Siachen conflict: Wikis


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Siachen Conflict
Part of the Indo-Pakistani Wars and the Kashmir conflict
Map Kashmir Standoff 2003.png
Siachen Glacier lies in the Karakoram range. Its snout is less than 50 km north of the Ladakh Range.
Date April 13, 1984- present[1]
Location Siachen Glacier, in a disputed and undemarcated region of Kashmir
India controls the entire Siachen Glacier and the crest (top) of the main Saltoro Ridge west of the glacier.
3,000 3,000
Casualties and losses
1,025 [2] 1,344 [3]

The Siachen Conflict, sometimes referred to as the Siachen War, is a military conflict between India and Pakistan over the disputed Siachen Glacier region in Kashmir.

The conflict began in 1984 with India's successful Operation Meghdoot during which it wrested control of the Siachen Glacier from Pakistan and forced the Pakistanis to retreat west of the Saltoro Ridge. India has established control over all of the 70 kilometres (43 mi) long Siachen Glacier and all of its tributary glaciers, as well as the three main passes of the Saltoro Ridge immediately west of the glacier—Sia La, Bilafond La, and Gyong La. Pakistan controls the glacial valleys immediately west of the Saltoro Ridge. [4][5] According to TIME magazine, India gained more than 1000 square miles of territory because of its military operations in Siachen.



The Siachen glacier is the highest battleground on earth[6][7], where India and Pakistan have fought intermittently since April 13, 1984. Both countries maintain permanent military presence in the region at a height of over 6,000 metres (20,000 ft). More than 2000 people have died in this inhospitable terrain, mostly due to weather extremes and the natural hazards of mountain warfare.


The conflict in Siachen stems from the incompletely demarcated territory on the map beyond the map coordinate known as NJ9842. The 1972 Simla Agreement did not clearly mention who controlled the glacier, merely stating that from the NJ9842 location the boundary would proceed "thence north to the glaciers." UN officials presumed there would be no dispute between India and Pakistan over such a cold and barren region[8]


In 1957 Pakistan permitted a British expedition under Eric Shipton to approach the Siachen through the Bilafond La, and recce Saltoro Kangri.[9] Five years later a Japanese-Pakistani expedition put two Japanese and a Pakistani Army climber on top of Saltoro Kangri.[10] These were early moves in this particular game of oropolitics.

The United States Defense Mapping Agency (now National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency) began in about 1967 to show, with no legal or historical justification or any boundary documentation, an international boundary on their Tactical Pilotage Charts available to the public and pilots as proceeding from NJ9842 east-northeast to the Karakoram Pass at 5,534 m (18,136 ft) on the China border. [11] Numerous governmental and private cartographers and atlas producers followed suit. This cartographic aggression resulted in the US cartographically "awarding" the entire 5,000 square kilometers (1,930 square miles) of the Siachen-Saltoro area to Pakistan.

In the 1970s and early 1980s several mountaineering expeditions applied to Pakistan to climb high peaks in the Siachen area due in part to U.S Defense Mapping Agency and most other maps and atlases showing it on the Pakistani side of the line. Pakistan granted a number of permits. This in turn reinforced the Pakistani claim on the area, as these expeditions arrived on the glacier with a permit obtained from the Government of Pakistan. Teram Kangri I (7,465 m/24,491 ft) and Teram Kangri II (7,406 m/24,298 ft) were climbed in 1975 by a Japanese expedition led by H. Katayama, which approached through Pakistan via the Bilafond La.[12]

The Indian government and military took notice, and protested the cartography. Prior to 1984 neither India nor Pakistan had any permanent presence in the area. Having become aware of the errant US military maps and the permit incidents, Colonel N. Kumar, then commanding officer of the Indian Army's High-Altitude Warfare School, mounted an Army expedition to the Siachen area as a counter-exercise. In 1978 this expedition climbed Teram Kangri II, claiming it as a first ascent in a typical 'oropolitical' riposte. Unusually for the normally secretive Indian Army, the news and photographs of this expedition were published in 'The Illustrated Weekly of India', a widely-circulated popular magazine.[13]


The first public acknowledgment of the maneuvers and the developing conflict situation in the Siachen was an abbreviated article titled "High Politics in the Karakoram" by Joydeep Sircar in The Telegraph newspaper of Calcutta in 1982[14]. The full text was re-printed as "Oropolitics" in the Alpine Journal, London, in 1984.[15]

India launched Operation Meghdoot (named after the divine cloud messenger in a Sanskrit play by Kalidasa) on 13 April 1984 when the Kumaon Regiment of the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force went into the glacier region. Pakistan quickly responded with troop deployments and what followed was literally a race to the top. Within a few days, the Indians were in control of the area, as Pakistan was beaten to the Saltoro Ridge high ground by about a week. The two northern passes - Sia La and Bilafond La - were quickly secured by India. The contentious area is about 900 square miles (2,300 km2) [16] to nearly 1,000 square miles (2,600 km2) of territory in India. [17] Since 1984 Pakistan has launched several attempts to displace the Indian forces, but with little success. The most well known was in 1987, when an attempt was made by Pakistan to dislodge India from the area. The attack was masterminded by Pervez Musharraf (later President of Pakistan) heading a newly raised elite SSG commando unit raised with United States Special Operations Forces help in the area.[18] A special garrison with eight thousand troops was built at Khapalu. The immediate aim was to capture Bilafond La but after bitter fighting that included hand to hand combat, the Pakistanis were thrown back and the positions remained the same. The only Param Vir Chakra - India's highest gallantry award - to be awarded for combat in the Siachen area went to Naib Subedar Bana Singh (retired as Subedar Major/Honorary Captain), who in a daring daylight raid assaulted and captured a Pakistani post atop a 22,000 foot (6,700 m) peak, now named Bana Post, after climbing a 457 m (1500 feet) ice cliff face.[19]

Ground situation

In his memoirs, former Pakistani president General Pervez Musharraf states that Pakistan lost almost 900 square miles (2,300 km2) of territory that it claimed.[16] TIME states that the Indian advance captured nearly 1,000 square miles (2,600 km2) of territory claimed by Pakistan.[17]

Further attempts to reclaim positions were launched by Pakistan in 1990, 1995, 1996 and even in early 1999, just prior to the Lahore Summit. The 1995 attack by Pakistan SSG was significant as it resulted in 40 casualties for Pakistan troops without any changes in the positions. An Indian IAF MI-17 helicopter was shot down in 1996.

The Indian army controls all of the 70 kilometres (43 mi) long Siachen Glacier and all of its tributary glaciers, as well as the three main passes of the Saltoro Ridge immediately west of the glacier—Sia La, Bilafond La, and Gyong La—thus holding onto the tactical advantage of high ground. [20][21] [22] [23].

The Pakistanis control the glacial valley just five kilometers southwest of Gyong La. The Pakistanis have been unable get up to the crest of the Saltoro Ridge, while the Indians cannot come down and abandon their strategic high posts.

The line between where Indian and Pakistani troops are presently holding onto their respective posts is being increasingly referred to as the Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL).[24][25]

Severe conditions

A cease fire went into effect in 2003. Even before then, every year more soldiers were killed because of severe weather than enemy firing. The two sides by 2003 had lost an estimated 2,000 personnel primarily due to frostbite, avalanches and other complications. Together, the nations have about 150 manned outposts along the glacier, with some 3,000 troops each. Official figures for maintaining these outposts are put at ~$300 and ~$200 million for India and Pakistan respectively. India built the world's highest helipad on the glacier at Point Sonam, 21,000 feet (6,400 m) above the sea level, to supply its troops. India also installed the world's highest telephone booth on the glacier.[26]

Kargil War

One of the factors behind the Kargil War in 1999 when Pakistan sent infiltrators to occupy vacated Indian posts across the Line of Control was their belief that India would be forced to withdraw from Siachen in exchange of a Pakistani withdrawal from Kargil. Both sides had previously desired to disengage from the costly military outposts but after the Kargil War, India decided to maintain its military outposts on the glacier, wary of further Pakistani incursions into Kashmir if they vacate from the Siachen Glacier posts without an official recognition from Pakistan of the current positions.


During her tenure as Prime Minister of Pakistan, Ms Benazir Bhutto, visited the area west of Gyong La, making her the first premier from either side to get to the Siachen region. On June 12, 2005, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh became the first Indian Prime Minister to visit the area, calling for a peaceful resolution of the problem. In 2007, the President of India, Abdul Kalam became the first head of state to visit the area.

The Chief of Staff of the US Army, General George Casey on October 17, 2008 visited the Siachen Glacier along with Indian Army Chief, General Deepak Kapoor. The US General visited for the purpose of "developing concepts and medical aspects of fighting in severe cold conditions and high altitude". [27]

Since September 2007, India has welcomed mountaineering and trekking expeditions to the forbidding glacial heights. The expeditions have been meant to show the international audience that Indian troops hold "almost all dominating heights" on the important Saltoro Ridge west of Siachen Glacier, and to show that Pakistani troops are not within 15 miles (24 km) of the 43.5-mile (70 km) Siachen Glacier.[28] An October 2008 trek was "being undertaken to send a message that every civilian with the help of military can visit this part of the country,” a senior Indian army officer explained. The civilian treks to Siachen started despite vehement protests from Pakistan which termed it India’s “tourism” in “disputed territory”. Pakistan conducts similar expeditions in nearby areas under its control with no requirement of a military liaison officer to accompany trekkers; their permit formalities are simpler, often taking just two weeks. Pakistan in 2008 did not lodge a formal protest against the treks and India too has also kept it a low key affair, with Indian Defence Minister A.K. Antony skipping the flagging off ceremony.[29]

India based Jet Airways plans to open a chartered service to the glacier's nearest airlink, the Thoise airbase, mainly for military purposes. Pakistan's PIA flies tourists and trekkers daily to Skardu, which is the jumping off point for K2, the world's second highest point just 33 kilometers (20.5 miles) northwest of the Siachen area, although bad weather frequently grounds these scheduled flights.


  • Operation Meghdoot (1984)
  • Operation Qaidat (1987)
  • Operation Rajiv (1987)
  • Operation Chumik (1989)

See also


  1. ^ Kashmir Sentinel, 1999 April.
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ Wirsing, Robert. Pakistan's security under Zia, 1977-1988: the policy imperatives of a peripheral Asian state. Palgrave Macmillan, 1991. ISBN 031206067X, 9780312060671. 
  5. ^ Child, Greg. Thin air: encounters in the Himalayas. The Mountaineers Books, 1998. ISBN 0898865883, 9780898865882. 
  6. ^ VAUSE, Mikel. Peering Over the Edge: The Philosophy of Mountaineering, p. 194.
  7. ^ CHILD, Greg. Mixed Emotions: Mountaineering Writings, p. 147.
  8. ^ Modern world history- Chapter-The Indian subcontinent achieves independence/The Coldest War.
  9. ^ Himalayan Journal Vol. 21
  10. ^ Himalayan Journal Vol. 25
  11. ^ 2003 article about Siachen in Outside magazine
  12. ^ SANGAKU 71
  13. ^ Outside magazine article about Siachen battleground
  14. ^ The Telegraph - Calcutta : Nation
  15. ^ Alpine Journal, 1984
  16. ^ a b Pervez Musharraf (2006). In the Line of Fire: A Memoir. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-8344-9. (pp. 68-69)
  17. ^ a b The Himalayas War at the Top Of the World July 31, 1989 - TIME
  18. ^ J. N. Dixit. India-Pakistan in war & peace. Routledge. ISBN 0415304725. (pp. 39)
  19. ^ [1].
  20. ^ See for perhaps the most detailed treatment of the geography of the conflict, including its early days, and under section "3." the current status of control of Gyong La, contrary to the oft-copied misstatement in the old error-plagued summary at
  21. ^ See for a detailed, current map.
  22. ^ "Indians have been able to hold on to the tactical advantage of the high ground. Most of India's many outposts are west of the Siachen Glacier along the Saltoro Range. Bearak, Barry (May 23, 1999). "THE COLDEST WAR; Frozen in Fury on the Roof of the World". The New York Times.,%201999%22%20%22Roof%20of%20the%20World%22&st=cse. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  23. ^ In an academic study with detailed maps and satellite images, co-authored by brigadiers from both the Pakistani and Indian military, pages 16 and 27: "Since 1984, the Indian army has been in physical possession of most of the heights on the Saltoro Range west of the Siachen Glacier, while the Pakistan army has held posts at lower elevations of western slopes of the spurs emanating from the Saltoro ridgeline. The Indian army has secured its position on the ridgeline." Hakeem, Asad; Gurmeet Kanwal , Michael Vannoni, Gaurav Rajen (2007-09-01). "Demilitarization of the Siachen Conflict Zone". Sandia Report. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  24. ^ Confirm ground position line on Siachen: BJP - April 29, 2006, The Hindu
  25. ^ Guns to fall silent on Indo-Pak borders November 26, 2003 - Daily Times
  26. ^ India Installs World'S Highest Phone Booth Soldiers Fighting Along Kashmir Glacier Can Now Call Families, Army Says - Denver Rocky Mountain News - Highbeam Research
  27. ^
  28. ^ India opens Siachen to trekkers Times of India 13 Sep 2007
  29. ^

External links



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