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Shyamji Krishna Varma
Born Oct 30, 1857
Mandvi, Kutch
Died March 30, 1939
Nationality Indian
Known for Indian Independence Movement
Spouse(s) Bhanumati Krishnavarma

Shyamji Krishna Varma (Shyamji Krishna Nakhua) (1857–1930) was an Indian revolutionary,[1] lawyer and journalist who founded the Indian Home Rule Society, India House and The Indian Sociologist in London. A graduate of Balliol College, Krishna Varma was a noted scholar in Sanskrit and other Indian languages. He pursued a brief legal career in India and served as the Divan of a number of Indian princely states in India.[2]. He had, however, differences with Crown authority and was dismissed following a supposed conspiracy of local British officials at Junagadh,[3] and chose to return to England. An admirer of Dayanand Saraswati's approach of Cultural nationalism, and of Herbert Spencer, Krishna Varma believed in Spencer's dictum "Resistance to aggression is not simply justified, but imperative".[2] In 1905 he founded the India House and The Indian Sociologist, which rapidly developed as an organised meeting point for radical nationalists among Indian students in Britain at the time, and one of the most prominent centres for revolutionary Indian nationalism outside India. Most famous among the members of this organisation was V.D. Savarkar. Krishna Varma himself moved to Paris in 1907, fearing prosecution. He died in 1930.

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Early life

Shyamaji Krishna Varma was born October 30, 1857 in Mandvi, Kutch province as Shamji, the son of, Karsan Bhanushali (Karsan Nakhua, Nakhua is the specific surname while [Bhanushali] is the community Name), a labourer for cotton Press Company and Gomatibai, his mother who died when Shyamaji was only eleven years old. He was raised by his grandmother. After completing secondary education in Bhuj he went to Mumbai for further education at Wilson High School. Whilst in Mumbai he learnt Sanskrit.

In 1875 Shyamaji got married to Bhanumati, a daughter of a wealthy businessman of the Bhatia community and sister of his school friend Ramdas. Then he got in touch with the nationalist Swami Dayananda Saraswati, a radical reformer and an exponent of Vedas, who had founded Arya Samaj. He became his disciple and was soon conducting lectures on Vedic Philosophy and Religion. In 1877, a public speaking tour secured him a great public recognition all over Bharat. He became the first non-Brahmin, to receive the prestigious title of Pandit by the Pandits of Kashi in 1877. He came to the attention of Professor Monier Williams, an Oxford Professor of Sanskrit who offered Shyamaji a job as his assistant.

Oxford

Shyamji arrived in England and joined Balliol College, Oxford on 25 April 1879 with the recommendation of Professor Monier Williams. Passing his B.A. in 1883, he presented a lecture on “the origin of writing in India” to the Royal Asiatic Society. The speech was very well received and he was elected a non-resident member of the society. In 1881 he represented India at the Berlin Congress of Orientalists.

Legal career

He returned to India in 1885 and started practice as a lawyer. Then he was appointed as Diwan (chief minister) by the King of Ratlam State; but ill health forced him to retire from this post with a lump sum gratauity of RS 32052 for his service. After a short stay in Mumbai he settled in Ajmer, headquarters of his Guru Swami Dayananda Saraswati, and continued his practice at the British Court in Ajmer. He invested his income in three cotton presses and secured sufficient permanent income, to be independent for the rest of his life. He served for the Maharaja of Udaipur as a council member from 1893 to 1895, followed by the position of Diwan of Junagadh State. He resigned in 1897 after a bitter experience with the British agent which shook his faith in British Rule.

Nationalism

Krishna Varma was very much impressed with Lokmanya Tilak and supported him during the Age of Consent bill controversy of 1890. However, he rejected the petitioning, praying, protesting, cooperating and collaborating policy of the Congress Party, which he considered undignified and shameful. In 1897, following the atrocities inflicted by the British Government during the plague crisis in Poona, he supported the assassination of the Commissioner of Plague by the Chapekar brothers but he soon decided to fight for Indian Independence in Britain.

England

Upon his arrival in London, he stayed at the Inner Temple and studied Herbert Spencer's writings in his spare time. In 1900 he bought an expensive house in Highgate. His home became a base for all political leaders of India. Gandhi, Lenin, Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, etc., all visited him to discuss the Indian Independence Movement. Avoiding the Indian National Congress, he kept in contact with rationalists, free thinkers, national & social democrats, socialists, Irish republicans etc.

Shyamji was inspired by the philosophy of Herbert Spencer. At Spencer's funeral in 1903, he announced the donation of £1,000 to establish a lectureship at University of Oxford in tribute to him and his work. A year later he announced that Herbert Spencer Indian fellowships of RS 2000 each were to be awarded to enable Indian graduates to finish their education in England. He also announced additional fellowship in memory of the late Swami Dayananda Saraswati, the founder of Arya Samaj, along with another four fellowships in the future.

Political Activism

In 1905, Shyamji focussed his activity as a political propagandist and organiser for the complete independence of India. Shyamji made his debut in Indian politics by publishing the first issue of his English monthly, The Indian Sociologist, an organ of freedom and of political, social and religious reform. This was an assertive, ideological monthly aimed at inspiring mass opposition to British rule, which stimulated many intellectuals to fight for the freedom of India.

Indian Home Rule Society

On 18 February 1905 Shyamji inaugurated a new organisation called The Indian Home Rule Society. The first meeting, held at his Highgate home, unanimously decided to found “The Indian Home Rule Society” with the object of:

1) Securing Home Rule for India
2) Carrying on Propaganda in England by all practical means with a view to attain the same.
3) Spreading among the people of India the objectives of freedom and national unity.

India House

As many Indian students faced racist attitudes when seeking accommodations, he founded India House as a hostel for Indian students, based at 65, Cromwell Avenue, Highgate. This living accommodation for 25 students was formally inaugurated on 1 July by Henry Hyndman, of the Social Democratic Federation, in the presence of Dadabhai Naoroji, Lala Lajpat Rai, Madam Cama, Mr. Swinney (of the London Positivist Society), Mr. Harry Quelch (the editor of the Social Democratic Federation's Justice) and Charlotte Despard, the Irish Republican and suffragette. Declaring “India House” open, Hyndman remarked, “As things stands, loyalty to Great Britain means treachery to India. The institution of this India House means a great step in that direction of Indian growth and Indian emancipation, and some of those who are here this afternoon may live to witness the fruits of its triumphant success.” Shyamji hoped India House would incubate Indian revolutionaries and Bhikaiji Cama, Sardarsinh Rana, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Virendranath Chattopadhyaya, and Lala Hardayal were all associated with it.

Later in 1905 Shyamji attended the United Congress of Democrats held at Holborn Town Hall as a delegate of the India Home Rule Society. His resolution on India received an enthusiastic ovation from the entire conference. Shyamji’s activities in England aroused the concern of the British government: he was disbarred from Inner Temple and removed from the membership list on 30 April 1909 for writing anti-British articles in The Indian Sociologist. Most of the British press were anti–Shyamji and carried outrageous allegations against him and his newspaper. He defended them boldly. The Times referred to him as the “Notorious Krishnavarma”. Many newspapers criticised the British progressives who supported Shyamji and his view. His movements were closely watched by British Secret Services, so he decided to shift his headquarters to Paris, leaving India House in charge of Vir Savarkar. Shyamji left Britain secretly before the British Government tried to arrest him.

Paris

He arrived in Paris in early 1907 to continue his work. The British government tried to have him extradited from France without success as he gained the support of many top French politicians.[citation needed] Shyamji’s name was dragged into the sensational trial of Mr Merlin, an Englishman, at Bow Street Magistrates' Court, for writing an article in “liberators” published by Shyamji’s friend, Mr. James. Shyamji's work in Paris helped gain support for Indian Independence from European countries. He agitated for the release of Savarker and acquired great support all over Europe and Russia.[citation needed] Guy Aldred wrote an article in the Daily Herald under the heading of “Savarker the Hindu Patriot whose sentences expire on 24th December 1960”, helping create support in England too. In 1914 his presence became an embarrassment as French politicians had invited King George V to Paris to set a final seal on the Entente Cordiale. Shyamji foresaw this and shifted his headquarters to Geneva. Here the Swiss government imposed political restrictions during the entire period of World War I. He kept in touch with his contacts but he could not support them directly. He spent time with Dr. Briess, president of the Pro India Committee in Geneva, whom he later discovered was a paid secret agent of the British government. This discovery left him emotionally scarred.

Post WWI

He offered a sum of 10,000 francs to the League of Nations to endow a lectureship to be called the President Woodrow Wilson Lectureship for the discourse on the best means of acquiring and safe guarding national independence consistently with freedom, justice, and the right of asylum accorded to political refugees. It is said that the league rejected his offer due to political pressure from British government. A similar offer was made to the Swiss government which was also turned down. He offered another lectureship at the banquet given by Press Association of Geneva where 250 journalists and celebrities, including the presidents of Swiss Federation and the League of Nations. Shyamji’s offer was applauded on the spot but nothing came of it. Shyamji was disappointed with the response and he published all his abortive correspondence on this matter in the next issue of the Sociologist appearing in December 1920, after a lapse of almost 6 years.

Death and commemoration

He published two more issues of Indian Sociologist in August and September 1922, before ill health prevented him continuing. He died in hospital at 11:30pm on March 30, 1930 leaving his wife Shrimati Bhanumati Krishnavarma.

News of his death was suppressed by the British government in India. Nevertheless tributes were paid to him by Sardar Bhagat Singh and his co-revolutionist brothers in Lahore Jail where they were undergoing a long-term drawn out trial. Maratha, a daily newspaper started by Shri Tilak in Marathi, paid very touching tribute to him as a great revolutionary.

Pandit Shyamaji Krishnavarma did not live to witness the independence of Bharat, but his confidence in India gaining its freedom from British rule in future was so strong that he made prepaid arrangements with the local government of Geneva and St Georges cemetery to preserve his & his wife’s ashes (Asthis) at the cemetery for one hundred years and to send their urns to India whenever it became independent during that period. The Congress Party who took over control of India at the end of British rule did not bother to pursue the matter of bringing his ashes for sectarian reasons[citation needed]. Informed about the proposal made by Dr Prithwindra Mukherjee, a Paris based historian, to late Prime Minister Smt Indira Gandhi, in 1980, and by the interest she showed in favour of repatriating these relics, Shri Mangal Lakhamshi Bhanushali of the Shyamji Krishna Varma Smarak Samiti from Mumbai approached Dr Mukherjee in August 1989. Encouraged by the "good news of the progress achieved" through Dr Mukherjee's "continuous efforts," Shri Bhanushali in his letter to Dr Mukherjee, dated 9 November 1989, requested him "to activate the concerned Embassy Staff," which was earnestly followed up by Dr Mukherjee, by contacting the Indian delegations both in Paris and Geneva. Consequently, the joint efforts of Mangal Lakhamshi Bhanushali, Corporator of Mumbai and Trustee of Krishnavarma foundation, Mandavi, Shri Kirit Somaiya, Member of parliament, Mulund, Mumbai, Hemantkumar Padhya, Researcher and founder/President of Hindu Swatantryavir Smruti Sansthanam, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, Shri Vinod Khanna, MP, Bollywood actor and Minister of External Affairs for the Government of India, Shri Narendra Modi, Chief Minister of Gujarat State and many others, finally succeeded in returning the urns of Pandit Shyamaji and his wife Bhanumati, which were officially handed over to The Chief Minister of Gujarat state on August 22, 2003, by the Ville de Geneve and the Swiss Government fifty five years after Indian Independence.

See also

References

  1. ^ Chandra, Bipan (1989). India's Struggle for Independence. New Delhi: Penguin Books India. pp. 145. ISBN 9780140107814. 
  2. ^ a b Qur 2005, p. 123
  3. ^ Johnson 1994, p. 119
  • Qur, Moniruddin (2005), History of Journalism, Anmol Publications., ISBN 8126123559 .
  • Johnson, K. Paul (1994), The Masters Revealed: Madame Blavatsky and the Myth of the Great White Lodge, SUNY Press, ISBN 0791420639 .
  • Template:Indian Reference.

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