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‏Sidekan also called Bradost, a vast sub-district belongs to the district of Soran[1] (Diana-Rawanduz) north of ‎‎Erbil in Iraqi Kurdistan, with 250 villages, and population of ‎less than 15000[2]. the exact number of Bradostian people estimated more than this census but as the original habitants had been deported three times in 1961, 1978 and 1988 ‎and a lot of them has not returned yet due to the frequently bombing by turkish and iranian ‎army on the Kurdistan Workers Party strongholds located in Khakurk mountains, and also because ‎of the lack of renovation projects by the local authorities‏.‏


‏History of Sidekan‏

After 1958 and the return of Mullah Mustafa Barzani from Russia, and then the outbreak of ‎Kurdish revolution in 1961 under his leadership , Sidkan became a dangerous place to ‎stay overall impact of some of its residents to leave them, especially the family of ‎Sheikh Rashid Lolan and his Soffi followers and the family of Mahmoud Beg and his ‎sons. Barzani had bad relationships with both families. firstly, they dwelled in Diana and Harir and then inside Erbil in ‎both (Iskan) and (Azadi). In 1978 the government issued a decision to ‎evacuated the border areas with Turkey and Iran to prevent contact between Kurdish ‎rebels and villagers .. accordingly, Bradost people deported to Diana (Soran), ‎Tobzawa, Kesnezan and Degele around the city of Erbil. the rest of them deported ‎during Iraq-Iran war 1984-1988 to Badleyan near Diana‏. ‏ the name of Sidekan had mentioned d in a Historical Islamic books in Arabic, "said ‎Abu Abbas Qalqashandi who died in 821 Hijri wrote about Sidekan and their princes ‎in his Book "Sobh a'sha" as one of the countries of Eastern during Hulagu khan rule ‎‎(1217-1265) one of them was the prince Ali Hossam Eddin zerzari and prince Henesh ‎bin Ismaiel the prince of Beazgir‏. ‏


‏Holy land of Muṣaṣir‏

Musasir temple

the life in Musasir

Sidkan old town was located near the village of Mucéser which was called ‎‎Muṣaṣir which was an ancient Mannaean city, attested in Assyrian sources of ‎the 9th and 8th centuries BC. ‎It was acquired by the Urartian king Ishpuini ca. 800 BC ‎‎. The city's ‎tutelary deity was Ḫaldi. The name Musasir in Akkadian means exit of the ‎serpent.‎The Musasir temple was an important Araratian temple in Musasir, The ‎Temple at Musasir ‎appears in an Assyrian bas-relief which adorned the palace of ‎King Sargon II at Khorsapat, to ‎commemorate his victory over "the seven kings of ‎Ararat" in 714 BC. During the early 1850's, ‎the British Assyrian Excavation Fund ‎entered the field under William Kennett Loftus and many ‎antiquities and accurate ‎drawings of wall sculptures were apportioned between the British ‎Museum and the ‎Louvre. However, a convoy of antiquities was attacked by Arab robbers ‎while being ‎shipped down the Tigris River, and today lies buried somewhere in the bed of ‎that ‎river.[3]

‏Ardini Kingdom‏

Ardini ‏was one of the city of ancient Musasir who mentioned in Keleshin stele, the ‎location of this city is now called (Hérdeni) not too far from Mucéser five km from ‎Sidekan town‏.‏

‏Kéleshin Stele‏

Kéle shin meaning "Green stone" in Kurdish is a mauntain ‎passage located on Iranian border, Bradost area ‎north of Iraqi Kurdiatn some 80 km south-west ‎of Lake Urmia. The Kélashin Stele (also Kélishin Stele) found in Kélashin ‎passage, , bears an important Urartian-Assyrian bilingual text dating to ‎ca. 800 BC, ‎first described by Friedrich Eduard Schulz in 1827. Part of Schulz's notes ‎were lost ‎when he was killed by local brigands, and later expeditions were either ‎prevented by ‎weather conditions or brigands, so that a copy (latex squeeze) of the ‎inscription could ‎only be made in 1951 by G. Cameron, and again in 1976 by an ‎Italian party under ‎heavy military protection. The inscription describes the acquisition ‎of the city of ‎Musasir (Ardini) by the Urartian king ‎Ishpuini[4] the stele is now kept in the museum of Urmia city‏ since 1984. also there are a small stele found in Topzawa village, close to Sidekan town called Topzawa stele. it kept in Erbil museum.

Topzawa stele

From Topzawa (Topzawä), 25 km is from Kéleshin, a bilingual Stele of King Rusa I urartu. It is badly preserved. The text tells how Urzana appeared in front of Musasir Rusa, perhaps, as Russell suggested [5], to seek for help against the Assyrians. Rusa attacked the Assyrians and Urzana sat on the throne of his fathers. Musasir were offered to the gods of sacrifice. At the end of the inscription are the one who destroys, threatened the usual punishment of the gods. Most researchers assume that Musasir was in the vicinity of Topzawa‏

Clans and Tribes

Sidekan is inhabited by the clan of bradost or Biradost ( برادوست) which has four ‎main branches: ‎

  • Begzade in the villages of (Mucéser, or Mudjesir :old Muṣaṣir), Lolan and in ‎Dashti-Berazgir‏.‏
  • Khakurki in Khakurk (Hakurk) area close to Shemdinan district with turkish ‎border‏.‏
  • Piresni in Sidekan town, zerza valley and outlying areas‎‏.‏
  • Rewendok including Shekhzade branch, in Dashti Hért who live as Semi-Nomade ‎and their summer residences are in Kéle Shin Pass close to Oshnavieh inside ‎Iran border‏

There is also a tribe of Muhacir who are originally immigrants came from north and east Kurdistan with Sheikh ‎Taha Nehri and Simko Sihkak during Shemdinan-Chariq unrest in 1884 and 1915 [6]

Geographic Details


Bradost is a mountainous area characterized by high mountains the most famous one is Helgurd (the peak of Hasarost)in the south eastalso there are : Goshine ,Bizeen, Berbizeen, Shekiw, Déwane, Siako, Hesenbeg, Bolé, Rebenok, Qelender, Awedel Kéw, xréne.


  • Kezhek, Hewélan, Shiwan, Kewne-Sidekan, Mujéser, Qelétan, (in Sidekan Velley)
  • Topzawa (with Topzawa srele), Bené, Shiwegermik seru & khwaru, Basekan, joner, ..etc (Zerzé Valley)
  • Zhuzhile, Hérden, Ketine, Bolé, Kani She'ban, Déré, Birte, Bésewé, Sorya, Telan, Béqepushik, Malle mela, Gurizhge ... etc (Bolé-Muhacir area)
  • Bozan, Létan, Delewe, Zhilya, Gojar, Nawdarok, Bérkime, Baske kon, Bejan, Pungusta, Qulek ... etc (Létan valley)
  • Khumari, Jera, Gorrebeterash, Hetkan, Khdrawa, Nékewe, khoran, Bizinkirre, Rikawa ... etc (Deshte Hért)
  • Minan, Lélkan, Gorra, Kewert, Nawmérgan, Herkélan, Shikerran, Blesenan ... (Lélkan, Shekhzade area)
  • Duremilk, Kolitan, Aristan, Zérkan, zenda .... Lérsmaq valley
  • Heyat, Sida, Shoshin, Bené, Bermize, Lakota, Harune, Chemelua, Geliresh, Siro Zerwa.... etc (Deshti Berazgir area)
  • Kani resh, Elmush, Muslok, Khezne, Zyaret, Shushan (Khakurk area)
  • Lolan, Male mela, Khnére, ... etc (Lolan area)


  • Haji beg , originate from Khakurk and pour out into upper Zab in the village of Rézan (Barzan area)
  • Gader rise from Lolan area and crosses into Deshti-Shno and Silduz (Neghede) and pour out into the Lake of Urumia (Iran)
  • Zena thru Letan valley into Balekyan branch and then to Zab (in Khelan village).


there are some Volkanic lake located in the highlands close to Kileshin passag, locally called (bérm) which mean small lakelet. the famouse one is (Bérm of Dindaran). in the graphics of Musasir (assyrian inscriptions) this lake is shown up.



Other article


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ >Armen, Garbis (1992), An Architecture of Survival, ISBN 0-9695988-0-8  
  4. ^
  5. ^ H. F. Russell, Shalmaneser's campaign to Urartu in 856 B.C. and the historical geography of Eastern Anatolia according to the Assyrian sources. Anatolian Studies 34, 1984, 171-201.
  6. ^ Book of Kurdistan tribes by Burhan Bradost


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