; she is rigged as a six-masted schooner. An interesting vessel of this class was the seven-masted schooner, Thomas W. Lawson, built in f902 by the Fore River Ship and Engine Co., Quincy, ~\lassachnsetts, of stec~, 368 ft. long, 50 ft. beam, 341/2 ft. depth of hold, and on adraughtof 26ft.6 in.of Io,000tons displacement, thus being the largest vessel vet constructed for sailing only. She was recently wrecked on the Scillv Isles.

Barques and Ships.Vesseis intended to sail to all quarters of the globe aic usually rigged as barques or ships; but as indicated above, these rigs are very far from embracing all those in use; many pthers are very common. A barque is a three-masted vessel, squareriecred (n the two foremost masts (the fore and main masts) and fore- and-aft rigged on the mizzen mast. A ship (a ship-rigged vessel) has three masts, each of which is square-rigged. These were the rigs employed in types of vessels now fast passing away, if indeed they must not be considered as already obsolete, in which great speed was the quality chiefly aimed at, and carrying power was of secondary importance. For instance, the Phoenician, built in I852, had a length of 150 ft. and a net tonnage of 478; the Shannon, buitmt in 1862, was 217 ft. long and her tonnage 1292. The former made the quickest run on record, up to 1852, from Sydney to London, accomplishing the distance in 83 days; and the latter made a round voyage from Melbourne to London and back from thence to Sandbridge Pier in 5 months and 27 days, handling two full cargoes in the time. The American ship Witch of the Wave, built in 1852, and the British ship Cairngorm, built in 1853, were engaged in the keen competition carried on between Great Britain and the United States for the rapid conveyance of early teas from China to London. The American builders had for some years been more successful than the British builders, and the Cairngorrn was the first ship which equalled the American ships in speed, and it was, moreover, claimed for her that she delivered her cargo in better condition than the American ships. She was 215 ft. long, and her tonnage was 1250 old measurement, or 938 new measurement. The Witch of the Wave on her best voyage made the passage from Whampoa to Dungeness in 90 days, the best days run being 338 knots in 24 hours, a very remarkable perfornmance. Later, in 1856, the Lord 01 the Isles beat the two fastest American clippers then existing in a race from China to Great Britain, one of them only by a few minutes; her length was 183 ft., and her tonnage, new measurement, 630. It is noteworthy that the competition in bringing the early teas home from China, started between British and American ships, was carried on subsequently between British ships alone. In the memorable race of i866 from Foo-Chow co London, five ships, the Ariel, Taeping, Serica, Fiery Cross and Taitsuig took part. The first three left Foo-Chow the same daythe Ariel first, followed 20 minutes later by the Taeping and Serica together. The vessels separated and lost one another till they reached the English Channel, when the Arid and Taeping got abreast, and raced to the Downs, the former arriving some ten minutes before the latter, the Serica reaching the Downs a few hours later. These three occupied 99 days on the voyage; the Fiery Cross and Taitsing took two days longer, making the passage from Foo-Chow to the Downs in 101 days. The best days run on the passage for all these ships differed but little, the Fiery Cross showing a slight superiority in this respect, having run 328 knots in the 24 hours. The time occupied in the above voyages was beaten in 1869 by the Thermopylae and Sir Lancelot, both British ships and of composite build; the times occupied by their passages were respectively 90 days front Foo-Chow to Dungeness for the former, and 88 days from Foo-Chow to Deal for the latter, each taking one day more to get into the docks. The dimensions of the Thermopylae were 212 ft. by 36tt. by 21 ft. depth of hold, and of the Sir Lancelot 1971/2 ft. by ~33/4 it. by 21 ft. The best days run of the Sir Lancelot was 354 knots in 24 hours. Shortly before the above voyage the, Thermopylae made the passage from London to Melbourne in an onprecedentedly short time, namely, 62 days from Gravesend to Port Phillip harbour. With the opening of the Suez Canal and the general introduction of steam, the demand for exceptionally fast sailing vessels of these types has very considerably diminished, and. indeed, almost ceased to exist. The type of cargo sailing ship usually met with to-day is better illustrated by fig. 9 (Plate I.), which represents the Victoria Regina, built of iron in 1881 at Southampton; she is 270 ft. long and has a gross tonnage of 2006.

Ships with four and five masts were employed by several countries during the I 9th century. Sometimes, in the case of four-masted ships, these were square-rigged on the fourth or mizzen mast, and sometimes fore-and-aft rigged; in the latter case they were called fotir-masted barques in Great Britain and shipentines in America. Five-masted ships are sometimes square-rigged on the fourth mast and fore-and-aft rigged on the fifth mast, and sometimes fore-and-aft rigged on both of these masts. The Naval Chronicle, vol. vii. (1802), contains particulars of the French privateer LInvention, which was captured by the British ship immortalit; she was rigged as a I our-ma~ted ship, carried 26 guns, and had a complement of 220 men. It is remarkable how little her rig differs from that of modern vessels, A five-masted vessel is described in the same number of the Naval Chronicle which was square-rigged on the foremast and fore-and-aft rigged on the other four masts; she was apparently a forerunner of the American five-masted schooner of the present day. The shipentine clipper Great Republic, built in 1853, is noteworthy as being the first ship fitted with double topsails, now so generally adopted. She was 305 ft. long and her tonnage was 3400; she could spread 40,500 square ft. of canvas, excluding stay-sails; she had four decks and was built of wood, though her framing was diagonally braced with iron. The shipentine Madeleine, built in France in, 1896, is almost identical in rig to tl~ Great Republic: her length is 321 ft. and her gross tonnage 2892. A five-masted barque France, built in Glasgow in 1890, is 36! ft, long aad has a gross tonnage of 3942. As further examples of the large sailing ships built in recent years may be mentioned the Astral and Potosi. ,The Astral was built by Arthur Sewall & Co. at Bath. lVlaine, in 1 000, br the oil trade.

She is a full-rigged four-masted ship, 332 ft. long, 451/8 ft. beam, 26 ft. moulded depth, gross tonnage 3292, and intended to carry f,500,000 gallons of oil in cases of 1o gallons each from the United States to Shanghai, returning with cargoes of sugar, hemp, &c. The masts and yards of this vessel, as well as the hull, are of steel. The fivemasted German barque Potosi, built in 1895, which is 366 ft. long, has a gross tonnage of 4027 and a dead-weight capacity of 6200 tons; she has a splendid record of quick passages, one reducing the record from Portland Bill to Iquique to 62 days. In 1902 the five-masted ship-rigged vessel Preussen, of 5081 tons gross, was built in Germany (wrecked at Dover in November 1910), followed in 1906 by the five-masted barque R. C. Rickmers of 5548 tons gross, 441 ft. long over all, 53 ft. 8 in. beam, 30 ft. 5 in. depth of hold; her displacement when loaded is about 11,400 tons, of which 8000 tons are cargo. She carries 50,000 sq. ft. of canvas, and on her first voyage reached a speed of 553/4 knots for a short time under sail alone, maintaining 13 knots for long periods. Although fitted with auxiliary steam power the R. C. Rickmers usually trusts wholly to canvas on her ocean voyages, and may thus be considered the largest sailing vessel afloat in I9Io.

As instances of the times occupied on the voyages of modern sailing ships the following may be given: 66 days from Iquique in Chile to the English Channel by the British ship Maxwell, gross tonnage 1856; 29 days from Newcastle, New South Wales, to Valparaiso by the British four-masted ship Wendur, 2046 gross tonnage; 30 days from the Lizard to Rio de Janeiro by the British ship Salamanca, of gross tonnage 1233; and 78 days from Dover to Sydney for the same ship; 153 sailing days for a voyage round the world, made up of 5 days from Cardiff to Algoa Bay, 28 days from Algoa Bay to Lyttlecon, and 74 days from Lyttleton to the Lizard, by the British ship Talavera, gross tonnage f 796; 59 days from Cape Town to Iquique by the British ship Edenhallymore, of gross tonnage 1726; 88 days from San Francisco to Queenstown by the British four-masted barque Falls of Garry, of gross tonnage 2102; and 69 days from Scilly to Calcutta by the Coriolanus, gross tonnage 1074. Amongst the voyages recorded recently by German ships the following may be enumerated: 58 days from the English Channel to Valparaiso by the four-masted barque Placilla, gross tonnage 2845; 71 days from the English Channel to Melbourne by the barque Selene, gross tonnage 1319; and 69

days from the English Channel to Adelaide by the four-masted barque Hebe, of gross tonnage 2722.

Although alterations in the rigs of ships have not caused much difference in their appearance over a very long period, a number of changes have been made, mostly for the purpose of saving labor. The mechanical reefing of topsails and top-gallant sails was introduced about 1858, but only remained in favor for a few years; double topsails, on the other hand, first used in the four-masted American shipentine clipper Great Republic, have held their own, and double top-gallant sails have since been adopted. Until about 1875 almost all ships carried studdingsails, but since this date they have been gradually discontinued, and at present are usually only to be found in training vessels, and now and again in square-rigged yachts. As already stated, wire rope has been adopted for standing rigging, and deadeyes and lanyards have given place almost universally to rigging screws. Masts and the heavier yards have been made of iron for many years, and more recently of steel, and the lower masts and top masts have in a number of cases been made in one length; when constructed in this manner the mast is termed a pole mast. This arrangement is very common in America, where the latest steel sailing ships are so fitted. Most large sailing ships carry a steam boiler or boilers, and engines are provided for all sorts of purposes, for which hand labor used to be commonly employed. The result of this and other labor-saving arrangements has been to effect a very considerable reduction in the number of hands carried. As indicating the nature of the change which has taken place, it may be mentioned that whereas a 1000-ton ship of the East India Company in the middle of last century had a crew of 80 all told, a modern four-masted barque of 2500 tons has a total complement of 33 only.

As to the employment of sailing ships, there can at the present day be seen at most large shipping ports a number of sailing ships of various types and sizes. Some of the largest ships are employed in the jute trade of India, the grain trade of California, British Columbia, &c., the nickel ore trade from New Caledonia and the nitrate trade of Chile. From Great Britain they usually take out coal, which, however low freights may be, may in nearly all cases be relied on.

Sailing ships are sometimes provided with auxiliary steam propelling machinery of low power to save cost of tugs in getting in and out of harbour, to make headway when becalmed, and to increase the safety of the vessel. In the early days of steam, all sea-going vessels retained their rig, and the machinery fitted was only regarded as auxiliary. In Sailing the Savannah the first steam vessel to cross the ships with Atlanticthe paddle wheels were portable; they were auxiliary removed and packed up on board in case of bad weather power.

or when attempting a long voyage, but were replaced and used for getting into port after crossing the Atlantic. The screw propeller was found preferable in such cases, as it offered less obstruction than paddle wheels when the sails were set and the engines stationary; but the resistance offered by the screw when not in use led to various devices for either lifting it completely out of the water, or for feathering the blades and fixing them fore and aft, so as to offer less obstruction in going through the water. Auxiliary power is of great advantage to vessels engaged in seal or whale fishing as it enables them to avoid ice floes, and to proceed through open channels in the ice as opportunity offers. In 1902, six such vesselsall barque rigged, and one fitted with a lifting propellerhailed from Dundee, and a few others hailed from Norway, from Newfoundland and from New Bedford, U.S.A. Several navies have employed vessels fitted with auxiliary steam power f or training purposes, such as the Chilean training ship General Baquendo built in 1899 of steel, sheathed with teak and coppered; she is 240 ft. long, 453/4 ft. broad, and of 2500 tons displacement on a mean draught of r8 ft.; she has a large spread of canvas, and under steam alone is equal to a speed of 13 knots. In recent years the internal combustion motor has been adopted in some cases in place of the steam engine as a source of auxiliary power, especially in the smaller classes of sailing ships, and in many cases it has made the employment of such vessels remunerative once more. Should the heavy oil engines introduced in 1910 prove sufficiently simple and reliable for auxiliary power in the larger vessels, vessels so fitted might compete successfully with tramp steamers in certain trades.

Steamships.Of merchant steamships, vessels of all sizes are to be met with, from a small launch to the stately Atlantic liner of over 30,000 tons gross and 25 to 26 knots speed, and the huge cargo ship of over 20,000 tons gross and 15 knots speed. They are employed on every service for which sailing ships are used, and upon others for which sailing ships are not employed, and they monopolize nearly the whole of the passenger traffic of the world. The passenger vessel is provided with airy and spacious accommodation for her living freight above water, while the upper part of the cargo vessel is cut down as much as possible consistent with due provision for safe navigation at sea. The passenger ship thus becomes a lofty vessel, especially amidships, while the cargo ship appears long and low lying. Apart from this broad difference, the various sizes of merchant steamships have in general no bold characteristic features like sailing ships; they possess different deck structures and certain differences in form, but, to the ordinary eye, a photograph of a vessel of, say, 1000 tons, apart from details of known size that may serve to fix the scale, may often be taken to represent a vessel of even ten or twenty times the size.

Types of Steamships.A steam vessel may be little more than an open boat with the boiler and engines placed amidships if intended for river use, and may be of any shape necessary to suit local conditions and fulfil the services required. Vessels which proceed to sea must be decked over to prevent them from being swamped and built of a suitable form to make them otherwise seaworthy; the height of the deck above water, or the freeboard, will be increased, and the sides carried up above the deck; these topsides meet at the extremity of the vessel, and as the size of the vessel increases or larger seas have to be encountered the topsides are covered in forward and aft to further improve the sea-keeping qualities of the vessel. If only a short portion is so covered in, the covering is often rounded off along its sides and is then termed a turtle back, ormonkeyforecastle,when fitted forward, and a turtle back, or hood, when fitted aft; if made larger and of sufficient height above the upper deck to be serviceable for accommodation forward it is called a toP gallant forecastle, and aft a poop. It is frequently desirable to build up cabins or other accommodation across the middle of the ship beneath the bridge, forming what is called a brufge house. Instead of fitting a turtle back or hood aft, a break is sometimes made in the upper deck and the after portion is raised a step higher than the midship portion, the after nortion is then called a raised quarter deck. If a poop be extended forward to join the bridge house it is called a long poop. In very many cases when a top gallant forecastle is fitted, the gap which occurs between this forecastle and the bridge house is partly shut in at the sides by the ships topside plating; the space so formed is then called a well, and the ship a well-decked ship.

Vessels arranged as above described are illustrated by figs, 10, 13, 14, on Plate II.; they include most of the vessels in the coasting trades of Europe, and many of the smaller and medium sized ocean-going cargo vessels. In larger vessels the forecastle, bridge and poop decks are frequently joined to form a light continuous ~I~T1O0

FIG. II General arrangement of or I. Hold. 4. Skip, or bucket.

2. Discharging trunk. 5. Discharging doors.

3. Electric crane. 6. Crews space.

structure. The vessel is then termed a shade-decked vesselif th~ ships sides up to this level are not completely closed in. In stil larger ships the sides are completely built in, the deck made stronger other decks or deck houses are fitted above it, and the ship is callec an awning decked, spar decked, shelter decked or three decked vessel according to the details of her construction. Above these stronl steel decks light promenwie decks, sun decks and boat decks an built according to the requirements of the accommodation fo~ passengers, &c.

Barges.The simplest cargo steamer is the steam barge or lighter often merely a long narrow box of wood or steel made small enougi ~ in section to pass through locks and canals, with the end hi ~ fashioned more or less abruptly, and spaces allotted aft fo the machinery and forward for the crew. For service ol rivers and estuaries they are made larger and wider as the circum stances of draught and dock or wharf accommodation permit, th bottoms being generally flat in order that they may ground safeb in tidal waters; th,w arp used for transferring cargoes of sea going vessels to or from warehouses, and are frequently fitted so that they can tow one or more dumb barges.

Many sea-going vessels are built to carry a particular cargo on one voyage and a general cargo on the return voyage. This usually results in their having certain features which adapt them for the special cargo, and do not interfere materially with their carrying a general cargo at remunerative rates. Ordinary cargo ships, or Ocean Tramps as they are called, do, a very large portion of the worlds cargo-carrying. They are mostly built of steel, and their usual speed is from 10 to 11 knots. In the early nineties well-decked vessels formed a large proportion of the total number; but ten years later comparatively few of this type were being built, and these were principally intended for the coal trade, or were comparatively small vessels for coasting purposes. Partial awning-decked steamers, again, ~lUr6

,~ \s ,-~ ~.

-carrying steamer Volirath Tham.

7. Officers quarters. Jo. Coal bunker.

8. Stores. II. Loading hatch.

9. Engine and boiler room. 12. Slopes to discharging doors.

which were much in favor at the same period, gave place, a decach later, to other types; and vessels having a raised fore-deck weni entirely out of fashion, the tendency being to revert to flush-deci vessels, having short poop, bridge house and forecastle.

Modern DevelopmentsThe last few years have been remarkabli for great development in special types of cargo vessels. Whili the vessels have frequently been specially designed to meet th requirements of the particular trades on which they are to b employed, certain general features apply to the lines of their development 1. In order to accommodate the maximum cargo possible in vessel, of convenient size, the lines of the vessels have been filled out, giving block co-efficients which are frequently over 80% and in some of thi Great Lake freighters have reached 88%-

2. Such portions of the ship above tlte water as do not contri bute usefully to carrying cargo, but would be measured for registerec tonnage, are cut down to the smallest amount consistent with th~ provision of sufficient reserve of buoyancy and stability.

3. To provide for a return journey without a cargo, in addition to the double bottom and peak tanks, large water ballast tanks are provided abreast of and above the cargo spaces, and arranged so that when ballasted down the metacentric height, of the vessel is not excessive Much of the ballast is carried in, side or wing tanks extending to the upper or main deck, or in triangular tanks beneath the main deck, ballast discharge valves or pipes being arranged so that the tanks may be emptied by gravity when practicable- 4. The holds have been cleared of obstructionssuch as pillars, hold beams and web framesso that the stowage space for the cargo is unbroken, the necessary strength being given by a heavier system of framing of the ship and by the construction of the wing or side tank bulkheads.

5. To facilitate rapid handling of cargo, hatches have been increased in size and number, and special appliances fitted for rapidly loading and unloading the vessel-particularly, large numbers of derricks or cranes, with convenient steam or electric winches.

Several well-known types of cargo vessels have thus been produced, such as the Mancunia built by Messrs W. Gray & Co. at \Vest Hartlepool in 1898, with side-ballast tanks on McGlashans patent; cantilever-framed vessels by Messrs Raylton Dixon & Co. on Harrowby and Dixons patents; trunk-deck vessels by Messrs Rayner & Co., and turret-deck veseals by Messrs Doxford & Co. of Sunderland. Fig. to (Plate II.) is a photo of a turret-deck steamer. Her dimensions are: length 439 ft. 8 in., beam 51 ft. 7 in., gross tonnage 5995 and net tonnage 3794 tons. Many such vessels have been built; they have the reputation of being good dead-weight carriers, and the shelf on each side of the central trunking can very conveniently be used for carrying timber and for other purposes. The Echunga, built by Sir Raylton Dixon & Co. in 1907, is an example of a modern cantilever-framed flush-decked vessel,she is 404 ft. long over all, 56 ft. beam, 23-6 ft. mouldeddepth. On a draught of 23 ft. 9 in. her displacement is about 12,000 tons and dead-weight capacity over 8000 tons, while as regards space she has a stowage capacity of more than 400,000 cub. ft. These results are obtained on the low net register tonnage of 2245 tons, the gross tonnage being 4590 tons. The vessel has continuous upper and main decks, and the underside of the wing tanks carried by the cantilever frames is at such a slope that coal will naturally stow close up on being dumped into the hold. The triangular wing tanks take 1350 tons of water ballast and the double bottoms and the fore- and after-peaks take 1850 tons.

The Herman Frasch, a modern American cargo vessel of 3804 tons, gross, built in 1909 by the Fore River Shipbuilding Co., Quincy, I~Iassachusetts, for the sulphur trade, is a single-decked vessel, with triangular side ballast tanks and fitted with a short forecastle which carries the windlass gear, a bridge-house well forward to accommodate captain and navigating officers, a poop for firemen and crew, and cabins above the poop for the engineer officers. Her dimensions are: length 345 ft., breadth 48 ft. 3 in., depth of hold 27-I ft. At a draught of 23 ft. 6 in. her displacement is 8770 tons, of which 6125 tons may he dead-weight carried. Her engines are of 2100 I.H.P., are fitted right aft, and give her a speed of 10-5 knots.

An interesting cargo vessel of a different type is the Vollrath Tham, recently completed by Messrs Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. for the Swedish ore trade. She is 387 ft. long, 56 ft. 6 in. beam, depth 30-9 ft., tonnage 5826 tons, gross, and dead-weight capacity 8000 tons. Instead of the usual open hold arrangement she has been divided into a series of hoppers and automatic discharging holds, and fitted with 10 electric discharging cranes. Trunks are provided in each hold, through which buckets or skips of two tons capacity can be lowered into position beneath discharging doors under the cargo hold. (Fig. ii shows the general arrangement of this vessel.)

Great Lake Freighlers.The greatest development of cargo handling the world has yet seen is, however, to be found in North America, where the Great Lake freighters have been built to meet the rapidly growing trade in iron ore, coal and grain. Some of these vessels are 600 ft. or upwards in length, 60 ft. beam, and 32 ft. moulded depth, and on a draught of 20 ft. can carry 12,500 tons of coal or ore or 450,000 bushels of grain. The hatches of these vessels are 12 ft. apart, and are so wide that the holds are self-stowing. The holds are quite unobstructed fore and aft, and built with flat bottoms and vertical sides, so that practicaMy the whole of the ore can ~e removed by clam shell grabs. For loading, the vessels are brought alongside huge stacks of ore stored on long lofty piers called ore docks; these docks are provided with shoots from which the cargo is run into the ships by gravity, thus loading large vessels in two hours. When unloading at the Cleveland end of the voyage the cranes and transporters fitted ashore can hoist out the cargo of 12,500 tons in ten hours, using grabs of 5 to 15 tons capacity. The propelling machinery is placed right aft and develops from 1800 to 2200 H.P., giving a speed of from 10 to 12 knots. They are well equipped with auxiliary machinery including steam steering gear, steam winches and hoists, pumps and electric light. The wheel-house and bridge are fitted at the after end of a short forecastle; the officers are accommodated forward and the crew aft, both being provided with excellent quarters (see fig. 15, Plate Il., and fig. 16).

Coll,ers.Ina number of cases vessels are built to carry special cargoes; coal carrying vessels, colliers, are weif-known examples of this class. One of the first colliers to be fitted with steam-engines was the sailing vessel Q.E.D., built at Wallsend in 1844, and fitted by Messrs R. & W. Hawthorn with auxiliary machinery of 20 N.H.P driving a screw propeller. She was constructed of irOn, had an overall length of 150 ft. with a breadth of 271/2 ft. In certain respects she was a remarkable vessel, for she was fitted with a double bottom, the space between the bottoms being divided into tanks and arranged for water ballast, a system which has since been re-invented and is now common in colliers and in most cargo ships. The advantage of the arrangement in colliers is especially great, as they usually carry a full cargo one way and return empty; in their light condition sufficient water ballast can be at once added to make them seaworthy, and this at the end of the voyage can be pumped out at a small cost. It was not until about 1852 that steam alone began to be relied on for propelling colliers; in that year the iron screw collier, John Bowes, was built by Messrs Palmer of Jarrow; she was 152 ft. long, 26 ft. 4 in. beam, had a dead-weight capacity of about 540 tons, was fitted with temporary tanks for water ballast; had machinery of 70 N.H.P. placed right aft; and she took her cargo to London in 48 hours. The saving in time and cost, as compared with the transport of coals to London by the sailing colliers then in vogue, was very great, and this led to the building of many other such vessels.

In 1880 the ordinary steam collier carried 600 or 700 tons of cargo; a steady increase in size has been in progress, an~ the popular collier of to-day carries about 3000 tons, while for long voyages vessels of from 8ooo to 10,000 tons capacity are used. While improvements have been made in hull and machinery, so also have improvements been made to enable the colliers cargoes to be handled more rapidly. Appliances have been adopted for emptying truckloads of coal into the vessels when loading, and many arrangements have been devised for discharging rapidly, but derricks and winches supplemented in some cases by Temperley transporters are still generally relied on. An interesting vessel in which special appliances have been fitted to reduce the amount of hand labor in discharging is the Pallion, built by Messrs Doxford & Sons in 1909. She is of the following dimensions: length 269 ft., breadth 443/4 ft., depth 22 ft.; tonnage 2474 tons gross, 1307 tons net, and can carry 3100 tons on a draught of 17 ft. 10 in. She is a single screw ship fitted with three cylinder compound engines of 217 N.H.P. and 1200 I.H.P. fitted aft. Systems of conveyor-belts are fitted so that the cargo can be delivered direct into trucks ashore or into barges or other vessels alongside by steam power, and under trial conditions at Sunderland the rate of discharge was found to be 1000 tons per hour.

Oil Tank Steamers.These form another class of vessels built for a particular cargo, and their construction and the character~of the material carried are such that they cannot ordinarily be used for other purposes. In 1863 two sailing tank vessels were built on the Tyne. In 1872 Messrs Palmer built the Vaderland, which appears to have been the first oil tank steamer. The oil carrying steamer Zoroaster was built in 1877 in Sweden and in 1910 was still on service. She was built of steel of length 184 ft., breadth 27 ft., draught 9 ft., and had a loading capacity of 250 tons. The oil tanks in the Zoroaster were separate from the hull, but after successful trials other vessels were built for Messrs Nobel Bros. in which the skin plating itself formed the tank. In i886 Messrs Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. built the Baku, and since that date large numbers of steamers have been built for this trade, the majority of them having been built by the Armstrong firm. Many of these steamers are of large dimensions while some are comparatively small. On the Caspian Sea, for instance, numerous small steamers are eniployed conveying oil from the Baku district to other ports, and to towns along the Volga; and in other places small steamers are used for the local distribution of oil brought across the ocean and stored in large depots. Such a small steamer is the Chira, built by Smiths Dock Company in 1909; in size and appearance this vessel resembles a steam trawler, she is 95 ft. long, 19 ft. 3 in. beam, depth moulded 7 ft. 9 in., 108 tons gross, 46 tons net tonnage. The fish hold is in this vessel replaced by a tank for carrying oil in bulk and a hold for case oil. Vessels of 6000 to 12,000 tons carrying capacity are now preferred by the large companies for transporting oil over very great distances on account of their relatively great economy. Fig. 12 shows the general arrangements of a typical modern oil tank steamer. As an example of a large oil vessel, the Pinna, engaged in carrying petroleum from Russian ports to thc East, may also be mentioned. She is 420 ft. long, 52 ft. broad, and 32 ft. deep, and can carry 9000 tons of oil in her fully-laden condition. The machinery is placed well aft, and the cargo space is divided up into twelve large tanks, extending to the height of the main deck, by seven transverse bulkheads and a longitudinal middle-line bulkhead. The spaces between the transverse bulkheads are called Nos. 1,2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 holds respectively, and each hold has a port and a starboard tank. Each tank is provided with an expansion trunk, in order that the free surface of the oil may always be small, however much the bulk of the latter may expand or contract with changes of temperature.

Motor Tank Vessels.Several oil tank vessels have been fitted with internal combustion engines instead of steam propelling machinery In 1903 the Vandale and Sarmat, capable of carrying 750 tonS of refined petroleum each, were built for Messrs Nobel Bros., and fitted with Diesel motors of 360 H.P. More recently the Emanuel Nobel and Karl Hagelin have been built for the same firm; they are fitted with Diesel motors of 1200 H.P., are 380 ft. long, Prof -~ ~H~ ~ ~ s.-. ~~-- ~

Upper ~ftLL~j h ~

FIG. 12.General Arrangement I, Crew space. 5, Chain locker. 9, Coffer d~

2, Cabins. 6, Pump-room. io, Oil-tank, 3, Engineers cabins. 7, Water-ballast tank. ii, Boiler-rc 4, Store. 8, Fore-hold. I2, Engine-I

46 ft. beam, i6~ ft. draught and carry 4600 tons of kerosene oil. The large motor-driven vessels are arranged somewhat similarly to the steam-driven oil-tank vessels, but with the machinery fitted in a comparatively shorter space, no boiler room being then required.

Table X. gives the dimensions, carrying capacity and other leading particulars of four cargo steamers of different types, TABLE X.Types of Ca V,hen built - - Built in 1881.1

Well- Type of Vessel - decked. I

Depth (moulded) 20 6

Draught (without keel) 19 3

Weight of steel or ircn in hull.. 820 tons wood, outfit, &c 166

propelling machinery 184

Total light displacement 1170

Load displacement 3740

block coefficient 72

Ratio of light to load displacement - - .313

Dead-weight carried 2570 tons Ratio of dead-weight carried to load displacement .687

Cargo capacity in cubic feet 115,000

Tonnage under deck 1436

gross 1816

net 1167

Water-ballast capacity 357 tons and one steamer carrying mails and passengers as well as a large cargo. A is a well-decked vessel (fig. 13, Plate II.), having a topgallant forecastle with a long raised quarter-deck and bridge-house :ombined, and is fitted with one deck, but has two tiers of beams. B (fig. 14, Plate II.) is a vessel with a top-gallant forecastle, bridgehouse and poop, and a single deck. C is an awning-decked vessel, ~2o~

Deck.

cif a Modern Oil-Tank Steamer.

.m. 13, Donkey boiler. 16, Cargo hatch.

14, Galley. 17, Oil and cargo hatch.

om. 15, Steering engine house. 18, Coal shoot.

ciom.

with two decks, but three tiers of beams. D is a shelter-decked vessel of the highest class fitted with three decks and four tiers of beams and having machinery of high power. E is an American lake steamer in which the draught was limited to 20 ft., similar in many respects to the smaller vessels shown in fig. 15 (Plate IL) and in fig. 16 below. Besides the principal dimensions and light and load displacements, rgo Carrying-Steamers.

B. C. D. E.

uilt in 1894. Built in 1897. Built in 1909. Built in 1909. Lh Top-gallant FOrecastle,. American Lake ridge House Awning-decked. Shelter-decked. Steamer.

and Poop.

300 0 470 0 535 0 580 o 40 0 50 0 63 0 58 o 23 6 34 10 38 0 32 0

19 2 27 5 28 0 19 0

- - 3676 tons 7650 tons 4145 tons -. 509 ,,) (300

- - 615 ,, 2200 tons 350 ,,

1620 tons 4800 ,, 9850 ,, 4795 ,,

5530 ,, 16,710 ,, 18,350 ,, 15,795

8o 81.68.886

.293.287.537.304

3910 tons 11,910 tons 8500 tons 11,000 tons .707 713.463.696

I70~0O0 680,000. - 650,000

2150 7038 8480 7100

2385 7296 I 12,100 7268

1500 4770 6780 5484

500 tons, 3346 tOfl5~ -. 9464 tons the block coefficients corresponding to the load conditions are given in Table IV., in order to show the fullness of form commonly adopted in these vessels. The block coefficient is the ratio of the volume of the immersed portion of the ship to the volume of the parallelepiped, whose length, breadth and depth are the same as the length, breadth awl mean draught (without keel) of the vessel itself; and it will be seen that in three cases out of the five given, the immersed volume, i.e. the displacement, is 80, or upwards of 80% of this circumscribing parallelepiped. The low speed, which is ~4~---4~

FIG. 16.Plan of Great Lake Cargo Steamer.

A, Cargo hold. D, Boiler-room. G, Crews B, Hatches. E, Coal-bunker. H, Water I

C, Engine-room. F, Officers Quarters. K, Pi!,ot-ho found economical for the ocean tramp, admits of this fullness, and provides that capability for large stowage accommodation for cargo which has brought it into existence. In vessels whose speed is of great importance the block coefficient varies from .5 to 68, the lower limit being reached on the smaller vessels on cross-channel services, and the higher limit on very long vessels, such as Atlantic liners. In the moderately fast vessel D shown in table the block coefficient is -68. The total weight of material in the hull, i.e. the iron or steel and woodwork, outfit, &c. and the propelling machinery, is called the vessels light displacement. The load displacement is made up of the light displacement, together with the weight of the cargo, &c., or the dead-weight carried; this, it will be seen from Table X., varies from two to two and a half times the amount of the light displace- FIG. 19.Great Lake Passenger Steamer ment, except in case D in which the machinery and the passenger accommodation absorb much weight. British vessels may not be loaded deeper than a certain mark, known for many years as the Plimsoll mark, which has to be placed on the sides of all merchant vessels. The mode of measuring tonnage is based on the Act of 1894, which embodies preceding legislation and subsequent Acts (see TONNAGE).

The numerous varieties of passenger steamers may for convenience be taken in the following order :Ferry; River and Sound; Passenger Cross Channel; and Ocean Steamers; although it must steamers, be understood that in many cases a hard and fast line cannot be drawn between steamers for the several services.

Ferry SteamersFerry steamers are found on many rivers and harbours in the United Kingdom; they perform important services in transporting passengers and road traffic across sheltered waters where bridges are not available; and others are built in the United Kingdom for service in all parts of the world. The Guanabacoa, a double-ended steel vessel built by Messrs Cammell, Laird & Co., for ferry service on Havana Bay, is 140 ft. long overall, breadth moulded 38 ft., depth moulded amidships 13 ft. 21/2 in. Well-decorated saloons 12 ft. high extend along the sides of the vessel, and between them are wood-paved tracks for 30 to 40 carts and horses. One thousand passengers can be carried, and a fine promenade deck for them extends over the saloons, &c. Above all a li~ht sun deck extends right fore and aft. Compound surface-condensing engines are fitted with a screw propeller at each end of the vessel, which drive her either way at from 10 to II knots. She made the passage to Havana under her own steam. A number of ferry-boats have been built by Messrs Thornycroft for service in India; they are 105 ft. long overall, of 20 ft. beam, lOft. moulded depth and 5 ft. draught; their machinery of 500 I.H.P. is placed amidships and gives a speed of 12 knots; two saloons are arranged forward and two aft with access to a promenade deck from each, accommodation for 200 passengers with luggage being provided. A light wooden awning extends over all. These vessels are built of steel and divided into eight water-tight compartments; they were built and put together at Southampton, then taken to pieces, packed and shipped abroad, re-erected and completed at Calcutta.

The largest ferry-boats are to be found in America, and an interesting example is the Hammonton built in 1906 by the New York Shipbuilding Company. She is 168 ft. long overall, 38 ft. beam, 8 ft. 6 in. draught, ~- 625 tons displacement. A feature of this vessel is that all details are arranged with the view to making the :H vessel practically fireproof, wood fittings being reduced tO a minimum. The vessel is double-ended, carries over ~ a thousand passengers and a large number of horses and vehicles on one deck. As in many American river G vessels, the upper works extend to a considerable width -~ beyond the body of the hull beneath to give large deck areas; the main deck being about 6 ft. above water and 55 ft. wide. Cart tracks are arranged along the midship pace. portions of the deck with passenger saloons, &c., at the allast. sides. A light shade deck extends forward and aft and ase. carries a pilot house near each end. Water-tube boilers and three cylinder compound engines of 600 H.P. are fitted beneath the deck amidships and drive a propeller at each end of the boat. The Oakland, Berkeley and Newark running at San Francisco are much larger than the Hammonton, and have a seating capacity for 2000 people each, with a fine promenade deck above the upper deck. The first two are fitted with beam engines driving side paddle-wheels, while the third has a screw propeller at each end of the vessel driven by vertical triple expansion engines. Each of them burns oil fuel only.

River and Sound Steamers.For service on rivers, harboor.s and estuaries where the traffic is considerable, paddle-wheel vessels o~i limited speed are usually preferred, as possessing great manceuvring power, and therefore the capability of being brought alongside the landing-places with rapidity and safety. The paddle-wheel steamer .~~____ ____

~ -~::---- ----p City of Cleveland, longitudinal section.

~:-:~

City of Cleveland, midship section.

La Marguerite, which formerly in the summer months made trips from London to the coast of Kent and to France, now conducts service between Liverpool and North Wales. She is 330 ft. long, has accommodation for a large number of passengers, and obtained 22 knots with 7500 I.H.P. on trial. Another well-known Thames steamer is the Royal Sovereign, of length 300 ft., breadth 33 ft., depth moulded ioft. 6 in., draught 6 ft. 6 in., tonnage 891 tons gross, 190 tons net; carrying 2320 passengers at a speed of 21 knots.

Excursion steamers working round the coast are frequently of similar type to this vessel, but of less length and less extensive open promenade decks. A popular south coast pleasure steamer, built in 1909, i5 the paddle boat Bournemouth Queen, shown in fig. 17 (Plate X.). She is 200 ft. long, 24 it. breadth moulded and 48 ft. 6 in. outside guards, 8 ft. moulded depth, tonnage 353 tons gross, 139 tons net; she can carry 610 passengers on a No. 3 certificate and 704 on a No. 4 certificate. Her displacement at 5 ft. 2 in. load draught is 406 tons and her speed 151/2 knots. The King Edward, a steamer which began to ply on the Clyde in 1901, is 250 ft. long, 30 ft. wide, 10 ft. 6 in. deep to the main deck, and 17 ft. ~ in. to the promenade deck. She was the first passenger steamer to be driven by Parsons steam turbine. Her speed is 20 knots. A second turbine steamer, the Queen Alexandra, began to run on the Clyde in 1902; she is generally similar to the King Edward, but larger and faster.

These vessels are popular because of their great speed and the absence oi vibration. They have been followed by others such as the Kingfisher on the Thames and the Atalanta on the Clyde. The latter being 227 ft. long, 27 ft. beam, depth 10 ft. 6 in., draught 5 ft. 6 in., displacement 520 tons and gross tonnage 400; the machinery of 2500 H.P. gives a speed of 18 knots, and isof interest as it was utilized for very extensive shop experiments to obtain data for the construction of the turbines of the great Cunarders. Numerous steamers of this class are to be found on the rivers and coasts of the Continent, but the finest are employed on the rivers and harbours of America, together with large numbers of a smaller class. Most of the light-draught river steamers of the United States are built of wood, but those employed elsewhere are usually built of steel. The Hendrick Hudson (fig. 18,18, Plate III.), built of steel in 1906, one of the most famous river boats of America, carries 5000 passengers, for whom five decks, which have a breadth of 82 ft.the full width over the paddle-boxes-are set apart. She is 380 ft. long, 45 ft. breadth moulded, 13 ft. 5 in. moulded depth, draught 8 ft., freeboard amidships 6 ft. 3 in., tonnage gross 2847 tons. The old walking-beam arrangement of engines, for many years a distinctive feature of American river steamers, is in this vessel replaced by inclined, threecylinder, compound, direct acting engines; her feathering paddle wheels are 24 ft. in diameter and 16 ft. 6 in. wide, and her speed is 22 knots.

Some of the boats of the Fall River Line are larger than the Hendrick Hudson; the Puritan is 420 ft. long, of 7500 I.l-i.P. and 4650 tons gross; the Priscilla, built in 1904, is very similar to the Puritan, but is 440 ft. long and 201/2 ft. depth moulded; her moulded breadth is 524 ft. and her decks extend to an extreme breadth of 93 ft.; her tonnage is 5292 tons gross; the side wheels are 35 ft. in diameter and 14 ft. wide, driven by inclined engines of 8500 I.H.I., and running at about 24 revolutions per minute maintain a speed of about 15 knots on service. A still larger vessel of the same type is the Commonwealth, which is 456 ft. overall; breadth of hull 55 ft., breadth of decks outside guards 96 ft., horse power 11,000. The Puritan, Priscilla and Commonwealth run on night service only to Fall River through Long Island Sound, and the accommodation provided is very large; the Priscilla, for instance, can sleep I 5oo persons besides her crew of over 200. In these vessels the freeboard is carried to one deck higher than in the Hendrick Hudson, to enable them to accomplish the exposed ocean portion of their passage with safety; and they form a link between the fast river steamer and the fast cross-channel steamer. Similar passenger vessels are employed on the Great Lakes, an example being the City of Cleveland (fig. 19), built in 1908, of the following dimensions:

length overall 404 ft., breadth hull proper 54 ft., width over paddleboxes 92 ft. 6 in. depth 22 ft.; tonnage 4568 tons gross, 2403 tons net. She is built of mild steel, divided into 10 principal water-tight compartments and fitted with a cellular double bottom, and has a water chamber of 100 tons capacity to check rolling in a sea way. The engines are compound, three-cylinder, inclined, connected directly to cranks on the paddle-wheel shaft, the diameters of the cylinders being one of 54 in. and two of 82 in., and the stroke 8 ft.; eight single-ended cylindrical boilers fitted with Howden forced draught supply steam at 160 Ib, and on service the vessel can maintain 20 m. or 17-5 knots per hour withotit difficulty, developing about 6ooo I.H.P. at 28 revolutions per minute.

Cross-Channel Steamers.Cross-channel steamers are of a heavier type than those just considered and require higher freeboard and better sea-keeping qualities to be able to make passages across more exposed waters in all weathers. Over 200 such vessels are employed carrying mails, passengers, luggage, cattle and merchandise between Great Britain and Ireland, the Isle of Man, and continental ports. The mail service between Holyhead and Kingstown has for many years employed a number of splendid vessels of this class. The four paddle-steamers, Ulster, Munster, Leinster and Connaught, built in 1860, were 337 ft. long, 35 ft. broad and i~ ft. dee,; their speed was I8 knots with 6000 I.H.P. A vessel of the same type, but larger, named the Ireland, was added to the fleet in 1885. In 1896 and 1897 four new twin-screw steamers were built, and received the same names as the four vessels built in 1860, which they have replaced. Their length is 360 ft., breadth 41 ft. 6 in. depth 29} ft., tonnage 2633 tons gross, 733 tons net, and displacement 2230 tons at 14 ft. 6 in. load draught. Their engines are of 9000 LH.P. and sea-going speed 23 knots, over 24 knots having been reached on trial. They have sleeping-berths for 238 first-class and 124 second-class passengers, and large dining and other public rooms for general accommodation.

In recent years large numbers of very fine vessels of the crosschannel type have been built for other services. In 1903 the Queen, the first turbine vessel for the Dover-Calais service, was built by Messrs Denny of Dumbarton; she is 310 ft. long and obtained 213/4 knots. In 1905 the inyicta was built of the same dimensions and boiler power, and by means of improved turbines the speed was increased to 23 knots. In the same year the Midland Railway Company ordered three vessels each 330 ft. long, 42 ft. beam and 25 ft. 6 in. moulded depth; and a fourth similar but a foot wider. Two of these vessels, the Antrim and Donegal, were fitted with four-cylinder triple-expansion engines driving twin screws; the rhird and fourth, the Londonderry and Manxman, were fitted with turbines of 6000 and 800o H.P. respectively. All had cylindrical boilers of the same dimensions. The Antrim did better than the Donegal and obtained a speed of 2186 knots with very remarkable economy; of the turbine vessels, the Manxman did better than the Londonderry, reaching 23.12 knots, and proving more economical than the Antrim at all speeds above 14 knots.

Other successful vessels of this class are the St George and three sister vessels, 350 ft. long, 2500 tons displacement, 11 ,ooo H.P. and 224 knots speed, built for the Great Western Railway Company for service from Fishguard to Rosslare; and the Princesse Elisabeth, of 24 knots, employed on the Dover-Ostend service. But all these vessels were surpassed by the Ben-my-Chree, built at Barrow 8o~ 0.e!~

Promenade Decal S/elSer DecA t~ope~-Oeth M8,,, Dec.4

Lowe, Oec.4

I - - - - ~-. Or/op De:k 1 Lower Or/op Deck FIG. 29.Section of Mauretania.

for the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company. She is 375 ft. long, 46 ft. beam, 18 ft. 6 in. moulded depth, carries 2549 passengers on a No. 2 certificate, and displaces 3353 tons at 13 ft. 5 in. draught. On trial she attained 251/2 knots on the measured mile, and maintained 244 knots for over 6 hours; on service she averages 24 knots at sea and 23 knots between the Liverpool landing stage and Douglas pier. Numbers of cross-channel steamers are owned by continental companies, among which the Prinses Juliana (fig. 20, Plate III.) and her two sister vessels, belonging to the Zeeland Steamship Company of Holland, run on the night service between Queenboro and Flushing. They are 350 ft. long, 42 ft. 6 in. beam, 16 ft. 4 in. depth, gross tonnage 2885 tons; they have four-cylinder triple-expansion engines of 10,000 H.P., and attained 221/2 knots on the mile, and 22 knots on a six hours run; they have excellent accommodation for 350 passengerS.

For services on which relatively large cargoes and fewer passengers are carried smaller vessels of less speed are built, such as the Rowan, built by Messrs D. & W. Henderson & Co. for the Laird Line service between Glasgow and Dublin. She is 292 ft. long, 38 ft. beam, 17 ft. 6 in. depth moulded, has sleeping accommodation for 200 passengers, triple-expansion engines, and a speed of i6 knots.

In America a number of vessels of the cross-channel type have recently been built. One of these, the Governor Cobb, 290 ft. long, 54 ft. beam, 20 ft. 6 in. moulded depth, 14 ft: draught loaded, was the first merchant vessel in America to be driven by turbines. She was followed by the Harvard and Yale of the same type, 407 ft. overall, 63 ft. extreme breadth, 16 ft. draught loaded; they carry 8oo passengers and 6oo tons freight on a night service between New York and Boston; turbines of 10,000 H.P. give them a speed of 20 knots, making them at the time the fastest sea-going vessels on the American coast.

The Prince Rupert, Princess Charlotte, &c., recently built for service on the west5rn coast of Canada, also belong to this section. The first-named (fig. 21, Plate III.) is 306 ft. long, 42 ft. beam, 24 ft. moulded depth. At 15 ft. draught her displacement is 3150 tons, of which I000 tons is cargo; she is of 3379 tons gross, 6000 I.H.P. and her speed 183/4 knots. The Prince George is similar to the Prince Rupert and obtained 19-2 knots on trial at f3 ft. 3 in. draught and 2622 tons distilacement; both vessels can carry 220 first-class and a large number of second-class passengers. The Princess Charlotte is of 3600 tons and 20 knots speed.

Japan has built and engined two cross-channel steamers, which maintain a service between Japan and Korea. They are 335 ft. long, 43 ft. beam, gross tonnage 3200, displacement, at 17 ft. draught, 3880 tons. Parsons turbines of 8500 H.P., made in Japan, are fitted and give a speed of 21 knots.

Ocean LinersThe article on STEAMSHIP LINES gives an account of the rise of the great shipping companies. The steamships of 12,000 tons and upwards, referred to on page 873, are shown in Table XL: TABLE XI. Vessels of 12,000 Tons and upwards afloat June 1950.

Gross - Gross Name. Tonnage. Name. Tonnage Brilish.i German.

Mauretania.. 31,938 George Washington -.. 25,570

Lusitania - - - 31,550 Kaiserin Auguste Victoria 24,581

Adriatic. - - 24,541 Amerika - ~.,. - 22,622

Baltic. ... 23,8~6 Kronprtnzessin Cecilie - 19,503

Cedric -. .. 21,035 Kaiser Wilhelm II. - 19,361

Celtic. - - - 20,904 President Lincoln - 18,168 18,168

Caronia. -. 19,687 President Grant - - 18,072

Carmania. -. 19,524 Berlin 17,324

Oceanic.. - 17,274 Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm 17,082

Arabic. .. 15,801 Cleveland 16,960

Laurentic. -. 14,892 Deutschland - - - 16,502

Megantic - - - 14,878 Cincinnati 16,339

Minnewaska - - 14,3I7 Kronprinz Wilhelm - 14,908

Saxoiia - - - 14,281 Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse 14,349

Empress of Ireland 14,191

Empress of Britain 14,189 261,341

Ivernia -. - 14,067 8 other vessels of 12,000-

14,000 tons -.. - 103,435

326,945 -

25 other vessels of 22 ships. Total - 364,776

12,000-14,000 tons 317,358 -

Belgian.

42 vessels. Total 644,303 ~:: :

Kroonland - - - 12,185

Dutch. Vaderland 12,018

Rotterdam - - 24,149 -

Niew Amsterdam 16,967 4 ships. Total - - 53,928

Noordam -. - 12,531 _______________________________

Rijndam -. - 12,527 French.

Potsdam - - - 12,52212,522 La Provence -.. - 13,753

Espagne 13,600

5 ships. Total - 78,696

- 2 ships. Total - - 27,353

American.

Minnesota 2 - - 20,718 Japanese.

Manchuria - - 13,639 Tenyo Maru ~.. - 13,454

Mongolia - - - 13,639 Chiyo Maru. .. - 13,426

3 ships. Total - 47,996 2 ships. Total - - 26,880 Summary.

Country. Ships in No. Gross Tonnage. Average (Tons).

British 42 644,303 15,341

German.. 22 364,776 16,581

Dutch -. 5 78,696 15,739

Belgian -. 4 53,928 13,482

American. 3 47,996 15,999

French - - 2 27,353 13,676

Japanese - 2 26,880 13,440

Grand Total 8o 1,243,932 - 15,549

Atlantic Liners.The Atlantic liners running between Europe and the United States of America are the best known of all ocean liners; they exhibit the highest attainment of excellence in merchant-ship building, and their great size and speed, and continuous rivalry, excite universal interest.

Particulars of the famous liners which have had a share in the development of the trans-Atlantic service from 1819 to 1900 are given in Table XII., some of which is taken from The Atlantic Ferry by A. J. Maginnis. The Persia (fig. 22, Plate IV.) was the first iron steamer to be placed on the Atlantic service by the Cunard Company (1856). She was followed two years later by the Great Eastern, 688 ft. long, 82~8 ft. broad, 48.2 ft. depth and 32,160 tons displacement with a gross tonnage of 18,915 tons and screw. She was built from designs by I. K. Brunel, and remained the i Ji~ank launched October f 0, 43,500 tons.

2 Sister vessel Dakota was lost on Japan coast March 1907.

A third vessel of same size was being completec largest vessel afloat until the Cedric was built 45 years later. Fig. 23 is the City of Rome, built in 1881 at Barrow for the Inman Line, one of the most graceful vessels placed on the Atlantic. The Campania (fig. 24) and her sister-ship the Lucauia, each 600 ft. long and built in I 893 for the Cunard Company by the Fairfield Shipbuilding Company, held the record for fast passages across the Atlantic for several years. With twin screws and triple-expansion engines they attained a speed of 233/4 knots on trial with 31,050 I.H.P. On her best runs the Lucania crossed the Atlantic, 2823 nautical miles, in 5 days 8 hours 38 minutes, the mean speed being 22 knots for the run, maintained with a consumption of coal amounting to 201/2 tons an hour.

In the fifties the Collins Line took the record for speed to America, but, apart from that, the competition was chiefly between British companies until 1897, when the Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse made a better record than the Campania or Lucania, and for ten years from that date the fastest vessels were in German hands. The Deutschland (fig. 25, Plate V.), built at Stettin for the HamburgAmerican Line, took the record in 1900, traversing the Atlantic from New York to the Eddystone in 5 days 17 hours 28 minutes, at a mean speed of 23.36 knots. The North German Lloyd Co. added three splendid vessels: the Kronprinz Wilhelm in 1901, the Kaiser Wilhelm II. in 1902, and the Kronprinzessin Cecilie in 1906, the machinery being respectively of 35,000,42,000 and 45,000 I.H.P. and forming the finest series of reciprocating engines ever built for ships. The Kaiser Wilhelm II. raised the record on the homeward run to 23.71 knots, and made practically the same speed as the Deutschland on the outward run, viz. 23.f 2 knots. The Kronprinzessin Cecilie (fig. 26, Plate VI.) raised the outward record to 23.21 knots, and homeward her best passage was at 23.58 knots.

In 1903 the British government made an agreement with the Cunard Company under which two vessels of 24 to 25 knots speed across the Atlantic were to be built for mail and passenger service, and to be available for the use of the Admiralty in time of war. In accordance with this agreement the Mauretania (fig. 27, Plate VI.) was built by Swan, Hunter, Wigham Richardson & Co., and the Lusitania by John Brown & Co., and both were supplied with Parsons turbines of 70,000 H.P. driving four screws. The latter vessel was the first on service in 1907, and at once regained for Great Britain the Atlantic record, the Mauretania following a little later and doing still better. Both vessels maintained very high speeds, and steadily improved their records, until the Mauretania averaged 2606 knots and the Lusjtania 25.85 knots on the passage. They are 790 ft. long overall, of 88 ft. beam, 57 ft. moulded depth, 42,000 tons displacement on a draught of 333/4 ft. and of 32,000 tons gross tonnage. They are thus 100 ft. longer, 5 ft. wider~ 6000 tons more displacement and of 70% greater gross tonnage than the Great Eastern. Figure 28 is a section of the Mauretania, which shows clearly the great height of the decks.

The French liner La Provence was built in 1905, of 13,753 tons gross, and 22 knots speed. On her displacement of 19,160 tons she must carry about 3500 tons of coal for the~ voyage, which leaves a margin of about 900 tons for passengers and cargo. The France, launched September 10, is of 23,000 tons, 45,000 H.P. and 233/4 knots.

A notable tendency in recent years is to build vessels of great size to run at more moderate speeds. The American liners St Louis and St Paul (fig. 29, Plate VII.), built in 1895, are of 11,630 tons gross and 21 knots; while the Finland and Kroonland, built in America in 1902, are of 12,185 tons and only 16 knots. The last-named vessels are now running under the Belgian flag (see Table XII.). The Caronia and Carmania, built by the Cunard Company in 1905, furnished evidence of the advantage of the turbine for Atlantic liners, and also illustrate the gain due to a lower speed. Their dimensions are given in Table XII.; as compared with La Provence it will be seen that they are of 12,000 tons greater displacement, 2 knots less speed and 10,000 less H.P. Allowing for the voyage two-thirds the quantity of coal carried by La Provence, these vessels thus have a margin of about 10,000 tons compared with the 900 tons of that vessel, so that a much larger quantity of cargo may be taken when required. The Rotterdam, of 24,170 tons gross tonnage, can load to a displacement of 37,200 tons. Her speed is 17 knots; the reduction of engine-power gives space and weight for no less than 3585 passengers and nearly 13,000 tons of cargo after allowing for accommodation of crew and for coal, water and stores for the voyage. The second Oceanic, of 17,274 tons (fig. 30, Plate V.), built in 1899 for the White Star Company, was the largest vessel then built and had 21.5 knots speed; she was followed by the Celtic, Cedric, Baltic and Adriatic for the same company, of 16 to 18 knots speed and size increasing up to nearly 25,000 tons gross. These vessels each carry about 3000 passengers as vell as a crew of 350 and upwards, and very large cargoes. The Adriatic (fig ~1, Plate VII.) is of 24,541 tons gross, 3O% greater tonnage than the Great Eastern. The Titanic and Olympic, which in 1910 were in course of building by Harland & Wolff for the White Star Line, are not only much larger than the Adriatic, but they are 90 ft. longer, of 13,000 tons greater tonnage and of 18,000 tons greater displacement than the Mauretania; a combination of reciprocating and turbine machinery of 50,000 H.P. is provided for driving the vessels at a speed of 21 knots.

TABLE XII.Showing Dimensions, &c.

~ ~

Name of Ship- Owners. ~ j ~

Savannah -. .. Colonel Stevens - i8,~ New Yrk Wod u Royal William -. City of Dublin Co. 1838 Liverpool ,, I2

Sirius - -.. Brit. & Amer. St. Nay. Co 1838 Leith ,,

Great Western. - Great Western S. S. Co 1838 Bristol ,, ,,

British Queen - -. Brit. & Amer. St. Nay. Co 1839 London ,,

Britannja,. - Cunard. - - - 184 Greenock ,, 2<

Great Britain -. Great Western - - 1843 Bristol Iron 2~

America - - -. Cunard. - - - 1548 Greenock Wood 2

Asia Cunard.. - i8~o ,, ,,

Arctic Collins, - - ifio New york ,, 21

Persia Cunard - - - 1856 Glasgow Iron 31

Adriatic -. -. Collins. - - - 5857 New York Wood 31

Great Eastern. -. Great Eastern S.S. Co - 1858 MilIwall Iron Si Scotia Cunard.. - - 1862 Glasgow ,,

City of Paris - -. Infian - - - - 1866 ,, ,,

Russia Cunard.. - - 1867 ,, ,, 3<

City of Brussels - Inman -. - 1869 ,, ,, 3<

Oceanic -. -. White Star - - ,8~e Belfast ,, 4< 4<

City of Richmond -. Inman - - - i8~3. Glasgow ,,

Britannic. .,. White Star - - i8~~ Belfast ,, 4<

City of Berlin. Inman -. - 1875 Greenock ,, 41

Arizona uion - - - - 1879 Glasgow ,, 4<

Servia unard.. - i88i ,, Steel 51

City of Rome - - lnman - - - - i88i Barrow Iron s Alaska Guion i88, Glasgow ,, 5<

Notting-Hill.. Notting-Hill S. S. Co - 188, ,, Steel 4<

Aurania - - - Cunard.. - i85~ ,, ,, 4<

Oregon uion and Cunard - - 1883 ,, Iron ~<

America ational -. - - 5884 ,, Steel 4<

Etruria.. - Cunard - - -, 1881 ,, ,, Si Aller North German Lloyd - i886 ,, 4<

City of Paris (second of name). -. Inman - - - - 1889 ,, ,, 5<

Teutonic. -. White Star. - - 1889 Belfast ,, 51

Fhrst Bismarck .. Hamburg-American - 1890 Stettin ,, 5<

Campania -. - Cunard - - - - 1893 Glasgow ,,

St Louis -.. American -. - r8r)~ Philadelphia ,, 5<

Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse North German Lloyd - 1897 Stettin ,, 6<

Kaiser Friedrich. -. North German Lloyd - i8~8 Danzig ,,

Oceanic (second of name). White Star. - - 1899 Belfast ,, 6<

Deufschland (second of - -

name). -. Hamburg-Ainencan - - 1899 Stettin ,, 6<

Kronprinz Wilhelm - North German Lloyd - igoi ,, 6<

Celtic White Star - - - s~o, Belfast ,, 6<

Kaiser Wilhelm II -. North German Lloyd - 2902 Stettin ,, 6<

Finland - -.. Red Star. - - - 1902 Philadelphia ,,

Cedric e Star - - - 1903 Belfast ,, 61

Baltic hite Star - - i,

Kaiserin Auguste victoria Hamburg-American - - i~o5 Stettin ,, 6

La Provence - - Cie Gtnrale Trans- -

atlantique. - ~ St Nazaire ,, 6<

Carrnaoia - - -. Cunard.. - 1905 Glasgow ,, 6,

Caronia -. - - Cunard - - - - - 1905, ,, 6

Amerika -. - - Hamburg-American -. i~o~ Belfast ,, 6<

Kronprinzessin Cecile. North German Lloyd - ,go Stettin ,, F

Nieuw Amsterdam -. Holland Amerika -. x,~o6 Belfast ,, 6<

Adriatic -. -. White Star - - - 1906 ,, ,, 7<

Mauretania. .. Cunard - - - - 1907 Newcastle ,, 7<

Lusitania - - -. Cunard - - - - 1907 Glasgow ,, 7<

Rotterdam - -. - Holland Amerika - - 1908 Belfast ,, 6

Lapland. .. - Red Star. .. - i~o8 ,, ,, 6<

George Washington - North German Lloyd iios Stettin ,, 6<

Minnewaska - - - Atlantic Transport Co. - ~ Belfast ,, 6

Titanic.. - - White Star.. - 1910 ,, ,, 8

,Olympic -.. - White Star ,, ,, S

The Hamburg-American Company followed a similar course to the White Star Line and added two large vessels of 173/4 knots speed the Amerika of 22,622 tons gross, built by Messrs Harland & Wolff, and the Kaiserin Auguste Victoria (fig. 32, Plate VII.), of 24,581 tons gross, built at Stettin. The largest German vessel afloat in 1910 was the George Washington, built in 1908 at Stettin for the North German Lloyd.

The Hamburg-American Company ordered in 1910 two vessels, not only much larger than the George Washington, but exceeding even the Olympic in dimensions. They were said to be over 900 ft. long over all, 94 to 95 ft. beam, 20,000 tons gross greater tonnage than the George Washington, 13,000 tons more than Mauretaniaand 2000 tons more than Titanic and Olympic; turbines of 60,000 to 70,000 H.P. being provided to maintain a speed of 22 knots across the Atlantic. The Cunard Company ordered in Dec. 1910 a 50,000-ton turbine-driven ship from John Brown & Co., to steam at 23 knots on service.

The Minnewaska of the Atlantic Transport Company is typical of vessels on the Atlantic route carrying a large cargo together with a limited number of passengers of one class. Three hundred and twenty-six first-class passengers are carried and provided with excellent accommodation. When fully loaded the displacement is over 26,000 tons and the speed i6 knots; the horse-power required being of Famous Aflantic Liners, i8rpiozo.

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Dreadnoughts, was laid down at Portsmouth,i and the following vessels of the group (the Thunderer, Monarch and Conqueror) were ordered to be built in the private yards of the Thames Iron Works, Sir W. G. Armstrong & Co. on the Tyne, and Beardmore & Co. on the Clyde a few weeks ~7-~

FIG. 63.Arrangement of Guns at later. In these vessels there is a considerable increase in displacement, amounting to 2500 tons or 121/2% beyond that reached in the preceding group, their displacement being 22,500 tons on a length of 545 ft. between perpendiculars. The additional displacement has allowed the whole of the turrets to be placed on the middle line, the side armour to be raised to the upper deck, and heavier guns to be carried.

Great Britain thus had in 1910 fourteen Dreadnoughts built and building, not including the Dreadnought cruisers described later on under cruisers.

In the first seven vessels Dreadnought, Bellerophori, Temeraire, Superb, St Vincent, Collingwood and Vanguard six 12-in, guns could fire directly ahead and six TABLE XV.Particulars of British Hull.

-u ~~__,_-_ .~ ~ Vessel.

Feet. Feet. Feet. Tons. Knots Dreadnought - igo Steel. 490.0 8z.o 261 i7,900 21.6 23,000 4 Par Bellerophon. igo~ ,, 490.0 8z.o 27.0 i8,6oo 21.8 23,000 4

Temeraire. 1907 ,, 490.0 8i.o 27.0 sf,6oo 22,07 23,000 4

Superb,. 2907 ,, 490.0 82.0 27.0 i8,oo ir,6 23,000 4

St. Vincent. 2908 ,, 500.0 84.0 27.0 19,25019,250 2i.7 24,500 4

collingwood, igo8 ,, 500.0 84.0 27.0 29,250 21.5 24,500 4

Vanguard. ifoe ,, ~oo.o 84.0 27.0 19,250 22.1 24,500 4

Neptune.. 0309 ,, 510.0510.0 85.o 27.0 20,000 iI.Oi 25,000 4

colossus.. 1910 ,, 520.0 85.o 27.0 20,000 21.01 25,000 4

Hercules. - 1920 ,, 1ro.o 81.o 27.0 2o,000 22.0k 25,000 4

Esti directly astern, and eight could fire on the broadsides. In the next three Neptune, Colossus and Hercules six 12-in, guns could fire ahead, eight could fire astern, and the whole ten could fire on either broadside. In the last four Orion, Thunderer, Monarch and Conqueror four guns could fire ahead, four astern and the whole ten on either broadside. Their displacement had been reached by five steps from that of the King Edward VII. and Lord Nelson,the first of 1400 tons, 83/4%; the next three each of about 700 tons, say 4%; and the last of 2500 tons, or 121/2%. The first of these increases, though not without precedent in 5j ~flr9f,. _________________

ci Armour. H.M.S. Dreadnought.

the British navy,2 elicited some hostile criticism. Its justifica.tion lay in the fact that all the world followed the lead. The 22,500 tons of the Orion was not acceptable in 1904, but her design was practically that advocated by Lor4 Fisher when he took office as First Sea Lord in October 1904 after certain modifications had been made as the result of investigations at the Admiralty.

The general growth of the fleets of British and foreign powers is dealt with in the article NAVY. Some details may be given here of foreign battleships.

United States.In 1889 the Texas, designed by the late Mr William John, was laid down. On a displacement of 6315 tOns she carried an armament of two 12-in, and six 6-in. guns at a speed of 17 knotsthe ia-in. guns being mounted in two turrets placed Battleships of Dreadnought Type.

Machinery. ,

(1~ .~ .~-~a Armament. s,~

Engines. Boilers. s,~ e onsTurbines. Babcock & Wilcox iia 24I2pr. Barbette~. ii 1,699,900

I~I2 264 ,, II 2,649,042

Varrow large tube bli 164 ,, II 1,627,655

Babcock & Wilcox b012 f64 ,, II 1,544,246

2012 204 ,, 20- 1,612,810

Yarrow large tube 1012 204 ,, to 1,589,240

Babcock & Wilcox 10-12 204 ,, 10 1,465,381

Yarrow large tube 1012 164 ,, no 2,589,240

Babcock & Wilcox iox~ 164 ,, 10 -.

Yarrow large tube 1012 164 ,, 10. sated.

diagonally in a central citadel and protected by 12-in, armour. She was followed by the Maine, which was sunk in Havana Harbour. In 1891 the Indiana, Massachusetts and Oregon were laid down, of 10,288 tons displacement and 16 knots speed, protected by 18-in, belt armour and armed with four 13-in, and eight 8-in.

2 From the Trafalgar to the Royal Sovereign, and from the Duncan to the King Edward VII., increases in each case of 17% were accepted.

guns, the 13-in, guns being mounted in pairs in turrets on the upper deck, and the four 8-in, guns singly in turrets at the corners of the superstructure deck. They were followed by the iowa of 11,346 tons, laid down in 1893; and in I896 by the Kearsarge and Kentucky, whose principal dimensions were:length 368 ft., beam 72 ft., mean draught 23 ft. 6 in., displacement 11,525 tons, I.H.P. 10,500 and speed 16 ,knots as designed, 12,000 I.H.P. and 163/4 knots being reached on trial. They carried four 13-in, guns in currets 15 in. thick, four 8-in, guns in turrets 9 in. thick, fourteen 5-in. Q.F. guns, twenty-seven smaller guns, and four torpedo tubes; and at the above displacement they carried 410 tons of coal, but could stow 1590 tons. They had a novelty in ,the shape of two double-storeyed turrets, one forward and one aft. In this arrangement a second turret is superposed or built on the first, the structure so formed turning as a whole; a pair of 8-in, guns is mounted in the upper turret, and a pair of 13-in, guns in the lower. A later example of American design is furnished by the five first-class battleships of the Georgia class (fig. 65), laid down in 1902, which have a displacement of 15,320 tons, length 435 ft., beam 76 ft. 10 in., and a mean draught of 24 ft.; they have a complete water-line belt of Krupp armour, from II in. to 8 in. thick, tapering to 4 in. at the bow; above this belt there is a belt of lighter armour, 6 in. thick and 245 ft. long, forming a battery for the 6-in. QF. guns, which extends to the upper deck; there are also four turretstwo large double-storeyed turrets, as in the Ken ~QI 6Q,? 6~.F QF. QF,

FIG. 65.Gun and Armour Plan Georgia class (Georgia, Rhode Island and Virginia). ).

tucky, placed one forward and one aft, and two smaller turrets, one placed on each side forward. The larger turrets carry each a pair of I 2-in, guns and a pair of 8-in, guns, and are protected by a maximum thickness of 1 1-in, armour, and the smaller carry each a pair of 8-in, guns and are protected by 61/2-in, armour. In addition to the four I 2-in. and eight 8-in, guns thus disposed, there are also twelve 6-in, guns on the main deck and some forty-two smaller guns.

Machinery of 19,000 I.H.P. was provided for a-speed of 19 knots, and both were exceeded on the trials of the vessels. They carry 900 tons coal on the trial draught, and when fully loaded with 1900 tons of coal have a draught of 26 ft. This comparatively shallow draught is a distinctive feature of all the early United States battleships, but in later years a notable increase of draught was accepted. Between the Kearsarge and the Georgia were built in1896-1898the Alabama, Illinois (fig- 66, Plate XVI.), and Wisconsin, somewhat similar to the Kearsarge, carrying four I3-in, guns and fourteen 6-in, guns, and in1899-1901the second Maine,the Missouri and Ohio, which more nearly~resembled the Georgia, as they carried 12-in, guns for their main armament.

The Georgia class was followed by two much larger vessels the Connecticut and Louisiana, laid down in 1903; they were 450 ft. long, 76 ft. 10 in. beam, 17,600 tons displacement and 24 ft. 6 in. draught-when loaded with 900 tons coal, and 26 ft. 9 in. draught when loaded with full complenient of ammunition and stores and 2200 tons coal; and they marked a great advance in fighting power. While retaining four 12-in, guns for the main armament, they carried eight 8-in, and twelve 7-in, guns as a secondary armament, and they were well protected, guns and armour being arranged as shown in fig. 67. Engines of 16,500 I.H.P. were provided for a speed of 18 knots, and both were considerably exceeded on trial. In these and later American vessels tall towers of open lattice-work, somcwhat resembling the Eiffel Tower, were fitted instead of hollow steel masts for su000rtinr sienal and fire-control arranrements.

While the vessels of the Connecticut ~~c~asg were building in 1904, two other very similar but smaller t essels, the Idaho and Mississippi, were also laid down, of 13,000 tons with reduced armament and armour and less speed.

The first two American Dreadnoughts, the Michigan and South Carolina, were laid down in I 906; they are 450 ft. long, 80 ft. 3 in. beam, displacement 16,000 tons and draught 24 ft. 6 in. when carrying 900 tons of coal, increasing to 17,620 tons and 27 ft. draught when fully loaded. Engines of 16,500 I.H,P. are provided for 18.5 knots, and the armament consists of eight I2-in, guns mounted in four pairs, two pairs forward and two pairs aft, all on the middle line and arranged so that the guns of the second pair sweep over the turrets of the adjacent pair hearer the extremities of the vessel; an anti-torpedo. boat armament of twenty-two 14-pdr. guns is provided, but no secondary armament. The sides and barbettes are protected by 8 in. to 12 in. of armour, the belt armour tapering to 4 in, at the bow and stern. In I9o7 the Delaware and North Dakota were laid down; the size of the vessels was increased to 20,000 tons in order to carry I 2-in, and 14-in, guns behind armour from 12 in. to 8 in, in thickness and obtain a speed of 21 knots, and they are 510 ft. long, 85 ft. beam, 26 ft. 10 in. mean draught. Ten 5-in, guns are carried on the main deck behind 5-in, armour, two are carried on the main deck forward and two aft, in casemates. Cultis turbines are fitted in the North Dakota and reciprocating engines of the latest type in the Delaware; the boilers provided on each ship are for 25,000

I.H.P.; on trial the Delaware - developed 28,578 I.H.P. and recorded a speed of 21.56 knots, while the North Dakota reached 31,826 H.P.

and 22.25 knots.

Parsons turbines were adopted for the four battleships next laid down, The first two, the Florida and Utah, commenced in 1909, are very similar to the Delaware, but of ~ 21,825 tons displacement and 28 ft. 6 in. mean draught. The second pair, the Arkansas and Wyoming, begun in 1910, are of much greater displacement, viz., 26,000 tons; 8100 tons greater than the Dreadnought and 3500 tons greater e~s than the, Orion. They are 554 ft.

r*r long, while a beam of 93 ft. and the same mean draught of 28 ft. 6 in. have been accepted. Turbines of 33,000

_,_~_-___--__._-. H.P. are provided for a speed of 20.5

~ knots, four propellers being fitted as in H.M.S. Dreadnought. The coal - to be carried on trial has been in creased to 1650 tons, in place of the ,, ,, ,, 100otonsinprecedingvessels. Twelve Nebraska, New Jersey, 12-in. and twenty-one 5-in. guns are carried and vanadium steel armour of 8-in, to 11-in, thickness is fitted on sides and barbettes, associated with protective decks of increased thickness. Six pairs of I 2-in. guns are carried, all on the middle line; the foremost pair is 34 ft. above the designed load-line, the second pair 40 ft., and the third pair 32 ft.; the aftermost guns are 25 ft. above water, the next forward 32 ft. and the third pair from stern again at a height of 25 ft. Twenty-one 5-in, anti-torpedo-boat guns are carried, and the complement of officers and men has reached the high total of 1100, The main armament of the later vessels, New York and Texas, is composed of ten 14-in, instead of twelve 12-in, guns, and the displacement is increased to 27,000 tons and the H.P. to 35,000.

Germany.In 1885 Germany had one first-class battleship, the Konig Wilhelm, of 9567 tons displacement, and four smaller vessels, the Baden, Bayern, Sachsen and Wurttemberg, of 7400 tons each. The Kaiser and Deutschland, centralbattery ships designed by Sir Edward Reed, and two turret ships, the Preussen and F. der Grosse, followed shortly afterwards. The Kaiser and Deutschland were 285 ft. in length, had a displacement of 7600 tons, 8000 I.H.P. and 143/4 knots speed; were armed with eight 22-ton guns and one I 8-ton gun, and had side armour of a maximum thickness of 10 in, The vessels of the Preussen class were sea-going ships of th~ Monarch type, 308 ft. in length and of 6750 tons displacement and 14 knots speed, with belt armour of a maximum thickness of 93/4 in. and turret armour 83/4 in. thick.

In 1891 an advance was made by laying down the Brandenburg class of 9901 tons, carrying six Il-in, guns in three barbettes, one forward and one aft, and one on the middle line amidships. They were followed by the five first-class battleships of the Kaiser class, the last of which, the Kaiser Friedrich III. (fig. 70, Plate XVI.), was finished in 1900. They are of 10,900 tons displacement, length 377 ft., beam 66 ft. 10 in., draught 25 ft. 9 in,, 13,000 I.H.P. and 18 knots sneed. They have belts of Krunn steel extendina from the after barbette to the stem, with a maximum thickness of 12 in., tapering to 6 in at the bow; there is no side armour above this belt. The main armament consists of four 9.4in. guns, placed in pairs in barbettes, one forward and one aft, protected by fo-in. armour. On the main deck they have four 5~94n. Q.F. guns in 6-in. arinoured casemates, two on each side; and on the upper deck they have eight similar guns, protected in like manner, and six others in turrets three each side; in all, eighteen 5~9in, guns, besides twelve 3.5-in. and smaller guns. There are five vessels of the Wittelsbach class, a development of the Kaiser Friedrich III.; they are ~0o tons more displacement, 15 ft. longer and 13/4 ft. more beam, out are of shallower draught. They have engines of 15,000 H.P. and a speed of 19 knots, or a knot more than their predecessors. Their armament is the same, but the 9.4-in, guns are better protected. The main armour belt is somewhat longer, but in other respects the thicknesses and general disposition of the protection are similar to the Kaiser Friedrich III. class.

In the next five vessels, the Braunschweig class, laid down in 1901-1902, the 9.4-in, guns were replaced by 11-in, guns for the main armament; and the eighteen 5.9-in, guns were replaced by fourteen 6.7-in, guns for the secondary armament. The displacement was increased to 12,988 tons, the speed of 18 knots was maintained, and the armour protection practically as in the preceding ~ ~:~- ~ 7

Fic. 67.Arrangement of Guns and Armour of U.~

vessels. Five vessels of the new Deutschland class which followed in1903-1905were very similar to the Braunschweig class.

The Nassau, the first of the German Dreadnoughts laid down in 1907, was 455 ft. in length and of 18,200 tons displacement, and carried an armament of twelve Il-in., twelve 5.9-in. and sixteen 3.4-in, guns, had an armour belt of Krupp steel II in. to 4 in. in thickness, I.H.P. 22,000 for 19 knots and speed on trial 20.7 knots. The Posen (fig. 71,71, Plate XVIL), Rheinland and Westfalen of the same type were also laid down in 1907 and were built and completed for sea with extraordinary rapidity. The Westfalen attained 20.25 knots on trial with 26,792 H.P. The next three vessels, Thuringen, Helgoland and Ostfriesland, laid down in 1908, are provided with twelve 12-in, guns arranged as in H.M.S. Neptune; they are of 22,150 tons displacement and 25,000 I.H.P. for 19.5 knots speed (probably at continuous sea speed~ a measured-mile speed of about 2 knots more would doubtless be expected); they are prOtected by 12-in. Krupp steel armour; their dimensions are: length 489 ft., beam 98 ft., draught 27 ft. 6 in, The vessels laid down in 1910 were said to be still larger.

France.For many years the French designers favored the placing of the four heavy guns of their battleships in separate barbettesa 12-in, gun at each end and a I0~8-in, gun on each side of the vessel amidships, intermediate positions being arranged for the smaller guns. Such vessels as the Carnot, Charles Martel, Jaureguiberry, Massna, Bouvet approximating to 12,00C tons displacement, and built in the nineties, were so arranged These were followed by a series of vessels in which the 12-in. gur alone was accepted for the main armament, and two pairs were fitted one forward and one aft as in British vessels; the Gaulois, Charlemagne, St Louis and Suifren were so arranged The Suifren, commenced in 1899 (displacement 12,728 tons length 410 ft., beam 70 ft. and draught 27 ft. 6 in.), had a corn plete water-hne belt of Harveyized steel armour of 113/4 in. maximuri thc1~-ne~q, snd in-vp thq. i,,-, to th~ msin ,ls,-It ~mr~r srn,o,,r ~ ~,,

thick, extending from the after turret to the bow; sne had also a short armoured battery on the main deck which enclosed the funnel uptakes. There were eight turrets on her upper deckone forward and one aft, each carrying two 12-in, guns, and six arranged three on each broadside, each carrying a 6.4-in, gun. The armour of the largel turrets was of the same thickness as the armour belt, namely, iI1 in., and that of the smaller turrets 5 in. She mounted eight 3.9in. guns on the superstructure, and also had twenty-two smaller guns and four torpedo tubes, of which two were submerged. She had triple screws, engines of 16,000 I.H.P. and a speed of 18 knots. The Rpuhlique, laid down in 1901, and the Patrie, laid down in 1902, were superior in speed and armament to any British battleships then building. They had a displacement of 14,865 tons, and were of 439 ft. length, 79 ft. 6 in. beam and 27 ft. 6 in. extreme draught. They had three screws, and a nominal I.H.P. of 17,500 for a speed of 18 knots; but on trial these were considerably exceeded, the Patrie reporting 19,000 I.H.P. and 19.47 knots. They carried four 12-in. B.L. guns in pairs in turrets on the middle line, as in the British ships, twelve 6.4-in. Q.F. guns in pairs in turrets on the upper deck, six additional 6.4-in. Q.F. guns in casemates on the main deck, twenty-six 3-pdrs., three above-water and two submerged torpedo tubes. There was a complete water-line belt of a maximum thickness of 12 in., the bow was protected by i-in. armour and there was a partial k-in. belt above the 12-in, belt. The protective deck was 4 in. thick on the slopes, and the armour of the main turrets 123/4 in., the whole armour being of Harvey quality.

Four later vessels of the class, Justice, Dmocratie, Libert and Vrit, were given a still more powerful secondary armament of 7.6-in, guns six placed in well-protected turrets at a great height above ~lTlthP~UlmT. water, and four in casemates be ~~llt~tll~i ,. tween decks. Six vessels, the ~fffljilliglhHf~ ~ Condorcet, Danton (fig.72),

liu,ij~It,snudIiIfiIIlIIIh,,1~di,1ii1,i, 1I~iderot, l\/lirabeau, \Ter.

--~ gniaud and, Voltaire, were laid down in 1907. All had Parsons turbines of 22,500 H.P. for a speed of 19.25 knots, and their main armament consisted of foui Ia-in. and twelve 94-in. guns 8 as shown in, fig. 72. The later French ships Courbet and Jean Brt carry twelve 12

in. guns in six pairs, two for ward and two aft on the middle line, one pair training over the other, and one pair on each side amidships as in Dreadnought.

. Connecticut. They are of 23,000 tons displace ment and 20 knots speed, and have an anti-torpedo boat armament of twenty-two 5.5-in, guns, al::

in casemates of 7-in, armour.

Japan~Previous to the Russo-Japanese War Japan had provided herself with a number of excellent battleships built in Grest Britain, such as the Fuji of 12,450 tons, laid down at the Thamei Ironworks in 1894, the Hatsuse, built at Elswick, the Asahi, built at Clydebank, and the Shikishima, built at the Thames Ironworks, all of about 15,000 tons displacement and laid down ir 1897-1898. The dimensions of these vessels were: length 400 ft. beam 75 ft. 6 in., mean draught 27 ft. The I.H.P. was 15,oco, givin~ a speed of 18 knots. The armour-belt extended the full length of the ship at the water-line, and had a maximum thickness of 9 in.; be tween the top of this belt and the main deck, for a length of some 220 ft., was an upper belt 6 in. thick, which was continued b~ oblique bulkheads to the sides of the heavy-gun barbettes. The barbettes themselves, which were two in number, one forward and one aft, had armour 14 in. thick, and the conning-tower also was 14 in. thi~k. The armament consisted of four i2~in. 49-ton ~3:I~~ guns, two mounted in each barbette and loading in any positior of training; fourteen 6-in. Q.F. guns, all in 6-in. casemates, eighl on the main deck and six on the upper deck; and twenty 12 pdrs., besides smaller guns and four submerged torpedo tubes, The Mikasa, laid down at Barrow in, 1899, was a slight modification of the Hatsuse class design, being 200 toni heavier and 6 in. more in draught. The principal dinerence war that the eight 6-in. Q.F. guns on the main deck were increased to ten in number, and instead of being in separate casemates were in a 6-in. armoured central battery, with 2-in. drvisional screer bulkheads.

The Hatsuse was destroyed in the war by a mine explosion~ and the Mikasa wasP seriously damaged by mines. After the war she was accia~entally sunk on the 10th of September 1905; she was, however, refloated on the 8th of August 1906, re nsre,I snri re,-nn,nissjnnpif The laoanese fleet in 1010 containei several vessels which were captured from Russia during the war, such as the Iwami of, 13,515 tons (late Orel), the Hizen of 12,275 tons (late Retvizan), the Segami of 12,790 tons (late Peresviet), the Suwo of 12,997 tons (late Pobyeda), the Tango of 10,960 tons (late Poltava),), and the 1k of 9700 toils (late Imperator Nicolai I.). The Suwo - ~.

..r3 3.

FIG. 72.Arrangement of Guns and Armour of and Hizen may be taken as typical examples of these captured vessels. The former is of the following dimensions: length 436 ft., beam 713/4 ft., draught 274 ft., and displacement 12,670 tons; she has engines of 15000 H.P. and a nominal speed of 193/4 knots, carried an armament of four b-in, guns, mounted in pairs in turrets on the middle line forward and aft; eleven 6-in, guns, distributed five on each broadside and one in the extreme bow of the vesselS twenty 5-in, guns and twenty-six smaller pieces; and six torpedo tubes. She is protected by a complete water-line belt of armour, 9 in. thick amidships, tapering to 4 in. at the ends, reinforced by a protective deck 23/4 in. thick. Above the belt, for a length of 185 ft. amidships is a lighter belt of 5-in. Krupp armour, protecting the bases of the 6-in, guns, and terminated by transverse bulkheads. The 10-in, gun turrets are 10 in. thick, and the 6-in, guns are protected by casemates 5 in. thick. This vessel carries 30 Belleville boilers, and has storage for 2000 tons of coal. The Hizen (Retvizan) was built at Cramps, U.S.A. She is of 12,700 tons displacement, 376 ft. long, 723/4 ft. beam, and 26 ft. draught. She has four 12-in. B,L. guns in pairs in turrets, twelve 6-in. Q.F. guns in 5-in. casemates, twenty 12-pdrs. and twenty-eight smaller guns, besides four submerged and two above-water torpedo tubes. She is pro- II

tected by a water-line ______

belt extending from ~

the after-turret to the stem, and tapering in thickness from 9 in.

tO 2 in. Above this is a complete belt of 6 in. maximum thickness, and the main armament is protected by turrets 10 in. thick. She has 16,000 HP. and a speed of 18 knots, and has stowage for 2000 tons of coal.

The Kashima (fig. ~3, Plate XVII.) was laid down at Elswick in 1904 and FIG. 74.Arrang the Katori, at Barrow in the same year; they were not delivered until the war was over. Also during the war Japan laid down two very much larger vessels, the Aki and Satsuma. The Aki is the larger of the two, being 492 ft. long, 834 ft. beam, 273/4 ft. draught, and 19,800 tons displacement; she carries four 12-in., twelve 10-in., eight 6-in, and twelve 12-pdr. guns and five torpedo tubes, and is protected by ~-in. to s-in. armour. Curtis turbines of 24,000 H.P. are provided for a speed of 20 knots. It is noteworthy that this vessel was laid down on the 15th of March 1905, while the Lord Nelson of 16,500 tons was not laid down until the 18th of May 1905 and the Dreadnought of 17,900 tons not until the 2nd of October 1905. The Aki also exceeds in displacement the St Vincent, laid down in 1907-1908, and her tonnage was not reahed in Great Britain untili9o9, whenthe Neptune was laid down. The Aid was followed by still larger vessels, the Kawachi and Settsu, both of 20,800 tons. The Kawachi is thus 900 tons greater than the Neptune, and she was laid down one day before that vessel., The general arrangement of armour and guns of these large vessels is shown in fig. 74; they are protected by armour of 12 in. to 5 in. in thickness, and in addition to twelve 12-in, guns they carry ten 6-in., twelve 47

in. and four 12-pdrs.

Russia maintained in 1910 two fleets, one being in the Black Sea, prevented by treaty from passing through the Dardanelles, and the the French Danton. other, the main Russian Fleet, in the Baltic.

In 1882 three remarkable vessels were laid down for the Black I Sea Fleet, the Catherine II., Tchesmeand Sinope. They were barbette ships of 10,180 tons displacement, with a compound armour I belt of a maximum thickness of 16 in,, armed with six 12-in. B.L.

I guns mounted in pairs on the upper deck in a large pear-shaped barbette, and seven 6-in, guns on the main deck; and having a speed of 16 knots. Other vessels built for this fleet were the I Twelve Apostles of 8709 tons, George the Victorious, 11,032 tons, the Three Prelates, 13 318 tons, the Rostislav, of 8880 I tons laid down in 1895 and the Panteleim~i of 12,582 tons laid down us 1897. The latest vessels built on the Black Sea are the Ioann Zlatoust and Evstafi, of 12,840 tons and 16 knots, carrying four 12-in,, four 8-in., twelve 6-in., fourteen I2-pdr. and six 3-pdr. guns; both were laid down in 1903.

Of the main Russian Fleet outside the Black Sea only a few battleships survived the Russo-Japanese War; these included the I Tzesarevich of 13,000 tons, built in France in. 1899, carrying four 12-in, guns in two barbettes, and twelve 6-in. guns in pairs in turrets; I also the Slava, laid down on the Neva in 1902, 370 ft. long, of ment of Guns and Armour of Kawachi.

I 13,516 tons displacement 16,000 I.H.P. and 18 knots speed, hef I hull protected by armour cf 9 in. to4 in. in thickness. The Slava carried four 12-in. guns in barbettes having jo-in, armour, and twelve 6-in. guns in turrets having 6-in. armour.

In January 1903 Russia laid down the Imperator Pavel I., a I larger and more powerful vessel than any then building by any other power, being of 17,400 tons displacementalmost that of th~

vessel.

G0;Hull.

,~ aS .~

~ .~ ~ ~ a.il co I.H.P.Propulsive Machinery.

~ Engines. Boilers.

~Armament (including Machine Guns).Heavy Guns where mounted.

Thickest Armour. Cost(ex cluding Guns).

~Varrior. .

Agincourt .

i86o i86~Iron ,, Ft. Ft. In.

380 58 0

400 59 3

Ft. in.

26 7Tom~

8,83oKnots 14256,oooxHorizontal, trunk, jet- condensing s set of 2 cylinders; 112 X 48 lo rectangular 22 lb pressure287 SIr ton gunsBroadsideInches 356,693

t8 2xo,Sgo148sooniHorizontal, jet- condensing x expansion I0IX54lo rectangular1712 ton M.L.R.

Broadside~4496,069

Bellerophon. xS6s,,30056 i 26 07,5501426,500xHorizontal, trunk, surface-condensing x set of cylinders, 104X48Rectangular 26 lb pressure2014 ton and 56~ ton guns Central battery6447,618

Monarch - -

Sultan. -. 1868

iS7o,,

,,330626 08,300I5O7,850xHorizontal ton, 29 12 ton, 17 6~ ton and 20 small guns TurretsTurrets, to Sides, 7478,571

325Si 0 26 I

. 9,3001417,700i ~ Horizontal, trunk surface-condensing x expansion x set of 2 cylinders ii8X~~Rectangular 30 lb pressure8is ton and 412 ton guns Central battery9

~485,155

Devastation. i8~i,,28562 427 09,3301427,0002Horizontal, trunk surface-condensing 88X398 rectangular 30 lb pressure412 35 ton and to smaller guns 2 torpedo tubeo TurretsTurrets, ~ Sides, 12 430,746

Inflexible. .

llenbow - - 1876

x88~,,

Steel 320

3375 0

65 6

zS 4ir,Ho240S,ooo2Vertical 70+29OX488 single-ended, oval 4 double ,, ,,

So lb pressure ~4~ i6 8o ton and 8a 22 cwt. guns 414 torpedo tubesTurrets24

,i8 951,406

774,79

28 0 xo,6ooi6-gii,5oo2Vertical 52-f-2@74X45 12 oval2I6~ 110 ton, xo6 and 13 smaller guns 5 torpedo tubesBarbettes Royal Sove- reigni8i,,350o27 6 14,13075,13,0002Vertical 40+59+88X518 single-ended retu.~n tube 148 lb pressure4-Engels3i 67 ton, io6 and 38 smaller guns 7 torpedo tubesBarbettesiS

, 839236

Majestic - .

Formidable. 1896

i3~8,,

,,390

400 75 0

74 0

27 6 14,9001-7512,002Vertical 40 +59+88X43 8 single-ended return tube boilers412 46 ton, 126 and 38 smaller guns ~i8torpedo tubesBarbettes, hoodedBarbettes, Sides, q Harveyized 876,458

26 g15,000iSo15,002Vertical 250 lb pressure 3) +s~ +8~X 5 20 Belleville, with economizers 300 lb pressure 412 46 ton, xz6 and 32 smaller guns 4x8torpedo tubes. Barbettes, hoodedBarbettes, Sides, ~ Krupp1,022,745

Duncan -. 1901,,405626 614,000190

~i8,ooo2Vertical 334+54F+263X

~824 Belleville, with economizers412, ,,6 and a6 smaller guns 4torpedo tubes Barbettes, hoodedBarbettes, 14

Sides, ~1,023,147

Swiftsure. .

King Edward VIL1903

i~o~ ,,

,,43671 0 24 7I,,8oo20012,500

. 2Vertical triple cx- pansion 29+47+2@54 x 39 Yarrow large tube. 410, 1475,

1414 nt., 212 pr., and 86 pr. and machine guns Barbettes10849,474

78 ~26 916,350iS~,8,ooo2Vertical triple cx- pansion 38+60+267 X

48 Babcock and Wil- cox and cylindrical 412, 42, xo6, 1412 pr., 173 pr. and machine guns 4 torpedo tubes Barbettes121,383,845

Lord NelsonigoS,,410627 0i6,~oo18516,750 2Vertical triple cx- passion sets of 4 cylinders 33+53+260 x 48 ,5 Yarrow large tube412, I09-2, and 2412 pr. and ~ machine guns torpedo tubes BarbetteslB

~ 1,540,889

DreadnoughtigoS,,49082 0 26 6 17,9002,623,000 4

17,600 2

20,000 3 Parsons turbines Vertical triple cx- pansion vertical triple cx- pansionBabcock and Wil- cox1012, 2412 pr.

and~ machine guns 5 torpedo tubesBarbettesII1,699,90

Belleville412, 148,

1247, and 14

smaller, light and machine guns torpedo tubes Barbettes 121,170,00

Imperator Pavel I. (Rctssian)

Posen. .

(German) 1907

igo8 ,,

,.429g 79 9

455 88 628 6

26 6

17,400

18,200 s8o Schultz-Thorny- croft12Il, 1259,

2osmaller, light and machine guns 6 torpedo tubesBarbettes12i.8oo,ooo 74-in, guns all well protected, while the next step was to vessels of atype very similar to~ the King Edward~ VII.,, class, but of greatergun-power and higher speed, with somewhat thinner armour andsmaller coal capacity. These vessels, Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand, Radetsky and Zrinigi, were being completed in 1910. Their arrangements of guns and armour are shown in fig. 78. Battle- ships of far greater fighting value were in 1910 laid down by Austria; of 20,000 tons displa~ement, 25,OdO

H.P., and 22 knots speed, mountin~ ten 12-in, guns, protected by u-in.

armnur, and costing about 2~ millions sterling each. BraziLFor several years by mutual arrangement no battleships were added to the South American navies, bu~ in 1906 Brazil ordered three vessels of 19,281 tons, 1380 tons heayier than the Dread- nought, which was not then finished; the first two of thesecarry twelve 12-in, guns in place of the ten of the Dreadnought, and can fire ten guns on either broadside, eight ahead andeight astern; they also carry fourteen 4.7-in, guns behind s-in.armour on the main deck, and eight behind thinner armour on theupper deck. The ships side, barbettes and gun mountings are pro-tected by s-in. armour, the belt armour tapering to a-in. forwardand aft. The vessels are 500 ft.

long, 83 ft. beam and 25 ft. draught; engines of 23,500 l.H.P. being provided for 21 knots. The lead- ing vessel, the Minas Geraes (fig.

79, Plate XVIII.), was built at Elswick; she obtained about 214 knots on trial, and passed through all her severe gun trials with great success.

Fig. 8o showsthe general arrangements of guns and armour. The second vessel,the Sao Paulo, was built at Barrow, and was also completed to the same design. The third vessel, the Rio de Janeiro, which in 1910

was being built by the Elswick firm, has been redesigned to be 655 ft. in length over all, 92 ft. beam and 32,000 tons displacement on a draught of 26 ft. Her armament was to be twelve ia-in. guns, with a secondary armament of fourteen 6-in.guns, an anti-torpedo armament of fourteen a-in.

guns, as well as anumber of smaller guns, and three submerged torpedo tubes. Shewas fitted with four screws and turbines of 45,000 H.P. to drive her at 224 knots. Her cost was reported to be almost 3,000,000, and in 1910 she was by far the largest vessel on th.e stocks. Argentine RepublicEarly in 1910 the Argentine Republic ordered two vessels, the Moreno and Rivadavia, of 28,000 tons, armed with twelve 12-in. guns, twelve 6-in, and sixteen a-in. guns, to be built by the New York Shipbuilding Co. and the ForeRiver Shipbuilding Co. respectively. Their displacement is muchgreater than that of the largest battleships building at the timethey were ordered, although they are 4000 tops smaller than the Rio de Janeiro. They are 578 ft. long, 96 ft. beam, 274 ft. draught, and turbines of 40,000 H.P. are provided for a speed of 224 knots. The armament is arranged somewhat as in Minas Geraes, but with the midship barbettes arranged so that the gunscan hre on either broadside, giving a fire of twelve guns on eitherbroadside, eight ahead and eight astern. The ships side and theheavy guns are protected by ia-in, armour, and the 6-in, guns by6-in, armour; i6oo tons of coal are carried on the load draught outof a possible 4000 tons, and there is also a large stowage for oil fuel. Spain.For some years battleship building was suspended inSpain, but, after considerable negotiation with Britiih firms, designswere approved for three vessels of 15,130 tons and 194 knOts, to carry eight 12-in, and twenty a-in. guns, with 10-in, armour on the barbettes, 9 in.

on side tapering to 3 in. at bow and4 in. at, stern, and fore and aft internal bulkheads i4 in. thickfor protection against torpedoes. These vessels were namedEspana, laid down in 1909, Alfonso XIII. and Jaime I., in 1910. Smaller Battleships.At varioUs times several of the naval powers have laid down smaller battleships than those already referred to,such as the British Conqueror and Hero, of 6200 tons, launched in 1882 and i888 respectively; the armoured Coast Defence ships of France, of which the Admiral Trehouart, launched in 1893, of 6534 tons, 17 knots, carrying two 12-in, and eight 39-in. guns with good armour~ protection, is a good example; the monitors of theUnited States named Little Rock, &c., launched in 1900, of 3235 tons and 12 knots, carrying two ia-in. and four a-in. guns; and the principal battleships of the lesser European powers. Agood example of the last is the Norwegian armour-clad Norge (fig. 8i, Plate XV.). This vessel and her sister the Eidsvold, with their predecessors Harald Haarfagre and Tordenskjold, were built at Elswick for the royal Norwegian navy, and completedin 1900. They had a displacement of 3850 tons, length 290 ft., beam 50 ft. 6 in., draught 16

ft. 6 in., and with twin-screw engines of 4500 horse-power attained i64

knots speed. They were heavily armed with two 8-in. B.L. guns in armoured gun-houses, one at each endof the vessel; six 6-in, Q.F. guns, four mounted in 5-in, nickel steelcasemates, and two in the open, with strong shields; eight 12-pdrs.and six 3-pdrs.; and two submerged torpedo tubes.

The water-linewas protected with 6-in, Krupp armour over a length of 170

ft., and bulkheads of the same thickness were provided at each end of thebelt. These ships form a class of vessels of small size whichwould prove formidable opponents to many larger armoured ships,and are especially useful for coast-defence purposes.Table XVI. shows the development of the leading features ofnotable armoured battleships from the time of the Warrior.

Cruisers.The cruiser type was primarily intended to co- operate with armour-clad fleets, in the same manner as sailing frigates did with fleets of sailing line-of-battle ships, and the earliest cruisers were modelled directly upon the frigates which preceded them, the differences between the two being those incidental to the use of steam power and to the substitution of iron fQr wood as the building material. As steam propulsion grew in favor engines of greater power were provided, andthe rig and sail-spread were reduced till at the present day theyVessel.B 5

~ Hull..d ,5 I.H.P.Propulsive Machinery.

Armament (including Machine Guns).Heavy Guns mounted.Thickest Armour.Cost (~cludir~

Guns).

-~ ~~

.~ B

,~{5

Zr))Engines.Boilers.

ErzherzQg Franz Ferdinand (Austrian)egoS Steel.Ft. Ft. In.

450 9 8o 6 Ft. In 26 6 Tons.

14,226 Knots ~ 20,0002

~ 2 sets 4-cylinder vertical triple ex- pansion. Yarrow ~422, 8cr~,

20-39, 622 pr.

and 2 machine guns ~ torpedo tubes BarbettesInches Minas Geraes (Brazilian)igo8,,50083 0 25 0 19,2812-2427,2122Vertical triple ex- pansion --

Babcock and Wil- cox1212, 2247,

and 83 pr. guns ,,122,822,400

Delaware .

(United States)1909,,5208~ 3 27 020,0002-2528,5782Vertical triple ex- pansionBabcock and wil- cox 1012, 145,

and io smaller, light and machine guns Daniton.. (French) 2909,,47684 0 27 028,028292522,5004Parsons turbines ~ 422, I2g4,

and 26 smaller, light and machine guns Kawachi.. (Japanese) Bdg 1910 .,,52084 0 27 020,8002-0026,5004Curtis turbinesMiyabara small tube - 2222, io6,

and 1247 guns 5 torpedo tubes ,,22..

tlfonso XIII.

(Spanish) ,,,,

~ 435~8g25625,4601-9525,300

~ 4Parsons turbine,-Yarrow ~8ia, 204,

23 pr., 2~ light, ~.and a machine guns ~ torpedo tubes ,,20,,

Moreno ,, ,, 578 95 9 27 6 28,000 22 39,500 .. Curtis turbines Babcock and wil- (Argentixie(cox 1212, 126,

164, and so smaller guns 2--2 i torp tubes ,,122,200,000

have entirely disappeared. When the final adoption of ironled to the remodelling of the details of construction by SirE. J. Reed, the new system of construction was applied to the cruisers of the day, but no attempt was made till much later togive these cruisers any protection, nor was the question of theirarmament given the importance which it afterwards came to have.Lord Armstrong was one of the first to recognize the import-ance of developing this class of vessel. He considered the essentialfeatures of a cruiser to be high speed, protection without the useof side armour, a powerful armament and minimum size andcost; and his views were adopted by the Elswick firm in a largenumber of cruisers built for foreign Powers down to the intro-duction of high explosives, when side armour was advocated inplace of, or in addition to, the armour deck. The cruisers builtfor the British navy prior to i88oof which the principal typeswere such vessels as the Inconstant, of 5780 tons (i866); the Active, of 3080 tons (1867); the Raleigh, of 5200 tons (1871); and the faster despatch vessels Iris and Mercury, of 3730 tons (1875)had been almost entirely unprotected; and although the Comus ,and Leander classes had been given a partial protective deck, the Elswick- built Esmeralda (1883) (fig. 82, Plate XXIII.) may be quoted as the first vessel in which the important features of ~complete protective deck and good protection to, the guns were combined with high speed and a powerful armarnenL On the, other hand, the Imprieuse and Warspite, completed. in i88~, of much greater displacement than the Esmeralda, were provided with a partial belt of jo-in, compound armourin combination with a protective deck. Thus the necessity forprotecting cruisers led to the introduction of two typestheprotected cruiser, of which the Esmeralda may be taken as the pioneer, arid the armoured cruiser, of which the Imprieuse and Warspite are early representatives; but while in the British navy the ,~ protected cruiser type was repeated and developed, the armoured type was dis-continued, and with the exception of the Orlando class, built shortly afterwards, the whole of the cruisers built for the Britishnavy for another fifteen years were of the protected type. In France and Russia, however, the armoured cruiser continuedin favor, the Dupuy de Lme of 1890, for the former, and the Rurik of 1892, for the latter, being vessels of this type.The reintroduction of side armour in British-built cruiserscame about when the improvement of armour by the develop-ment of the Harvey and Krupp processes of manufactureenabled more efficient protection to be provided with a muchthinner belt than had previously been possible. The Elswickcruiser Esmeralda (second), built for Chile in 1895, was one of the first in which the use of side armour was revived. Shewas followed by other vessels of the armoured type built by thesame firm for the Chilean and Japanese navies. In i8g8 theCressy class (fig. 83, Plate XXI.) was begun for the Britishna~ry, and since this date all cruisers of 9000 tons and above for the British navy have been provided with side armour.In the United States the adoption of armour belts of the newmaterial for cruisers came somewhat earlier than it did in theBritish navy, the Brooklyn (fig. 84, Plate XXII.), built in 1895, being so protected; and the development of the type has been very marked in recent years, the tendency being to go tolarger displacements, in order to provide greater protection andheavier armaments, with each new class of vessel. Indeed, thefirst-class armoured cruiser of 1910 might be very well described as a high-speed battleship.In the British navy~ as might be expected, the demand for vessels tomeet the variedand diverse re-quirements thatnecessarily arisein a fleet of suchmagnitude has led to the production of a number oftypes, each ad-apted to its own special duties. They may beclassified as (i) unprotected cruisers; (2) pro- tected cruisers offirst, second andthird classes; and(~) arm oured ~ cruisers.

Unpro-tected cruisershave neitherside armour nor.other protectiQnagainst less ofbuoyancy from injury by shot and shell Protected cruisers have no side or verti~al armour, but,they have horizontal arthour decks with strong sloping sides in the viinity of the water-line, Upon whith coql is carried in minutely divided bunker compartments Armoured ci~uisers have side or vertical armour in addition to protectivedecks. Each of these, classes includes a number of groups ofsister ships, but we~sh~ll confine ourselves to describing themain feature~ of a representative ship in a few of the mostimportantgroups.The protected cruiser of medium displacement affords a convenientstarting-point, as the latest vessels of this type in 19I0 were of about the same displacement as the largest first- S~ond- class cruisers of thirty years before, and a comparison of dass representative ships of these classes illustrates the great c,t,Isers. advances made in thirty years in ships of approximately the same size; while a further comparison of these second-class cruisers (as the vessels of medium displacement are styled) with the first-class protected cruisers and the armoured cruisersof the present day shows the growth in size and power of thelargest units of the cruiser type during the same period. Itshould, however, be noted that while some second-class cruisersreached such a displacement (5600 tons) as to allow of thiscomparison being made, the great bulk of the vessels of this class were smaller. The Mersey is an early example of a vessel of this class which has seen considerable service. Begunin i883, her principal dimensions are: length ~oo ft., beam46 ft., mean draught about 20 ft., and displacement 4050 tonS~ Protection to the vitals of the ship is provided for by means of a protective deck a little above the level of the water-line, 2 to 3 In. Ui iiFIG 8o Arrangements of Guns and Armour of Minas Geraes thickness, in combination with a system of coal-stowage in bunkerstiong the water-line. She carried two 8-in, and ten 6-in. B.L. gunsand four torpedo tubes. Her horse-power was 6000 (forced draught) and speed 173

knots, and she carried 750 tons of coal at normal draught, with capacity for 900 tons. The Astraea, begun in 1890, may be taken as representing the second-class cruisers of that date. She is built of steel, sheathed and coppered, is 320 ft. long, 49 ft. 6 in. beam, 2! ft. 6 in. mean draught and 4360 tons displace- nient, and carries two 6-in. Q.F. guns and eight 4.7-in. Q.F. guns,all on the upper deck and protected by shields, together with fourtorpedo tubes. She is protected by a steel deck i in. to are shieldedby 5-in, sloping coamirigs. The coal bunkers in the neighborhoodof the water-line are minutely subdivided, and the stowage isarranged so as to make full use of the coal protection. Her enginesdevelop 9000 H.P. (under forced draught) and her speed is I9~5

knots. Her coal stowage is 1000 tons. The Hermes (fig 85, Plate XX.)

is one of the largest second- class cruisers added to the Royal Navy. She is 350 ft. long, 54 ft. beam, 20 ft. 6 in. mean draught and 5600 tons displacement. She presents a striking contrast compared with the Inconstant, built in 1866, of almost the same displacement. The Inconstantwas fully rigged, and sailed almost as fast as she steamed; whilethe Hermes has no sail, and steams 20 knots, or 6 knots faster than did the older vessel. The Inconstant was entirely un- protected, and carried her guns on the broadside, with very limitedarcs of training; whilst the Hermes has all-round fire, the fire ahead and astern is a very large percentage of that on the broadside,and her guns all train through large arcs (1200 and above) and are well protected by enveloping shields, and the ship herself is protectedby a steel deck i~ to 3 in.

thick, besides having coal protection. The Inconstants main armament consisted of ten ~-in. and six 7-in. ML. guns; the Hermes, of eleven 6-in. Q.F. guns, each firing probably ten rounds to one of the Inconstants u-in., and with a perforation of wrought iron of about one-third as much again.Tha Hermes is built of steel, sheathed with wood and coppered. She carries also eight 12-pdrs. and six 3-pdrs., and two submergedtorpedo tubes. She has Belleville boilers, developing 10,000

H.P. and giving her a speed of 20 knots. Somewhat similar to the Hermes in external appearance, the four vessels of the Arrogant class (fig.

86, Plate XX.) possess certain features of special interest which distinguish them from allother second-class cruisers, in which class they are usually included.They are of 150 tons greater displacement than the Hermes, are 30 ft. shorter, but have 3 ft. 6 in. more beam and 6 in.

more draught. They are built of steel and are unsheathed, have Belleville boilers,and engines giving io,000 H.P. and a speed of 19 knots. They have an armament of four 6-in. Q.F. guns, three of which fire rightahead and one right astern; six 4.7-in. Q.F. guns, three on eachbroadside; eight 12-pdrs.; nine smaller guns; and two submergedtorpedo tubes. All the guns are mounted on the upper deck inshields. The protective deck varies from I~ in. to 3 in. in thickness. The bow is protected by a belt of 2-in, nickel steel extending to about 4 ft. back from the ram, the top of this belt being level with themain deck, and the bottom edge sloping downwards to strengthenthe ram, and a cofferdam formed by two water-tight transversebulkheads about 3 ft. apart, and extending from keel to main deck,separates the bow from the rest of the vessel. The Arrogantsare fitted with tandem rudders, and the deadwood at the after endof the ship is cut away.The Gladiator, which was sunk in the Solent in 1908 after collision with the St Paul, was one of the Arrogant class. TheCanadian cruiser Rainbow, one of the Apollo class, very similar to but smaller than the Astraea class, is of 3400 tons, 9000 l.H.P., 20

knots, and carries tw~ 6-in. Q.F., six 4.7-in. Q.F., eight 6-pdrs., and four torpedo tubes.The protected cruisers of greater displacement, or first-classcruisers, as they were called, may be divided into four well-markedclasses: Blake and Blenheim class, Edgar class (fig.

87, Plate XIX.), Powerful and Terrible class (fig. 88, Plate XIX.)

and the Diadem class. The Blake and Blenheim, begun in1888, were amongst the earliest cruisers designed by Sir William Whiteat the Admiralty; they are of 9000 tons displacement, Irst-class 375 ft. long, 65 ft. beam and 27 ft. draught. They carry Juisers. two 9.2-in. B.L. guns, one firing directly ahead and the other directly astern, protected by open shields 6 in. thick; ten6-in. Q.F. guns, of which four are on the main deck, protectedby casemates of 6-in, compound armour, and six on the upperdeck in shields; ,sixteen 3-pdrs.; two submerged and two above-water torpedo tubes. Their protection consists of a complete armourdeck of steel 4 in. to 8 in. thick. Their machinery consistsof four independent sets of vertical triple-expansion engines, two oneach shaft, for which steam is provided from six double-endedcylindrical boilers, giving 20,000, H.P.

under forced draught, and a speed of 21 knots; with open stnkeholds their power is 13,000 H.P., which gives them a speed of 19~ knots. They carry 1500 tons of coal. The Edgar class, begun in 1889, are vessels of 7350

tons displacement, 360 ft. long, 6o ft. beam and 23 ft. 9 in. mean draught. Their armaments consist of two 9.2-in. B.L. gunsand ten 6-in.

Q.F., disposed and protected in the same way as the corresponding guns of the Blake, with twenty-four smaller and machine guns, two submerged and two above-water torpedotubes. The protective deck has a maximum thickness of 5 lii., and the cylinders are protected by a raised coaming on this deck, with sloping sides 6 in. thick. They have six double-ended cylln-drical boilers and two sets of vertical triple-expansion engines,developing with forced draught 12,000 I.H.P. and giving a speed of 20 knots They carry 850 tons of coal at normal draught, with storage for 1250 tons. Nine vessels of this class have been built, four of them being sheathed with wood and coppered, the remainingfive, including the Edgar, being unsheathed. The Powerful and her sister the Terrible are the largest protected cruisers which have been built. They were begun in 1894. They are of steel, sheathed with wood and coppered, are of 14,200

tons dis- placement, 500 ft. length, 71 ft. beam and 27 ft. mean draught, armed with bow and stern 9.2-in. B.L. chasers, and twelve 6-in. Q.F. guns, of which eight are in 6-in. Harveyized casemates on the maindeck and four in similar casemates on the upper deck. They havealso eighteen 12-pdr.

Q.F. guns, twelve 3-pdrs., nine machine gunsand four submerged torpedo tubes. The 9.2-in, guns are protected by a shallow ring of 6-in.

Ha~rveyized steel, surmounted by a 6-in.shield enveloping the gun and crew. The ship herself is protectedby a complete deck at the water-line level of Harveyized steel plates3 in. to 6 in. in thickness, and by a double line of coal bunkers aboveit. The machinery arrangements constitute the striking feature ofthese ships. They have no less than forty-eight Belleville boilers ineight boiler-rooms, with two sets of triple-expansion 4-cylinderengines, developing 25,000 H.P. with open stokeholds and giving the ships a speed of 22 knots. They carry as a normal supply 1500 tons of coal, and their bunkers will hold 3000 tons. Four 6-inch guns were added on the upper deck of these ships in1902. The Diadem class, launched in 1897 and 1898, were the last first-class protected cruisers added to the British navy. There areeight vessels of this class, but in the four last-built vessels, of whichthe Spartiate was one, some changes were made. The first vessel of the Diadem class was begun in 1895, is of 11,000 tons displace- ment, 435 ft. length, 69 ft. beam, 25 ft. 3 in. mean draught, and is built of $teel, sheathed and coppered. Her principal armamentconsists entirely of 6-in. Q.F. guns, of which, there are sixteen,twelve being protected by 5-in. casemates of Harveyized steel, andthe others disposed, two on the forecastle as bow chasers, and twoon the quarter-deck as stern chasers, all in separate shields. Shealso carries thirteen 12-pdrs., eleven smaller guns, including machineguns, and two submerged torpedo,tubes. The protection consistsof a steel deck, whose slopes are 4 in. thick and horizontal portions2~ in. thick, upon which is stowed the 1000 tons of coal which the vessel ordinarily carries, the full coal capacity being 2000 tons. She is provided with 30 water-tube boilers of the Belleville type, and her machinery develops 16,500 H.P., giving her a speed of 20.5 knots. The Canadian cruiser Niobe is one of the first four; in the last four ships the casemates are 6 in. thick and the machineryis of greater power, viz. 18,000 I.H.P., giving a speed of a quarterof a knot higher.Third-class protected cruisers included vessels varying in displace-ment from 1500 to 3000 tons. With a reduction of displacement come reduction of initial cost and cost of upkeep, a smallercrew, a shorter time for building, and the many advantages Third- attendant upon reduced size and draught of water. It has ~C~IerS been found possible to embody in a ship of about 2000 tOns displacement many of the most important requirements of a modern cruiser, and a large number of vessels of this class have been addedto the fleet. Among these may be mentioned the Barham, a typical small cruiser, which was built in 1889

of steel, of 1830 tons displacement; she is 280 ft. long between perpendiculars, 35 ft. broad and of 12 ft. 8 in. draught of water. As originally completed, this vessel had cylindrical boilers and a H.P. of 4700, giving a speed of 19 knots. In 1898 she and her sister, the Bellona, were reboilered with water-tube boilers of the Thornycrofttype, and with there a H.P. of 600o is obtained, and thevessel reaches a speed of nearly 20 knots. The protection afforded is in the usual form of a protective deck, I in. thick on the flat, and sloping sharply downwards near the water-line, where the thickness is increased to 2 in.; and above this deck the coal stowage is arranged in subdivided bunkers. Shecarries an armament of six 474n. Q.F. guns in shields on the upperdeck, four 3-pdrs., two machine guns and two above-water torpedotubes. She carries 140 tons of coal in her normal condition, and her bunkers will take 250

tons. She has a light fore-and-aft rig. The Barham was followed by several vessels of the Taurangaclass, built for service in Australian waters, and the Pearl classfor service in other waters, all of 2575 tons displacement, 19 knots speed and carrying eight 4.7-in, and eight 3-pdr.

Q.F. guns. In1896-1898 nine smaller and faster cruisers were laid down, knownas the Pioneer class, which might be taken to include the Pelorus class, the differences between them being small. Of thetwo classes eleven vessels have been built. The Pioneer is 305 ft. long, 36

ft. 9 in. broad, 13 ft. 6 in. mean draught and of 2200 tons displacement.

She has water-tube boilers of the small-tube type, 24

and engines of 7000 H.P., giving 1~er a speed of 20 knots. She carries 250 tons of coal at the above displacement, and has stowage for 550 tons.

She has eight ~-in. Q.F. guns, eight 3-pdrs., and two above-water torpedo tubes, and a 2-in, protective deck.This type of cruiser reached its final development in the four vesselsof the Diamond class, of 3000 tons, laid down in 1902-1903, which were the last third-class cruisers designed by Sir William White.Three of the vessels, Diamond, Sapphire and Topaze, werefitted with reciprocating engines of 9800 I.H.P. for 22

knots, and in the fourth, the Amethyst, Parsons turbines were fitted.

Allwere 360 ft. long., 40 ft. beam, 54 ft. 6 in. draught, and carried twelve ~-in. and eight 3-pdr. Q.F. guns. On trial the Topaze reacheda maximum speed of 22.25 knots, while the Amethyst obtained 2363 knots, an advantage of 1.38 knots per hour for the turbinewith practically the same coal consumption, and with a distinctlyless rate of coal consumption at equal speeds for all speeds above14 knots. The experiment was regarded as a great success forParsons turbines, and materially influenced the question of theiradoption in succeeding vessels at home and abroad.In 1903

four vessels classed as scouts were laid down, viz., the Pathfinder, Patrol, Sentinel and Skirmisher, of about 2900 tons displacement, and 25 knots speed; 370 ft. long, with engines of 57,000 I.H.P., and carrying ten 12-pdr. and eight 3-pdr. Q.F. guns as well as two torpedo tubes. Two others laid down in1903 were named Forward and Foresight, and carried fourteen 12-pdrs. and two 3-pdrs., and obtained the 25 knots with 15,000 I

.H .P.The last two of the series Adventure and Attentive (fig.89,Plate XIX.)of i6,000I.H.P. and 26 knots,~vcre laid down at Els-wjck in 1904; they were ~ ft. long, 38 ft. 3 in.beam,i 2 ft. in.

draught, 2670 tons displacement, 16,000 I.H.P., carried ten 12-pdrs. and eight3-pdrs.Four vessels, namedBoadicea, Bel- boa, Blanche and Blonde, were laiddown in 1907-1909, of slightly larger dimen- sions, the Blonde being 385 ft. long, 41 ft. 6 in. beam, 53 ft. 6 in. draught, 3360

tonsdisplacement, 18,000l.lI.P., 25 knots, and armed with ten k-in.Q.F.

guns and two tor-pudo tubes.In 1909 five vessels of 4800 tons displacement, 22,000 I.H.P., 25 knots speed, carrying two 6-in, and ten k-in. Q.F. guns, with two torpedo tubes, were laid down and known as second-class protected cruisers of the Bristol class. They are 430 ft.

long, 47 ft. beam, i5 ft. 3 in. draught and protected by a I-in, steeldeck with 2-in, slopes. Fig. 90, Plate XIX., shows the Newcastle, a vessel of this class built at Elswick. Four other vessels, theDartmouth class, laid down six months later, were very similar,but slightly larger to give one knot more speed. The navy estimatesfor1910-1911provided for laying down five larger vessels of this type. The Australian cruisers Melbourne and Sydney are of the Dartmouth class, while the new Canadian cruisers are of he later type.Between 1870 and 1881, several armoured cruisers were laid down in England and abroad, those in England being theArmoured Shannon, of 5390 tons and i 2 ~ knots, laid down in 1873, cruisers, the Nelson and Northampton, of 7630 tons and 53 knots, laid down in 5874, and the Imprieuse and Warspite, laid down in i88r. The two last-named ships were provided withmasts and a good spread of sails, and were the last large vessels tobe so fitted for the British navy. The sails were not found to be ofmuch service and were removed. These vessels were of 8400 tons displacement, 315 ft. long, and were protected by a partial belt amidships of 50-in, compound armour over a length of about 540 ft..

with a protective deck above it j4 in. thick and transverse bulkheads at the ends of the belt 9 in. thick, the protective deckfrom these bulkheads to the ends of the ship being 3 in. thick.They had machinery of 10,000

H.P. and a speed of i6~ knots. They carried four 9.2-in. B.L. guns in separate barbettesone forward, one aft, and one on each beambesides ten 6-in, guns, twenty-sixsmaller and machine guns, and six torpedo tubes.

They weresheathed with wood and coppered, in order to be able to keep thesea for a long period without docking. The next vessels of the typewere the Orlando class, begun in 1885. Seven of these were launched in 1886

and 1887. They were much smaller than theImprieuse, being only 5600 tons displacement, 300 ft. long and 56 ft. beam, and 22 ft. 6 in. draught. They had a water-line belt of compound armour, io in. thick and nearly 200 ft.

long; extending over the top of this, and sloping down forward and aftto the ends of the ship, was a deck 2 in. to 3 in. thick. Their arma- ment consisted of two 9.2 in. B.L. gunsone forward and one aft instead of the four carried in the Impricuse and Warspite, but in other respects the same armament as the latter ships.They had engines of 8500 H.P. and a speed of over 18 knots. Thesevessels were all built from the designs of Sir N. Barnaby.As already stated, between 1885 and 1898 no armoured cruiserswere laid down for the British navy. The Cressy (fig. 83, Plate XXI.) class, commenced in 1898, consists of six vessels of 12,000 tons displacement, 440 ft. length, 69 ft. 6 in. beam, and 26 ft. 3 in. mean draught. They are built of steel, sheathed and coppered,have a belt of Harveyized steel it ft. 6 in. wide, 230 ft. long, and 6 in. thick, with bulkheads 5 in. thick and 2 in. protective plating on the sides from the forward bulkhead to the stem. They carry two9.2-in. B.L. guns in barbettes and gun-houses 6-in, thick, mountedon the middle line forward and aft, twelve 6-in. Q.F. guns in 6-in.casemates, and twenty-five 12-pdrs. and smaller guns, with twosubmerged torpedo tubes. Their H.P. is 21,000 with natural draught, steam being supplied by 30 Belbeville boilers, and their speed is 21 knots. They carry 800 tons of coal at normal draught, with capacity for i6oo tons. The four vessels of the Drake class (see fig 91, Plate XXIV.),

laid down in 1899, were for several years the largest and fastest arinoured cruisers afloat. They are of 14,100 tons displacement, are 500

ft. long, 71 ft. beam, and 26 ft. mean draught. They are unsheathed, are protected by a Krupp steel 6-in, belt extending frombarbette to barbette, and from 6 ft. below water to the height of themain deck, completed at the after end by a 5-in, bulkhead, andcarried forward to the bow by 2-in, plating extending right up to theupper deck. There are two protective decks, the lower, being 3 in.to 2 in. in thickness, and the main deck, which is I in. thick. Their armament consists of two 92-in. B.L. guns in barbettes and gun- houses 6 in. thick on the middle line forward and aft as shown infig. 92, sixteen 6-in. Q.F. guns in 6-in. casemates, fourteen 12-pdrs., twelve smaller and machine guns and two submerged torpedo tubes.Their speed was 23 knots as designed, and all the vessels of the class have attained over 24 knots on service. They have engines of 30,000

H.P., the boilers being of the Belleville type. They carry 1250 tons of coal, with bunker capacity for 2500 tons. A consideration of the above features will illustrate the difficultiesof the classification of modern ships. The Drake is called an armoured cruiser, but she is superior to the battleships Renown, Barfleur, and Canopus in armour protection and in her secondary quick-firing armament, as well as in speed and coalendurance, and is somewhat inferior to them only in the number,weight, and protection of primary armament. If io-in. guns hadbeen given to this vessel in lieu of her 9.2-in., she would probably have been called a first-class battleship, and would have been a23-knot battleship at that. Each successive increase of size hasgiven the battleship more speed and the armoured cruiser heavierguns and armour, thus tending to merge the two types in one.The next series of armoured cruisers was composed of ships ofmuch less power produced in reply to the fast lightly armed cruisersbeing built abroad as commerce destroyers, and a considerablenumber of such vessels so built, although weak compared with theDrake, were much less costly and at the same time endowed with24 FIG.

92.Arrangement of Guns and Armour of H.M.S. Drake.

great sea-keeping power and were superior in all respects to the vesselswhich caused them to be built. The first set comprised ten vesselsof the Monmouth class, laid down in 1900 and 1901. Fig. 93

(Plate XXI.) gives a view of the Cornwall, which may be taken astypical of the class. They are of 9800 tons displacement, length ~o ft., beam 66

ft., mean draught 24 ft. 6 in. They are armoured with a belt of 6 in. of Krupp steel over the main part of the length,diminishing in thickness towards the extremities; they carry four-teen 6-in. Q.F. guns, of which ten are in 4-in. casemates, and theothers monted in pairs in turrets and gun-houses 4 in. thick, forwardand aft; they also carry ten 12-pdr.,

eleven small and machine gunsand two submerged torpedo tubes. Their horse-power is 22,000, giving them a speed of 23 knots. They were followed by six vessels of the Devonshire class, laid down in 1902, which were given greater gun power and better armour protection to meet the corresponding advances in foreignvessels. They were of 10,850 tons displacement, 21,000 I.H.P. and 23~ knots speed; were armed with four 75-in. and six 6-in. Q.F. guns protected by 6-in, armour, and the armour belt was increasedfr~m ~ in. to 6 in. in thickness. These were the last armouredcruisers designed by Sir William White.pairs in four barbette turrets placed as already stated in de-scribing the development of the Dreadnought design (seeTable XIV. and fig. 96). Thus three pairs of guns can firedirectly ahead, three directly astern, and the whole armamentcan fire on either broadside. In the Invincible, built at Elswick, all the heavy guns are worked by electric power; inthe other vessels they are worked by hydraulic power as usualin H.M. Navy. An anti-torpedo boat armament of sixteen a-in.guns is provided. The ia-in, guns are protected by 8-in, armour,and a broad belt of side armour is fitted 7 in. thick amidships,and 4 in. forward and aft, associated with thick protective decks.All are fitted with Parsons turbines of 41,000 H.P. and obtained over 27 knots on trial without pressing the boilers. The high steaming power of these ships was shown by the Indomitable,which conveyed King George V. and Queen Mary (then princeand princess of Wales) to Canada and back in 2908, and steamed. on her return journey across the Atlanticfrom Belleisle to theThe next armoured cruisers built for the British navy, the sixvessels of the Duke of Edinburgh type, laid down in 1903 1904, were of much greater power, of 13,550 tons displacement, 23,500 I.H.P. and 23

knots speed, and have a main armament of six 92-in. guns, mounted singly in barbettes. The secondary armament consists of ten 6-in. Q.F. guns in the first two vesselsof the class, but in the remaining four vessels the ten 6-in, gunsare replaced by four 75-in. guns. They also carry from twenty-five to twenty-nine 3-pdrs. and machine guns and three torpedotubes. The guns and ships side are protected by 6-in, armour.In 1905 the Minotaur class (fig. 94, Plate XXI.) was laid down, consisting of three vessels of 14,600 tons displacement, 27,000 I.H.P. and 23 knots speed, carrying an armament of four 9.2-in. guns mounted in pairs in 7-in.

barbettes forward and aft, and ten 7.5-in, guns all on the upper deck in shallow barbettes of 6-in.armour, with 6 in. enclosed shields. The belt armour is 6 in.thick amidships, tapering to 4 in. forward and ~ in. aft.

Thesevessels are ~ ft. long, 744 and 754 ft. beam, 25 to 26 ft. mean draught, and are the last large cruisers to be propelled by re-ciprocating engines, or to be armed with 92-ifl. guns. They carry iooo tons of coal on the load draught, and can stow 2000 tons of coal besides 700 tons of oil fuel. The next cruisers to be built were the Invincibles, whichmight have been classed as battleships on account of their heavyarmament and substantial armour protection; theDread- former greatly exceeding in power the armament of any battleship before the Lord Nelson, and thelatter exceeding that provided in any armouredcruisers. Their most striking feature, however, is their greatspeed, previously only reached by torpedo boats and torpedoboat destroyers, in which everything was sacrificed to obtain thehighest possible speed. They were named Invincible (fig.

95,Plate XXI.), Indomitable and Inflexible, and were laid down in 2906

at the yards of the Elswick, Fairfield and Clyde- bank Companies respectively. Their dimensions were:length530 ft., breadth 78 ft. 6 in.,

draught 26 ft., displacement 17,250 tons. They were armed with eight i2-in. guns mounted in Fastnetat an average speed of 2513 knots, a record speed at the time for a transatlantic voyage.It is interesting to compare the Indomitables performanceon the voyage referred to above with that of the Hero ascrew line-of-battle ship of 91 guns and 600

nominal horse-power, when employed on a similar errand. This ship was considered acrack ship of her class in i86o, and in that year was selected toconvey King Edward VII. (then prince of Wales) on a visit toCanada; she made the passage from Plymouth to St Johns in23 days under steam and sail, and this was considered an exceedingly good performance for a line-of-battle ship in thosedays.In i9og the Indefatigable of 18,75o tons displacement waslaid down at Devonport; she is very similar to the Invincible~ with the same armament and certain minor improvements. Shewas followed in 1910 by the Lion at Devonport and Princess Royal at Barrow, each 66o ft. long, 88 ft. 6 in. beam, and of2~,35otons displacement on a draught of 28 ft. Parsons turbines of 7o,ooo H.P. are provided to give a sea speed of 28 knots. Table XVII. contains further particulars of the British In-vincibles, from which it may be seen that the Australian cruisersAustralia and New Zealand are similar to the Inde-fatigable.With regard to cruisers of other navies than the British, it maybe said that the vessels constructed at Elswick exercised considerable influence in their development as well as of those of the British navy. The Esmeralda (fig. 82, Plate XXIII.) of 1883, built for the Chilean government, but bought by Japan in 2895 and re-named Idzumi, was of 2950 tons diiplacement, had 6000 H.P. and 18.3 knots speed, was protected by a complete I-in, steel deck, and carried the veryheavy armament of two 10-in. B.L. guns, six 6-in. Q.F., two 6-pdrs., seven smaller guns aM three torpedo tubes. The Piemonte(fig. 97, Plate XXIV.),

built for the Italian navy in i888, had adisplacement of only 2640 tons, but was of 13,ooo H.P. and had a speed of nearly 22~ knots. She was protected by a steel deck of 3 in. maximum thickness, and carried six 6-in. Q.F., SiX 4.7-111. Q.F., ten 6-pdrs., eleven smaller guns and three torpedo tubes, an armament which, as pointed out by Lord Armstrong, was capableof discharging in a given time twice the weight of shot and shell thatcould be fired by the largest war vessel then afloat. The Buenos FIG. 96.Arrangement of Guns and Armour of H.M.S. Invincible.

Aires, built in 1895 for the Argentine Republic, is 396 ft. in length and of 4800 tons displacement, her machinery developing 13,300 H.P. with open stokeholds, and giving her a speed of 232 knots. She is protected by a complete deck i~ in. to 3 in. thick, and carries a powerful armament of quick-firing guns, consisting oftwo 8-in., four 6-in., six 4.7-in.,

twenty-two smaller guns and fivetorpedo tubes. Her normal coal supply is 350 tons, and she can stow 1000 tons in her bunkers. Rather smaller than the Buenos Aires, but of still later build (1901), is the Chilean cruiser Chacabuco (fig~ 98, Plate Xv.). She is a characteristic Elswick cruiser in design and general appearance, being heavily armed, fast and ofmoderate displacement. Her dimensions are: displacement 4500 tons, length 360 ft., breadth 46 ft. and draught i8 ft. She carries an armament of two 8-in. Q.F. guns, mounted on the middle lineforward and aft, and protected by well-armoured gun-houses, ten47-In. Q.F. guns in shields on the broadsides and nineteen smaller guns, including machine-guns. She is protected by a strong armoureddeck i ~ in. thick on the flat to 4~ in. on the slopes, and by the 1000 tons of coal which forms her normal supply.

Her engines develop nearly i6,ooo H.P., and her speed is 23 knots. In the matter of armoured cruisers also Elswick has taken aleading placeamong the cruisers built by this firm being theEsmeralda (second), of 7000

tons, in 1895 for Chile; the OHiggins, of 8500 tons, in 1896 for the same state; the Asama and Tokiwa, of 9700 tons, in 1897 for Japan; and the Idzumo and Iwate, in 1899, also for Japan. The Idzumo (fig. 99,

Plate XXIII.) is 9750 tons displacement, 400 ft. long, 68 ft. 6 in. beam, 24 ft. 3 in. draught. She has i6,000 H.P. and a speed of 22 knots; is protected by a complete belt of Krupp steel 7 in. thick, tapering to 3~

in. at the ends, a 24-in, steel deck with a citadel above it 5 in. thick, and carries an armament of four 8-in. Q.F.,fourteen 6-in. Q.F., twelve 12-pdrs., seven smaller guns and fourtorpedo tubes. The 8-in, guns are in pairs in 6-in. barbettes andhoods, while of the 6-in, guns ten are in 6-in. casemates and fourin shields. She carries, with bunkers full, 1300

tons of coal. United States.In the United States ~vy. ~the proportion of protected cruisers is smaller than in the British navy, as the armoured type established itself at an earlier date. The Phila-delphia, begun in i888, may be taken as an example of the U.S.protected cruiser. She is 4345 tons in displacement and 327 ft. long, has twin screws and a horse-power of 88oo, giving her a speed of196 knots.

She is protected by a steel deck 24 in. to 4 in. thick, and carries twelve 6-in. B.L. guns (later converted to Q.F.), seven-teen smaller guns and five torpedo tubes.The Columbia and Minneapolis are very fast armoured cruisers laid down in 1891. On a displacement of 7350 tons they carry one 8-in., two 6-in., eight a-in. and twelve 6-pdr. and anumber of smaller guns. They are protected by heavy steel decksand thin side armour.

The Columbia developed 18,500 l.H.P.and 228 knots on trial, while the Minneapolis reached 20,860 I.H.P. and 23 knots; these powers and speeds were at that date the highest recorded for such vessels. The Columbia crossed the Atlantic at 184 knots in 1895, but the type has not been repeated inAmerica although followed for a little while by France.

TheBrooklyn (fig. 84, Plate XXII.), begun in 1893, is of the armoured type. She is of 9215 tons displacement and 400 ft. long, has twin screws and develops 16,ooo horse-power with forced draught, giving a speed of 21

knots. She is protected by a steel belt for two-thirds of her length 8 ft.

broad and 8 in. to 3 in. thick, anda complete steel deck 6 in. to 3 in.

thick. She carries eight 8-in.B.L. guns in pairs in is-in.

barbettesdisposed one forward, oneaft and one on each beamtwelve 5-in.

Q.F. guns in a-in. shields,twenty smaller guns and five torpedo tubes. Her normal coalstowage is 900 tons, and she can stow 1650 tons in her coal spaces.In1903-5904there were launched six armoured cruisers of the California class, of 13,700 tons, and in1904-1905three of the St Louis class, of 9700 tons. The former are vessels 502 ft. in length, 70

ft. beam and 26 ft. 6 in. draught, have machinery de- veloping 23,000

indicated horse-power, and a speed of 22 knots. The latter are 424 ft. in length, 66 ft. beam and 23 ft. 6 in. draught, with engines of 21,000

indicated horse-power, and the same estimated speed, namely, 22 knots.

Both classes have fourteen 6-in. Q.F. guns, but the larger vessels have in addition four 8-in, guns in two64-in, turrets, besides a heavier battery of smaller Q.F. guns. TheCalifornia class are completely belted with armour having athickness of 6 in. over half the length amidships and 34

in. to theends, and a battery of 5-in, armour enclosing the 6-in. Q.F.

guns,and extending to the upper deck. The St Louis class have onlya water-line belt for about one-half the vessels length, with a similarbattery above it, the whole of the armour being 4 in. thick of Kruppquality. The California class comes between the English Cressy and Drake classes. The St Louis class is practi- cally the English Monmouth, with about a knot less speed, bow- plating omitted and a 4-in, battery added.In 1903 two larger armoured cruisers, the Tennessee and Washington, were laid down. The speed of 22 knots was re- tained, but the armament consisted of four so-in., sixteen 6-in.,twenty-two I4-pdrs.,

twelve 3-pdrs., &c., with four 2 i-in, submerged torpedo tubes. The side armour was slightly reduced in thickness,but spread over a greater area, giving 5 in. uniformly on the beltand 3 in. forward and aft; the citadel and casemates remain 5 in,thick, but the protection of the heavy guns is increased to 9 in,;in addition, the 14-pdr. battery on the upper deck is protected by2-in, plating. The displacement is 14,500 tons. Two similar vessels, North Carolina and Montana, were laid down in 1905, but up to 1910 the United States had not proposed to lay down any cruisers corresponding in power and speed to the Invincible. Germany.Germany for many years built a number of small cruisers of moderate speed for service on distant stations, &c,, andsubsequently a series of very successful third-class and second-classcruisers of increasing power and speed. Seven vessels of the Gaz- elle class were launched in 1898-1900.

The Gazelle was of 2558 tons, 6370 I.H.P. and 594 knots speed; the Niobe, a sister vessel, was of the same displacement, and the five later vessels wereof 2608 tons; several developed nearly 9000 I .H .P. and obtained 214 to 224 knots speed. The Undine, Arcona and Frauen..

lob, laid down in 1901, were of 2656 tons displacement; these were all sheathed with wood and coppered. Seven vessels of theHamburg class were laid down in 1902-1904, of 3200 tons dis- placement, having the same protection as the preceding vessels andcarrying the same armament at a higher speed, machinery of io,oooI.H.P. being provided for 22 knots, The highest speed reached was 226 knots by the Lbeck, which was fitted with Parsons turbines of 53,500 H.P. and driven by eight screws on four shafts, Four vessels of the Konigsberg class, laid down in 1905, are of 3350 to 3500 tons displacement. They retain the same protection a deck ~8

in. to 2 in. in thickness and the same armamentten ~i-in., fourteen smaller guns and two submerged torpedo tubes; but theirmachinery has been varied to admit of trial of various types ofturbines and reciprocating engines, The Knigsberg, Stutt- gart and Nurnberg are fitted with engines of 13,200 I.H.P. for 23.5 knots; while the Stettin is fitted with Parsons turbines of 15,500 H.P., and attained 24.0 knots on trial.

The next two vessels, Dresden and Emden, of 3592 tons, laid down in 5906, have the same protection as before, but twelve 4J.411. guns are carried instead of ten, and a still higher speed is aimed at. The Dresden is fittedwith Parsons turbines of i6,ooo H.P., and the Emden, with reciprocating engines of 15,000 I.H.P., to give a speed of 25 knots, Four later vessels are of 4230 to 4280 tons displacement, and are fitted with machinery of about 25,000 H.P. for a speed of 25 knots, as follows: the Kolberg with Schichau turbines, the Mainz with A.E.G. (modified Curtis) turbines, the CoIn with Zoellyturbines and the Augsburg with Parsons turbines. Two vesselsof the same type were in 1910 under construction, in which a further increase of speed was contemplated; the displacement isincreased to 4800 tons and the H.P. to 3o,000; one of these, the vessel to replace Bussard, was to have Schulz turbines. Thus in these second-class cruisers Germany was carrying out the greatestseries of experiments on turbines which had been attempted, no lessthan five different types of large power being tested in comparisonwith reciprocating engines.Besides the foregoing very fast vessels, in1897-1898Germany built five larger second-class cruisers of the Hertha class. They Vessel.

~ Hull.Machinery.

0. ~. .

, Engines. Boilers, Knots.Armament (including machine guns).o ~

I ~ .~

Ft. ,~

Ft. so Ft. ,..~

Tons.

Invincible .

Inflexible .

Indomitable .

Indefatigable .

Australia. .

New Zealand .

Lion. .

Princess Royal igo~

0907

i~o~

1909

icoos i~ioSteel.

~ 5300

5300

5300

555.0

5550

66oo 66oo785

88260

280 17,250

07,250

07,250

18,750

28,750

18,750

26,350

26,350205

z8o41,000 4

40,000 4

40,000 4

43,000 4

43,000

43,000 4

70,000 4

10,000 4 Turbines.

,,Yarrow Babcock & Wilcox ,, ,, ,, ,,

Yarrow ,, 8i? 064 510.

8ia 164 5m.

812 064 5m.

6ia 064 5m.

812 164 510.

8o~ 164 5m. Barbettes ..1,678,995

i,6~i,88o 1.449,826

1,449,826

1,449,826

were lofty vessels, and carried a good armament of two 82-in, eight5.9-in, and ten 3.4-in, guns, as well as other smaller guns and threesubmerged torpedo tubes; they were 344 ft. long, 56 ft. to 58 ft.

beam,21 to 22 ft. mean draught, 5575 to 5790 tons displacement; theyhad a protective deck i6 to 3,9 in. in thickness, and 3~9 in. gunhouses. Fig.

ioo (Plate XXII.) shows the Victoria Luise, thesecond vessel of the class.The older German cruisers, FUrst Bismarck and Prjnz Heinrich, laid down in 1896-1898, were armed with 94-in. and59-in, guns, and had speeds of I92o knots. The Prinz Adalbertand Friedrich Karl, laid down in 1901, and Yorck and Roon, laid down in 1902-1903, were of 8850 to 9350 tons displacement and 2! knots speed, carrying four 82-in., ten 5.9-in., twelve 34-in, guns and four submerged torpedo tubes. The 82-in, guns were carried inenclosed 6-in, shields forward and aft; and the other guns were mostlyin a very short citadel amidships, protected by a-in.

armour; thewater-line being completely protected by a-in. to s-in.

armour.The latest vessels of this type, the Gneisenau and Scharnhorst, were laid down in1905-1906of 11,420 tons displacement and 224 knots speed. In 1907 Germany commenced a new series of large and powerfulcruisers, the BlUcher (fig. 101, Plate XXII.), the first of the series, being of 15,550 tons displacement, an increase of more than 4000

tons beyond that of the preceding German vessels. She carries twelve 82-in., eight 59-in., sixteen smaller guns and four submergedtorpedo tubes, and is protected by i-in. armour. Engines of 32,000 I.H.P. were provided, and the maximum speed on trial exceeded 25 knots. In the second vessel, the Von der Tann (fig. 102, Plate XXII.), the main armament was increased to eight Il-in, guns;she is 560 ft. in length, 85 ft. beam, 27

ft. draught and 18,700 tons displacement; Parsons turbines of 45,000 H.P.

were provided for 25 knots speed, and both power and speed were exceeded on trial. The third vessel, the Moltke, is of 23,000 tons displacement, of 26 knots speed, and is armed with 12-inch in place of u-inch guns, and cost ~2,2oo,ooo. France.In France the line of development of the cruiser has been similar to that in Great Britain. In 1887 four third-class cruiserswere built, of which the Forbin may be taken as a type; shewas 312 ft. long, 304 ft. beam, i6 ft. draught, 1935 tons displacement, 5800

I.H.P. and 20 knots speed, protected by a 14-in, deck and a belt of cellulose, and armed with four 54-in, and eight 3-pdr. gunsand five torpedo tubes. These were followed by Linois, Galilee,Lavoisier, of about 2300 tons in 1893, and the dEstres and Infernet in 1897. The latter were 312 ft. long, 39 ft. beam, 17 ft. 9 in. draught and 2420 tons displacement, sheathed and coppered, protected by a 14-in, deck and armed with two 5.5-in., four 3.9-in.and eight 3-pdr. guns and three torpedo tubes; 8500 I.H.P. was provided for 21 knots speed. The French second-class cruisers may be said to have commencedwith the Davout, of 3027 tons, 9000 I.H.P. and 204 knots, and the Alger and Isly, of 4350

tons, 8000 I.H.P. and 19 knots, in 1887. They were followed by two of the Friant class in 1891, two of the Pascal class and three of the Cassard class in 1893, and the sheathed vessels, Catinat and Prott, in 1894 and 1895. These vessels were from 3700 to 4050 tons displacement, and 194 to 20 knots speed, protected by decks 14 in. to 3

in. in thickness, and armed with four to six 65-in, guns, four to ten 39-in.guns, as well as smaller guns and torpedo tubes. The last of thisseries, the Prott, was laid down in 1895. In 1894 France laid down a first-class protected cruiser, thedEntrecasteaux, of 8ooo tons, carrying two 9.4-in., twelve 55-in., twelve 3-pdr. guns and six torpedo tubes, with a speed of 194 knots, and then by three very remarkable vessels lightly built and armed,but of very high speed, viz, the Jurien de la Gravire, of 5600 tons and 23 knots, the Guichen, of 8150 tons and 23 knots and uie Chateaurenault, of 7900 tons and 24 knots. A new departure was made in 1890 in laying down the armouredcruiser Dupuy de Lome, of 6300 tons, 14,000 I.H.P. and 20 knots speed, carrying two 7.6-in., six 6.4-in, and several smaller guns;a protective deck i4 in.

thick was fitted, and the whole side of theship was armoured, the thickness at the water-line amidships being4~7 in., tapering gradually towards the extremities. This type has,however, not been repeated.The Jeanne dArc, launched in 1899 atToulon, is 11,100 tons displacement, 477 ft. in length, 63 ft. 8 in. beam and 24 ft. 8 in. mean draught, has engines of 33,000 indicated horse-power and a speed of 21 8 knots. She has a complete water-line armour belt of Harveyized steel, having a maximum thickness of 6 in., and the bowis also protected as far aft as the bow guns with i4 in. steel to the upper deck. Her armament consists of two 7.6-in, guns, fourteen5.5. in. Q.F., twenty-two smaller guns and two submerged torpedotubes. Of more recent date than the Jeanne dArc, but smallerin size, is the Montcalm (fig. 103, Plate XXIII.), an armoured cruiser launched in i~oo, of 9367 tons displacement, 453 ft.length, 63 ft.

8 in. beam and 24 ft. 6 in. draught. She carries an armament of two 76-4n. guns in separate turrets of Harveyized steel 6 in. thick forward and aft, eight 6.5-in. Q.F. guns in casemateson the broadsides, four 3.9-in. Q.F. guns in shields on the broadsides,twenty-two smaller guns and two submerged torpedo tubes. Sheis protected by a water-line belt 64 ft.

deep, which extends fromthe bow to within 30 ft. of the stern, where is terminated by atransverse bulkhead 4 in. thick; amidship this belt is 6

in. thickat its upper edge, diminishing to 2 in. at its lower edge, where it meets the 2-in, protective deck, but the maximum thicknesstapers to 3

in. at the forward and after ends. Above this main beltis a thinner one extending over the same length, but only 34 in. maximum thickness and of about 4 ft. depth. The Montcalm has20 water-tube boilers of the Normand-Sigaudy type, and engines of 19,600 H.P., giving her a speed of 21

knots. She carries 1000 tons of coal and some oil fuel. Her engine-rooms are placed between the two sets of boiler-rooms, instead of abaft them, as is usual inBritish vessels, the peculiar appearance of many French vessels,with two pairs of funnels widely separated, being thus accountedfor.Three vessels of the Montcalm class were ordered, and then three smaller vessels of Kieber type, of 7578 tons only, and four larger vessels of improved Montcalm type. The latter were very similar to Montcalm, with improved armour protection and of 500 tons greater displacement. They were followed by three larger vessels, the Leon Gambetta (fig. 104, Plate XXIII.), Jules Ferry and Victor Hugo. These vessels are armoured cruisersof about 12,400 tons displacement, length 480

ft., beam 70 ft. 3 in., draught 26 ft. 3 in., with an indicated horse-power of 28,500 and speeds of 224 to 23 knots. In 1904 the Jules Michelet (fig. 105, Plate XXIV.), of 12,,370 tons, was laid down, of 30,000 I.H.P. and 23 knots speed. The Ernest Renan followed in 1903, the I.H.P. being 36,000 for 234 knots. The most powerful French cruisers built or building in 1910 were the Edgar Quinet, laid down in 1905, and Waldeck Rousseau, laid down in 1906, of 13,780 tons displacement, armed with four. teen 76-in, guns, eight being fitted in pairs in turrets and four inseparate casemates, together with fourteen 6-pdr. and eight 3-pdr.guns and two submerged torpedo tubes; 36,000 I,H.P. is provided for a designed speed of 24 knots. Japan.Japan possesses a great variety of cruisers, many of which were built at Elswick, others were captured during the war withRussia, and refitted or reconstructed; the latter including theAso (ex- Bayan),the Tsugaru (ex- Pallada),the Soya (ex- Varyag) and Sudzua (ex- Novik). In addition, large and small cruisers were built in America, Germany and France,but the finest were built in Japan.As examples of the Japanese cruisers laid down towards the endof the 19th century may be mentioned the second-class cruisersKasagi and Chitose, of 4800 and 4900 tons displacement, 15,500 I.H.P. and 224

knots speed, built in America and armed with two 8-in, and ten 47-in guns, and the third-class cruisersSutna and Akashi, of 2657 tons displacement and 194 knots speed, built in Japan and armed with two 6-in.,

six 47-in, and ten3-pdr. Q.F. guns.In 1902 Japan launched the protected cruisers Tsushima and.Niitaka, of 3365 tons displacement, 9400 I.H.P.

and 20 knots speed, armed with six 6:in. and fourteen smaller guns; in 1903 the Otowa, of 3082 tons, 10,000 I.H P. and 2! knots carrying two 6-in, six 47-in. and six smaller guns; and in 1907 the Tone, of 4100

tons displacement, 15,000 I.H.P. and 23 knots speed, armed with two 6 in.,

ten 47 in. and three smaller guns and three torpedotubes. All of these vessels are fitted with reciprocating machinery.The Yahagi, Chikuma and Hirato, laid down later, haveturbine machinery of 22,500 H.P. to give 26 knots speed, two 6-in, and ten 4.7-in, guns and two torpedo tubes.

They are 440 ft. long, 52 ft. beam and 5000 tons displacement. Of first-class protected cruisers Japan possessed in 1910 only two, the Tsugaru (cx- Pallada) and Soya (ex- Varyag). The Tsugaru was built at St Petersburg in 1899, is of 6630 tons, ii,6oo I.H.P., 20 knots speed, armed with eight 6-in., twenty-two I2-pdr. and several smaller guns, and protected by an armour deck14 to 24 in. in thickness. The Soya was built at Philadelphia in 1899, is of 6500 tons, 20,000 I.H.P., 23

knots speed, armed with twelve 6-in., twelve 12-pdr. and smaller guns, and protected bya i4 to s-in. deck. The Sudzua (ex- Novik) is a lighter and faster vessel, of 3000 tons displacement, 25 knots speed, armed with two 6-in,, four 47-in. and several smaller guns, and protected by aI2 to 2-in, deck. Of armoured cruisers she possessed in 1910 a relatively large number, In 1897 Japan ordered the Yakumo, of 9850 tonsdisplacement, from Germany, and in 1899 the Adzuma, of 9436 tons displacement, from France; both vessels have a speed of 2! knots, and carry an armament of four 8-in, guns mounted in pairs in twoturrets, and twelve 6-in, guns in 6-in.

casemates, and are protectedby a complete belt of Krupp steel 7 in. to 34

in. in thickness.They are somewhat similar to the Iwate and Idzumo (fig. 99,Plate XXIII.), built at Elswick, but with slightly less gun powerand speed. The Aso (cx- Bayan), built in France in 1900, is 7700

tons displacement, 17,000 I.H.P., 2! knots, carrying two 8-in,, eight 6-in, and a number of smaller guns, and protected by 8-in.armour.In 1qo5 a very important advance was made. Early in that year Japan laid down the Ikoma and Tskuba, 440 ft. in length, 13,750 tons displacement, 23,000

I.H.P. and of 2! knots speed.

displacement, 180 ft. long, steamed at I3~ knots and carried an arma-ment of six k-in. Q.F. guns, four 3-pdrs. and two machine-guns.They were single-screw vessels, built of steel, sheathed and coppered.The Condor class, which comprises six vessels built between 1898 and 1901, are very slightly modified Torches, having ~o tons more displacement and 6 in.

more beam, with the same length,FIG. io8.Arrangement of Guns and Armour, Italian Amalfi and Pisa.Four of these vessels have been built, named the Bramble,Britomart, Dwarf (fig. 110, Plate XXVI.) and Thistle. They were designed specially for service on rivers in hot climates;their draught is limited to 8 ft.; their sails are reduced to a verylight fore-and-aft rig, and they are fitted with a complete shade deckof teak and felt. They were still on active service in 1910, but no new vessels had been laid down since 1897. A number of gun-vessels have been designed for special services, among which may be mentioned the Mosquito (figIII, Plate XX.) and Herald, two stern-wheel steamers for the Zambezi built by Messrs Yarrow in 1890 They are of 8o tons displacement and 77 ft. long, having a speed of 10k knots and carrying an armament of four 3-pdrs. and eight machine-guns. They are built in sections, each of which forms aseparate pontoon, so that the whole vessel can be readily taken topieces for transport and easily put together in the water. Thesetwo gun-vessels were handed over to the Colonial authorities on theriver Zambezi. Built for somewhat similar service, but of differentdesign, are the four shallow-draught river gunboats of the Sand-piper class. They are steel twin-screw boats, built in 1897, also by Messrs Yarrow. They are 88 tons in displacement, 100 ft. long and 20

ft. broad, and carry an armament of two 6-pdrs. and four machine-guns.

Their speed is 9 knots, and they draw only 2 ft. of water, their screws working in arched tunnels, the summits ofwhich are above the water-level outside. These arches alwaysremain full of water, and serve the double purpose of enablingsufficiently large screws to be fitted for the economical propulsionof the vessel without increasing the draught, and of protecting themfrom damage. The Woodcock and Woodlark are largervessels of the same type, designed for service on the rapid andshallow rivers of China. They were built by Messrs Thornycroft in1897,

are 120 tons in displacement, 145 ft. long, 23 ft. beam and 2 ft. draught of water. They have twin screws, also carried in arched tunnels, and their speed is i~ knots. They carry the same armament as the Sandpiper class.

In 1901 the Teal. and Moorhen, designed for service in China, were also constructed in sections,but are considerably larger than either the Mosquito or the Woodcock, being about 180 tons.displacement. They are twin- screw vessels, the propellers being in tunnels, as in the Woodcock, and their speed is over 13 knots. Their furnaces will burn wood. They carry two 6-pdrs. and four machine-guns. The latest vesselof this type in 1910 was the Widgeon, of similar construction,, built by Messrs Yarrow in 1904 and carrying the same armament. She is i6o ft. long, 24 ft. 6 in. beam, 2 ft. ~ in. draught, 195 tons displacement, 800 I.H.P.

and 13 knots speed. Fig. 112 (Plate XX.) and fig. 113 show a light-draught gunboat of the Sultan class, of which several have been built for service on the Nile. She has a displacement of 140 tons, a length of 143

ft., a beam of 24 ft. 6 in., a draught of only 2 ft. and a speed of 12

knots. Her armament consists of one 12-pdr., one howitzer, and four Maxims, and she is protected by a i-in. bullet-proof breastwork,The gunboats of other navies are generally similar to thosedescribed above.

The Brazilian twin-screw gunboat Tiradentes,built in 1892, of steel, sheathed with teak and coppered, was speed and armament. They are able, however, to maintain a highercontinuous speed, being fitted with water-tube boilers. In 1901 to 1902 there were laid down four sloops of the Fantme class, which are larger vessels than the Condors, being 1075 tons dis- placement and 185 ft. long. They are twin-screw vessels, built of steel, sheathed and coppered. They have water-tube boilers, giving1400 H.P., and a speed of I3~ knots. Their armament is similar to that of the Condor. All the foregoing vessels are fitted as sailingvessels as well as steam. The Beagle is schooner-rigged, the others all barque-rigged.Of the gun-vessel or gunboat type, one of the earliest built forthe British navy is represented by the Staunch a twin-screw vessel designed by Mr G. W. Rendel, and iuilt at ElswickGunboats, in 1867. The guiding principle in the design of this vessel was that she should simply be a floating gun-carriage, propelled bysteam and provided with plenty of nianmuvring power. The u-in.12-ton gun which constituted her armament was arranged to sink into and be raised from a well by means of hydraulic power. Shewas only i8o tons in displacement and 75 ft. long, and had a speedof 6~ knots. The Medina class, consisting of twelve gunboatsbuilt about 1876, were twin-screw vessels of 363 tons displacementand 110 ft. length, and had a speed of 8~

knots. Their arma- ment was light consisting only of three 64-pdrs. and threemachine guns. ihey were fitted with bow rudders in addition tothose at the stern, in orderto increase their manmuvring power.The Paluma and Gayundah were built at Elswick in 1884 forthe Queensland government. They had a displacement of 360 tonsand were 11$ ft. in length, were schooner-rigged, but had twin-screws and a speed under steam of10 knots.

They carried one 8-in. B.L. gun forward, which was mounted behind a breastwork and hada considerable arc of training; one 6-in, gun, L~. which was mounted aft; and three machine-guns. _______ The Protector was a more important craft. r::-~ ~ Built for the government of South Australia in ___________________________ ______ 1884, she was 920 tons in displacement and 180 ____________________________________ ft. long, had twin screws and a speed of 14 knots c~iIIi~ ~(7,~-9~ under steam. She carried one 8-in. B.L. gun ____________________________________________________________________

forward, mounted as in the Paluma, five 6-in. 4-ton ~UnS, and five Gatlings. The Cock- chafer class (i88i) and the Thrush class (1889)

are sea-going cruising vessels of a different I - ~ ~ type, carrying much lighter guns than in the. ..4~.. ~ e ~ u) 0 Staunch class. The former, of which four were ____ built, were composite-built, single-screw ships of I~ ~ 465 tons displacement and 125 ft. length, with a fore-and-aft rig and a speed under steam of9~ knots; the latter, of which there were nine, _______ were schooner-rigged composite vessels of 805

tons displacement and i6~ ft. length, with a single _______ _________screw and a speed of I3~ knots. The armament of the Cockchafers consisted of two 64-pdrs. R.M.L. guns, tWo~20-pdrs. R.B.L. guns, and twomachine-guns that of the Thrush (fig. io~, Plate XXVI.) was of six a-in. B.L. guns and FIG. 113.Plan of Nile Gunboat Sultan. four smaller guns (she was commanded by H.M. King George V. I i63 ft. long and 8oo tons displacement, and attained a speedwhen he was on active service in the navy). The Bramble, I of 145 knots. She had an armament of four 4.7-in, guns, three launched in 1898, is a representative of what in 1910 was the most 1

6-pdrs. and four machine-guns, and carried a considerable spread recent type of first-class gunboat. Her displacement is 710 tons, or I of canvas.

100 less than the Thrush. She is i8o ft. long and has a speed of In torpedo gunboats and torpedo craft generally, possibly the last 13~ knots, is built of steel, sheathed and coppered, and carries two I thirty years of the 19th century showed more development and 4-in. Q.F. guns, four 12-pdrs. and ten machine-guns. She has greater diversity than in any other type of war vessel then exist-~ter-tube boilers, twin screws and machinery of 1300 I.H.P. ing. The first small high-speed boat we have any record of is the Miranda, built by Messrs Thornycroft in 1871. She was builtof light steel, was 45 ft. in length, 64 ft. beam and 24 ft. draught, Torpedo and attained a speed of 16.4 knots with a single screw, the engine running at 355 revolutions per minute and mdi-a~aIt. cating 58 HP. The results obtained with her attracted much attention, and in 1873 Thornycroft launched for the Norwegiangovernment a somewhat larger boat, armed with a spar torpedo,which attained a speed of 15 knots. Owing to the introduction of machine-guns in warships as a defence against torpedo-boat attack,it was recognized that there was a very slight chance of a boatTable XVIII.

gives pai~iculars of many of the most notable torpedo-boats built between 1871 and 1910. The torpedo-boat~ thus established was primarily a weapon of offence, the only two elements of a protective nature in its designbeing those of small size and high speed; but even these were alsonecessary for purposes of offence. The deadly nature of their attack,and the diffiCulty of. meeting it in the ship attacked, led to theconstruction of special vessels intended, among other duties, tomeet and destroy them. The French Bombe (~&8~) was one of the earliest of these; and the Rattlesnake and- three sister TABLE XVIII.Parliculars of Torpedo~boals. Vessels Name. Country.Where Built.Principal Dimensions, &c.,~

~ Speed.Armament, &c.

,~no ~ ~a-~ ~

Torpedo-boats- Miranda. .

1st torpedo-boat built... .

Lightning (after- wards No.i TB.)

No. so TB.. .

Swift (afterwards No. 8i TB.) .

Falke... .

1st class T.B. .

Forban.. .

No. I09 T.B. .

No. ii TB.. .

Goyaz.. .

Gabbiano. .

No. 29 T.B... Great Britain Norway .

Great Britain Austria. .

China. .

France. ,

Great Britain Brazil. .

Italy. .

Great Britain Messrs Thornycroft, London.

Messrs Thomycroft, London.

Messrs Thornycroft, London. Messrs Thornycrolt, London.

Messrs J. S. White & Co., Cowes.

Messrs Yarrow, London.

Elbing.

Messrs Normand.

Messrs Thornycroft, London.

Messrs Yarrow, London.

Messrs Yarrow, London.

Spezzia Messrs Denny, Dumbarton.1871

2873

2877

s88o i88~

i886

i886

i8g5

1902

igo~

1Q07

2907

Igo8 Ft. In.

45 0

57 0

75 0

go 6

x5o 0

235 0

244 4

244 2

266 0

272 0

252 6

264 0

ISo 0

Ft. In.

10 20

ro 10

27 6

13 g i6 5

25 2

17 4

i8 0

25 4

27 5

i8 0

Ft. In.

5 II

20 0

5 9 Tons.

278 x 1300

2400

3200

2900

3750

3000

4000 Knots.

26.4

x5.o i8.~

22.7

20.5

22.4

24.2

32.2

25.0

26.0

26.5

26.0

26.0Nil. Experimental boat.

i spar torpedo.

Single torpedo tube.

2 torpedo tube.

63 pdrs., 3 tubes.

2 mach-guns, 2 tubes.

42 pdrs., 2 tubes.

2I pdrs., 2 tubes.

33 pdrs., 3 tubes.

222 pdrs., 3 tubes.

23 pdrs., 2 tubes.

33 pdrs., 3 tubes.

222 pdrs., 3 tubes.

approaching sufficiently near to a vessel to successfully attack herby means of a towing or a spar torpedo, and the Whitehead torpedofired from a revolving tube on the deck was accordingly adopted asthe armament of future torpedo-boats. This rendered it unnecessaryfor the torpedo-boat to approach nearer than say 400 yds., and also enabled the torpedo to be fired without stopping the boat, a pointof great importance. The first torpedo-boat for the British navywas built by Messrs Thornycroft four years later; she was called theLightning, was 75 ft. in length and 34

tons displacement, hadengines giving nearly 500 H.P., and obtained a speed of 19 knots. She was armed with a single torpedo tube. The boats whichfollowed varied somewhat as regards size and speed, but on thewhole pursued the usual course of growing larger and more powerfulwith each new design. By 1885 the length had gone up to 150 ft:, the displacement to 725

tons and the speed to 20 knots. This last was not the highest that had been obtained, some of theearlier and smaller boats having reached 214

knots; but the boats of 1885 carried a heavier armament, consisting of six 3-pdrS. ~ind three torpedo tubes, and were more serviceable and seaworthycraft. A very notable boat of this date was the Swift, after-wards known as No. 8i, built by J. S. White of Cowes; she marked a great advance in seaworthiness and fighting power in combina-tion with high speed.Messrs Yarrow built for the Austrian navy in 1886 the Falke,135 ft. in length and 95 tons displacement, which obtained a speed of 22~4 knots on trial, and a similar boat for the British navy of 105

tons displacement, armed with 5 torpedo tubes and three 3-pdr. guns, which attained a speed of 23 knots on trial. About the same time Messrs Thornycroft built the Ariete and Royo for the Spanishnavy. These vessels had twin screws and water-tube boilers. Theformer attained a speed of 26 knots on the measured mile and 24-9 knots on a 2 hours run, and the latter 25.5 knots on the measured mile and 24.6 knots on the 2 hours run.

In 1895 M. Normand built the torpedo-boat Forban for the French navy, which attaineda speed of 31-2 knots on trial, and the boats of the Normand type which followed her attained equally remarkable speeds. Themaximum speeds for the British torpedo-boats up to the end of the19th century were from 23 to 234 knots. From 1901 to 7904 larger and faster types of torpedo-boats were constructed. These boatswere i6o ft. to 165 ft. in length, 17 ft. to i8 ft. beam, 84 ft. draught, 180 to 200 tons displacement, 2900 I.H.P., attained a speed of 25 knots and were armed with 3 torpedo tubes. In 1906 to 1909 boats of a new and still faster type were built with turbine machinery and burning oil fuel instead of coal.

These boats, 36in number, vary from 166 to 185 ft. in length. 774 to 79

ft. beans, 5~ to 64 ft. draught and 243 to 308 tons in displacement. They have engines of 3600 to 4000 H.P. giving speeds of 26 and 27 knots, and are armed with two I2-pdr. guns and three torpedo tubes. The first twelve ordered in 1905 were at first known as Coastal Torpedo-boat Destroyers, and given names such as theCricket, Gadfly and Mayfly. They are now numberedthroughout, i.e. from I to 36. The prefix 0 has beesi added to the numbers of such of the boats originally bearing these numbers asart still in existence, to distinguish them from the new type boats.vessels, the first of the En~lish torpedo gunboats, came closely afterher. The Rattlesnake was launched in 1886, was of 525 tons displacement, and had a speed of 194 knots. She carried a more powerful armament than the torpedo-boats, namely, one k-in. gun,six 3-pdrs. and ~ torpedo tubes. She was followed in 1888 by theSharpshooter, with ten sister vessels, still larger and more heavilyarmed. They were 230 ft. long and 735 tons displacement, had engines developing 3500 H.P., giving a speed of 19

knots, and carried two 4.7-in. Q.F. guns, four 3-pdrs. and two torpedo tubes.France built six vessels of the Bombe class, and the Leger (a slightly larger vessel), and in 1891 to 1896 built five Other torpedo ~unboats of about 900 tons and 21 knots. The last was named~ LaHire, andwas24l ft. long, 27ft.6in.beam,I2ft.9 in. draught,. 890 tons displacement; was armed with six 9-pdr. and six 3-pdr. Q.F guns and was provided with engines of 6400 I.H.P. for 23~ knots. These vessels have no torpedo tubes. The torpedo cruiser~ Fleurus, laid down in 1891, was armed- with four torpedo tubes as well as five 3.9-in, and six 3-pdr.

guns. She was also protectedby a s4-in. protective deck and fitted with a belt of cellulose 3 ft.thick in the vicinity of the water-line. Her dimensions were:length 230 ft., beam 294 ft., draught aft 15 ft.,

displacement 1300 tons, I.H.P. 4000, and speed i8 knots. The Niger class of 7892, which included eleven vessels (fig. 114, Plate XX.), were repeats of the Sharpshooters, excep~ that they carried an additional torpedo tube and three machine-guns,with certain hull additions and more durable machinery, the dis-.placement being increased by these causes to 810 tons, and the speed being reduced by a quarter of a knot. In 1893 a fourth series of this class of vessel was begun, known as the Dryad class, and considerably larger than the Nigers, being 250 ft. long and of 1070 tons displacement. They are of 3500 I.H.P., have a speed of 184

knots, and carry an armament of two 4.7ifl. Q.F. guns, four6-pdrs., and three torpedo tubes. Five vessels of this class were~built, the difference between their general appearance and that of thepreceding classes being illustrated by fig. 115 (Plate XX.), which shows the Hazard, which in 1910 was employed on special service in connection with the reception and trials of British sub-marines. In these thirty-one British vessels of the torpedo gunboatclass the elements of strength and seaworthiness are developed atthe expense of speed, and they combine in themselves some of thefunctions of the torpedo-boat with many of the most importantfeatures of the small cruiser. The successive increases of displace- - ment are very largely due to additions to the hull, giving greater habitability and trustworthiness for continuous work at sea. Itwill be noticed that the speed shows a continuous falling off; butthe Sharpshooter class and subsequent vessels have been refitted with water-tube boilers in lieu of the locomotive boilers originallyfitted, and some of them are in additi9n re-engined, with the resultthat a speed of 21 knots was obtained; this, in the ordinary weather met with at sea, would probably enable them to overtakecraft of lighter types possessed of considerably greater smooth-waterspeeds. These vessels have not been repeated, many of them havebeen sold, but all those remaining are actively employed on a varietyof subsidiary but important services.

Torpedo-boat De3ere~ers were primarily, as their name implies, intended to meet and destroy torpedo-boats, their larger size, greatercoal capacity, heavier armament, and higher speed enabling them toovertake such boats before they could complete their attack; butit soon became evident that these additional powers also enabled thedestroyer to perform the duties of the torpedo-boat more efficientlythan the boat herself, and with the advent of the destroyer theproduction of the smaller boat declined.The pioneers of this type of vessel were the Daring, Decoy, Havock and Hornet, the construction of which was entered upon in July 1892, the two first-named at Messrs Thornycrofts and the other two at Messrs Yarrows. They were thus contemporarywith the Dryads, the last of the torpedo gunboats. The successof these four vessels was followed with great interest, and in thefollowing year (1893) six others were begun. One of these, the Boxer, built by Thornycroft, attained a speed of 292 knots. A

much greater number of destroyers (32 in all), nearly the whole of which were of 27 knots speed, were laid down iii 1894. The suc- ceeding year (1895) saw a great advance in size, power and speed,thirteen destroyers being laid down, for each of which the contractspeed was 30 knots. Similar vessels were constructed by various firms in England for foreign powers, and abroad by Messrs Schichauin Germany and M. Normand in France; the Sokol being con-structed by Messrs Yarrow for the Russian navy. Over sixtydestroyers of the 30-knot type were built for the British navy be-tween 1895 and 8905, and in only three vessels with reciprocating enginesthe Albatross, the Express, and the Arab were speeds exceeding 30 knots contracted for. In 1896 an attempt was made to realize greater speeds, but it was found that the powerand cost necessary for the addition of a few knots were dispro-portionate to the value of the results obtained, and the attemptwas not followed by any general increase of speed above 30 to 31 knots in destroyers fitted with reciprocating engines. The general appearance of a typical destroyer of this period is shown byfig. i i6 (Plate XXV I.), which represents the Albatross at full speed.Particulars of destroyers will be found in Table XIX.Experience with the marine steam turbine, the invention of theHon. C. A. Parsons, dates only from the time of the Turbinia(fig. 117, Plate XXV.), which made her successful trials in 1898 after much investigation on the part of the inventor. The turbinemachinery consisted of three separate turbines directly coupled tothree screw shafts and working in series, one turbine being highengines approaching 1200 and the power being estimated at about 12,000 H.P. At the time of their completion these were the fastest vessels of any type afloat, but both were unfortunately lost at sea,the Viper after a very short period of service being run upon the Renouquet Rock in the Channel Islands, and the Cobrabeing lost at sea on her first voyage after leaving the contractnrsworks.The results attained by these vessels led the British Admiralty tomake further experiments with this type of machinery. TheVelox, which had been launched in 1902, was purchased from the Parsons Company, and two experimental vessels were orderedfrom Messrs Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., both 220 ft. long, about 590 tons displacement and with similar boilers. Both vessels were launched in 1903. One, the Eden, was fitted with Parsons turbines, and reached 261 knots on trial; the other, the Waveney, with reciprocating engines, reached 25.6 knots on trial; the Waveney had twin screws; the Eden had six screws, two on each of three shafts, and at high speed showed a great saving in coal consumption.Experience with the 30-knot boats led to a decision to order boatsof stouter build and better sea-keeping qualities. In them theturtleback forward was replaced by a lofty forecastle, and it was laiddown that the trials should be run with the boats more heavilyloaded and more closely approaching their ordinary loaded conditionan service.

These changes were embodied in the River class, in which a trial speed of 25~ knots under the modified conditions was provided for.In 1902-1904

thirty-four destroyers of the River class were ordered, of the following dimensions, &c.: length 220 to 230 ft., breadth 23~ to 24 ft.,

mean load draught 8 ft. 2 in. to 8 ft. 8 in., displacement 540 to 590

tons, I.H.P. 7000 to 7500, speed 25~ knots. The 1904 Committee on Designs recommended two new types of destroyers called ocean-going and coastal respectively,.and also one experimental vessel of the highest speed obtainable, allto be fitted with Parsons turbines, and to use oil only for fuel.The ocean-going destroyers include five of 33 knots and the specialdestroyer of 35 knots named the Swift (fig. 1i8), built by Messrs Laird & Co. She was the largest destroyer afloat in 1910. Fig. 119

(Plate XXVI.) gives a view of this vessel. From 1906 to 1908 eight ocean-going destroyers of. 33 knots of the Tribal class were ordered, ranging from 970 to 1045 tons displace- ment and armed with two k-in. guns and two 18-in, torpedo tubes.In1908-1909sixteen ocean-going destroyers of the Beagle class TABLE XIX.Particulars of Toy pedo-boal Destroyers.

pressure, one intermediate and one low pressure. Each screw shaftat first carried three propellers, the total number of propellers thusbeing nine; the weight of main engines was approximately 3 tons13 cwt., and the total weight of machinery and boiler, screws andshafting, tanks, &c., 22 tons.

The boilers were of the water-tube type, with a working pressure of 225 lb per square inch. The Turbinia was followed by the Cobra and Viper torpedo-boat destroyers. The machinery of these boats consistedof two sets, one on each side of the ship; each set comprised twoturbines, had two expansions, and drove two shafts (making fourshafts in all). The outer shaft on each side was,driven by ahigh-pressure turbine, from which the steam passed to a low-pressure turbine on the inner shaft and thence to the condenser;on the inner shaft also was a small turbine, added for going astern,the Parsons steam turbine not being adapted for reversal.Steam was supplied by water-tube boilers of the express type. Thesevessels attained a speed of upwards of 34 knots, the revolutions of thewere ordered, of 27

knots speed, coal being used as the fuel instead of oil as in the preceding classes. In1909-1910twenty more ocean-going destroyers of the Acorn class, designed by SirPhilip Watts, were laid down; in these oil was again adopted forfuel and a speed of 29 knots obtained. These vessels are of 780 tons displacement, 240 ft. long, 25~ ft. beam, 7~ ft. draught, 13,500 turbine H.P., and carry two a-in., four 12-pdr. guns and two 21-in, torpedo tubes. The Acorn, Alarm and Brisk are provided with Brown-Curtis turbines, all the others with Parsonsturbines. The navy estimates for 1910 provided for laying down twenty-three destroyers. The three Australian destroyers of theParamatta class were designed by Professor Biles, and are of 700 tons displacement and 28 knots speed.

While the idea of the torpedo-boat destroyer originated in GreatBritain, and the first boats of the type were built for the Britishnavy, foreign powers were not slow in availing themselves of the results obtained, and large numbers of torpedo-boat destroyers have I

Vessels Name. Country.

Where Built.Principal Dimensions, &c.

Z Speed.Armament, &c.

,.1 ~i .~ ~

Daring. .. .

Swordfish. .

Sokcl. .. .

Corrientes.. . .

Chamois.. .

Express.. .

Gipsy. .. .

Turbinia.. .

Albatross.. .

Cobra. .. .

Bailey. .. .

Lawrence.. . .

Derweut.. .

Swift. .. .

Tartar. .. .

Para. .. .

Zulu. .. .

Beagle. .. .

S 267. .. .

Smith Mameluck San Lois.. .

Great Britain Russia. .

Argentina .

Great Britain United States Great Britain Brazil.. Great Britain Germany nited States ance, .

Argentina Messrs Thornycroft. London.

Armstrong, Whitworth, Elawjck.

Messrs Varrow, London.

Messrs Yarrow, London.

Messrs Palmer.

Messrs Laird Bros.

Messrs Fairfield.

Hon. C. A. Parsons.

Messrs Thornycroft, London.

Armstrong, Whitworth, Elswick.

Morris Heights.

Weymouth, Mass.

Messrs Hawthorn, Leslie.

Messrs Cammell, Laird.

Messrs Thornycroft, London.

Messrs Yarrow, London.

Messrs Hawthorn, Leslie.

Messrs J. Brown.

Elbing.

Philadelphia.

Nantes.

Messrs Casnxnell, Laird.2893

1895

2895

2896

i8g6

2897

2897

1897

i8~8

2899

2899

2900

1Q04

1907

1Q07

i~o8

5909

2909

ioo~

2909

1Q09

1Q10 Ft. In.

i8~ 0

200 0

190 0

190 0

215 0

235 0

227 6

200 0

227 6

220 0

205 0

242 3

220 0

345 0

270 0

240 0

a8o 0

269 0

289 0

250 7

285 0

Ft. In.

29 0

29 0

i8 6

ig 6

20 9

22 0

22 0

21 3

21 0

29 0

22 3

23 6

34 2

a6 0

23 7

27 0

a6 7

26 o 22 9

28 0 .

F. In.

22 0

20 0

8 10

20 4

Tons.

i8oo 2000

9602

2 4,200

4,500

4,400

4,000

6,200

9,250

6,300

2,200

7,500

22,000

~,6oo 8,400

7,000

30,000

04,500

8,ooo 25,500

52,500

22,000

20,000

7,750

20,000Knots, 27.0

27.6

29.7

27.4

30.0

32.0

3o.o 32.75

31.5

34.0

30.0

30.0

25.5

35.0

33.0

27.5

33.0

27.0

30.0

28.35

a8.o 32.0 212 pdr., 36 pdrs., 3 tubes.

Iia pdr., 56 pdrs., 2 tubes.

112 pdr., 8 others, 2 tubes.

114 pdr., a tubes.

iia pdr., ~6 pdrs., 2 tubes.

iia pdr., ~6 pdrs., a tubes.

112 pdr., 56 pdrs., 2 tubes.

Nil. lixperimental boat.

iia pdr., ~6 pdrs., a tubes, 112 pdr., ~6 pdrs., a Hotchkiss, 2 tubes.

4fl pdrs., a. tubes, 224 pdrs., ~6 pdrs., a tubes.

412 pdrs., a tubes.

44, 2 tubes.

322 pdrs., a tubes.

24, 43 pdrs., a tubes.

24, a tubes.

14, 322 pdrs., a tubes.

224 pdrs., a machine, 3 tubes.

514 Pdrs.. 2 machine, 3 tUb~S.

6_o,pdrs..3 tubes.

44, 4 tubes.

been added to the fleets of foreign navies, the boats built by Messrs armed with two 3.9-in, and four 9-pdr. guns and four torpedo tubes;Schichau of Germany and Normand of France having especially Russia was building vessels of about 1000 tons and of 35 knots achieved success in the attainment of high speeds on trial. The speed.Bainbridge class (fig. 120, Plate XXV.), built for the U.S. navy in 1901, are 245 ft. long, 23 ft. 7 in. wide, draw 6 ft. 6 in. of water, and have a displacement of 420 tons. Their sea-going speed is 29 knots, and their armament consists of two 18-in, torpedo tubes, two 3-pdr. Q.F. guns, and five 6-pdrs. The destroyers building in1910 are of 742 tons with a speed of 29i knots.

German destroyers are numbered consecutively, the numbersbeing prefixed by letters indicating the yard where built.Thus, S for Schichau works, Elbing; G, Germania works, Kid;V, Vulcan works, Stettin. Numbers below 90

are appropriated for torpedo-boats. Two destroyers only have names, viz.

S. ~7, whichalso bears the name Sleipner, and is fitted to serve as the emperorsyacht; and one without a number named Taku, late Hai-jing, taken from China in 1900, but built at the Schichau works in 1898. (The British navy list also contains the name of a destroyerTaku, built at the same works in 1898, and also taken from Chinain 1900.) The German torpedo-boat flotilla is divided up into sections, each section led by a division boat of much larger sizethan the others. These division boats increased in size, from 226 tons displacement, 1800 I.H.P. and 21 knots speed in 1887, to 374 tons, 5500 l.H.P. and 28 knots speed in 1898.

Division boats are numbered D i to D lo, and of these two bear names, D i that of Carmen, Submarine BoatsAbout i88o much attention began to be paid by several of the naval powers to the development of the submarine boat, the United States and France in particular.The history of the subject goes back at least 300 years, but the first undoubted success with a submarine vessel wasachieved by David Bushnell in America in 1775. It was worked by one man, for whom it provided just sufficient room; its general appearance, according to Bushnells own description, bore some resemblance to two upper tortoise shells of equal size joined together, the entrance to the vessel being represented by the openings in the swellings of the shells at the animalshead; the body of the vessel was constructed of wood. Theoperations on board were entirely manual. By an oar in formof a screw with its spindle passing through the top the boat wassunk or raised, by another oar at the after end it was propelled;a rudder was used for guidance, and in some cases for propulsion;valves admitted water when submergence was required, andand D 2 Alice Roosevelt. Since 1898 torpedo-boat destroyers have been built in place of division boats. The first 46, built be-tween 1898 and 1906, are of very similar type, the length gradually increasing from 207 to 2i6 ft., the displacement from 394 to 480 tons, engine-power from 5400 to 6500 I.H.P.,

speed from 26J to 28 knots, while the breadth remained at 23 ft., and the draught at 7~ ft. G 137, built at Kiel ifl 1906, is 235 ft. long, 560 tons dis- placement, 11,000 I.H.P., and obtained 33.9 knots speed. The nominal speed of the 48 vessels which followed is 30 knots, but several have exceeded this speed on trial. Recent destroyers are about620 tons displacement, 12,000 H.P., and speeds of 34 to 36 knots have been reported. They are armed with two 24-pdr. Q.F., two machine-guns and three torpedo tubes~ while two of 950 tons and 18,000 H.P. were launched in 1910. In1902-1903Japan built in her own yards three destroyers of 375

tons, 6000 I.H.P. and 29 knots, armed with two 12-pdr. and four 6-pdr.

guns and two torpedo tubes. She had previously obtained anumber of boats from Messrs Thornycroft & Yarrow. The Niji(fig. I21, Plate XXV.) was one of the lkadzuchi class built by Messrs Yarrow; of 340 tons displacement, 6000 I.H.P. and 31 knots speed, armed with two 12-pdr. and four 6-pdr. guns and two torpedo tubes, and may be taken as typical of all of the foreign built Japanesedestroyers. Between 1904 and 1908 Japan built 35 destroyers ol 375 tonS, 6000 I.H.P. and 29 knots, carrying six 12-pdr.

guns and 2 torpedo tubes; and in 1910 was building two ocean-going destroyers, the Umikaze and Yarnakaze, of 1150 tons, 20,500 H.P. and 35 knots, armed with two a-in. and five 12-pdr. guns and three 18-in, torpedo tubes.The largest torpedo-boat destroyers building by France in 1910 were of 750 tons displacement, 14,000 HP., 31 knots speed and hand pumps discharged this water when it was desired to cometo the surface, and a detachable weight of 200 lb was also supplied for emergency use. The air in the boat was capable of supportingthe operator for thirty minutes; and as soon as he broughtthe boat to the surface, two air pipes, for discharge of foul andsupply of fresh air, opened automatically. A compass, a pressure-gauge, and a sounding-line and lead were among the fittings.

Behind the vessel was a large magazine containing r~o lb ofpowder, and a time-control for exploding it. From the magazinewas led a rope to a wood screw at the fore part of the crown ofthe boat, and this screw, being worked from within, could bedriven into the object to be destroyed in such a manner as to keep the magazine required for the explosion in position afterit had been detached from the boat. During the War of Inde-pendence the boat was submerged beneath the British warshipEagle, and the operator attempted to attach the wood screwto her bottom planking: in this he failed, apparently simplybecause he did not let go his detachable weight and so get enoughupWard pressure to drive the screw into the plank.

The magazinewas released and exploded an hour afterwards, but at somedistance from its intended position.The problem of submarine navigation received the practicalattention of Fulton during the time that he was making hisexperiments upon steam propulsion, and even at an earlier24 ~, Fore peak. 2, Crew space. 3, Oil-fuel tank. 4, \V.T.

compartment. 5, Paint-room.6, Chain locker.7, Fresh-water tank.8, Naval store.9, Magazine and shell-room.FIG. I x8.Torpedo-boat Destroyer Swift. 10, Boiler-room. i i, Engine-room. 12, Dynamo-room. 13, Cabin. 14,

Ward-room. 15, Magazine. 16, Spirit-room.17, Store. i8, k-in. Q.F. gun.19,

i8-in, torpedo tube 20, Boat stowed. 21, Ventilator.

period. He constructed two submarine boats in France. andone in America.

One of the former, the Nautilus, was builtwith the direct encouragement of Napoleon in i8ox. It wassupplied with compressed air for respiration, and with it Fultonconducted a series of experiments under the direction of a com-mission of naval officers. He descended to a depth of 25 ft., and remained under water for fully four hours, placing belowa vessel provided for the purpose a torpedo by which it wasblown into fragments. As with his steam engine, so too with hissubmarine boats, the report of the commission charged withinvestigation was so unfavourable that Fulton was muchdiscouraged, and though he afterwards continued his laborsin this direction, the results achieved by him were practicallylost. Fultons boat, like Bushnells, was propelled by manualpower, two horizontal screws being employed for propulsion,and two vertical screws for descending and ascending: it wasbuilt of wood with iron ribs, and was sheathed with copper.The substitution of mechanical for hand power came later, andone of the first mechanically driven boats was the Plongeur,built in France in 1863 from the designs of Charles Brun. This boat had a length of 146 ft.

and a diameter of II ft., and was propelled by an 8o-horse-power compressed-air engine. Duringthe American Civil War the Confederates built a number ofiron cigar-shaped boats; some were propelled by steam enginesand some by hand. Each was armed with a torpedo containing5o to 70

lb of powder carried at the end of a spar. These boats were known as Davids, from their diminutive size as com-pared with the size of the ships attacked, and in 1864 one of the hand-worked boats, 5o ft. long, manned by a crew of nine men,successfully attacked the Federal ship Housatonic, andsank her by means of a spar torpedo, but in so doing was herselfsunk. It is claimed that the loss of the boat was due to faultyhandling and not to inherent defect. Against the protest ofher builder, she was immersed only to the hatch coaming; andthe cover being left open, she was swamped and sunk by thewave thrown up by the explosion.About the same time another hand-worked submarine, calledthe Intelligent Whale, 26 ft. in length and 9 ft. in diameter, attracted some attention in America. An officer with twoother persons dived with her in water about i6 ft. deep; theofficer, in divers dress, left the boat through a manhole in thebottom, placed a torpedo under a scow and blew the latterto pieces.In 1875 Mr. J. P. Holland produced his first plan for a sub- marine vessel, and in 1877 he constructed a small experimental boat, which embodied features now accepted asessentials in American design. His plan ensured thatwhen, for the purpose of diving, water was admittedinto compartments of limited size, the total weight of the boatand its contents should still be a little less than the total buoyancy.Immersion was maintained by the action of horizontal rudders,which gave a downward tendency so long as the boat h~d anyforward motion, and there always remained enough surplusbuoyancy to bring the boat to the surface on the stoppage ofher propelling machinery. Any weight consumed on board wasautomatically compensated for by admission of water, so thatthe total weight remained fixed and constant; while the con-finement of the water to small compartments further secured afixed centre of gravity. The securing of these qualities offixed weight and fixed centre of gravity is essential, and thewant of them has been the cause of failure in many other designs.With the necessarily slight longitudinal stability possessed bya submarine boat, any change of centre of gravity in the fore-and-aft direction has a no~able effect on the angle of trim;and such a change may readily occur, for instance, from thesurging of water in a large ballast-tank not completely full.An unintentional alteration of trim when the submarine boatis being propelled involves several possible dangers: in extremecases the crew or some of the fittings may be thrown out ofposition, but in any case the path of tIre submarine is altered,and may tend ejther to too great immersion on the one hand,or ~ hreaking the surface of the water on the other. From the risk of these dangers it is claimed by Mr Holland that his designis free. The first of his boats now under discussion was steereddown and up inclines by her horizontal rudders, and motive-power was obtained from a petroleum engine. The tests towhich she was subjected showed that inefficiency of the engine,difficulty of vision and trouble with the compass tended todestroy the boats usefulness.In 1883 Mr Nordenfeldt, famous as an inventor in many directions, built a submarine boat at Stockholm. She had alength of 64 ft., a main diameter of 9 ft. and a displacement of6o tons; she was propelled by a compound surface-condensingengine indicating ioo H.P., and on a measured-mile trial, notbeing submerged, attained a speed of ~ knots.

Steam wassupplied by an ordinary marine return-tube boiler, workedunder forced draught, which could be fired as long asthe boat was at the surface. Storage of steam waseffected at the surface, and the steam thus stored was boat. used to drive the engine in the submerged condition. To store sufficient steam two large tank reservoirs or cisterns wereconnected with the boiler, and the contents of boiler and tanks(8 tons of water in all) were raised to a temperature correspondingto i~o lb pressure. In preparing for submergence the firing ofthe boiler was stopped, and the steam given off by the heatedwater in boiler and tanks sufficed to propel the boat for a period.The smoke was driven Out through two channels, which passed round the hull and pointed astern. The material of the hullwas mild steel, the frames being 3 in. by ~ in. by ~ in., and theplating ~ in. to *

in. in thickness; the depth to which she could safely descend was about 50

ft. When ballasted ready for a submerged trip, this boat showed only a very small dome forobservation above the level of the water, the reserve buoyancyrepresented by this dome being but i cwt. To overcome this reserve two propellers working on vertical shafts were fitted insponsons, one on each side of the boat, nearly amidships. Thesepropellers were driven by a 6-horse-power engine, and drew theboat under water to the desired depth; an automatic contrivance,set in motion by the water pressure outside the boat, closingthe throttle-valve when the safety limit of depth was approached.On coming to rest, the reserve buoyancy brought the boat againto the surface. When propelled by the main engines in thesubmerged condition, the boat was kept horizontal by means oftwo bow rudders operated by a plumb weight. The crewconsisted of three men only, this small number rendering un-necessary the employment of artificial means of maintaininga pure atmosphere. The scheme of attack was to approachthe hostile ship running at the surface until the danger ofdiscovery was imminent, then to descend to the awashcondition with only the dome above water, and finally to gobelow the surface and advance to striking distance entirelysubmerged, rising if necessary once or twice to allow the directionto be adjusted by observations made from the dome awash.The weapon of offence employed was a Whitehead torpedo,carried outside on the bow and discharged mechanically. Severallarger boats were subsequently built from Mr Nordenfeldtsdesigns; they all involved the same principles, but werein some details made more efficient both for attack anddefence. -

- - The three main points insistedt upon by Nordenfeldt were:(i) that his method of storing energy gave him a reservoir which was not liable to get out of order, could readily be repaired ifnecessary, and required for its manipulation no knowledgebeyond that possessed by an ordinary engineer; (2) that for submergence he relied on mechanical means easily controlled,adding, as a criticism upon the alternative method of descendingby steering downwards, I need only point out the great riskof allowing an object ioo ft. long and of great weight to proceedin the downward direction even at a small angle, as the impetusgained would very easily carry it beyond a safe depth so quicklythat they might not have time to check it; (.~) that the bow. rudders always secured a horizontal position when the boat wasrunning submerged, which position he had found to be a sine qua non for a submarine boat.

charging electric accumulators, from which alone motive-powercan be obtained when the boat is submerged. The current forcharging the accumulators is obtained from a dynamo of 70 H.P., which can always be run in the awash condition to keep theaccumulators fully charged. In the awash condition, when theboat is otherwise air- and water-tight, communication is keptup with the outer air by means of ducts and a smoke-pipe,the former bringing in air for combustion and respiration,and the latter carrying off deleterious products of all kinds.For submergence special fittings are used to close these ductsand pipes, and to stop the gasolene generator.

The main engineis then no longer available, and for propulsion power is drawnfrom the accumulators, the dynamo thus becoming a motorwhich derives current from the accumulators and itself drivesthe screw-shaft. As was the case with Mr Hollands earlierboats, great attention is given to automatic control of weights,and water-ballast is admitted to compensate for any change,such as would be produced by the discharge of a torpedo. Withher original machinery the Plunger was to have had a surface speed of i~

knots; her anticipated speed awash or submerged is now 8 knots. To assist in determining the boats direction acamera lucida is ordinarily provided, but for correcting this Mr Holland prefers trusting to observations made during occasional rises to the surface; for this purpose the boat isprovided with a couning tower 4 ft. high, protected with a-in.steel. The Plunger is armed with Whitehead torpedoes, and has two tubes for discharging them. After many trialsit was at last decided to build a repeat of the Adder to takeher place, and this second Plunger was completed in 1903. The Holland is a smaller boat, having a length of about 54 ft., and was purchased in i~oo. The official report on thisvessel is that she has shown herself capable of such perfectcontrol in the vertical plane that she may be kept whilst movingwithin a few inches of any desired depth, and that she may bbrought to the surface and submerged again in a very shorttime. A good idea of the general form of the Holland may be obtained from figs. 122, 123, 124 and 125 (Plate Xxvii.), the last three of which represent this vessel when undergoingtrials to test her driving qualities.The design oFthe six submersibles of the Adder class is shown in fig. 126. They are of the following dimensions: length 63 ft. 4 in., diameter ii ft. 9 in.;

displacement for surface running 104 tons; submerged displacement 520

tons. The main features of this class are the same as for the Plunger.

The shell-plating is ~ in. in thickness, and the frames 3~ in. by 3 in.,

with a spacing of I 8 in. The main machinery is a four-cylinder single-acting balanced Otto gasolene engine, which at 360 revolutions will develop 160 H.P. and give the boat a speed of about 8 knots. For propulsion in thesubmerged condition an electric motor is used, working at 800 revolu-tions, and giving a speed of 7 knots, a single left-handed propeller being employed. The current for the motor is provided by storagebatteries capable of supplying 70 H.P. for four hours; and these batteries are charged by the main engine. The requisite air supply isobtained when the vessel is at the surface, and is stored under apressure of 2000 tb by a pump driven by gearing off the main engine or main motor. Air at a pressure of 50 lb is used for the expulsion of torpedoes, and the same agent, at various degrees of pressure,worhi the trimming and ballast tanks and some parts of themachinery; while the exhaust air from the latter subserves the purpose of ventilation. The vessel is fitted with power and hand- steering gear, and there are automatic devices for securing a con- stant depth during submergence. Five Whitehead torpedoes, 45 cm. (about i8

in.) in diameter and is ft. 8 in. long, are provided, and there is one expulsion tube placed forward about 2 ft. below the light water-line.The French submarine boat Plongeur has already been mentioned. A further advance in this direction was made in Francein 1881, when a small submarine was completed by M. ~Goubet at Paris. An inspection of this vessel led to an ~ e order for the mechanism of a number of boats from this ~s em engineer for the Russian government, and several sets were built and delivered early in 1883. The length of a boat constructad by M.

Goubet in 1885 was i6 ft. 5 in.; it had an oval section 5 ft. 9 m.in depth and 3 ft. 3 in. in breadth, and tapered to a point at each end. A

longitudinal section of the boat is represented by fig. 127. The main portion of the hull was of bronze, cast in one piece, and at thecentre of its length it was surmounted by a large dome haviog sevenglazed openings~

There was just sufficient room for an officer and aman seated back to back within it, their eyes in this position beinglevel with the glass windows of the dome. All valves and othermechanism requiring regulation were brought within reach of theseoccupants, so that no movement on their part was required whichmight affect the trim; a reservoir of compressed air supplied themeans of respiration, and an air-pump removed the vitiated atmo-sphere. The motive-power was furnished by accumulators, theelectric energy stored therein driving a screw propeller by meansof a motor. No n;eans of recharging these accumulators when ex-hausted was provided on board. Submersion was effected by ad-mitting water into tanks divided by transverse bulkheads at sufficientintervals to prevent the surging of the water in the fore and aftdirection. A pump expelled this water again when desired, and ~safety weight attached to the bottom of the boat was ready fordetachment in the presence of danger. A pressure gauge indicatedthe depth of water reached, and the officer could regulate the openingof the inlet valves or the action of the pumps to maintain or varythis depth as desired. For controlling the boat in a horizontal direc-tion a specially devised pendulum was employed, by means of whicha clutch was moved, and a constantly running shaft was throwninto gear with a pump as soon as the boat departed appreciablyfrom the horizontal plane. The action of the pump was reversible,In response to an invitation for proposals for submarines,made by the U.S. government in 5887, designs by Holland and Noraenfeldt were submitted After much consideration the proposals of the former designer were accepted, and formed the basis of the designs for the Plunger, the Holland and the six vessels of the Adder class. From what has been already stated, the criticism of Admiral Hichborn (chief con- structor of the U.S. navy) will be understood when he char-acterizes Hollands method as a steering-under or divingdevice, and Nordenfeldts as a down-haul or sinkingdesign. The great majority of modern boats are worked bythe Holland method. The Plunger was authorized in 1903; she has a length of 85 ft., diameter i i~ ft., light displacement i54 tons and load displacement i68 tons; she is of sufficientstrength for a submergence of 75 ft., and when wholly submerged has a margin of buoyancy of ~ ton. In addition to her horizontal rudders for diving, she has two down-haul screws, fitted in opposition to Mr Hollands recommendations; she may there-fore be said to be a combination, for diving purposes, of boththe Holland and the Nordenfeldt designs. The Plungersmain engines are used for propulsion when she is navigated atthe surface of the water. As originally designed they weretriple-expansion steam engines, driving triple screws, but havesince been altered to gasolene internal-combustion enginesdriving a single screw. These engines are also used for Fio.

126.Plan of the U.S. Adder (reproduced by permission of Admiral Hichborn). A, storage batteries; B, gas-engine; C, dynamo and motor; D,

water-tight compartments; E, main ballast tanks; F, air-flasks; G,

gasolene tank; H, expulsion tube.

and the clutch engaged it always in such a way that it drew waterfrom a tank at the low end of the boat, and delivered it to atank at the high end. Several other devices of great ingenuity wereemployed in the boat; notably a special form of universal jointintroduced into the line of shafting. At the after end, close to thepropeller, this universal joint was fitted in such a way that thescrew could be set at an angle to the line of motion, and steeringeffected without the aid of a vertical rudder.

A torpedo containing100 lb of dynamite or other explosive was carried outside the hull, and secured by a catch joint. This torpedo, on the submarine boatbeing manceuvred into position, could be thrown off and allowed torise and attach itself, by means of spikes, to some vulnerable part of the ship doomed to destruction. Retiring then to a safe distance,the submarine boat could explode the torpedo by the agency of anelectric current.\Vorking in the light of his now considerable experience, M.Goubet built several other boats. These were of larger dimensions,having a length of 27 ft.; their material was also bronze, and they were cast in three pieces, the centre one having a thicknessof i in., while the others were reduced to a little more than ~ in. at the ends. Possessing to a large extent the same contrivancesas their predecessor, these improved boats were fitted also with anautomatic apparatus for regulating the depth of submersion. Inthis regulator a piston is moved along a cylinder by the rotationof a rod with a screw thread cut in it, and so increases or diminishesthe amount of water in the cylinder. The movement of the pistonis effected by a small motor, and the direction of action of the motoris regulated by a commutator placed in juxtaposition to a pressuregauge. When the depth of submersion is too small, current issuppJied to move the piston so as to admit more water; when thedepth is too great, current is supplied in the opposite direction, andwater is expelled. The speed attained by this boat was from 5 to6 knots. Smaller boats of this type have been built for propulsionby manual power, but, however perfect the mechanism, the range ofaction of a submarine dependent on man-power for propulsion isvery limited. Recent Goubet boats are being built; with motive-power, which it is proposed to carry on board ship and lower fromdavits when required.The Gymnote was constructed at Toulon in 1888. She is a steel vessel, with a length of 59 ft. and a displacement of 30 tons; being of an experimental character only, she has no weapon ofattack. The maximum speed obtainable is 8 knots. The designsof the Gustave Zd and of the Morse were both based on those of the Gymnote, the former having a lengih of 148ft. and a displacement of 263

tons. In both of these the hull is of bronze; one great advantage of this metal being that, likethe bronze of the Goubet boats, it is non-magnetic in character,and cannot therefore disturb the equilibrium of the compass.With their large dimensions they were intended to be formidableengines of war, and were furnished for attack with Whitcheadtorpedoes; of these latter they each carry three of 45 cm.(nearly i8 in.) diameter, discharging them by means of a torpedotube. The Morse and the Gustave Zd, like the Gymnote, possess only electric means of propulsion, the powerbeing derived from batteries of accumulators. No power is providedin the vessels by which the accumulators can be recharged, so thatthe radius of action of these boats is necessarily very limited.The Narval, designed by M. Laubeuf, and the outcome of a general competition in 1897, has a length of 112 ft. and a total displacement of 200 tons. She was built at Cherbourg in 1898, and is furnished with a triple-expansion steam engine, obtaining itssteam from a water-tube boiler of special form and heated bypetroleum. As iri~ the American submarines, this engine propels the boat when at the surface, and also drives a dynamo whichrecharges accumulators, the latter giving the reserve power for usein the submerged condition. A speed of u knots is obtained atthe surface, and 8 knots when submerged. A new departure in theNarval is her double hull, the inner shell of which is of steel plate of sufficient thickness to resist any water-pressure to which theboat may be subjected, and the outer shell, placed at varyingdistances from the inner, forms a protection to the inner againstattack. An armoured dome surmounts the boat, cutting throughthe external shell and carrying a shortand narrow telescopic funnel, which, as inthe case of the American boats, must bewithdrawn preparatory to diving. Controlin the vertical direction is obtained, whendiving, by the use of two pairs of horizontalrudders, placed sythmetricallyone pairforward, the other aft.

By the abovearrangement it is claimed that thehorizontal direction of the boat is ensured,the American course of inclining the~ axisof the boat when diving being consideredopen to such grave objections that it isdesirable to avoid it.The early American boats of the Hol- land type, and the French boats built in the last decade of the 19th century,were the earliest really practical submarineboats, in the sense that unlike the boatswhich preceded them they were instru-ments of war which could be used byordinary trained crews with the averagechances of success and failure whichattend all warlike operations. They owetheir practicability not to any discoveryof the method of controlling the move-ments of a boat beneath the surfaceof the water, as has been sometimessupposed, since the ordinary method ofsteering by means of a rudder or a com-bination of rudders perfectly analogous to that used formanmuvring a ship in the horizontal plane was well knownand had been applied to steering submarines in the verticalplane before; ~but principally to the perfection of the accumu-lator cell as a means of storing energy for propulsion withoutthe expenditure of air or other weight contained in the boat,and to the introduction of the optical tube. This latter instru-ment is a telescope with the optical axis twice bent through a rightangle by totally reflecting prisms or mirrors; and under diverseforms and various names, such as periscope, cleptoscope,hyphydroscope, omniscope, &c., it affords the only practical meansby which objects on the surface of the Water can be seen at adistance from the interior of a submerged vessel. The problemof providing means for seeing at a distance through the waterstill awaits solution, and when solved, if it ever should be,will enoismously add to the power of submarine boats as weaponsof war.By far the greater number of submarine boats in existence i~i 1910 were developments through a process of continuous experiment and improvement of the Gymnote and of the early Holland boats,although the process of evolution had been so rapid and extensivethat the parentage of these modern boats is barely recognizable.There are, however, a considerable number of submarines built bythe Lake Submarine Boat Co. of Bridgeport, U.S.A., in the serviceof various naval powers. These boats are designed by Mr SimonLake, who was also a pioneer in submarine boat construction, con-temporary with Mr J. P.

Holland in the United States of America. His earliest boat, the Argonaut, was intended rather for runningalong the bottom in shallow water than for ordinary navigation;and for sending out divers rather than for discharging torpedoes.For this purpose it was fitted with wheels for running along thebottom and with an air-tight chamber having a hatch at the bottomwhich could be opened when the air pressure in the chamber wasmade equal to that of the water outside. These features are stillretained in many of the modern Lake boats, though these boatsare now constructed like all other submarines, primarily for th~purpose of submarine navigation.Other boats which should be mentioned as laying claims to dis-tinctive features in matters of detail are those built by the FiatSan Giorgio Company of Spezia, designed by Colonel Laurenti,and those built by the Germania Werft of Kiel, which are under-stood to embody the patents of M. dEquevilley. The Russiangovernment also possesses several boats generally regarded as of adistinctive type designed by M.

Drzwiecki.Perhaps the most outstanding distinction between differentsubmarine boats is the amount of their submerged displacementwhich is devoted to carrying water ballast. This, of course, measurestheir reserve of buoyancy in the surface condition, which in different-~

FIG. 127.Section of Goubet Submarine Torpedo-boat.

examples of boats varies from as little as 5% to as much as 60% of their surface displacement. It is obvious that, the more water ballast carried, the less of some other weight of machinery or equip-ment can be carried on a given submerged displacement, and thewhole problem resolves itself into making the compromise whichwill best meet the requirements of the service for which the boat isintended. This fact has sometimes been lost sight of in discussionson this subject, which haye tended sometimes to proceed on thetssumption of a radical difference in character between boats ofhigh reserve of buoyancy and those of low reserve, even to theextent of giving them the different names of submersible and submarine. Another technical point in the design of submarineswhich has frequently been the subject of non-technical discussionis the desirability or otherwise of bow-rudders or hydroplanes. This question depends on the form of the boat, and the manner inwhich it is proposed to handle her, and is unsuitable for discussionexcept in relation to the ascertained tendencies of a particular formunder the vertical hydrodynamical forces which are set up by itspropulsion through the water.Similar considerations apply to the questions whether a submarineboat should have a separate means of propulsion for surface-runningdistinct from that fitted for submerged propulsion, and if so, whetherit should consist of steam or internal-combustion engines. Onaccount of the very limited capacity of even the best modern electricaccumulator, any submarine which is intended to have a con-siderable radius of action must necessarily have heat enginesof some description for surface propulsion and for charging bat-teries.As to the type of heat engine, France was the only country whichin 1910 had fitted steam engines in recently built submarines; and the general tendency was undoubtedly to use internal-combustionengines, of which those burning heavy oil are much less expensive inworking than those using gasolene.The general tendency in 1910 was to increase the size of submarineboats. Improvements in the design, apart from increase in size,depend principally on the improvements which may be made in theinternal-combustion engines required for their surface propulsion, andin the improvement or possible elimination of the electric accumu-lators and motors for submerged propulsion, the weight of whichis exceedingly great for the power obtained when compared withthat which is obtained from heat engines.It is the practice of all countries to keep secret the really importantdetails of their submarine boats, to an evengreater extent than those of ordinary warships.Some particulars, however, of the newer sub-marinesof differentcountriesaregiven below, prin-cipally to illustrate the progress in size and power.In France, in i901, M. Romazzotti, already re ____________- ferred to as the designer of the Morse and I Gustave Zd, produced two other boats, the Francais and Algrien, similar to theMorse. Four vessels, the Sirne,Triton, Siiureand Espadon, of a modified Narvaltype, were built from M. Laubeufs designs in1901; two others of a similar type, the Aigretteand Cigogne, but of 170 tons surface displace-ment, were built in 1904, and two other still larger ____________ boats, the Circ~and Calypso, in 1905. These two boats are (i55 ft. long, i6 ft. beam, io ft.

draught) of 350 tons displacement on the surface, 480 tons submerged. Two Diesel heavy oil engines are fitted to give II4 knots speed on thesurface and two electric motors for use when submerged. Fourboats of the Gnome type, of 200 tons and 280 H.P. and 135 ft. in length, designed by M.

Maugas, were commenced in 1899. In 1901 twenty small submarines of the Nalade type were com- menced toM. Romazzottis design; they are 76 ft.

in length and of 68tons displacement, and have a surface speed of 8 knots and a speedof 4.5 knots when submerged. Their motive-power is electrical bothfor surface and submerged propulsion, except in the case of twoboats which are provided with benzol motors for surface work.From 1905 to 1909,

34 boats of the PluviOse type of twin-screw submersibles designed by M.

Laubeuf were laid down; they have adisplacement on the surface of 392

tons, and have engines of700 H.P. and a speed of 12 knots on the surface, and 440 H.P. and a speed of 74 knots when submerged. Eighteen boats of the classhave triple-expansion engines, and each of the remainder has twoDiesel heavy oil motors for surface propulsion, while all have electricmotors for use when submerged. Some of the steam-driven boatshave traversed 730 m. in 82 hours, while the Papin with oil motors ran 1200

rp. from Rochefort to Oran in six days without calling at any intermediate port. In fig. 128 (Plate XXVII.) is shown the Vendemiajre, one of the boats of this class. The twin- screw submarines of the Emeraude class, six in number, de- signed by M. Maugas and laid down in 1906, are of approximatelythe same displacement as the PluviOse class and of about the same speed; their motive-power Consists of two Diesel heavy oilengines on surface and electric motors when submerged. A Con-siderable advance in length and displacement was made in 1907,when the Mariotte, 216 ft. in length, 522 tons displacement on the surface, and 615 tons submerged, the Archimde, 199 ft. in Name or Class of Boat.

Ai .

A2-A4. .

A5-A12..

A13 .

Bt-B,i. .

CI-C17.

C19C38 .

length and 568 tone disp~acemerit ~n the surface and 797 tons submerged, and the Admiral BourgoIs.~ i8r ft. in length and555 tons surface displacement, were laid down. The H.P.s of thesethree submersibles are 1400, 1700 and 1500 respectively at the surface, giving a speed of 15

knots (submerged speed 10 knots). After the completion of the last boat of the Adder class already referred to, a period of about three years elapsed before the acquisi..tion for the United States navy of any additional submarine boats. The Octopus, which underwent extended trials in 1907, was designed by the Electric Boat Company, the successors of the HollandBoat Company, and marked a great advance in all respects over theearlier boats. She is a twin-screw boat, having two torpedo tubesinstead of one, as in the previous boats; she is of about 273 tonS

displacement submerged and 255 tons on the surface, and is creditedwith maximum trial speeds of II knots on the surface and 10 knots submerged.

Three other boats, the Cuttlefish, Tarantula andViper, generally similar to but somewhat smaller and less power-ful than the Octopus, were also completed during 1907 and 1908, and the Snapper, Bonita, Stingray and Tarpon, of the same size as the Octopus, in 1909. The Salmon, a boat similar to the Octopus, but of 278 tons displacement on thesurface, 369 tons submerged and carrying four torpedo tubes, wascompleted in 1910, and is credited with trial speeds of 13 knots on the surface and 94 knots submerged. In July 1910 this boat madethe ocean passage of about 700 to 800 m. from Quincy, Mass.,to Kingston, Bermuda, in four days, and returned in about the sametime, proving herself remarkably seaworthy for so comparatively small a boat in the rough weather encountered. Several similar boats were in 1910 under construction. In 1900 Great Britain ordered five submarine boats from Messrs Vickers, Sons & Maxim, at Barrow, who, by arrangement with theElectric Boat Company of New York, were enabled to embody intheir designs all the features of the Holland boats of the Adderclass, which these first British submarines resembled in size andmost other respects, the length being about 63 ft.

and submergeddisplacement 120 tons. Subsequent British submarines of the A, B and C classes were designed by Messrs Vickers, Sons & Maximunder instructions from the Admiralty. The progress in size andpower has been continuous, and the departure from the originalHolland type more and more marked with each successive newdesign. Table XX. indicates the various steps. All the boats therementioned, except A13, which has heavy oil engines, are fitted withYear of Completion.Length.Breadth.Submerged Displacement.Horse- Power of Engines.Speed on Surface.

1903

1904-1905

1905-1906

1906-1907

1905-1907

1907-1909

1908-1910Feet.

135II9~

I36~

136Tons.

320 350

600Knots.

gasolene engines for stirface propulsion. Di, which also has heavyoil engines, was completed in September 1909, and was the first of a new series of boats for the design of which Sir Philip Watts was personally responsible. She passed through her trials, and sevensimilar boats were in 1910 under construction. Fig. 129 (Plate XXVIII.) gives a view of C32,

while fig. 130 shows Di under weigh on the surface, and fig. 131 a flotilla in Portsmouth Harbour. Russia purchased the Lake demonstration boat Protector in 1904. This boat is 65 ft. long, 115 tons displacement on the surface and 170 tons submerged. The surface speed is stated to be 9

knots and the submerged 6 knots. A larger boat, of 135 tons displace- mentthe Simon Lake was also purchased, and four others ofthe same size built in 1904-1905. In 1907 another small Lake boat of 110 tons was obtained, and in 1908 and 1909 seven larger vessels, 125 ft. long, 14 ft.

beam, 450 tons on surface, 500 tons submerged, i6 knots speed on surface with petrol engines, and 64 knots shb-merged, with electric motors. Of the Holland type Russia has obtained a considerable number; fifteen of these are from 106 to175 tons on the surface, and one is 184 ft. long, 12

ft. beam, II ft. deep and 360 tons on the surface. She has also obtained threeboats of the Germania type, 131 ft. long, 197 tons on the surface, as well as a specimen of a small submarine of 17 tons hoisting weight driven by electric accumulators ocly, giving 8 knots on the surfaceand 6

knots submerged, and armed with one torpedo tube. Thelarge boats of the Lake type are driven by engines of 1200 H.P., and are stated to carry an armament of two 3-pdr. and two machineguns in addition to their four torpedo tubes. Three of the Russiansubmarines under construction in 1910

were 500 tons displacement on the surface.Germany did not build submarines until 1906, when UI was launched at the Germania Works, Kiel. She is 139

ft. long, iift. ~ in. beam, 7 ft. 9 in. draught and 240 tons on the surface, being TABLE XX.

examples of boats varies from as little as 5% to as much as 60% of their surface displacement. It is obvious that, the more water ballast carried, the less of some other weight of machinery or equip-ment can be carried on a given submerged displacement, and thewhole problem resolves itself into making the compromise whichwill best meet the requirements of the service for which the boat isintended. This fact has sometimes been lost sight of in discussionson this subject, which haye tended sometimes to proceed on thetssumption of a radical difference in character between boats ofhigh reserve of buoyancy and those of low reserve, even to theextent of giving them the different names of submersible and submarine. Another technical point in the design of submarineswhich has frequently been the subject of non-technical discussionis the desirability or otherwise of bow-rudders or hydroplanes. This question depends on the form of the boat, and the manner inwhich it is proposed to handle her, and is unsuitable for discussionexcept in relation to the ascertained tendencies of a particular formunder the vertical hydrodynamical forces which are set up by itspropulsion through the water.Similar considerations apply to the questions whether a submarineboat should have a separate means of propulsion for surface-runningdistinct from that fitted for submerged propulsion, and if so, whetherit should consist of steam or internal-combustion engines. Onaccount of the very limited capacity of even the best modern electricaccumulator, any submarine which is intended to have a con-siderable radius of action must necessarily have heat enginesof some description for surface propulsion and for charging bat-teries.As to the type of heat engine, France was the only country whichin 1910 had fitted steam engines in recently built submarines; and the general tendency was undoubtedly to use internal-combustionengines, of which those burning heavy oil are much less expensive inworking than those using gasolene.The general tendency in 1910 was to increase the size of submarineboats. Improvements in the design, apart from increase in size,depend principally on the improvements which may be made in theinternal-combustion engines required for their surface propulsion, andin the improvement or possible elimination of the electric accumu-lators and motors for submerged propulsion, the weight of whichis exceedingly great for the power obtained when compared withthat which is obtained from heat engines.It is the practice of all countries to keep secret the really importantdetails of their submarine boats, to an evengreater extent than those of ordinary warships.Some particulars, however, of the newer sub-marinesof differentcountriesaregiven below, prin-cipally to illustrate the progress in size and power.In France, in i901, M. Romazzotti, already re ____________- ferred to as the designer of the Morse and I Gustave Zd, produced two other boats, the Francais and Algrien, similar to theMorse. Four vessels, the Sirne,Triton, Siiureand Espadon, of a modified Narvaltype, were built from M. Laubeufs designs in1901; two others of a similar type, the Aigretteand Cigogne, but of 170 tons surface displace-ment, were built in 1904, and two other still larger ____________ boats, the Circ~and Calypso, in 1905. These two boats are (i55 ft. long, i6 ft. beam, io ft.

draught) of 350 tons displacement on the surface, 480 tons submerged. Two Diesel heavy oil engines are fitted to give II4 knots speed on thesurface and two electric motors for use when submerged. Fourboats of the Gnome type, of 200 tons and 280 H.P. and 135 ft. in length, designed by M.

Maugas, were commenced in 1899. In 1901 twenty small submarines of the Nalade type were com- menced toM. Romazzottis design; they are 76 ft.

in length and of 68tons displacement, and have a surface speed of 8 knots and a speedof 4.5 knots when submerged. Their motive-power is electrical bothfor surface and submerged propulsion, except in the case of twoboats which are provided with benzol motors for surface work.From 1905 to 1909,

34 boats of the PluviOse type of twin-screw submersibles designed by M.

Laubeuf were laid down; they have adisplacement on the surface of 392

tons, and have engines of700 H.P. and a speed of 12 knots on the surface, and 440 H.P. and a speed of 74 knots when submerged. Eighteen boats of the classhave triple-expansion engines, and each of the remainder has twoDiesel heavy oil motors for surface propulsion, while all have electricmotors for use when submerged. Some of the steam-driven boatshave traversed 730 m. in 82 hours, while the Papin with oil motors ran 1200

rp. from Rochefort to Oran in six days without calling at any intermediate port. In fig. 128 (Plate XXVII.) is shown the Vendemiajre, one of the boats of this class. The twin- screw submarines of the Emeraude class, six in number, de- signed by M. Maugas and laid down in 1906, are of approximatelythe same displacement as the PluviOse class and of about the same speed; their motive-power Consists of two Diesel heavy oilengines on surface and electric motors when submerged. A Con-siderable advance in length and displacement was made in 1907,when the Mariotte, 216 ft. in length, 522 tons displacement on the surface, and 615 tons submerged, the Archimde, 199 ft. in Name or Class of Boat.

Ai .

A2-A4. .

A5-A12..

A13 .

Bt-B,i. .

CI-C17.

C19C38 .

length and 568 tone disp~acemerit ~n the surface and 797 tons submerged, and the Admiral BourgoIs.~ i8r ft. in length and555 tons surface displacement, were laid down. The H.P.s of thesethree submersibles are 1400, 1700 and 1500 respectively at the surface, giving a speed of 15

knots (submerged speed 10 knots). After the completion of the last boat of the Adder class already referred to, a period of about three years elapsed before the acquisi..tion for the United States navy of any additional submarine boats. The Octopus, which underwent extended trials in 1907, was designed by the Electric Boat Company, the successors of the HollandBoat Company, and marked a great advance in all respects over theearlier boats. She is a twin-screw boat, having two torpedo tubesinstead of one, as in the previous boats; she is of about 273 tonS

displacement submerged and 255 tons on the surface, and is creditedwith maximum trial speeds of II knots on the surface and 10 knots submerged.

Three other boats, the Cuttlefish, Tarantula andViper, generally similar to but somewhat smaller and less power-ful than the Octopus, were also completed during 1907 and 1908, and the Snapper, Bonita, Stingray and Tarpon, of the same size as the Octopus, in 1909. The Salmon, a boat similar to the Octopus, but of 278 tons displacement on thesurface, 369 tons submerged and carrying four torpedo tubes, wascompleted in 1910, and is credited with trial speeds of 13 knots on the surface and 94 knots submerged. In July 1910 this boat madethe ocean passage of about 700 to 800 m. from Quincy, Mass.,to Kingston, Bermuda, in four days, and returned in about the sametime, proving herself remarkably seaworthy for so comparatively small a boat in the rough weather encountered. Several similar boats were in 1910 under construction. In 1900 Great Britain ordered five submarine boats from Messrs Vickers, Sons & Maxim, at Barrow, who, by arrangement with theElectric Boat Company of New York, were enabled to embody intheir designs all the features of the Holland boats of the Adderclass, which these first British submarines resembled in size andmost other respects, the length being about 63 ft.

and submergeddisplacement 120 tons. Subsequent British submarines of the A, B and C classes were designed by Messrs Vickers, Sons & Maximunder instructions from the Admiralty. The progress in size andpower has been continuous, and the departure from the originalHolland type more and more marked with each successive newdesign. Table XX. indicates the various steps. All the boats therementioned, except A13, which has heavy oil engines, are fitted withYear of Completion.Length.Breadth.Submerged Displacement.Horse- Power of Engines.Speed on Surface.

1903

1904-1905

1905-1906

1906-1907

1905-1907

1907-1909

1908-1910Feet.

135II9~

I36~

136Tons.

320 350

600Knots.

gasolene engines for stirface propulsion. Di, which also has heavyoil engines, was completed in September 1909, and was the first of a new series of boats for the design of which Sir Philip Watts was personally responsible. She passed through her trials, and sevensimilar boats were in 1910 under construction. Fig. 129 (Plate XXVIII.) gives a view of C32,

while fig. 130 shows Di under weigh on the surface, and fig. 131 a flotilla in Portsmouth Harbour. Russia purchased the Lake demonstration boat Protector in 1904. This boat is 65 ft. long, 115 tons displacement on the surface and 170 tons submerged. The surface speed is stated to be 9

knots and the submerged 6 knots. A larger boat, of 135 tons displace- mentthe Simon Lake was also purchased, and four others ofthe same size built in 1904-1905. In 1907 another small Lake boat of 110 tons was obtained, and in 1908 and 1909 seven larger vessels, 125 ft. long, 14 ft.

beam, 450 tons on surface, 500 tons submerged, i6 knots speed on surface with petrol engines, and 64 knots shb-merged, with electric motors. Of the Holland type Russia has obtained a considerable number; fifteen of these are from 106 to175 tons on the surface, and one is 184 ft. long, 12

ft. beam, II ft. deep and 360 tons on the surface. She has also obtained threeboats of the Germania type, 131 ft. long, 197 tons on the surface, as well as a specimen of a small submarine of 17 tons hoisting weight driven by electric accumulators ocly, giving 8 knots on the surfaceand 6

knots submerged, and armed with one torpedo tube. Thelarge boats of the Lake type are driven by engines of 1200 H.P., and are stated to carry an armament of two 3-pdr. and two machineguns in addition to their four torpedo tubes. Three of the Russiansubmarines under construction in 1910

were 500 tons displacement on the surface.Germany did not build submarines until 1906, when UI was launched at the Germania Works, Kiel. She is 139

ft. long, iift. ~ in. beam, 7 ft. 9 in. draught and 240 tons on the surface, being TABLE XX.

slightly larger than the Russian boats built by the same firm. Sheis fitted with twin-screws driven by petroleum motors of 450 H.P., giving a speed of ii knots on the surface, and electric motors of 200 H.P., giving a speed of 9 knots when submerged. Three 18-in. torpedoes are carried, one bow tube only being provided. In1908-1909 three larger boats were built at Dantzig, and in 1909 1910 three of 600 tons displacement at the Germania works. The boats were reported to have made very long sea passages withoutescort.Japan commenced building Holland boats in 1905. The first five were 87 ft. in length and 125 tons displacement. Two smaller boats of 86 tons were also built. In 1908 two boats of 320 tons were built at Barrow, and despatched by steamer to Japan; and threesimilar boats Were in 1910 being built in Japan. In 1894 Italy launched the Delfino, a single-screw boat of 105 tons and 150 I-IF. The type has not been repeated, but in 1905 a fresh start was made with three boats of the Glauco type, twin-screw boats of i~o tons on the surface, 175 tons submerged, H.P. on surface 600 to 700, speed 14 knots on surface and 8

knots submerged. In 1908 three similar but larger boats followed, the largest being the Foca, 137 ft. 9 in. long, 14 ft. beam, displace- ment 175 tons, 900 H.P. and i~ knots speed in surface condition, 225 tons displacement, 200 H.P. and 9 knots when submerged, fitted with two 18-in:

torpedo tubes. In 1910 six similar but larger boats were laid down at Spezia.The increased interest in naval matters in Austria is shown by the expenditure on submarines as well as on battleships. - In 5907 two boats of the Lake type 100 ft. long, 250 tons submerged, were laid down at the government dockyard at Pola; between that dateand 1910 two boats of modified Holland type, 138 ft. long, 300 tons submerged and 12 knots surface speed, were built at Flume, and two of the Germania type ordered from Kid.The Swedish government began by building a submarine boat,the Hojen, which is understood to have resembled the early Holland designs.

In 1910 the Hvalen, a boat similar to the latest Italian submarines, was built for the Swedish governmentby the Fiat San Giorgio Company at Spezia, and acquired somenotoriety by making the voyage from Spezia to Stockholmwithoutescort, including a longest run of about 700 in. from Spezia to Cartagena.The Dykkeren, a submarine of the Laurenti type, butentirely electrically propelled both at the surface and submerged,was built by the Fiat San Giorgio Company at Spezia for the Danish government in 1909. She is credited with a maximum speed of 12 knots on the surface and 8 knots submerged, but, depending entirely on the energy stored in electric accumulators, her radius of action isnecessarily restricted.Fleet Auxiliaries.Various types of auxiliaries are provided in the principal navies to perform services of a supplementary, thoughfrequently important character. In many cases fighting vesselsof the older classes have been converted and adapted as well as ispracticable for these services, but in other cases new vessels havebeen built or arrangements made with ovners of suitable merchantships for the adaptation and use of those ships when required bythe navies. Amongst such auxiliaries the following, are found inthe British navy :Mine-laying vesselssecond-class cruisers of the Apollo class modified for the purpose;fieel-repair shipsthe modified merchant-built vessels Assistance ~f 9600 tons dis- placement and the Cyclops of 11,300 tons; distilling vessel Aquarius of 3660 tons, a modified mcrch~nt vessel, and a large number of tank vessels such as the Provider of 395 tons, specially built for distributing fresh water; depot and repair ships for desfroyersthe modified.cruisers Blake, Blenheim, Leander and St George, and the modified merchant vessels Hecla and Tyne; depot ships for submarinesthe modified cruisers Bonaventure, Thames, &c., and the repair ship Vulcan,as well as a new vessel the Maidstone, of 3600 tons, laid down at Scotts Yard, Greenock, in 1910; oil lank vesselsthe merchant built vessels Petroleum, of 9900 tons and Kharki of 1430 tons, and a new vessel, the Burma of 3870 tons, laid down at they Greenock Dockyard Co.s Yard in 1910. The hospital ship Maine of 4540 tons was fitted up for service of the United States in the Spanish-American War, and was presented to the Britishgovernment in 1901 by the Atlantic Transport Co. Besides the foregoing, arrangements are made for fitting up fastvessels such as the Mauretania and Lusitania with a numberof 6-in, or other Q.F. guns for service as merchant cruisers in timeof war, when they would be used as ocean-going scouts, or forthe protection of trade routes. Corresponding arrangementsare made by several~other countries, while in Russia and Japanspecial mercantile cruisers have been built under the title ofVolunteer steamers. A full account of the Russian Volunteer Fleetis to be found in a paper read by Mr H. Rowell at the Institute ofNaval Architects 5905, later vessels being described in Engineering, iith March 1910, and an account of the Japanese Volunteer vessels will be found in International Marine Engineering, June 1909. The writer is indebted to Mr J. H. Narbeth, M.V.O., for valuable assistance in preparing this article.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to ship article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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See also -ship

Contents

English

Most common English words: ex « mere « agreement « #690: ship » third » evil » outside

Etymology

From Middle English skif (1575), from Old English scip. Cognate with West Frisian skip, Dutch schip, German Schiff, Danish skib, Swedish skepp, Norwegian skip, and Icelandic skip. Ultimately from Proto-Germanic *skipam.

Pronunciation

Noun

Singular
ship

Plural
ships

ship (plural ships)

A ship (senses 1 and 3).
  1. water-borne vessel larger than a boat.
  2. (chiefly in combination) A vessel which travels through any medium other than across land, such as an airship or spaceship.
  3. (archaic, nautical, formal) A sailing vessel with three square-rigged masts.

Usage notes

  • The singular form ship is often used without any article, producing such sentences as "In all, we spent three weeks aboard ship." and "Abandon ship!". (Similar patterns may be seen with many place nouns, such as camp, home, work, and school, but the details vary from noun to noun.)
  • Ships are traditionally regarded as feminine and the pronouns her and she are normally used instead of it.

Hyponyms

Derived terms

Related terms

Translations

Verb

Infinitive
to ship

Third person singular
ships

Simple past
shipped

Past participle
shipped

Present participle
shipping

to ship (third-person singular simple present ships, present participle shipping, simple past and past participle shipped)

  1. (transitive) To send a parcel or container to a recipient (by any means of transport).
  2. (transitive) To send by water-borne transport.
  3. (transitive) To take in (water) over the sides of a vessel.
    We were shipping so much water I was sure we would capsize.

Translations

See also

Anagrams


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Ships article)

From BibleWiki


early used in foreign commerce by the Phoenicians (Gen 49:13). Moses (Deut 28:68) and Job (9:26) make reference to them, and Balaam speaks of the "ships of Chittim" (Num 24:24). Solomon constructed a navy at Ezion-geber by the assistance of Hiram's sailors (1 Kg 9:26-28; 2Chr 8:18). Afterwards, Jehoshaphat sought to provide himself with a navy at the same port, but his ships appear to have been wrecked before they set sail (1 Kg 22:48, 49; 2Chr 20:35-37).

In our Lord's time fishermen's boats on the Sea of Galilee were called "ships." Much may be learned regarding the construction of ancient merchant ships and navigation from the record in Acts 27, 28.

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|A schooner.]]

A ship is a large vehicle used to travel on water. It is bigger than a boat. Ships are used for travel, trade and war.

Contents

History

Early ships

The first ships used oars or the wind (or both) to make them move.

From about 4000BC the Ancient Egyptians were making wooden sail boats. By 1200BC the Phoenicians and Greeks had begun to make bigger sailing ships which were about 30 metres (100 feet) long and could carry 90-180 tonnes of cargo. The Romans made even bigger ships which could carry up to 1,000 people and 1,000 tonnes of cargo. The 8th century saw the rise of the Vikings, who were famous for their "longships" and which were mainly used for raiding other countries, but also for trading. The longships had flat bottoms so they could move in shallow (not deep) rivers.

The age of sail

Sailing ships were used for thousands of years, but they were very important in wars and trade from the 1500's to the 1800's. The Chinese admiral Zheng He commanded a fleet of 'treasure ships' on seven voyages all over Asia up to East-Africa in the early fifteenth century. These ships probably were about 130 m (450 ft) long and up to 50 m (180 ft) wide]. That makes them about twice the size of the largest European ships in the sixteenth century. The most successful and largest fleet in the 17th century was the Dutch fleet (see the Netherlands). For trade and transport the Dutch often used a particular kind of trading ship, called a flute (fluit in Dutch). Transport of people and cargo on sailing ships continued until the 1920's. [[File:|thumb|[width in number of pixels]px|right|Copy of the ship Mayflower]] Some famous ships from this era include:

The age of steam

In the 19th century, steam ships were invented.

Modern ships

Most modern ships have diesel engines.

At one time, Titanic, Olympic, and Britannic were the largest ships in the world, Titanic sank on her maiden voyage after hitting an iceberg, becoming one of the most famous shipwrecks of all time, the Olympic was Titanic 's nearly identical twin, and actually set sail before Titanic and was scrapped in the 1930's after a very successful career including her being a passenger liner and a warship in WWI. The Britannic was the larger of these three sister ships, and was supposed to be more grand and elegant than the Titanic, but before she set sail on her maiden voyage, WWI broke out and she was stripped of her elegant furniture and elaborate paneling and became a hospital ship. During her term as a hospital ship, she was sunk by either a mine or torpedo, no one knows for sure. The Titanic lies at the bottom of the North Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Nova Scotia, and the Britannic lies in the Aegean Sea, off the coast of the Island of Kea.

Some names for parts of a ship

  • Amidships - near the middle of the ship.
  • Bow - the front of the ship.
  • Stern - the back of the ship.
  • Aft - in the direction of the stern.
  • Astern - behind the ship.
  • Starboard - the right side of the ship.
  • Port - the left side of the ship.
  • Bridge - the room in which the ship is controlled.
  • Cabin - a room where a crew member lives.
  • Decks - the floors.
  • Galley - the kitchen.
  • Hold - an area inside the ship used to carry goods.
  • Hull - the main body of the ship.
  • Keel - a beam running from stern to bow.
  • Mast - a central pole on which sails are hung.

Some types of ships

File:Supertanker
An oil supertanker.
  • Aircraft carrier - a warship which carries aircraft.
  • Bulk carrier - very large ship used for carrying very heavy cargo.
  • Catamaran - a ship with two hulls.
  • Cruise ship - a large passenger ship that takes people on holiday or vacations.
  • Destroyer - a large warship.
  • Ferry - a passenger ship which often carries vehicles as well as people.
  • Submarine - an underwater boat.
  • Supertanker - a very large ship usually used for carrying oil.








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