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       Siberian Federal District        Geographic Russian Siberia        Historical Siberia (and present Siberia in some usages)
.Siberia (Russian: Сибирь, tr. Sibir', IPA [sʲıˈbirʲ]), is the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving as the massive central and eastern portion of the Russian Federation, having served in the same capacity previously for the USSR from its beginning, and the Russian Empire beginning in the 16th century.^ Tiger bells in Central and Northern Asia .
  • The Costumer's Manifesto: Asian Costume Links 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.costumes.org [Source type: General]

^ Sibir, vast geographical region of Russia, covering c.2,900,000 sq mi (7,511,000 sq km) and having an estimated population (1992) of 32,459,000.
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 4th century they crossed the Don and conquered the Scythians, replacing them as rulers of almost all of southern Russia by the 2nd century.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

.It includes a large part of the Eurasian Steppe and extends eastward from the Ural Mountains to the watershed between Pacific and Arctic drainage basins, and southward from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and the national borders of both Mongolia and China.^ Stretching from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, from China and the deserts of Central Asia almost to the top of the world, its expanses show little variation across their 4,000 miles east to west or nearly 2,000 miles north to south.
  • This Side of Ultima Thule - 97.04 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The north corner up by the Lena delta, and the shores of the Arctic Ocean, this is Bulun region.
  • Siberia - part one 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.cosmicelk.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Berman, D., S. Armbruster, A. Alfimov, and M. Edwards, Subarctic steppe communities in Beringia; in: Bridges of the science between North America and the Russian Far East, 45 th Arctic science conference, section 2 — Beringia revisited: Recent discoveries and interpretations , p.

[1] .It makes up about 77% of Russia's territory (13.1 million square kilometres), but only 25% of Russia's population (36 million people).^ Even non-Siberian Russians know relatively little about it, though it makes up more than three quarters of their homeland.
  • This Side of Ultima Thule - 97.04 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The present population is about 600 000, of them only about 80 000 are khakass, representing about 11 % of the total population.
  • Siberia, Buryatia, Lake Baikal, Tuva, Khakassia, Moscow, rainer stalvik 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.stalvik.com [Source type: General]

^ The interesting 18th century town Minusinsk, with a population of 75 000 inhabitants, is located only about 20 kilometers east of Abakan.
  • Siberia, Buryatia, Lake Baikal, Tuva, Khakassia, Moscow, rainer stalvik 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.stalvik.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Origin of the name

Some sources[2] say that it originates from the Turkic for "sleeping land." Another version is that this name was the tribal name of the Sibilla, ancient Turkic nomads later assimilated to Siberian Tatars. It has also been asserted that the name Siberia is connected to the Sabir people. .The modern usage of the name appeared in the Russian language after the conquest of the Siberia Khanate.^ Czar Ivan IV 's capture of the Kazan khanate in 1552 opened the way for Russian expansion into Siberia.
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wood, Alan, editor 1991  The History of Siberia: from Russian Conquest to Revolution.
  • Selected Bibliography of Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.koryaks.net [Source type: Academic]

Borders and administrative division

Map of the most populated area of Siberia with clickable city names (SVG).
.The term Siberia has a very long history, and its meaning has gradually changed during ages.^ Arkhipov 26 concludes: “During glacial and stadial stages, the climate of Siberia was much colder than at present.” A stadial stage is the coldest part of the Ice Age.

^ The environment of Siberia during the Ice Age has been compared to that of the Serengeti of East Africa!

^ Glaciated and unglaciated areas of Siberia, Alaska, and the Yukon during the Ice Age.

.Historically, Siberia was defined as the whole part of Russia to the east of Ural Mountains, including the Russian Far East.^ Does Siberia include the Russian Far East?
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Siberia a vast region of Russia, extending from the Urals to the Pacific and from the Arctic coast to the northern borders of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China.
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (DK 246.K64 1993) Kotkin, Stephen and David Wolff 1995  Rediscovering Russia in Asia: Siberia and the Russian Far East.
  • Selected Bibliography of Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.koryaks.net [Source type: Academic]

.According to this definition, Siberia extended eastward from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific coast, and southward from the Arctic Ocean to the border of Russian Central Asia and the national borders of both Mongolia (which included Tuva) and China.^ Siberia a vast region of Russia, extending from the Urals to the Pacific and from the Arctic coast to the northern borders of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China.
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historically it has had no official standing as a political or territorial division, but it was generally understood to comprise the northern third of Asia, stretching from the Urals in the west to the mountain ranges of the Pacific Ocean watershed in the east and from the Laptev, Kara, and East Siberian seas (arms of the Arctic Ocean) in the north to the Kazakh steppes, the Altai and Sayan mountain systems, and the border of Mongolia in the south.
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stretching from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, from China and the deserts of Central Asia almost to the top of the world, its expanses show little variation across their 4,000 miles east to west or nearly 2,000 miles north to south.
  • This Side of Ultima Thule - 97.04 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.Soviet-era sources (GSE and others)[4] and modern Russian ones[5] usually define Siberia as a region extending eastward from the Ural Mountains to the watershed between Pacific and Arctic drainage basins, and southward from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and the national borders of both Mongolia and China.^ Siberia a vast region of Russia, extending from the Urals to the Pacific and from the Arctic coast to the northern borders of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China.
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historically it has had no official standing as a political or territorial division, but it was generally understood to comprise the northern third of Asia, stretching from the Urals in the west to the mountain ranges of the Pacific Ocean watershed in the east and from the Laptev, Kara, and East Siberian seas (arms of the Arctic Ocean) in the north to the Kazakh steppes, the Altai and Sayan mountain systems, and the border of Mongolia in the south.
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stretching from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, from China and the deserts of Central Asia almost to the top of the world, its expanses show little variation across their 4,000 miles east to west or nearly 2,000 miles north to south.
  • This Side of Ultima Thule - 97.04 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: Original source]

.Correspondingly, Siberia includes the federal subjects of the Siberian Federal District, and some of the Urals Federal District, as well as Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, which is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District.^ In 1991 Yakutia became the Sakha Republic (but part of the Russian Federation).
  • Siberia - part one 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.cosmicelk.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tyumen oblast (administrative center: Tyumen ), which includes: Yamalo-Nenetskaia autonomous okrug (administrative center: Salekhard ) Khantia-Mansia autonomous okrug (administrative center: Khanty-Mansiysk ) Sverdlovsk oblast (administrative center: Yekaterinburg ) Chelyabinsk oblast (administrative center: Chelyabinsk ) Kurgan oblast (administrative center: Kurgan ) Siberian Federal District .
  • Siberia@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sakha (also Yakutia ) republic (capital: Yakutsk ) Amur oblast (administrative center: Blagoveshchensk ) Magadan oblast (administrative center: Magadan ), which includeS: Chukotka autonomous okrug (administrative center: Anadyr ) Kamchatka oblast (administrative center: Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky ), which includes: Koryakia autonomous okrug (adminstrative center: Karaginsk (?
  • Siberia@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This definition also includes geographically (but not administratively) subdivisions of several other subjects of Urals and Far Eastern federal districts.^ Tyumen oblast (administrative center: Tyumen ), which includes: Yamalo-Nenetskaia autonomous okrug (administrative center: Salekhard ) Khantia-Mansia autonomous okrug (administrative center: Khanty-Mansiysk ) Sverdlovsk oblast (administrative center: Yekaterinburg ) Chelyabinsk oblast (administrative center: Chelyabinsk ) Kurgan oblast (administrative center: Kurgan ) Siberian Federal District .
  • Siberia@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Buryatia (also Buryat ) republic (capital: Ulan-Ude ) Chita oblast (administrative center: Chita ), which includes: Aga Buryatia autonomous oblast (administrative center: Aginskoye ) Far Eastern Federal District .
  • Siberia@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Urals Federal District mainly lies along the vast Western Siberian Lowlands .
  • Siberia@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This definition excludes Sverdlovsk Oblast and Chelyabinsk Oblast, both of which are included in some wider definitions of Siberia.
.Other sources may use either a somewhat wider definition that states the Pacific coast, not the watershed, is the eastern boundary (thus including the whole Russian Far East)[6] or a somewhat narrower one that confines Siberia to the Siberian Federal District (thus excluding all subjects of other districts).^ When was Siberia established as one of Russia's federal districts?
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Does Siberia include the Russian Far East?
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Siberia a vast region of Russia, extending from the Urals to the Pacific and from the Arctic coast to the northern borders of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China.
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .However, in Russian the word for Siberia is never used to substitute the name of the federal district.^ When was Siberia established as one of Russia's federal districts?
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2000, however, Siberia was established as one of seven Russian federal districts, with the district administrative center at Novosibirsk .
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the Russian Revolution, however, Siberia contributed only a minute fraction of Russia's industrial output, mainly in the form of gold.
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Federal subjects of Siberia (GSE)
subject administrative center
Urals Federal District
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug Khanty-Mansiysk
Kurgan Oblast Kurgan
Tyumen Oblast Tyumen
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Salekhard
Siberian Federal District
Altai Krai Barnaul
Altai Republic Gorno-Altaysk
Buryat Republic Ulan-Ude
Chita Oblast Chita
Irkutsk Oblast Irkutsk
Republic of Khakassia Abakan
Kemerovo Oblast Kemerovo
Krasnoyarsk Krai Krasnoyarsk
Novosibirsk Oblast Novosibirsk
Omsk Oblast Omsk
Tomsk Oblast Tomsk
Tuva Republic Kyzyl
Far Eastern Federal District
Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Yakutsk
Federal subjects of Siberia (in wide sense)
subject administrative center
Far Eastern Federal District
Amur Oblast Blagoveshchensk
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Anadyr
Jewish Autonomous Oblast Birobidzhan
Kamchatka Krai Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
Khabarovsk Krai Khabarovsk
Magadan Oblast Magadan
Primorsky Krai Vladivostok
Sakhalin Oblast Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Urals Federal District
Chelyabinsk Oblast Chelyabinsk
Sverdlovsk Oblast Yekaterinburg
Major cities include:

History

Siberia was occupied by differing groups of nomads such as the Yenets, the Nenets, the Huns, the Iranian Scythians, and the Turkic Uyghurs. .The Khan of Sibir in the vicinity of modern Tobolsk was known as a prominent figure who endorsed Kubrat as Khagan in Avaria in 630. The area was conquered by the Mongols early in the 13th century.^ Destroyed by the Mongols in the 13th century, western refugees migrated into Hungary and assimilated with that culture.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

With the break up of the Golden Horde, the autonomous Siberia Khanate was established in late 14th century.
The tower of ostrog, a 17th-century Russian fort, in Yakutsk.
The growing power of Russia to the west began to undermine the Siberian Khanate in the 16th century. First, groups of traders and Cossacks began to enter the area, and then the Russian army began to set up forts further and further east. Towns like Mangazeya, Tara, Yeniseysk, and Tobolsk sprang up, the latter being declared the capital of Siberia. By the mid-17th century, the Russian-controlled areas had been extended to the Pacific. The total Russian population of Siberia in 1709 was 230,000.[8]
Siberia remained a mostly undocumented and sparsely populated area. During the following few centuries, only a few exploratory missions and traders entered Siberia. .The other group that was sent to Siberia consisted of prisoners exiled from western Russia or Russian-held territories like Poland (see katorga).^ The CIMMERIANS A proto-Iranian group which held the steppes of the Ukraine and southern Russia for quite a long while.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some, like the Torks and Berendei, took up residence in Russia (the " Black Hats " who served Russian princes as mercenaries were formed from these tribes.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

In the 19th century, around 1.2 million prisoners were deported to Siberia.[9]
.The first great modern change to Siberia was the Trans-Siberian railway, constructed in 1891–1916. It linked Siberia more closely to the rapidly-industrializing Russia of Nicholas II.^ Katya closes the letter with an enrapt panagyric to the greatness of Siberia.
  • "Siberia" by Georgi Markov - from SovLit.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the first time I've been "exposed" to Siberia, it was a great experience - very nicely done!
  • Siberia (Pictures by William Sokolenko) Photo Gallery by Dimitri Sokolenko at pbase.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is what he read: Page One : "Russia's greatness will grow through Siberia," said Lomonosov.
  • "Siberia" - Book Two - by Georgi Markov - from SovLit.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

.Between 1801 and 1914 an estimated 7 million settlers moved from European Russia to Siberia, 85% during the quarter-century before World War I.^ Siberia, whose name comes from a Tatar word meaning "sleeping land", comprises the eastern and greatest part of Russia - itself is the biggest country in the world.
  • The Complete Guide To: Siberia - Europe, Travel - The Independent 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ NARRATOR: In the 5th Century B.C. the Scythian World stretched eastward from the Black Sea over the vast steps of Europe and Asia, right into the mountains of Siberia.
  • NOVA | Transcripts | Ice Mummies: Siberian Ice Maiden | PBS 16 September 2009 12:28 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The SARMATIANS A people originally of Iranian stock who migrated from Central Asia to the Ural Mountains between the 6th and 4th century BCE and eventually settled in most of southern European Russia and the eastern Balkans.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

[10] .Siberia is filled with natural resources and during the 20th century large scale exploitation of these was developed, and industrial towns cropped up throughout the region.^ He was an expert in Siberia--its geography, flora, fauna, and natural resources.
  • "Siberia" by Georgi Markov - from SovLit.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

[11]

Katorga and Gulag

.Russia, later the Soviet Union, operated a series of labor camps, known as the GULAG,[12] which is an acronym for Main Camp Administration.^ Coastal Republic ( Japanese client state )..........1920-1922 To the Soviet Union...............................1922-1991 To Russia.........................................1991- .
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To Russia...........................................to 1917 To Anti-Communist forces..........................1917-1920 To the Soviet Union...............................1920-1991 To Russia.........................................1991- .
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To Dzungarian Kalmuck Empire......................1657-1758 To China..........................................1758-1798 To Khokand........................................1798-1868 To Russia.........................................1868-1917 To the Soviet Union...............................1917-1991 Within the Russian Federation, as a republic......1991- .
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

.They became so common that "Siberia" came to be used as a reference for exile and punishment, e.g., "a bureaucratic Siberia."^ He is Vasili Demyanych Shustov , an exile, sent to Siberia two years ago from Saratov as punishment for his participation in a strike.
  • "Siberia" - Book Two - by Georgi Markov - from SovLit.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

[13] Soviet authorities deported millions of people, including entire nationalities,[14] from western areas of the USSR to Central Asia and Siberia.[15] .More than 18 million people passed through the Gulag from 1929 to 1953, with a further 6 million being deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union.^ Gorbyakov, passing through the area, came to make the acquaintance of the new teacher.
  • "Siberia" by Georgi Markov - from SovLit.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For three years now, more than 12 million workers and peasants have been shedding their blood in a senseless, fratricidal war .
  • "Siberia" - Book Two - by Georgi Markov - from SovLit.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

[16]
By analogy, one working-class district of downtown Stockholm, Sweden, earned the name Sibirien (Siberia) in the late 19th century, referring to its low-cost tenement houses being built in outlying areas.

Geography and geology

Altai, Lake Kutsherla in the Altai Mountains.
Lake Baikal (Covered by ice in winter).
With an area of 13.1 million km² (5.1 million square miles), Siberia makes up roughly 77% of the total area of Russia. Major geographical zones include the West Siberian Plain and the Central Siberian Plateau. Siberia covers almost 10% of Earth's land surface (14,894,000 km²).
.The West Siberian Plain consists mostly of Cenozoic alluvial deposits and is extraordinarily low-lying, so much so that a sea level rise of fifty metres would cause all land between the Arctic Ocean and Novosibirsk to be inundated.^ Although it has lost much of its importance because of the new railroads, Akimov thinks it will be important in the future, providing access to the Arctic Ocean , which the future Russia will not ignore.
  • "Siberia" - Book Two - by Georgi Markov - from SovLit.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many of the deposits on this plain result from ice dams; having reversed the flow of the Ob and Yenisei Rivers, so redirecting them into the Caspian Sea (perhaps the Aral as well).^ The Ob River One of the great rivers of Siberia, flowing generally north approximately 2,300 mi (3,700 km) into an estuary on the Artic Ocean.
  • "Siberia" by Georgi Markov - from SovLit.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

It is very swampy and soils are mostly peaty Histosols and, in the treeless northern part, Histels. In the south of the plain, where permafrost is largely absent, rich grasslands that are an extension of the Kazakh Steppe formed the original vegetation (almost all cleared now).
.The Central Siberian Plateau is an extremely ancient craton (sometimes named Angaraland) that formed an independent continent before the Permian (see Siberia (continent)).^ See also the Torghuts for a particular group of Oirat who settled in Russia for a time before needing to flee back to their ancient homeland in Xinjiang.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

It is exceptionally rich in minerals, containing large deposits of gold, diamonds, and ores of manganese, lead, zinc, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum. Much of the area includes the Siberian Traps which is a large igneous province. The massive eruptive period was approximately coincident with the Permian–Triassic extinction event. The volcanic event is said to be the largest known volcanic eruption in Earth's history. .Only the extreme northwest was glaciated during the Quaternary, but almost all is under exceptionally deep permafrost and the only tree that can thrive, despite the warm summers, is the deciduous Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica) with its very shallow roots.^ The hut is very small and has only one cot, so--despite the indelicacy--they sleep on it together, their bodies touching .
  • "Siberia" - Book Two - by Georgi Markov - from SovLit.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Huns reached the summit of their power under Attila, controlling almost all of the Balkans, Austria, northern Italy, Slovakia, and much of the Ukraine.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

Outside the extreme northwest, the taiga is dominant. .Soils here are mainly Turbels, giving way to Spodosols where the active layer becomes thicker and the ice content lower.^ Our examinations of the skull of the Ice Maiden showed that we saw mainly open fissures like here.
  • NOVA | Transcripts | Ice Mummies: Siberian Ice Maiden | PBS 16 September 2009 12:28 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

Eastern and central Sakha comprise numerous north-south mountain ranges of various ages. These mountains extend up to almost three thousand metres in elevation, but above a few hundred metres they are almost completely devoid of vegetation. The Verkhoyansk Range was extensively glaciated in the Pleistocene, but the climate was too dry for glaciation to extend to low elevations. At these low elevations are numerous valleys, many of them deep, and covered with larch forest except in the extreme north, where tundra dominates. Soils are mainly Turbels and the active layer tends to be less than one metre deep except near rivers.
.The highest point in Siberia is the active volcano Klyuchevskaya Sopka, in the Kamchatka peninsula.^ MAGADAN and KAMCHATKA The extreme eastern end of Siberia, consisting of the Pacific coast and its juncture with the Arctic Sea around the Chukchi Peninsula.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

Its peak is at 4,649 metres (15,250 ft).
Russian researchers warn that Western Siberia has begun to thaw as a result of global warming. The frozen peat bogs in this region may hold billions of tons of methane gas, which may be released into the atmosphere. Methane is a greenhouse gas 22 times more powerful than carbon dioxide.[17] .In 2008, a research expedition for the American Geophysical Union detected levels of methane up to 100 times above normal in the Siberian Arctic, likely being released by methane clathrates being released by holes in a frozen 'lid' of seabed permafrost, around the outfall of the Lena River and the area between the Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea.^ MAGADAN and KAMCHATKA The extreme eastern end of Siberia, consisting of the Pacific coast and its juncture with the Arctic Sea around the Chukchi Peninsula.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CE AORSI The easternmost of the Sarmatian nations, inhabiting the region around the lower Volga River and as far east as the Aral Sea.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The KHAZARS The Khazars were a Turkic-speaking nation of semi-nomadic steppe dwellers living to the northwest of the Caspian Sea, near the portage between the Volga and Don Rivers.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

[18][19]

Climate

Russia vegetation.png
     polar desert      tundra      alpine tundra      taiga      montane forest
     temperate broadleaf forest      temperate steppe      dry steppe
Vegetation in Siberia is mostly taiga, with a tundra belt on the northern fringe, and a temperate forest zone in the south.
The climate of Siberia varies dramatically. .On the north coast, north of the Arctic Circle, there is a very short (about one-month-long) summer.^ Katya is shocked to see there a photo of Likhachev and Akimov, who is holding an axe in one hand and a fish almost as long as himself in the other hand.
  • "Siberia" by Georgi Markov - from SovLit.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unbeknownst to Akimov, at that very moment in Stockholm, that scoundrel Osipovsky (Book One, Part One, 4-vii), is thinking about that very map.
  • "Siberia" - Book Two - by Georgi Markov - from SovLit.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There may have been two Aorsi nations, one in the north and one in the south.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

Almost all the population lives in the south, along the Trans-Siberian Railway. .The climate here is subarctic (Koppen Dfc or Dwc), with the annual average temperature about 0 °C (32 °F) and roughly −15 °C (5 °F) average in January and +20 °C (68 °F) in July.^ Composed largely of taiga in the south, and subarctic tundra to the north, Yakut has the distinction of having the most rigorous climate in the inhabited world (average temperatures range from +65 F. in July to -45 F. in January, but temperatures of -89 have been recorded).
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

[20] With a reliable growing season, an abundance of sunshine and exceedingly fertile chernozem soils, Southern Siberia is good enough for profitable agriculture, as was proven in the early twentieth century.
.The southwesterly winds of Southern Siberia bring warm air from Central Asia and the Middle East.^ ISSEDONES An ancient people of Central Asia at the end of the trade route leading north-east from Scythia.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

The climate in West Siberia (Omsk, Novosibirsk) is several degrees warmer than in the East (Irkutsk, Chita). With a lowest record temperature of −71.2 °C (−96.2 °F), Oymyakon (Sakha Republic) has the distinction of being the coldest town on Earth. .But summer temperatures in other regions reach 38 °C (100.4 °F).^ NARRATOR: News of the tattooed woman quickly reached other archaeologists in the region, including Natalia's husband.
  • NOVA | Transcripts | Ice Mummies: Siberian Ice Maiden | PBS 16 September 2009 12:28 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

In general, Sakha is the coldest Siberian region, and the basin of the Yana River has the lowest temperatures of all, with permafrost reaching 1,493 meters (4,898 ft). Nevertheless, as far as Imperial Russian plans of settlement were concerned, cold was never viewed as an issue. .In the winter, southern Siberia sits near the center of the semi-permanent Siberian High, so winds are usually light in the winter.^ But come winter, they move to the cold high plateaus where strong winds sweep the ground of snow and animals can graze.
  • NOVA | Transcripts | Ice Mummies: Siberian Ice Maiden | PBS 16 September 2009 12:28 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Precipitation in Siberia is generally low, exceeding 500 millimeters (20 in) only in Kamchatka where moist winds flow from the Sea of Okhotsk onto high mountains – producing the region's only major glaciers – and in most of Primorye in the extreme south where monsoonal influences can produce quite heavy summer rainfall.^ Additionally, some of the major regions of Siberia are noted.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ob River One of the great rivers of Siberia, flowing generally north approximately 2,300 mi (3,700 km) into an estuary on the Artic Ocean.
  • "Siberia" by Georgi Markov - from SovLit.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

Despite the region's notorious cold winters, snowfall is generally quite light, especially in the eastern interior of the region.
Weather data for Novosibirsk, Siberia's largest city
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) -12.2
(10)
-10.3
(13)
-2.6
(27)
8.1
(47)
17.5
(64)
24.0
(75)
25.7
(78)
22.2
(72)
16.6
(62)
6.8
(44)
-2.9
(27)
-8.9
(16)
7.0
(45)
Daily mean °C (°F) -16.2
(3)
-14.7
(6)
-7.2
(19)
3.2
(38)
11.6
(53)
18.2
(65)
20.2
(68)
17.0
(63)
11.5
(53)
3.4
(38)
-6.0
(21)
-12.7
(9)
2.4
(36)
Average low °C (°F) -20.1
(-4)
-19.1
(-2)
-11.8
(11)
-1.7
(29)
5.6
(42)
12.3
(54)
14.7
(58)
11.7
(53)
6.4
(44)
0.0
(32)
-9.1
(16)
-16.4
(2)
-2.3
(28)
Precipitation mm (inches) 19
(0.75)
14
(0.55)
15
(0.59)
24
(0.94)
36
(1.42)
58
(2.28)
72
(2.83)
66
(2.6)
44
(1.73)
38
(1.5)
32
(1.26)
24
(0.94)
442
(17.4)
Source: [21]

Lakes and rivers

Mountain ranges

Grasslands

Economy

Siberia is extraordinarily rich in minerals, containing ores of almost all economically valuable metals—largely because of the absence of Quaternary glaciation outside highland areas. It has some of the world's largest deposits of nickel, gold, lead, coal, molybdenum, gypsum, diamonds, silver and zinc, as well as extensive unexploited resources of oil and natural gas. Most of these are in the cold and remote eastern part of the region, with the result that extraction has proven difficult and expensive.
Agriculture is severely restricted by the short growing season of most of the region. However, in the southwest where soils are exceedingly fertile black earths and the climate is a little more moderate, there is extensive cropping of wheat, barley, rye and potatoes, along with the grazing of large numbers of sheep and cattle. Elsewhere food production, owing to the poor fertility of the podzolic soils and the extremely short growing seasons, is restricted to the herding of reindeer in the tundra — which has been practised by natives for over ten thousand years. Siberia has the world's largest forests. .Timber remains an important source of revenue despite the fact that many forests in the east have been logged much more rapidly than they are able to recover.^ Fantastic beautiful photos..much more beautiful than I every imaginged.
  • Siberia (Pictures by William Sokolenko) Photo Gallery by Dimitri Sokolenko at pbase.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Sea of Okhotsk is one of the two or three richest fisheries in the world owing to its cold currents and extremely large tidal ranges, and thus Siberia produces over 10 percent of the world's annual fish catch, though fishing has declined somewhat since the collapse of the USSR.

Demographics

Distribution of ethnic groups in the Soviet Union in 1974.
Siberia has a population density of about three people per square kilometer. Most Siberians are Russians and Russified Ukrainians. .There are approximately 400,000 Russified ethnic Germans living in Siberia.^ They now form a constituent republic of the Russian Federation (albeit a Republic with a Russian ethnic majority); there are aproximately 550,000 Khakass in the world today.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

[23] .Such Mongol and Turkic groups as Buryats, Tuvinians, Yakuts, and Siberian Tatars[24] lived in Siberia originally, and descendants of these peoples still live there.^ The BURYATS A Mongol people originating in northern Mongolia.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are rotten living conditions for people.
  • "Siberia" - Book Two - by Georgi Markov - from SovLit.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In their origins, they seem to have arisen as a Mongolic group in the broad and semi-arid steppes between Lake Balkhash to the southwest and Lake Baikal to the northeast - basically southwestern Siberia, northeastern Khazakhstan, northern Xinjiang, and western Mongolia.
  • Nomads of the Steppe 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

[25] The Buryats number 445,175, which makes them the largest ethnic minority group in Siberia.[26] According to the 2002 census there are 443,852 Yakuts.[27] Other ethnic groups include Kets, Evenks, Chukchis, Koryaks, and Yukaghirs. See the Northern indigenous peoples of Russia article for more. Officially, 40,000 Chinese live in the Russian Far East, but the actual figure is believed to be much higher.[28]
About 70% of Siberia's people live in cities. Most city people live in apartments. Many people in rural areas live in simple, but more spacious, log houses. Novosibirsk is the largest city in Siberia, with a population of about 1.5 million. Tobolsk, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk and Omsk are the older, historical centers.

Religion

Buddhist Temple Ivolginsky datsan in Buryatia.
There are a variety of beliefs throughout Siberia including Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Tibetan Buddhism, and other denominations of Christianity.[29] An estimated 70,000 Jews live in Siberia.[30] The predominant group is the Russian Orthodox Church. However, native religion dates back hundreds of years. The vast terrority of Siberia has many different local traditions of gods. These include: Ak Ana, Anapel, Bugady Musun, Kara Khan, Khaltesh-Anki, Kini'je, Ku'urkil, Nga, Nu'tenut, Numi-Torem, Numi-Turum, Pon, Pugu, Todote, Toko'yoto, Tomam, Xaya Iccita, Zonget. Places with sacred areas include Olkhon, an island in Lake Baikal.

Transport

Many cities in Siberia, such as Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, cannot be reached by road from other major cities in Russia or Asia. The best way to tour Siberia is through the Trans-Siberian Railway. The Trans-Siberian Railway operates from Moscow in the West to Vladivostok in the East. The train has 2nd class 4-berth compartments, 1st class 2-berth compartments, and a restaurant car. Cities not nearby the Railway are best reached by air.

See also

References

  1. ^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian)
  2. ^ Healing oils from pristine Siberian wilderness
  3. ^ Малый энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона (The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, in Russian)
  4. ^ Сибирь—Большая советская энциклопедия (The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, in Russian)
  5. ^ Сибирь- Словарь современных географических названий (in Russian)
  6. ^ Siberia--Britannica online encyclopedia
  7. ^ Siberia--The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
  8. ^ Russia’s Expansionist Policies I. The Conquest of Siberia
  9. ^ Carl De Keyzer, Zona at the Impressions Gallery, BBC
  10. ^ The Great Siberian Migration: Government and Peasant in Resettlement from Emancipation to the First World War
  11. ^ Fiona Hill, Russia — Coming In From the Cold?, The Globalist, 23 February 2004
  12. ^ The Gulag Collection: Paintings of Nikolai Getman
  13. ^ What Became of the CIA?, by Gabriel Schoenfeld. Also see this
  14. ^ Deported Nationalities
  15. ^ Anne Applebaum -- Gulag: A History Intro
  16. ^ "'Gulag': The Other Killing Machine". The New York Times. May 11, 2003.
  17. ^ Ian Sample "Warming hits 'tipping point'". The Guardian, Aug 11 2005
  18. ^ Connor, Steve (September 23, 2008). "Exclusive: The methane time bomb". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/exclusive-the-methane-time-bomb-938932.html. Retrieved 2008-10-03.  
  19. ^ N. Shakhova, I. Semiletov, A. Salyuk, D. Kosmach, and N. Bel’cheva (2007), Methane release on the Arctic East Siberian shelf, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 9, 01071
  20. ^ Historical Weather for Novosibirsk, Russia. weatherbase.com Last accessed November 6, 2006.
  21. ^ "Гидрометцентр России" (in Russian). http://meteoinfo.ru/NovosibirskClimat. Retrieved January 08 2009.  
  22. ^ "Altai: Saving the Pearl of Siberia". http://www.pacificenvironment.org/article.php?list=type&type=83. Retrieved 2006-11-30.  
  23. ^ Siberian Germans
  24. ^ According to the 2002 census there are 500,000 Tatars in Siberia, but 300,000 of them are Volga Tatars who settled in Siberia during periods of colonization.[1]
  25. ^ Ethnographic map of Siberia
  26. ^ World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Russian Federation : Buryats.
  27. ^ World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Russian Federation : Yakuts.
  28. ^ The Chinese are coming ... to Russia. Asia Times. May 27, 2006.
  29. ^ Russian Embassy website — Religion in Russia
  30. ^ Planting Jewish roots in Siberia

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Russia : Siberia
Contents
Despite its reputation, Siberia is not just about cold snow!
Despite its reputation, Siberia is not just about cold snow!
.Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is a region in Russia.^ Sibir, vast geographical region of Russia, covering c.2,900,000 sq mi (7,511,000 sq km) and having an estimated population (1992) of 32,459,000.
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the biggest region in Siberia and occupies one fifth of Russia.

^ Siberia a vast region of Russia, extending from the Urals to the Pacific and from the Arctic coast to the northern borders of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China.
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Eastern Siberia
Krasnoyarsk Krai
Western Siberia
Lake Kutserla in the Altai Republic
.
Lake Kutserla in the Altai Republic
  • Lake Baikal.^ The climate in West Siberia (Omsk, Novosibirsk) is several degrees warmer than in the East (Irkutsk, Chita).
    • What is Siberia? 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Novosibirsk Yekaterinburg Omsk Tomsk Noril'sk Chita Irkutsk Ulan-Ude Yakutsk Khabarovsk Vladivostok Magadan Geographical Features of Siberia .
    • Siberia@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Other cities in the southwest include Omsk , Tomsk , Tobolsk , Barnaul , and Novokuznetsk .
    • Siberia@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The pearl of Siberia. It is the deepest and one of the purest lakes in the World.

Understand

.With an area of nearly 10 million sq.km., Siberia is vast.^ Siberia - from the Mongolian for "the calm land" is a an immense region of Russia (with an area of nearly 10 million sq.
  • Travel to Russia Idea Inc. is ready to help you with all types of visas to travel services. 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.traveltorussiaidea.com [Source type: General]

^ Sibir, vast geographical region of Russia, covering c.2,900,000 sq mi (7,511,000 sq km) and having an estimated population (1992) of 32,459,000.
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sibir, vast geographical region of Russia, covering c.2,900,000 sq mi (7,511,000 sq km) and having an estimated...
  • Siberia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the popular view of Siberia is of howling arctic wastes dotted with penal colonies, the truth is more complex.^ From the early 17th century, Eastern Siberia was used as a penal colony and a place of exile for political prisoners.
  • Travel to Russia Idea Inc. is ready to help you with all types of visas to travel services. 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.traveltorussiaidea.com [Source type: General]

^ Around this time Siberia began to be used as a penal colony , especially for political prisoners.
  • Siberia@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Siberia started its carreer as a penal colony for criminals and political prisoners early on, and lo!
  • Siberia@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The west of Siberia is covered by a swampy plain, the central plateau is heavily forested, and the east has mountains soaring to above 3,000 meters.^ Sodden Plains cover the west of Siberia ,whereas the central plateau is surrounded by heavy forests and mountains rise to above 3,500 meters the east.
  • Travel to Russia Idea Inc. is ready to help you with all types of visas to travel services. 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.traveltorussiaidea.com [Source type: General]

^ Beneath that, southwards, comes the great forest zone, a belt of dense woods two thousand miles wide, running east and west across Asia.
  • SibTours.com: Siberia as an Agricultural Country 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.sibtours.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stretching from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, from China and the deserts of Central Asia almost to the top of the world, its expanses show little variation across their 4,000 miles east to west or nearly 2,000 miles north to south.
  • This Side of Ultima Thule - 97.04 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: Original source]

.Only the extreme north is true tundra, where temperatures can hit -68°C in winter.^ The north of Siberia is a real tundra, where temperatures hit -70 C in the winter.
  • Travel to Russia Idea Inc. is ready to help you with all types of visas to travel services. 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.traveltorussiaidea.com [Source type: General]

^ At these low elevations are numerous valleys, many of them deep, and covered with larch forest except in the extreme north, where tundra dominates.
  • Siberia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Siberia? 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Travel to Russia Idea Inc. is ready to help you with all types of visas to travel services. 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.traveltorussiaidea.com [Source type: General]

Krasnoyarsk station, near the midpoint of the Trans-Siberian Railway
Krasnoyarsk station, near the midpoint of the Trans-Siberian Railway
.The Trans-Siberian Railway, connecting Moscow to Vladivostok, is by far the most famous method of transportation in Siberia.^ The best way to tour Siberia is through the Trans-Siberian Railway .
  • Siberia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tyumen is in south-west Siberia, located just beyond the Ural Mountains on the Trans-Siberian Railway, 2104km (about a day and a half's train journey or approx.
  • Language Link Corporate Site. Volunteer Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC jobs.languagelink.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After crossing Siberia (soon after Irkutsk ) the Trans-Siberian route divides into three different itineraries: The Trans-Siberian Route : Moscow - Vladivostok the original Trans-Siberian railway, which goes all along Siberia and through the Far East (to the Pacific Ocean ).
  • Travel to Russia Idea Inc. is ready to help you with all types of visas to travel services. 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.traveltorussiaidea.com [Source type: General]

.Covering a distance of 9,289 kilometres, making it one of the longest railways in the world, the full trip takes over 6 days and crosses 8 time zones.^ The railway is still as important for the economy and safety of the country, as it was more than 100 years ago, when it was first constructed The Trans Siberian takes more than six days to travel across, so it is highly recommended to make stop off at different point along the way, making your trip more interesting.
  • Travel to Russia Idea Inc. is ready to help you with all types of visas to travel services. 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.traveltorussiaidea.com [Source type: General]

^ This is certainly a trip of a lifetime you will tell your grandkids about one day.
  • Travel to Russia Idea Inc. is ready to help you with all types of visas to travel services. 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.traveltorussiaidea.com [Source type: General]

^ All that does is make it easy for Frost and her other 'clients' to demand more and more of her time, to take more and more of her attention from her family, from me...
  • Fonts of Wisdom: SIBERIA 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

.Its branches the Trans-Manchurian and Trans-Mongolian connect to Beijing in China, the first directly, the second via Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia.^ Soon after Ulan-Ude (Eastern Siberia, 5609 km of the railway), the Trans-Siberian route splits into three parts: 1) The Trans-Siberian itself (continues to the East through Chita and Khabarovsk to Vladivostok); 2) The Trans-Mongolian (continues to the South through Ulan-Bataar in Mongolia to Beijing in China); 3) The Trans-Manchurian (the route continues to the South-East around Mongolia to China, passing Chita in Russia, Kharbin to Beijing in China).
  • The Trans-Siberian route, the map of Trans-Siberian, stops along the way -- WayToRussia.Net 16 September 2009 12:28 UTC waytorussia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Ulan-Ude the Trans-Siberian splits into two directions: to the south through Gusinoye Ozero, Djida, Naushki (Russia) to Ulan-Bataar (Mongolia) to Beijing (China) - Trans-Mongolian, and to the east through Chita to Vladivostok (Trans-Siberian).
  • The Trans-Siberian route, the map of Trans-Siberian, stops along the way -- WayToRussia.Net 16 September 2009 12:28 UTC waytorussia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chita (in Karymskaya) the Trans-Siberian splits into two routes : to the east to Vladivostok, to the south through Manchuria to China (Trans-Manchurian).
  • The Trans-Siberian route, the map of Trans-Siberian, stops along the way -- WayToRussia.Net 16 September 2009 12:28 UTC waytorussia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Less famed is the Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM), a northern line running parallel to the Trans-Siberian for 4,234 km.^ Crossing Amur river (on 8482 km) via the longest Trans-Siberian bridge - 2612 meters.
  • The Trans-Siberian route, the map of Trans-Siberian, stops along the way -- WayToRussia.Net 16 September 2009 12:28 UTC waytorussia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ East-west transportation depends largely on the Trans-Siberian RR (which follows the steppe belt), on the Baykal-Amur Mainline (BAM), and to an increasing extent on the Arctic sea route.
  • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kotikovo, on the 8642 km, is the closest part of the Trans-Siberian route to China (only 3 kilometers).
  • The Trans-Siberian route, the map of Trans-Siberian, stops along the way -- WayToRussia.Net 16 September 2009 12:28 UTC waytorussia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Completed only in 1991 and built mostly for military reasons, further away from the border of China, the BAM is much less touristed.
Cold ostriches in Siberia
.
Cold ostriches in Siberia
  • Mountainous Altai (Gorny Altai) - this region of Siberia is very popular among eco tourists.^ Geography Siberia's administrative units are the Altai, Buryat, Khakass, and Tuva republics, the Altai, Krasnoyarsk, and Transbaykal territories, and the Omsk, Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Kemerovo, and Irkutsk regions.
    • Siberia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Siberia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The area around Novosibirsk is very good for camping and trekking, besides, Altai mountains are not far.
    • The Trans-Siberian route, the map of Trans-Siberian, stops along the way -- WayToRussia.Net 16 September 2009 12:28 UTC waytorussia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Siberia Equestrian Vacations Altai Mountains Asia .
    • Siberia Equestrian Vacations Altai Mountains Asia 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.hiddentrails.com [Source type: General]

    Mountainering and mountain rivers' rafting are wide spread here. The area is famous for its stunning scenery.
  • Ethnic Khanty Nomad Camp, Kazym
  • Ethnic Mansi Nomad Camp, Yasunt
  • Siberia on Video [1]
  • Mushroom picking
  • Hiking/biking
  • Alpine Sports
  • Whitewater rafting
  • Cross country skiing
  • Dog sledding
  • Reindeer herding
  • Vodka (водка) and tea (чай)
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

SIBERIA
by Florence Earle Coates
from Poems (1898)
Also published in The Century Magazine, March 1889; Vol. XXXVII No. 5; p. 659
.The night-wind drives across the leaden skies,
   And fans the brooding earth with icy wings ;
   Against the coast loud-booming billows flings,
   And soughs through forest-deeps with moaning
      sighs.
^ She told Filatov she had not seen the escaped prisoner, whereas, in reality, she had seen him and Fedot skiing through the forest.
  • "Siberia" by Georgi Markov - from SovLit.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They decide that Fedot will take Akimov to Dalnaya Taiga , a two-day trek deep into the forest, over rivers and across swamps.
  • "Siberia" by Georgi Markov - from SovLit.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]


Above the gorge, where snow, deep fallen, lies—
   A softness lending e'en to savage things—
   Above the gelid source of mountain springs,
   A solitary eagle, circling, flies.
O pathless woods, O isolating sea,
   O steppes interminable, hopeless, cold,
   O grievous distances, imagine ye,
Imprisoned here, the human soul to hold ?
   Free, in a dungeon,—as yon falcon free,—
   It soars beyond your ken, its loved ones to in-
      fold !
PD-icon.svg This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923.
.The author died in 1927, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less.^ Under Khrushchev 's Seven Year Plan in 1958-1965, massive public works projects commenced, including the construction of thermal and hydroelectric power plants.
  • Siberia@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have devoted the past eight years of my life to the country, living in it, journeying across it, even writing a book about it.
  • White Nights in Siberia - 00.12 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: General]

^ I worked twenty-eight years of my life up here, my entire youth.
  • White Nights in Siberia - 00.12 17 January 2010 17:22 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: General]

This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:
Geographic Russian Siberia in light red, political Siberian Federal District in dark red

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Siberia
Plural
-
Siberia
  1. The region of Russia in Asia, stretching from the Urals to the Pacific Ocean.

Derived terms

Translations


Romanian

Pronunciation

  • IPA: [si'be.ri.a]

Proper noun

Siberia f.
  1. Siberia

Declension

gender f. uncountable
Nom/Acc Siberia
Gen/Dat Siberiei

Derived terms


Simple English

       Geographic Russian Siberia        Historical Siberia (and Siberia according to many non-Russian sources)]]

Siberia is the part of Russia that is in Asia. It covers wide landscapes, and stretches from the Ural to the Pacific. It goes from the Arctic Sea to the border with China and Mongolia. Siberia covers about 77% of all Russian territory. It is one of the coldest places on Earth.

Novosibirsk is the largest city in Siberia with is population near 1.5 million.



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 12, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Siberia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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