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Coordinates: 29°37′N 52°32′E / 29.617°N 52.533°E / 29.617; 52.533

Shiraz (Sheraz)
شیراز
Shīrāz
Nickname(s): Persian Cultural Capital
City of roses
City of gardens
City of flower and nightingale
Shiraz (Sheraz) is located in Iran
Shiraz (Sheraz)
Location of Shirāz in Iran
Coordinates: 29°37′N 52°32′E / 29.617°N 52.533°E / 29.617; 52.533
Country  Iran
Province Fārs
County Shirāz
Government
 - Mayor Mehran E'temadi[1]
 - City council Mohammad Reza Bazrgar
Cyrus Pakfetrat
Mahmoud Pakshir
Behzad Hajatnia
Gholam Mahdi Haghdel
Mahdi Khani
Jalil Kheirat
Zein Al-Abedin Arab
Seyyed Abdorrasoul Miri
Ahmad Reza Naghibzadeh[2]
Area
 - Total 340 km2 (131 sq mi)
 - Land 340 km2 (131 sq mi)
 - Water 0 km2 (0 sq mi)  0%
Elevation 1,500 m (5,200 ft)
Population (2006)
 - Total 1,227,311
 Density 3,609.8/km2 (9,347.5/sq mi)
 - Population Rank in Iran 6th
  Population Data from 2006 Census.[3]
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
Area code(s) 0711
Website http://www.shirazcity.org or http://www.shiraz.ir/

Shiraz (About this sound listen Persian: شیراز [ʃiːˈrɔːz]) is the sixth most populous city in Iran[4] and is the capital of Fars Province. Shiraz is located in the southwest of Iran on the Rudkhaneye Khoshk seasonal river. Shiraz has a moderate climate and has been a regional trade center for more than one thousand years.

The earliest reference to the city, as Tiraziš, is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BC.[5] In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters, thanks to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists. Shiraz was the capital of Persia during the Zand dynasty from 1750 until 1781, as well as briefly during the Saffarid period.

Shiraz is known as the city of poets, wine and flowers.[6] It is also considered by many Iranians to be the city of gardens, due to the many gardens and fruit trees that can be seen in the city. Shiraz has had major Jewish and Christian communities. The crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design; silver-ware; pile carpet-weaving and weaving of kilim, called gilim and jajim in the villages and among the tribes.[7] In Shiraz industries such as cement production, sugar, fertilizers, textile products, wood products, metalwork and rugs dominate.[8] Shirāz also has a major oil refinery and is also a major center for Iran's electronic industries: 53% of Iran's electronic investment has been centered in Shiraz.[9] Shiraz is home to Iran's first solar power plant.[10]

Contents

Etymology

The earliest reference to the city is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BC, found in June 1970, while digging to make a kiln for a brick factory in the south western corner of the city. The tablets written in ancient Elamite name a city called Tiraziš.[11] Phonetically, this is interpreted as /tiračis/ or /ćiračis/. This name became Old Persian /širājiš/; through regular sound change comes the modern Persian name Shirāz. The name Shiraz also appears on clay sealings found at a 2nd century AD Sassanid ruin, east of the city. By some of the native writers, the name Shiraz has derived from a son of Tahmuras, the third Shāh (King) of the world according to Ferdowsi's Shāhnāma.[12]

History

Pre-Islamic

Shiraz is most likely more than 4,000 years old. The name Shiraz is mentioned in cuneiform inscriptions from around 2000 BC found in south western corner of the Shiraz city.[13] According to some Iranian mythological traditions, it was originally erected by Tahmuras Diveband, and afterward fell to ruin.[12] The oldest sample of wine in the world, dating to approximately 7,000 years ago, was discovered on clay jars recovered outside of Shiraz.[14].

In Achaemenian era, Shiraz was on the way from Susa to Persepolis and Pasargadae. In Ferdowsi's Shāhnāma it has been said that Artabanus V, the Parthian Emperor of Iran, expanded his control over Shiraz. Ghasre Abu-Nasr (meaning "the palace of AbuNasr") which is originally from Parthian era is situated in this area. During the Sassanid era, Shiraz was in between the way which was connecting Bishapur and Gur to Istakhr. Shiraz was an important regional center under the Sassanians.[13]

Islamic period

The Qur'an Gate was a part of the great city wall built under the Buwayhid empire

The city became a provincial capital in 693, after the Arab invaders conquered Istakhr, the nearby Sassanian capital. As Istakhr fell into decline, Shiraz grew in importance under the Arabs and several local dynasties.[15] The Buwayhid empire (945 — 1055) made it their capital, building mosques, palaces, a library and an extended city wall. It was also ruled by Seljuk and Khwarezmid before the Mongol conquest.

The city was spared destruction by the invading Mongols, when its local ruler offered tributes and submission to Genghis Khan. Shiraz was again spared by Tamerlane, when in 1382 the local monarch, Shah Shoja agreed to submit to the invader.[15] In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters, thanks to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists. For this reason the city was named by classical geographers Dar al-‘Elm, the House of Knowledge.[16] Among the important Iranian poets, mystics and philosophers born in Shiraz were the poets Sa'di and Hafez, the mystic Roozbehan, and the philosopher Mulla Sadra.

Bazar of Shiraz as seen by Jane Dieulafoy in 1881

As early as the 11th century, several hundred thousand people inhabited Shiraz.[17] In the 14th century Shiraz had sixty thousand inhabitants.[18] During the 16th century it had a population of 200,000 people, which by the mid-18th century had decreased to only 50,000.

In 1504, Shiraz was captured by the forces of Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid dynasty. Throughout the Safavid empire (1501–1722) Shiraz remained a provincial capital and Emam Qoli Khan, the governor of Fars under Shah Abbas I, constructed many palaces and ornate buildings in the same style as those built during the same period in Isfahan, the capital of the Empire.[15] After the fall of the Safavids, Shiraz suffered a period of decline, worsened by the raids of the Afghans and the rebellion of its governor against Nader Shah; the latter sent troops to suppress the revolt. The city was besieged for many months and eventually sacked. At the time of Nader Shah's murder in 1747, most of the historical buildings of the city were damaged or ruined, and its population fell to 50,000, one-quarter of that during the 16th century.[15]

Shiraz soon returned to prosperity under the rule of Karim Khan Zand, who made it his capital in 1762. Employing more than 12,000 workers, he constructed a royal district with a fortress, many administrative buildings, a mosque and one of the finest covered bazaars in Iran.[15] He had a moat built around the city, constructed an irrigation and drainage system, and rebuilt the city walls.[15] However, Karim Khan's heirs failed to secure his gains. When Agha Mohammad Khan, the founder of the Qajar dynasty, eventually came to power, he wreaked his revenge on Shiraz by destroying the city fortification and moving the national capital to Tehran.[15] Although lowered to the rank of a provincial capital, Shiraz maintained a level of prosperity as a result of the continuing importance of the trade route to the Persian Gulf. Its governorship was a royal prerogative throughout the Qajar dynasty.[15] Many of the famous gardens, buildings and residences built during the nineteenth century, contribute to the actual outlook of the city.

Shiraz is the birthplace of the co-founder of the Bahá'í Faith, the Báb (Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad, 1819–1850). In this city, on the evening of 22 May 1844, he first declared his mission as the bearer of a new divine revelation and for this reason Shiraz is a holy city for Bahá’ís and a place of pilgrimage.

In 1910 a pogrom of the Jewish quarter started after false rumours that the Jews had ritually killed a Muslim girl. In the course of the pogrom, 12 Jews were killed and about 50 were injured,[19] and 6,000 Jews of Shiraz were robbed of all their possessions.[20]

The city's role in trade greatly diminished with the opening of the trans-Iranian railway in the 1930s, as trade routes shifted to the ports in Khuzestan. Much of the architectural inheritance of Shiraz, and especially the royal district of the Zands, was either neglected or destroyed as a result of irresponsible town planning under the Pahlavi dynasty. Lacking any great industrial, religious or strategic importance, Shiraz became an administrative centre, although its population has grown considerably since the 1979 revolution.[21]

Islamic Republic

The municipality of Shiraz and the related cultural institutions have promoted and carried out many important restoration and reconstruction projects throughout the city.[15] Among the most recent ones are the complete restoration of the Arg of Karim Khan and of the Vakil Bath as well as a comprehensive plan for the preservation of the old city quarters. Other noteworthy initiatives of the municipality include the total renovation of the Qur'an Gate and the mausoleum of the poet Khwaju Kermani, both located in the Allahu Akbar Gorge, as well as the grand project of expansion of the mausoleum of the world famous poet Hafez.[15]

Geography

Shiraz is located in the south of Iran and the northwest of Fars Province. It is built in a green plain at the foot of the Zagros Mountains 1500 metres (5200 ft) above sea level. Shiraz is 919 kilometres (571 miles) south of Tehran.[22] A seasonal river, Rudkhaneye Khoshk, flows through the northern part of the city and on into Maharloo Lake.

Climate

Shiraz
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
80
 
12
-0
 
 
50
 
15
1
 
 
49
 
19
5
 
 
31
 
24
9
 
 
7
 
31
13
 
 
0
 
36
17
 
 
1
 
38
20
 
 
0
 
37
19
 
 
0
 
34
14
 
 
5
 
28
9
 
 
21
 
21
4
 
 
63
 
14
1
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: World Meteorological Organization

Shiraz has a moderate climate with regular seasons.[22]

Shiraz contains a considerable number of gardens. Due to population growth in the city, many of these gardens may be lost to build apartments. The rainfall in recent years, during which atmospheric conditions have changed perceptibly, has been comparatively sufficient, and has reached 23 inches in a year, but the average rainfall is between 14 and 18 inches.[23]

Shiraz weather data[24]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average temperature, C° 6 8 11 18 23 28 30 30 25 20 12 8 18
Average Maximum temperature, C° 11 13 17 24 30 35 37 36 32 27 18 13 24
Average Minimum temperature, C° 1 3 6 11 16 20 23 22 17 12 6 3 12
Average rain days 4 5 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 4 24

Economy

Shiraz is the economic center of southern Iran. The second half of the 19th century witnessed certain economic developments that greatly changed the economy of Shiraz. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 allowed the extensive import into southern Iran of inexpensive European factory-made goods, either directly from Europe or via India.[25] Farmers in unprecedented numbers began planting cash crops such as opium poppy, tobacco, and cotton. Many of these export crops passed through Shiraz on their way to the Persian Gulf. Iranian long-distance merchants from Fars developed marketing networks for these commodities, establishing trading houses in Bombay, Calcutta, Port Said, Istanbul and even Hong Kong.[25]

Shiraz's economic base is in its provincial products, which include grapes, citrus fruits, cotton and rice.[26] Industries such as cement production, sugar, fertilizers, textile products, wood products, metalwork and rugs dominate.[26] Shirāz also has a major oil refinery and is also a major center for Iran's electronic industries. 53% of Iran's electronic investment has been centered in Shiraz.[27]

Agriculture has always been a major part of the economy in and around Shiraz. This is partially due to a relative abundance of water compared to the surrounding deserts. Shirāz is famous for its carpet production and flowers as well. Viticulture has a long history in the region, and Shirazi wine used to be produced here. Shiraz is also the most important city in Iran for IT, communication and electronic industry.

The Shiraz Special Economic Zone or the SEEZ was established in 2000 with the purpose of boosting manufacture in electronic and communications.[28][29]

Eram Street Winter 2006

Demography

As of 2006, Shiraz has a population of 1,227,331.[30] Most of the population of Shiraz are Persian. Shiraz also was home to a 6,000-strong Jewish community, although most emigrated to the United States and Israel in the latter half of the 20th century.[31] Along with Tehran and Esfahan, Shiraz is one of the handful of Iranian cities with a sizable Jewish population, and more than one active synagogue.

There are currently two functioning churches in Shiraz, one Armenian, the other, Anglican[32][33]

Culture

Shiraz is known as the city of poets, gardens, wine, nightingales and flowers.[34][35] The crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design; silver-ware; carpet-weaving, and the making of the rugs called gilim (Shiraz Kilim or Sheraz Kalim)and "jajim" in the villages and among the tribes.[23] The garden is an important part of Iranian culture. There are many old gardens in Shiraz such as the Eram garden and the Afif abad garden. According to some people, Shiraz "disputes with Xeres [or Jerez] in Spain the honour of being the birthplace of sherry."[36]

Shiraz is proud of being mother land of Hafez-e-Shirazi, Shiraz is an important centre for Iranian culture and has produced a number of famous poets. Saadi, a 12th and 13th century poet was born in Shiraz. He left his native town at a young age for Baghdad to study Arabic literature and Islamic sciences at Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad. When he reappeared in his native Shiraz he was an elderly man. Shiraz, under Atabak Abubakr Sa'd ibn Zangy (12311260) was enjoying an era of relative tranquility. Saadi was not only welcomed to the city but he was highly respected by the ruler and enumerated among the greats of the province. He seems to have spent the rest of his life in Shiraz. Hafez, another famous poet and mystic was also born in Shiraz. A number of scientists also originate from Shiraz. Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, a 13th century astronomer, mathematician, physician, physicist and scientist was from Shiraz. In his The Limit of Accomplishment concerning Knowledge of the Heavens, he also discussed the possibility of heliocentrism.[37]

Main sights

A panoramic view of Shiraz in autumn 2009
  • The tombs of Hafez,[38] Saadi, and Khaju e Kermani (whose tomb is inside a mountain above the city's old Qur'an Gate). Other lesser known tombs are that of Shah Shoja' (the Mozafarid emir of Persia, and patron of Hafez), and the Haft Tanan mausoleum, where 7 Sufi mystics are buried. The Tomb of Baba Kuhi sits atop a mountain overlooking the city, and the tomb of Karim Khan Zand is at the Pars Museum of Shiraz. One of the most historical buildings is the Kian. This building was constructed around the time of Cyrus the Great, and has been a popular tourist attraction ever since.
  • The oldest mosque is Atigh Jame' Mosque, which is one of the older mosques of Iran, followed by Vakil Mosque and Nasir al-Mulk mosque. The Vakil Mosque is situated west of the famous Vakil Bazaar. It covers an area of 8,660 square meters and was built in 1187 (AH) during Zand Dynasty. On the two sides of the entrance gate there are magnificent tile-works and arches. The left and right corridors of the entrance gate are connected to the main room.
  • Shah Chiragh ("The King of Lights") Shrine .
  • The citadel of Arg of Karim Khan sits adjacent to the Vakil Bazaar and Vakil Bath at the city's central district. The most famous of houses are Zinat-ol-Molook House and Gahavam's House, both in the old quarters of the city.
  • The Qur'an Gate is the entrance to Shiraz. It is located near the gorge of Allah-o-Akbar and is flanked by the Baba Kuhi and Chehel Maqam mountains. The gateway is where two copies of the holy Qurans known
  • The Eram Garden (Bagh-e Eram) in Shiraz is a striking location for visitors with a variety of plants as well as a historic mansion. Although the exact date of the construction of the garden is not clear, historical evidence suggests it was constructed during the Seljuk Dynasty on the orders of the celebrated Seljuk monarch Sanjar. Other historical Persian gardens Afifabad Garden and The Museum of Weapons and Delgosha Garden.

Within a relatively short driving distance from Shiraz are the ruins of Persepolis, Bishapur, Pasargadae, and Firouzabad. At Naqsh-e Rustam can be found the tombs of the Achaemenid kings as well as the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht, which has been thought to be either a Zoroastrian fire temple or possibly even the true tomb of Cyrus the Great. Maharloo Lake is a popular breeding ground for various bird species.

Naqsh-e Rostam site contains funerary related works belonging to the Elamite (second millennium BCE), Achaemenid (550-330 BCE) and Sassanid (226-651 CE) eras. Naqsh-e Rostam is a site believed by archaeologists to have been a cemetery for Persepolis, where Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid royalty were laid to rest. Located about 3-4 kilometers northwest of Persepolis in Iran's Fars province, the site contains funerary relat

The tallest tower in shiraz is Eram Tower with 150 meters. In 2013 a Shiraz Tv Tower be opening with 200 meters.

North part of Shiraz at night.

Neighborhoods of Shiraz

List of neighbourhoods in Shiraz:

  • Abivardi
  • Farhang Shahr
  • Ghasrodasht
  • Kooye Zahra
  • Ma'ali Abad
  • Molla Sadra
  • Shahcheragh
  • Shahrak-e-Golestan
  • Shahrak-e-Sadra
  • Tachara
  • Zerehi
  • kolbeh saadi
  • Podonak
  • Payegah
  • Eram
  • Bagh-e Nari (Narvan)

Sports

Bargh Shiraz (Established in 1946) is Shiraz's top team and currently plays in Iran's Azadegan Football League. Its biggest honour was winning the 1997 Hazfi Cup. Moqavemat Sepasi (formerly Fajr Sepasi) (Established in 1988) also plays in Iran's Premier Football League, and have also won the Hazfi Cup in 2001. Shiraz has two Football stadiums; the Hafezieh stadium with 20,000 Capacity built in 1945 and Another stadium, Shiraz Stadium, is due to be finished in 2009 and will have 50,000 capacity.

Shiraz also has a female rugby team.[39][40]

Higher education

Shiraz University main building

Shiraz is home to a vibrant academic community. The Shiraz University of Medical Sciences was the first University in Shiraz and was founded in 1946. Much older is the august Madrasa-e-Khan, or Khan Theological School, with about 600 students; its tile-covered buildings date from 1627.[41]

Today Shiraz University is the largest university in the province, and one of Iran's best academic centers. Other major universities in or nearby Shirāz are the Islamic Azad University of Shirāz, Shiraz University of Technology, and Shiraz University of Applied Science and Technology.

The Shiraz Regional Library of Science and Technology is the largest provincial library serving the public.

Transportation

Airports

Shiraz International Airport serves as the largest airport in the southern region of Iran. After undergoing renovation and redevelopment work in 2005, Shiraz Airport was identified as the second most reliable and modern airport in Iran (after Imam Khomeini International Airport of Tehran) in terms of flight safety including electronic and navigation control systems of its flight tower. In addition to domestic flights to most major Iranian cities, several daily flights to Persian Gulf States including UAE and Bahrain are performed.

A metro system is being built in Shiraz by the Shiraz Urban Railway Organization. which will contains three lines. The length of the first Line will be 22.4 km, the length of the second line will be 8.5 km The length of the third line will be 16 km. 21 stations will be built in route one. The three lines when completed, will have 32 stations below ground and six above and one special station which will be connected to a railroad link under construction linking Shiraz with Isfahan.[42] However it is estimated that by the end of 2009 all three lines will be finished and authorities have said that by the beginning of 2010 they hope to put all three major underground lines in operation.

Metro

Shiraz metro is the subway system of Shiraz, the capital city of Fars Province and the largest city in southern Iran with a population of over 1.2 million in the city and over 1.7 million in the metropolitan area. Construction of Shiraz Metro began in 2001 because of traffic problems and high population density.

Bus

Shiraz has 7 bus lines with 50,000 buses.Iran's third Bus Rapid Transit was opening in Shiraz in 2009 with 2 lines.2 other lines be opening in 2010.

Train

Shiraz has train lines with Isfahan and Bandar Abbas. Shiraz's first train station was build in 1962.A new train station was opening in 1999 by Mohammad Khatami Iran's last President.

Famous people

  • Hafez, one of the most celebrated Persian lyric poets, 14th CE.
  • Saadi, another major Persian poet of the medieval period, 13th CE.
  • Báb, was the founder of Bábism, and one of three central figures of the Bahá'í Faith, 19th CE.
  • Karim Khan, was the ruler and de facto Shah of Iran from 1760 until 1779, with Shiraz his capital.
  • Mulla Sadra, a Persian Islamic philosopher, theologian and ‘Ālim who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century.
  • Valerie Jarrett, Senior Adviser to US President Barack Obama.
Shiraz View.jpg

Twin towns — Sister cities

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ Shiraz Municipality
  2. ^ http://shoora.shirazcity.org
  3. ^ Statistical Center of Iran - 2006 Census
  4. ^ After Tehran, Mashhad, Esfahan, Tabriz and Karaj; in 2006 Shiraz had a total population of 1,204,882
  5. ^ Cameron, George G. Persepolis Treasury Tablets, University of Chicago Press, 1948:115.
  6. ^ (Iran Chamber Society) "Shiraz" (php file); "Shiraz"
  7. ^ "the physical features of Shiraz"
  8. ^ Looklex Encyclopaedia
  9. ^ ARSH Co. site
  10. ^ http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=186558
  11. ^ Cameron, George G. Persepolis Treasury Tablets, University of Chicago Press, 1948, pp. 115.
  12. ^ a b Conder, Josiah (1827). Persia and China. Printed for J. Duncan. , p. 339
  13. ^ a b Iran. Lonely Planet. 2008. ISBN 1741042933, 9781741042931. , p. 269
  14. ^ "World's Earliest Wine". Archeology, vol. 49 (1996), Retrieved 24 February 2004.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of Shiraz". http://www.shirazcity.org/shiraz/Shiraz%20Information/shiraz_history/History%20e.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  16. ^ (pdf file)
  17. ^ "Shiraz, Iran"
  18. ^ (Google book search)
  19. ^ Littman (1979), p. 14
  20. ^ Littman (1979), p. 12
  21. ^ Shiraz History - Shiraz Travel Guide - Lonely Planet
  22. ^ a b Shiraz
  23. ^ a b The Characteristics of Shiraz
  24. ^ Climate information for SHIRAZ in Iran - Climate Zone
  25. ^ a b Religious Dissidence and Urban Leadership: Baha'is in Qajar Shiraz and Tehran
  26. ^ a b Shiraz
  27. ^ Arsh K S Co. - Projects - Shiraz Special Electronic Economic Zone
  28. ^ [1] retrieved 18 Feb 2010
  29. ^ World Free Trade Zones
  30. ^ Iran - City Population - Cities, Towns & Provinces - Statistics & Map
  31. ^ Jews accused of spying are pawns in Iran power struggle - Middle East, World - Independent.co.uk
  32. ^ Bearing the cross | World news | guardian.co.uk
  33. ^ Iranian Monuments: Historical Churches in Iran
  34. ^ Iranian Cities: Shiraz
  35. ^ Shiraz
  36. ^ Maclean, Fitzroy. Eastern Approaches. (1949). Reprint: The Reprint Society Ltd., London, 1951, p. 215
  37. ^ A. Baker and L. Chapter (2002), "Part 4: The Sciences". In M. M. Sharif, "A History of Muslim Philosophy", Philosophia Islamica.
  38. ^ Salak, Kira. ""National Geographic article about Iran"". National Geographic Adventure. http://www.kirasalak.com/Iran.html. 
  39. ^ Iranian women tackle rugby in Islamic republic | Haaba
  40. ^ <http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/E4107D6E-2825-419E-BA27-BA32348A49D3.htm retrieved 28 February 2008
  41. ^ Khan Mosque and Madrasa
  42. ^ Shiraz Metro routes
  43. ^ [2]
  44. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chongqing

External links

Note: This photo set contains some very rare photographs of Shiraz taken during the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar and Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar, including those of the old cemetery of Shiraz ([4], [5], [6]cf. [7]), later renamed the Mosallah Gardens of Shiraz, also known as Hafezieh. The set contains also the photograph of Bagh-e Takht ([8], [9] — built some 900 years ago), of which no trace survives in today's Shiraz, as well as Rabindranath Tagore's photograph ([10]) taken in Shiraz in the spring of 1932 (1311 AH).
Preceded by
Ray
Capital of Iran
{{{years}}}
Succeeded by
Ghazni
Preceded by
mashhad
Capital of Iran
1750–1794
Succeeded by
Tehran


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Hafez Tomb
Hafez Tomb

Shiraz [1] (شیراز) is the capital of Fars province and a treasure trove of Persian culture. It was the capital of Iran during the Zand dynasty (1747-79), and also the celebrated birthplace of the great poets Hafiz and Saadi. It is also the origin of one of the best wines in world called Syrah. The city has a population of about 1,300,000. Shirazi Citizens really care for Enjoying in their life, and they really do everything they can and whenever they can for enjoying , and have fun time together. Family & Friends Party are very common between Shirazi(s), And Dance of Shirazi Girls can not be Competed.

  • Shiraz International Airport (IATA: SYZ) (ICAO: OISS) has regular flights to all major and some smaller cities in Iran. There are International flights to Dubai, Sharjah, Bahrain, Kuwait. There is a flight from Istanbul operated by Turkish Airlines.

By bus

Shiraz is well connected to most parts of the country by bus.

By car

Freeways connect the city to Isfahan, Kerman, Bushehr, Ahvaz and Yasouj, and Bandar-e Abbas is reachable by highway.

By Train

Shiraz Train station has recently been finished and there will be Trains to Persepolis, Isfahan and Tehran.

Get around

For non-Persian visitors, taxis are probably the most convenient mean of transport. However be sure to haggle for a good price prior to getting into the car.

If an unmarked car stops while you are hailing a taxi, don't be alarmed. Many taxis in Shiraz are unmarked and also as a means to supplement their income, is not uncommon to find private car owners touting themselves as taxis.

However it always best to find a taxi through a reputable "telephone taxi" agency. For a set fee, drivers of these agencies will take passengers to their destination, drive them around town and also wait for them while they shop or run errands. All hotels and local residents will have a phone number of one these agencies. There are also taxis driven by women that specifically cater to women passengers.

The city also has a reasonable bus service.

Talk

Dont hesitate to talk to people, especially youths. Almost all of them speak English well enough to talk to you, answer your questions and chat with you. They're all very welcoming and like getting into conversation with you. Some of them might even invite you to be their guest.

Saadi Thomb
Saadi Thomb
  • Hafez Tomb - Recommended. Mausoleum of Hafez- Hafez (1324-1391), the greatest master of Persian lyric poetry and the literary giant of the 14th century, was born in Shiraz, lived all his life here, sang its praises in unsurpassed verse and was buried in a garden known after him as the Hafezieh, in the northeast part of the city. The extraordinary popularity and the wide appeal of this great poet among all Persian-speaking people make his tomb a cherished placed, visited by all. This mausoleum too was rebuilt in the early 50’s. A flight of stone steps reaches to the tomb under a tiled cupola resembling a dervish’s hat. The tombstone is beautifully inscribed with two of Hafez’s poems or Ghazals. Visitors to the tomb can still, as they have done for centuriesm take the omens, or faals, by picking a page at random from a volume of Hafez, kept for this purpose.
  • Saadi Tomb - Recommended. Mausoleum of Saadi: Here lie the earthly remains of one of Iran’s greatest poets-Sa’di. Even from the very early days after the poet’s death, the mausoleum of Sa’di became a place of pilgrimage to lovers of poetry and literature. In 1808 AD Karim Khan Zand renovated the mausoleum. The tomb was rebuilt in the early 50’s. The porch with its tall columns of pinkish marble is a traditional feature of Iranian architecture.
  • Arg of Karim Khan - formerly a prison, but now an architectural wonder on exhibit.
Afif Abad Gardens
Afif Abad Gardens
  • Afif abad Garden (Bagh-e-afifabad) - a garden and houses owned by the Ghavami family. Highly recommended.
Eram Garden
Eram Garden
  • Eram Garden (Bagh-e-eram) - Highly recommended.
  • Narangestan Qavam (Bagh-e-naranjestan) - highly recommended
  • Delgosha Garden (Bagh-e-delgosha)
Interior of Nasir al-Mulk Mosque
Interior of Nasir al-Mulk Mosque
  • Nasir al-Mulk Mosque
  • Jame’e Atigh Mosque
  • Vakil Mosque
  • New mosque
  • Vakil Bath - Highly recommended.
  • Vakil Bazaar - hundreds of vendors housed in an ancient bazaar. Highly recommended.
  • Saray-e-Moshir - a caravansary at the south entrance of Bazaar Vakil, which now functions as exhibition space for Iranian handicrafts. highly recommended.
  • Mesgarha Bazaar
  • Moshir-e-Now Bazaar
  • Shah Cheragh - Highly recommended. Seyed Amir Ahmad, known as Shah-e Cheragh, the brother of Imam Reza, came to Shiraz in the latter half of the 8th century. He passed away in the city and his tomb is now a respected place of pilgrimage. The structure, tile work and the dome of the mausoleum have been rebuilt several times over the centuries. The tomb, the beautiful silver doors and the exquisite mirror work are the handicrafts of masters and contemporary artists of Shiraz.
  • Khwaju Kermani Tomb
  • Abesh Khatoon Tomb
  • Seyed Taj-e-din Gharib Tomb
  • Sheykh Roozbahan Tomb
  • Khan school
  • Ghal'eye Karim Khan
  • Christians Church
  • Qor'an Gate (Dar vazeh Quran) - the city's main entrance. The original gate was built as an ornamental decoration by the Buwwayhids (Buwayhid dynasty) about 1000 years ago, but this was replaced 60 years ago by new gate, which is considered one of the finest architectural designs in Iran and has won numerous awards. From the the gate walk up the stone stairways to enjoy picturesque and panoramic views of Shiraz. The tomb of Khajooyeh Kermanee, a famous poet is also located here. Hidden in the alleys on the hill-side are numerous restaurants that serve the finest chelo kabob. It is an excellent place for picnics and taking photographs.

Buy

Retail stores usually open between 9AM and 1PM, reopening again from 5PM to 9PM. It is customary to haggle for a discount, which is referred to as a takhfeef.

  • Bazaar Vakeel - a huge ancient bazaar specializing in fine carpets, textiles, antiques and handicrafts, and spices . There is also a wonderful courtyard with a pool located in the bazaar perfect for photographs. It is called 'SARAYE MOOSHIR'. Visit Sharzeh and Hamam Vakeel for a great dining experience located just outside the bazaar.

Shopping Malls:

  • Hafez Shopping Center, Afifabad Blv.
  • Setareye Fars Shopping Center, Afifabad Blv.
  • Sina Shopping Center, Motahhari Blv.
  • Kebab with rice - like elsewhere in Iran, the mighty old kebab with rice is a common fare, though Shiraz does offer a local variation on the national dish.
  • Shirazi Salad - A delicious and famous salad available throughout Iran, made with cucumbers, tomatoes, onions and a simple lemon juice and olive oil dressing.
  • Masghati Halva - a great dessert and snack.
  • Nokhod(Chickpea) Cookie - delicious cookie made of chickpea, known as one of Shiraz's souvenirs.
  • Shirazi Paloodeh - Paloodeh is an ice cream made of rice starch, which takes the form of noodles. It is flavored with "sharbat" (sugar water), which can be of different flavors. Shirazian paloodeh is the best paloodeh in Iran especially when mixed with Bahar-e-Naranj Distill.

Restaurants

Almost all of these places have Live music playing

  • Lotus Restaurant, on the top floor of Setareh-e-Fars Shopping Center
  • Kaktoos Restaurant
  • Shater Abbas
  • Sharzeh Restaurant, a classic old restaurant located just outside the Vakil bazaar
  • Soofi Restaurant, traditional restaurant located at Sattarkhan St.
  • Hammam-e-Vakil (Vakil Bath), classic old style restaurant
  • Parmin Restaurant, Italian Restaurant
  • Shandiz Restaurant
  • Sita Terditional Restaurant, with Live Iranian Music
  • Gambron SeaFood Restaurant, serving famous food from the whole of Persian gulf

Fast Food

You can find at least one fastfood parlor in every Street of Shiraz.

  • Givani, Modern restaurant offering Burgers,FC,Pizza
  • Safir SFC, another Modern themed restaurant
  • Iranwich
  • Hot
  • Rabo
  • Soofi
  • Shaverma
  • 110 Wimpy
  • Emperor

Cafes

You can find coffee shops at shopping centers and on the main streets. Some are big and some are small.

  • Brentin
  • Safir

Food Gardens

There are a lot of gardens out of Shiraz, most have been remodeled as restaurants. Most have live music playing in the evenings and offer great view.

  • Nakhlestan Garden
  • Padra Garden, relatively new
  • Darband Garden
  • Silvia Garden

Drink

Alcohol is illegal in Iran, though available on the black market. Shiraz is internationally famous for its distinctive red wine.

  • Doogh is a popular and delicious naturally-carbonated yogurt drink. It is generally served with ice and a dash of mint.
  • Distill's - Shiraz have many kind of aromatic distill's.

Sleep

Budget

There are a few budget hotels located about 200m south of the roundabout at Arg-é Karim Khan.

  • Shiraz Hotel reservation - Pardis Reservation Network [2]
  • Aryo-Barzan Hotel, Roodaki Ave. Tel: +98 (711) 2247182-4 . Fax: +98 (711) 2228959 [3]
  • Parseh Hotel, 22Bahman St. Tel:+98 (711) 2226600 . Fax: +98 (711) 2223003
  • Parsian Hotel, Roodaki Ave. Tel:+98 (711) 2304965-69 . Fax:+98 (711) 2331000
  • Apadana Hotel, Ahli St. Tel:+98 (711) 2301336 & 2359322 . Fax:+98 (711) 2301337
  • Shiraz Eram Hotel, Karim Khan-é Zand. Tel:+98 71 230-3884 [4]
  • Homa Hotel, Meshkinfam St., next to Azadi Park. Tel:+98 (711) 2288000-9 . Fax:+98 (711) 2288014 & 2288021 [5] - housed in the former Intercontinental.
  • Pars International Hotel, Zand Boulevard. Tel:+98 (711) 2332255 . Fax:+98 (711) 2307006 & 2336380 - highly recommended.
  • Persepolis International Hotel, Atlasi Sq. , Azadi Blvd., Tel: +98 (711) 2271280-94 . Fax: +98 (711) 2280941 [6]

Get out

Pasargad was a Persian capital built by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC. Around 500 BC, Darius built a new capital at Persepolis 50 km away. Both are now on the UNESCO World Heritage List and both are near Shiraz.

Persepolis (Takht-e-Jamshid)
Persepolis (Takht-e-Jamshid)
  • Takht-e-Jamshid (Persepolis) - The center of the great Persian Empire, ceremonial capital of the Achaemenians and the showpiece of Achaemenian art, Persepolis (Capital of Persia in Greek) is a historic site in Fars Province, 60 km to the northeast of Shiraz. Iranians call it Takht-e Jamshid (The throne of Jamshid), Jamshid being the first, probably mythical, ruler of Iran. This magnificent court was the summer residence of the Achaemenian emperors and their official reception quarters. It must be by some strange accident of history that Persepolis was never mentioned in foreign records, for it was here that representatives of all the varied peoples of the empire gathered to pay homage, and bring tribute, to the King of Kings, probably each spring, at the time of the ancient Now Ruz festival. Although set on fire and destroyed by Alexander in a gesture symbolizing the destruction of Persian imperial power, its still impressive ruins permit a fairly complete reconstruction of its original appearance.
  • Palace of Apadana
  • Bishapur
  • Firouzabad
  • Ghal'eh Dokhtar
  • Palace of Ardashir – The Palace ruins of Sassanid king Ardashir I
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SHIRAZ, the capital of the province of Fars in Persia, situated in a fertile plain, in 29° 36' N., 52° 32' E, at an elevation of 510o ft., 156 m. by road N.E. by E. from Bushire (112 m. direct). According to Eastern authorities Shiraz was founded in A.D. 693 by Mahommed b. Yusuf Thakefi, a brother of the famous Hajjaj. It is approached on the south from the Persian Gulf through lofty and difficult mountain passes (highest 7400 ft.) and on the north through chains of hills which separate the plain of Shiraz from that of Mervdasht, where the ruins of Persepolis are. It is surrounded by a low mud wall flanked by towers, and a dry ditch, and measures about 4 m. in circumference. There are six gates. The town is divided into eleven quarters (mahalleh), one of which is exclusively inhabited by Jews and called Mahalleh Yahudi. The population of Shiraz is estimated at 60,000, but in 1884 it was 53,607, of which 1970 were Jews. The houses of Shiraz are, in general, small, and the streets narrow. A great bazaar, built by Kerim Khan Zend, forms an exception to this; it is about 500 yds. in length and has a vaulted roof 22 ft. high, and contains many spacious shops well supplied with goods and merchandise. There are many mosques, the most notable being the old Jama, a foundation of the Saffarid ruler Amr b. Leith in 894, now in a state of ruin; the new Jama, generally called Masjed i Nau; the New Mosque, built by Atabeg S`ad b. Zengi, c. 1200; and the Jama i Vakil, built by Kerim Khan Zend in 1766. Shiraz still possesses the title "Dar ul ilm," the "Seat of Knowledge," and has many colleges ( madresseh), the oldest being the Mansurieh built in 1478 by Seyed Sadr ed din Mahommed Dashteki; the Hashimiyeh and Nizamieh date from the middle of the 17th century, the college called M. i Agha Baba was begun by Kerim Khan Zend, c. 1760, but finished in 1823 by Agha Baba Khan Mazanderani. Of the twenty caravanserais, or more, which Shiraz has, the oldest is that called Car Chiragh Ali, built in 1678. There are several shrines of Imam-zadehs, the most venerated and rich being that of Seyed Amir Ahmed, commonly known as Shah Chiragh, a son of Musa Kazim, the seventh imam of the Shiites. It was built c. 1240 by Atabeg Abu Bekr. Two of Shah Chiragh's brothers and a nephew also have their graves at Shiraz. Within the town and in close proximity to it are many pleasant gardens (bagh), among them the B. Jehan Nema (Kerim Khan 1766), where C. J. Rich, British resident at Bagdad and explorer of Babylon and Kurdistan, died on the 5th of October 1821, and the adjoining B. i Nau (1810); B. i Takht i Kajar (built 1087 by Atabeg Karajeh under the Seljuk Malik Shah; restored 1794 by order of Agha Mahommed Khan, the first Kajar ruler); B. i Dilgusha (restored 1785), &c. Close to the last-mentioned garden is the Sadiyeh, an enclosure with the tomb of the celebrated poet S`adi, and in a cemetery near the northern side of the town stands the Hafiziyeh, with the tomb of the likewise celebrated poet Hafiz, a sarcophagus made of yellow Yezd marble with two of the poet's odes beautifully chiselled in relief in a number of elegant panels upon its lid. A fine view of the town and environs is obtained from the narrow pass (tang), which leads into the Shiraz plain a mile or two north of the city, and "so overwhelmed with astonishment at the beauty of the panorama is the wayfarer expected to be, that even the pass takes its name of Tang i Allahu Akbar, the Pass of God is Most Great, from the expression that is supposed to leap to his lips as he gazes upon the entrancing spectacle" (Curzon).

The most noted product of Shiraz is its wine made from the famous grapes of the Khullar vineyards, 30 m. N.W. of Shiraz, but only a very small quantity of it is exported, and religious scruples still prevent its manufacture on a large scale. The climate of Shiraz is agreeable and healthy in the winter, but unhealthy in the spring and summer. July is the hottest month with a mean temperature of 85°, February the coldest with 47°. The lowest temperature observed during a number of years was 21°, the highest 113°, showing a difference of 92° between extremes. The mean annual temperature is 65°. Earthquakes are of frequent occurrence; those in modern times which caused great loss of life and destruction of property happened in 1824 and 1853. Shiraz is the residence of a British consul (since 1903)1903) and has post and telegraph offices. On a hill adjoining the Dilgusha garden stand the ruins of an old castle known as Kal`ah i Bender (a corruption of Fahn-dar), with two wells hewn in the rock to a depth of several hundred feet. (A. 11.-S.)


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Proper noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Singular
Shiraz

Plural
-

Shiraz

  1. A city in southern Iran, near the remains of Persepolis

Translations

  • Arabic: شيراز (širāz)
  • Azerbaijani:
    Cyrillic: Шираз
    Persic: شیراز
    Roman: Şiraz
  • Bosnian: Širaz m.
  • Bulgarian: Шираз m.
  • Croatian: Širaz m.
  • Czech: Šíráz m.
  • Esperanto: Ŝirazo
  • French: Chiraz
  • German: Schiraz
  • Japanese: シーラーズ
  • Lithuanian: Širazas
  • Persian: شیراز fa(fa) (širāz)
  • Polish: Sziraz m.
  • Portuguese: Xiraz
  • Russian: Шираз m.
  • Serbian:
    Cyrillic: Шираз m.
    Roman: Širaz m.
  • Swedish: Shiraz sv(sv)
  • Turkish: Şiraz

Noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Singular
Shiraz

Plural
uncountable

Shiraz (uncountable)

  1. A variety of black grape used to make wine
  2. A wine made from these grapes

Synonyms

Translations


Simple English

Shiraz is an important city in Southern Iran. About 1.2 million people live there.








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