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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates: 30°0′N 103°0′E / 30°N 103°E / 30; 103

Sichuan Province
Chinese : 四川省
Sìchuān Shěng
Abbreviations: 川/蜀  (pinyin: Chuān or Shǔ)
Szechuan is highlighted on this map
Origin of name Short for 川峡四路 chuānxiá sìlù
literally "The Four Circuits
of the Rivers and Gorges",
referring to the four circuits during the Song Dynasty.
Administration type Province
Capital
(and largest city)
Chengdu
CPC Ctte Secretary Liu Qibao
Governor Jiang Jufeng
Area 485,000 km2 (187,000 sq mi) (5th)
Population (2007)
 - Density
87,250,000 (3rd)
180 /km2 (470 /sq mi) (22nd)
GDP (2008)
 - per capita
CNY 1.25 trillion (9th)
CNY 15,378 (24th)
HDI (2006) 0.742 (medium) (24th)
Ethnic composition Han - 95%
Yi - 2.6%
Tibetan - 1.5%
Qiang - 0.4%
Prefecture-level 21 divisions
County-level 181 divisions
Township-level* 5011 divisions
ISO 3166-2 CN-51
Official website
http://www.sichuan.gov.cn/
(Simplified Chinese)
Source for population and GDP data:
《中国统计年鉴—2005》 China Statistical Yearbook 2005
ISBN 7503747382
Source for nationalities data:
《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》 Tabulation on nationalities of 2000 population census of China
ISBN 7105054255
*As at December 31, 2004
Template ■ Discussion ■ WikiProject China
This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

About this sound Sichuan (Chinese: 四川pinyin: Sìchuān; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province (shěng) in Southwestern China with its capital in Chengdu. The current name of the province, 四川 (Sìchuān), is an abbreviation of 四川路 (Sì Chuānlù), or "Four circuits of rivers", which is itself abbreviated from 川峡四路 (Chuānxiá Sìlù), or "Four circuits of rivers and gorges", named after the division of the existing circuit into four during the Northern Song Dynasty.[1]

Contents

History

The province and its vicinity were the cradle of unique local civilizations, which can be dated back to at least the fifteenth century BC (coinciding with the later years of Shang Dynasty). Beginning from the ninth century BC, Shu (today Chengdu) and Ba (today Chongqing City) emerged as cultural and administrative centers where two rival kingdoms were established.

Shu's existence was unknown until an archaeological discovery in 1986 at a small village named Sanxingdui (三星堆 Sān Xīng Duī) in Guanghan County. It is believed to be an ancient city of the Shu Kingdom, where excavations have yielded invaluable archaeological information.

Although the Qin Dynasty destroyed the civilizations of Shu and Ba, their cultures were preserved and inherited by people in Sichuan until today. The Qin government accelerated the technological and agricultural advancements of Sichuan making it comparable to that of the Huang He (Yellow River) Valley. The Dujiangyan Irrigation System, built in the 3rd century BC under the inspection of Li Bing, was the symbol of modernization of that period. Composed of a series of dams, it redirected the flow of the Min Jiang, a major tributary of the Yangtze River, to fields, relieving the damage of seasonal floods. The construction and various other projects greatly increased the harvest of the area which thus became the main source of provisions and men for Qin's unification of China.

Various ores were abundant. Adding to its significance, the area was also on the trade route from the Huang He Valley to foreign countries of the southwest, especially India.

The area's military importance matches its commercial and agricultural significance. As a basin surrounded by the Himalayas to the west, the Qinling Range to the north, and mountainous areas of Yunnan to the south, Sichuan is prone to fog. Since the Yangtze flows through the basin and is thus upstream of eastern China, navies could be easily sailed downstream. Therefore Sichuan was the base for numerous amphibious military forces and also served as the refuge of Chinese governments throughout history. A few independent regimes were founded; the most famous was Shu Han of the Three Kingdoms. The Jin Dynasty first conquered Shu Han on its path of unification. During the Tang Dynasty, it was a battlefront against Tibet.

A stone-carved pillar-gate, or que (闕), 6 m (20 ft) in total height, located at the tomb of Gao Yi in Ya'an, Sichuan, built during the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 AD)
The Leshan Giant Buddha, built during the latter half of the Tang Dynasty (618–907).

The Southern Song Dynasty established coordinated defenses against the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty in Sichuan and Xiangyang. The line of defense was finally broken through after the first use of firearms in history during the six-year siege of Xiangyang, which ended in 1273.

During the Ming Dynasty major architectural works were created in Sichuan. Bao'en Temple is a well-preserved fifteenth century monastery complex built between 1440 and 1446 during Emperor Yingzong's reign (1427-64) in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). Dabei Hall enshrines a thousand-armed wooden image of Guanyin and Huayan Hall is a repository with a revolving sutra cabinet. The wall paintings, sculptures and other ornamental details are masterpieces of the Ming period.[2]

The Qing general Zhang Xianzhong, nicknamed Yellow Tiger, conquered Sichuan Province in the middle of the 17th century.[3] A landslide dam on the Dadu River caused by an earthquake gave way on 10 June 1786. The resulting flood killed 100,000 people.[4]

In the 20th century, as Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Wuhan had all been lost to the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the capital of the Republic of China had been temporary relocated to Chongqing. The difficulty of accessing the region overland from the eastern China and the foggy climate hindering the accuracy of Japanese bombing of the Sichuan basin and the city of Chongqing made the region the stronghold of Chiang Kai-Shek's Guomindang government during 1938-45.

As the Second Sino-Japanese War was soon followed by the resumed Chinese Civil War, and the cities of the east fell to the Communists one after another, the Guomindang government again tried to make Sichuan its stronghold on the mainland. Chiang Kai-Shek himself flew to Chongqing from Taiwan in November 1949 to lead the defense. But the same month Chongqing fell to the Communists, followed by Chengdu on 10 December. The Guomindang general Wang Sheng wanted to stay behind with his troops to continue anticommunist guerilla war in Sichuan, but was recalled to Taiwan, many of his soldiers making their way there as well, via Burma.[5]

On Monday, 12 May 2008 at 2:28:01 PM local time, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.9/8.0 hit just 79 km northwest of the provincial capital of Chengdu. As of 14 May, the official Xinhua news agency reported: 14,463 people were dead, another 14,051 were missing, 25,788 were buried in the debris and 64,746 had been injured,[6][7][8][9] [10] On 31 May, the death toll was updated to 68,467 in Sichuan with a further ~17,000 people missing, and 354,045 injured.[11][12]

History of provincial borders

Sichuan's borders have remained relatively constant for the past 500 years. However, the western Xikang province of the Republic of China was annexed to Sichuan in 1955. Since 1955 until 1997 it had been China's most populous province, hitting 100 million shortly after the 1982 Census figure of 99,730,000.[13] This changed in 1997 when the city of Chongqing as well as the surrounding counties of Fuling and Wanxian were split off into the new Chongqing Municipality. The new municipality was formed to spearhead China's effort to develop its western provinces, as well as to coordinate the resettlement of residents from the reservoir areas ofthe Three Gorges Dam project. In 1997 when Sichuan split, the sum of the two parts was recorded to be 114,720,000 people[14], the only province ever to have reached 100 million people in China. Furthermore, as a subnational entity, it has only been exceeded by the former Russian SFSR of the Soviet Union and Uttar Pradesh of India.

Subdivisions

Sichuan consists of eighteen prefecture-level cities and three autonomous prefectures:

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Administrative Seat Type
Sichuan prfc map.png
1 Garzê (Tibetan) 甘孜藏族自治州 Gānzī Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu Kangding County Autonomous prefectures
2 Ngawa (Tibetan & Qiang) 阿坝藏族羌族自治州 Ābà Zàngzú Qiāngzú Zìzhìzhōu Barkam County Autonomous prefectures
3 Mianyang 绵阳市 Miányáng Shì Fucheng District Prefecture-level city
4 Guangyuan 广元市 Gǔangyúan Shì Lizhou District Prefecture-level city
5 Nanchong 南充市 Nánchōng Shì Shunqing District Prefecture-level city
6 Bazhong 巴中市 Bāzhōng Shì Bazhou District Prefecture-level city
7 Dazhou 达州市 Dázhōu Shì Tongchuan District Prefecture-level city
8 Ya'an 雅安市 Yǎ'ān Shì Yucheng District Prefecture-level city
9 Chengdu 成都市 Chéngdū Shì Qingyang District Sub-provincial city
10 Deyang 德阳市 Déyáng Shì Jingyang District Prefecture-level city
11 Suining 遂宁市 Sùiníng Shì Chuanshan District Prefecture-level city
12 Guang'an 广安市 Guǎng'ān Shì Guang'an District Prefecture-level city
13 Meishan 眉山市 Méishān Shì Dongpo District Prefecture-level city
14 Ziyang 资阳市 Zīyáng Shì Yanjiang District Prefecture-level city
15 Leshan 乐山市 Lèshān Shì Shizhong District Prefecture-level city
16 Neijiang 内江市 Nèijiāng Shì Shizhong District Prefecture-level city
17 Zigong 自贡市 Zìgòng Shì Ziliujing District Prefecture-level city
18 Yibin 宜宾市 Yíbīn Shì Cuiping District Prefecture-level city
19 Luzhou 泸州市 Lúzhōu Shì Jiangyang District Prefecture-level city
20 Liangshan (Yi) 凉山彝族自治州 Liángshān Yízú Zìzhìzhōu Xichang Autonomous prefectures
21 Panzhihua 攀枝花市 Pānzhīhūa Shì Dongqu District Prefecture-level city

Geography

Larix potaninii in autumn colour, Huluhai, Sichuan

The area lies in the Sichuan basin and is surrounded by the Himalayas (喜玛拉雅山脉)to the west, Qinling (秦岭) range to the north, and mountainous areas of Yunnan to the south. The Yangtze River flows through the basin and thus is upstream to areas of eastern China. The Minjiang River in central Sichuan is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River, which it joins at Yibin. Plate tectonics formed the Longmen Shan fault, which runs under the north-easterly mountain location of the 2008 earthquake.

The climate is highly variable. The Sichuan Basin (including Chengdu) in eastern half of the province experiences a subtropical monsoon climate with long, warm to hot, humid summers and short, cool to cold, dry and cloudy winters, with China's lowest sunshine totals. The western areas have a mountainous climate characterized by very cold winters and mild summers, with plentiful sunshine. The southern part of the province, including Panzhihua, has a sunny, subtropical climate with very mild winters and hot summers.

Sichuan borders Qinghai province to the northwest, Gansu province to the north, Shaanxi province to the northeast, Chongqing municipality to the east, Guizhou province to the southeast, Yunnan province to the south, and Tibet Autonomous Region to the west.

Politics

The politics of Sichuan is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Sichuan is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Sichuan. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Sichuan Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Sichuan CPC Party Chief".

Economy

The capital of Sichuan, Chengdu.

Sichuan has been historically known as the "Province of Abundance". It is one of the major agricultural production bases of China. Grain, including rice and wheat, is the major product with output that ranked first in China in 1999. Commercial crops include citrus fruits, sugar canes, sweet potatoes, peaches and grapeseeds. Sichuan also had the largest output of pork among all the provinces and the second largest output of silkworm cocoons in China in 1999. Sichuan is rich in mineral resources. It has more than 132 kinds of proven underground mineral resources of which reserves of 11 kinds including vanadium, titanium, and lithium are the largest in China. The Panxi region alone possesses 13.3% of the reserves of iron, 93% of titanium, 69% of vanadium, and 83% of the cobalt of the whole country.[15]

Sichuan is one of the major industrial centers of China. In addition to heavy industries such as coal, energy, iron and steel, the province has also established a light industrial sector comprising building materials, wood processing, food and silk processing. Chengdu and Mianyang are the production centers for textiles and electronics products. Deyang, Panzhihua, and Yibin are the production centers for machinery, metallurgical industries, and wine, respectively. Sichuan's wine production accounted for 21.9% of the country’s total production in 2000.

Great strides have been made in developing Sichuan into a modern hi-tech industrial base, by encouraging both domestic and foreign investments in electronics and information technology (such as software), machinery and metallurgy (including automobiles), hydropower, pharmaceutical, food and beverage industries.

The auto industry is an important and key sector of the machinery industry in Sichuan. Most of the auto manufacturing companies are located in Chengdu, Mianyang, Nanchong, and Luzhou.[16]

Other important industries in Sichuan include aerospace and defense (military) industries. A number of China's rockets (Long March rockets) and satellites were launched from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center, located in the city of Xichang.

Sichuan's beautiful landscapes and rich historical relics have also made the province a major center for tourism.

The Three Gorges Dam, the largest dam ever constructed, is being built on the Yangtze River in nearby Hubei province to control flooding in the Sichuan Basin, neighboring Yunnan province, and downstream. The plan is hailed by some as China's efforts to shift towards alternative energy sources and to further develop its industrial and commercial bases, but others have criticised it for its potentially harmful effects, such as massive resettlement of residents in the reservoir areas, loss of archeological sites, and ecological damages.

Sichuan's nominal GDP for 2008 was 1.25 trillion yuan (US$180 billion), equivalent to 15,378 RMB (US$2,214) per capita. In 2008, the per capita net income of rural residents was 4,121 yuan (US$593), up 16.2% from 2007. The per capita disposable income of the urbanites averaged 12,633 yuan (US$1,819), up 13.8% from 2007.[17][18]

Foreign trade

According to the Sichuan Department of Commerce, the province's total foreign trade was US$22.04 billion in 2008, a year on year increase of 53.3 percent. Exports were US$13.1 billion, a year on year increase of 52.3 percent, while imports were US$8.93 billion, a year on year increase of 54.7 percent. These achievements were accomplished because of significant changes in China's foreign trade policy, acceleration of the yuan's appreciation, increase of commercial incentives and increase in production costs. The 18 cities and counties witnessed a steady rate of increase. Chengdu, Suining, Nanchong, Dazhou, Ya'an, Abazhou, and Liangshan all saw an increase of more than 40 percent while Leshan, Neijiang, Luzhou, Meishan, Ziyang, and Yibin saw an increase of more than 20 percent. Foreign trade in Zigong, Panzhihua, Guang'an, Bazhong and Ganzi remained constant.

Minimum wage

The Sichuan government raised the minimum wage in the province by 12.5 percent at the end of December 2007. The monthly minimum wage went up from 400 to 450 yuan, with a minimum of 4.9 yuan per hour for part-time work, effective Dec. 26 2007. The government also reduced the four-tier minimum wage structure to three. The top tier mandates a minimum of 650 yuan per month, or 7.1 yuan per hour. National law allows each province to set minimum wages independently, but with a floor of 450 yuan per month.

Economic and Technological Development Zones

Transportation

Expressways

On 3 November 2007, the Sichuan Transportation Bureau announced that the Sui-Yu Expressway was completed after three years of construction. After completion of the Chongqing section of the road, the 36.64 km expressway connected Cheng-Nan Expressway and formed the shortest expressway from Chengdu to Chongqing. The new expressway is 50 km shorter than the pre-existing road between Chengdu and Chongqing; thus journey time between the two cities was reduced by an hour, now taking two and a half hours. The Sui-Yu Expressway is a four lane overpass with a speed limit of 80 km/h. The total investment was 1.045 billion yuan.

Demographics

Tibetans as a main ethnic minority group in Sichuan.

The majority of the province's population is Han Chinese, who are found scattered throughout the region. Significant minorities of Tibetans, Yi, Qiang and Naxi reside in the western portion. The Eastern Lipo, included with either Yi people or Lisu people as well as the A-Hmao also are among the ethnic groups of the provinces. Sichuan was China's most populous province before Chongqing was carved out of it, making Henan the current most populous. However, when including migrants, Guangdong has a higher population than Henan.

It was the third most populous sub-national entity in the world, after Uttar Pradesh, India and the Russian SFSR until 1991 when the Soviet Union was dissolved. It is also one of the only four to ever reach 100 million people (Uttar Pradesh, Russian RSFSR, Maharashtra, and Sichuan). It is currently 6th.

Culture

The Li Bai Memorial, located at Zhongba Town of northern Jiangyou County in Sichuan Province, is a museum in memory of Li Bai, a Chinese poet in the Tang Dynasty (618-907), at the place where he grew up. It was prepared in 1962 on the occasion of 1,200th anniversary of his death, completed in 1981 and opened to the public in October 1982. The memorial is built in the style of the classic garden of the Tang Dynasty.

Languages

Most dialects of Chinese spoken in Sichuan, including the Chengdu dialect of the provincial capital, belong to the southwestern subdivision of the Mandarin group, and are therefore very similar to the dialects of neighboring Yunnan and Guizhou provinces as well as Chongqing Municipality. Typical features shared by many southwestern Mandarin dialects include the merger of the retroflex consonants /tʂ tʂʰ ʂ/ into the alveolar consonants /ts tsʰ s/, the merger of /n/ and /l/, as well as the merger of /ɤŋ iɤŋ/ into /ən in/.

The prefectures of Garzê and Ngawa (Aba) in western Sichuan are populated predominantly by ethnic Tibetans, who speak the Kham and Amdo dialects of Tibetan. The Qiang and other related ethnicities speak the Qiangic languages, which are part of the Tibeto-Burman languages. The Yi of Liangshan prefecture in southern Sichuan speak the Yi language, which is more closely related to Burmese; Yi is written using the Yi script, a syllabary standardized in 1974.

Cuisine

The Sichuanese are proud of their cuisine, known as one of the Four Great Traditions of Chinese cuisine, which now is famous all over the world. Szechuan cuisine is of "one dish, one shape, hundreds of dishes, hundreds of tastes", as the saying goes, to describe its acclaimed diversity. The most prominent traits of Sichuanese cuisine are described by four words: spicy, hot, fresh and fragrant.[19] Two famous Sichuan chefs are Chen Kenmin and his son Chen Kenichi, who was Iron Chef Chinese on the television series "Iron Chef".

Education

Colleges and universities

Collapse of schools during the 2008 Sichuan earthquake

See also: Allegations of corruption in the construction of Chinese schools, Collapse of schools in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake

During the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, a disproportionately high number of school structures collapsed, especially in rural areas of Sichuan, leading to allegations of corruption and promises by the government for an official inquiry. However, it remains unclear whether the allegedly shoddy construction was unique to Sichuan, as opposed to a nation-wide practice that only became visible in Sichuan due to the earthquake.

Executive vice governor, Wei Hong, on 20 November 2008 confirmed that 19,065 identified schoolchildren died, and more than 90,000 were dead or missing after the earthquake. He stated that 200,000 homes had been rebuilt, and 685,000 were under reconstruction, but 1.94 million households were still without permanent shelter. 1,900 schools had been reconstructed, with initial relocation of 25 townships, including Beichuan and Wenchuan, two of the most devastated areas. The government spent $441 billion dollars on relief and reconstruction efforts.[20][21]

Tourism

Giant pandas eating bamboo in Chengdu, Sichuan

UNESCO World Heritage Sites

Sports

Professional sports teams in Sichuan include:

Twin states

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ (Chinese) Origin of the Names of China's Provinces, People's Daily Online.
  2. ^ Guxi, Pan (2002). Chinese Architecture -- The Yuan and Ming Dynasties (English Ed. ed.). Yale University Press. pp. 245–246. ISBN 0-300-09559-7.  
  3. ^ "Skeletons of massacre victims uncovered at construction site". Shanghai Star. 11 April 2002. http://app1.chinadaily.com.cn/star/2002/0411/cn8-3.html.  
  4. ^ Schuster, R.L. and G. F. Wieczorek, "Landslide triggers and types" in Landslides: Proceedings of the First European Conference on Landslides 2002 A.A. Balkema Publishers. p.66 [1]
  5. ^ Marks, Thomas A., Counterrevolution in China: Wang Sheng and the Kuomintang, Frank Cass (London: 1998), ISBN 0714647004. Partial view on Google Books. p. 116.
  6. ^ Strong earthquake hits southwest China
  7. ^ Powerful earthquake shakes China
  8. ^ Nearly 9,000 Dead in Quake
  9. ^ USGS Earthquake Details
  10. ^ China quake toll close to 15,000
  11. ^ "China earthquake toll tops 40,000". bbc.co.uk. 20 May 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7410166.stm. Retrieved 20 May 2008.  
  12. ^ "Casualties of the Wenchuan Earthquake" (in Chinese). Sina.com. 31 May 2008. http://news.sina.com.cn/pc/2008-05-13/326/651.html. Retrieved 31 May 2008.  
  13. ^ Citypopulation.de:China
  14. ^ National Statistics Agency Tables:4-3 Total Population and Birth Rate, Death Rate and Natural Growth Rate by Region (1997)
  15. ^ SICHUAN PROVINCE (hktdc.com)
  16. ^ International Market Research - AUTO PARTS INDUSTRY IN SICHUAN AND CHONGQING
  17. ^ Xinhua - English
  18. ^ Counting the economic costs of China's earthquake_English_Xinhua
  19. ^ Sichuanese Cuisine (Chinese) - Pictures, descriptions, history, and examples of Sichuan cuisine.
  20. ^ China Raises Quake’s Student Toll
  21. ^ Chinese official corrects figure on quake deaths
Economic data'

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Sichuan (四川; Sìchuān; also known as Szechwan), is a province in the west of the Southern Central Region of China.

  • Chengdu - the capital of Sichuan has 2,000 years of history, the southeastern part is encircled by small mountains and to the north east is Chengdu Campagna.
  • Dege - home to an amazing Tibetan library.
  • Ganzi - rough Tibetan town and launching point for exploring local monasteries.
  • Kangding - gateway to western Sichuan's Tibetan region.
  • Langmusi - beautiful Tibetan border town sitting in both Gansu & Sichuan, with two monasteries, horse trekking opportunities and a sky burial site.
  • Leshan - home of the largest stone carved Buddha in the world.
  • Songpan - base camp for exploring Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve and the Amdo Tibetan culture.
  • Xiangcheng- On the high-road to Yunnan
  • Xinlong
  • Langzhong - ancient town in north-east Sichuan

Chongqing Municipality is administratively separate, but culturally and historically still Sichuanese. See List of Chinese provinces and regions.

Understand

Climate - See the climate table on Chengdu page

Talk

The language of Sichuan is a variant of Mandarin (Southwest), which differs from standard Mandarin of the north-east significantly in pronunciation, and use of slang which are unique to the area. Nevertheless, native speakers of Mandarin will be able to understand the local dialect albeit with some difficulty. Tibetan is still the mother tongue in most of the highland west. Many young people in the western regions are bi-lingual in both Tibetan and Mandarin. Qiangic, native to the Qiang minority group, also found in Sichaun, is also to be found in west Sichuan. The vast majority of signage is always in Mandarin Chinese throughout the province regardless of the ethnic majority in the given area.

  • Dacheng Lamo Kerti Gompa - located at Langmusi, temple where traditional Tibetan sky-burials are still practiced
  • Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries

Eat

Sichuan cuisine is well-known worldwide, including dishes like Kung Pao Chicken (宮保雞丁) and Twice Cooked Pork (回鍋肉). It is also famously spicy, with liberal use of chilies and the indigenous Sichuan pepper (花椒; huājiāo).

One of the other specialty of the area is the Hot Pot (火锅; Huoguo), cheap but extremely spicy.

Stay safe

The province of Sichuan suffered a catastrophic earthquake on May 12, 2008 centered on Wenchuan County, about 100km north of Chengdu city. Many cities were nearly completely destroyed and over 80,000 people are dead or missing with hundreds of thousands more injured or homeless. Government response was fast, but reconstruction will take years.

Many of West Sichuan's main attractions are located at altitudes above 3,000 meters and thus altitude sickness is a threat. Make sure to monitor your own health and take it easy for a day or two if moving from the low lands to higher elevations.

To help combat this sickness, many local Chinese eat medicine known as Hong Jing Tian. These are red capsules that the soldiers of the People's Liberation Army use to help them quickly adjust to altitude conditions in the Western Chinese provinces. Local tour companies will have a ready supply of this medicine if you ask.

There is also tension in Western Sichuan between the Chinese government and the mainly Tibetan people there and travel restrictions may apply to this area. See the warnings under Tibet.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Sichuan

Plural
-

Sichuan

  1. A province of central China.

Translations

See also


Mandarin

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Sichuan (Pinyin Sìchuān)

  1. Sichuan province
    Zhongguo Sichuan fashengle qianglie dizhen. — A strong earthquake has happened in Sichuan, China.
    (Zhōngguó Sìchuān fāshēngle qiángliè dìzhèn. — 中国四川发生了强烈地震.)

Simple English

Sichuan (Chinese: 四川; pinyin: Sì Chuān) is a province in western China with its capital at Chengdu. It is also informally called 蜀 Shǔ. Its Governor is Jiang Ju Feng and its CPC Ctte Secretary is Liu Qi Bao. With a population of 87,250,000 (2006), Sichuan is the third most populated administrative division of China. Sichuan used to be the province with the most people in China before Chongqing was separated from it, making Henan the most populous. However, when including migrants, Guangdong has more people than Henan.

Contents

Name

The name 四川 Sì Chuān, is an abbreviation of 四川路 Sì Chuān Lù (translated as "Four circuits (subdivisions) of rivers"), which is itself shortened from 川峡四路 Chuān Xiá Sì Lù (translated as "Four circuits of rivers and gorges").[1]

Subdivisions

There are 18 subdivisions within Sichuan, including both prefecture-level cities and autonomous prefectures:

  • Chengdu
  • Mianyang
  • Deyang
  • Yibin
  • Panzhihua
  • Leshan
  • Nanchong
  • Zigong
  • Luzhou
  • Neijiang
  • Guangyuan
  • Suining
  • Ziyang
  • Guang'an
  • Ya'an
  • Meishan
  • Dazhou
  • Bazhong
  • Aba Tibetan Qiang Autonomous Prefecture
  • Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
  • Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture

People

Most people living in Sichuan are Han. There are also Tibetans, Yi people, Qiang and Naxi in the western side.

Culture

The Li Bai Memorial (located at his birthplace, Zhongba Town of northern Jiangyou County) is a museum in memory of the Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty, Li Bai. It was prepared in 1962 on the occasion of 1,200th anniversary of his death, completed in 1981 and opened to the public in October of 1982. The memorial is built in the style of the classic garden of the Tang Dynasty.

Music

Sichuan has a long history of folk and classical music. Sichuan opera is an ancient tradition that very is well-known. The Sichuan lantern drama is popular in Sichuan. The Sichuan Conservatory of Music in Chengdu is one of the oldest of musical education in China, having been established in 1939.

There is also religious music in Sichuan, played by Daoist priests in their temples.

Traditional Sichuan folk music is usually played with instruments such as the bamboo flute, pan and cymbals, gong and horn.

Food

Sichuan cuisine has an international reputation for being hot and numbing ("麻辣" in Chinese), because of the common ingredient of the Sichuan peppercorn (called "花椒" in Chiense).

Some well-known Sichuan dishes include Kung Pao chicken (宮保雞丁 Gōng Bǎo Jī Dīng) and Twice Cooked Pork (回鍋肉 Huí Guō Ròu).

Language

Most dialects of the Chinese language spoken in Sichuan, including the Chengdu dialect, are similar to the dialects of neighbouring provinces Yunnan, Guizhou and Chongqing Municipality.

Sports

  • Chinese Basketball Association
  • Chinese Football Association Super League
    • Chengdu Blades
  • Chinese Volleyball League
    • Sichuan Volleyball Team
  • China Table Tennis Super League
    • Sichuan Quan-Xing Table-Tennis Team

Universities

  • Southwestern University of Finance and Economics (Chengdu)
  • Sichuan University (Chengdu)
  • Southwest Jiaotong University (Chengdu)
  • University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (Chengdu)
  • Southwest University of Science and Technology (Mianyang)

Tourism

UNESCO World Heritage Sites include:

  • Dazu Rock Carvings - officially part of Chongqing Municipality, not Sichuan
  • Huanglong, Scenic and Historic Interest Area
  • Jiuzhaigou Valley, Scenic and Historic Interest Area
  • Mount Emei, Scenic Area
    • Leshan Giant Buddha, Scenic Area
  • Mount Qincheng and Dujiangyan Irrigation System
  • Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries

Notable Sichuanese people








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