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Siege of Yorktown
Part of the American Revolutionary War
Surrender of Lord Cornwallis.jpg
Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown
by John Trumbull, depicting the British surrendering to French (left) and American (right) troops. Oil on canvas, 1820.
Date September 28 – October 19, 1781
Location Yorktown, Virginia
Result Decisive Franco-American victory
Belligerents
France France
 United States
United Kingdom Great Britain
 Ansbach-Bayreuth
Commanders
France Comte de Rochambeau

France Comte de Grasse
United States George Washington

United Kingdom Charles Cornwallis #

United Kingdom Charles O'Hara #

Strength
American
5,700 regulars
3,100 militia[1]

French
11,800 regulars
29 war ships[1]

9,000 soldiers[1]
Casualties and losses
88 killed
301 wounded[2]
142-309 killed;
326-595 wounded prisoners;
7,416-7,685 captured[3]

The Siege of Yorktown or Battle of Yorktown in 1781 was a decisive victory by combined assault of American forces led by General George Washington and French forces led by General Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by General Lord Cornwallis. It proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War, as the surrender of Cornwallis's army prompted the British government eventually to negotiate an end to the conflict.

In 1780, 5,500 French soldiers landed in Rhode Island to try to help their American allies in assaulting British-controlled New York City. The two armies met North of New York City in 1781. The French Commander, the Comte de Rochambeau, convinced the American Commander, George Washington, that an attack on New York City would be hard pressed to succeed and it would be easier for the French Fleet under the command of the Comte de Grasse to assist in the attack further south, because he was to bring the French Fleet into the Caribbean in October. Thus, they agreed to attack Lord Cornwallis and his smaller army of 9,000 men stationed in the port town of Yorktown, Virginia. In the beginning of September, de Grasse defeated a British Fleet that came to relieve Cornwallis at the Battle of the Chesapeake. As a result of this victory, de Grasse blocked any escape by sea for Cornwallis. Washington dispatched the French general Marquis de Lafayette to contain Cornwallis in Yorktown until he arrived, and Lafayette did so. By late September the army and naval forces surrounded Cornwallis by land and sea.

After initial preparations, the Americans and French built their first parallel and began the bombardment. With the British defense weakened, Washington, on October 14, 1781, sent two columns to attack the last major remaining British outer defenses; redoubts #9 and #10. A French column took #9 and an American column #10. With these defenses gone, the allies were able to finish their 2nd parallel. With the Americans' artillery closer and more intense than ever, the British situation began to deteriorate rapidly and Cornwallis asked for capitulation terms on the 17th. After two days of negotiation, the surrender ceremony took place on the 19th, with Cornwallis being absent since he claimed to be ill. With the capture of over 8,000 British soldiers, negotiations between the United States and Great Britain began, resulting in the Treaty of Paris in 1783.

Contents

Prelude

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Franco-American Cooperation

A plan of the Battle of Yorktown drawn in 1875.

On December 20, 1780, Benedict Arnold sailed from New York with 1,500 troops to Portsmouth, Virginia. On his way, he raided Richmond, defeating the militia, from January 5-7 before falling back to Portsmouth.[4] Admiral Destouches, who arrived in Newport, Rhode Island in July of 1780 with a fleet with 5,500 soldiers, was encouraged by Washington and French Lieutenant General Rochambeau to bring his fleet south, and launch a joint land-naval attack on Arnold's troops.[4] Marquis de Lafayette was sent south with 1,200 men to help with the assault.[5] However, Destouches was reluctant to dispatch many ships, and only sent a few to start with. After they proved to be ineffective, he took a larger force of 11 ships in March 1781, and fought a tactically inconclusive battle with the British fleet of Marriot Arbuthnot at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. Destouches withdrew due to the damage sustained to his fleet, leaving Arbuthnot and the British fleet in control of the bay's mouth.[5]

On March 26, Arnold was joined by 2,300 troops under command of Major General William Phillips, who took command of the army.[5] Phillips resumed raiding, defeating militia, and then burning warehouses of tobacco at Petersburg on April 25. Richmond was about to suffer the same fate, but Lafayette arrived, and the British, not wanting to engage in a major battle, withdrew to Petersburg on May 10.[5]

In mid-May, Charles Cornwallis arrived in Virginia with 1,500 men after suffering heavy casualties at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse, and joined the army at Petersburg on May 20, where he learned that his old friend Phillips had recently died of a fever.[5][6] Cornwallis had not received permission to abandon the Carolinas from his superior, Henry Clinton, but he believed that Virginia would be easier to conquer, feeling that it favored an invading army.[5]

With the arrival of Cornwallis and more reinforcements from New York, the British Army numbered 7,200 men.[7] Cornwallis wanted to push Lafayette, whose force now numbered 3,000 men with the arrival of militia, before falling back to Yorktown to resupply.[7] On May 24, he set out after Lafayette, but Lafayette withdrew from Richmond, and linked up with forces under the command of Baron von Steuben and Anthony Wayne.[7] Cornwallis did not pursue Lafayette; instead, he sent raiders into central Virginia, attacking depots and wrecking supply convoys, before recalling them on June 20. Cornwallis headed for Yorktown, while Lafayette's force of now 4,500 men followed, skirmishing several times with Cornwallis before he reached Yorktown and began to build fortifications there.[8]

On July 6, north of New York City, the French and American armies met at White Plains, New York.[9] Although Rochambeau had almost 40 years of warfare experience, he never challenged Washington's authority, telling Washington that he had come to serve, not to command.[10]

US Postage Stamp, 1931 issue, depicting Rochambeau, George Washington and De Grasse, commemorating 150th anniversary of the victory at Yorktown, 1781.

Washington and Rochambeau discussed where they should launch a joint attack.[11] Washington believed that an attack on New York was the best option, as the Americans and French outnumbered the British 3 to 1. Rochambeau disagreed, arguing that the fleet under Admiral de Grasse, which was headed to the West Indies, was going to head to the American coast afterwards where easier operations other than attacking New York could be done.[11] In early July, Washington suggested that an attack be made at the northern part of Manhattan Island, but both his officers and Rochambeau disagreed.[12] Washington continued to probe the New York area, until August 14, when he received a letter from de Grasse that he was headed to Virginia with 29 warships and 3,200 men, but only remained there until October 14.[12] de Grasse encouraged Washington to come south where they could launch a joint operation. Upon receiving this news, Washington abandoned his plan to take New York, and began to prepare his army for the march south to Virginia.[13]

March to Virginia

NPS map of the W3R Route

The march to Yorktown led by General George Washington and the Comte de Rochambeau began on August 19, and has become known as the celebrated march,[13] 4,000 French and 3,000 American soldiers began the march in Newport, Rhode Island, while the rest remained behind to protect the Hudson Valley. Washington wanted to keep absolute secrecy as to where they were headed.[14] Washington sent out fake dispatches that reached Clinton, and convinced him that the Franco-American army was going to launch an attack on New York, and that Cornwallis was not in any danger.[15]

The French and American armies paraded through Philadelphia from September 2 to 4, where the soldiers proclaimed they would not leave Maryland until they received one month's pay. The Continental Congress complied, giving them the money.[13] On September 5, Washington learned of the arrival of de Grasse's fleet off the Virginia Capes. His French troops departed and joined Lafayette, and de Grasse sent his empty transports to pick up the American troops.[13] Washington made a visit to his home, Mount Vernon, on his way to Yorktown.[16]

In August, Clinton sent a fleet from New York to attack de Grasse's fleet. Clinton did not realize how large the French fleet was, and neither did Cornwallis.[16] The British fleet, under command of Thomas Graves, was defeated by de Grasse's fleet in the Battle of the Chesapeake, and forced to fall back to New York.[16] On September 14, Washington arrived in Williamsburg, Virginia.[16]

The Siege

Initial Movements

Siège de Yorktown by Auguste Couder, c. 1836.[17] Rochambeau and Washington giving their last orders before the battle.

On September 26, transports with artillery, siege tools, and some French infantry and shock troops from the Head of Elk, the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay, arrived, giving Washington command of an army of 7,800 Frenchmen, 3,100 Militia, and 8,000 Continentals.[1] Early on September 28, Washington led the army out of Williamsburg to surround Yorktown.[18] The French took the positions on the left while the Americans took the position of honor on the right.[1] Cornwallis had a chain of seven redoubts and batteries linked by earthworks along with batteries that covered the narrows of the York River at Gloucester Point.[1] That day, Washington reconnoitered the British defenses and decided that they could be bombarded into submission.[19] The Americans and the French spent the night of the 28th sleeping out in the open, while working parties built bridges over the marsh. Some of the American soldiers hunted down wild hogs to eat.[20]

On September 29, Washington moved the army closer to Yorktown and British gunners opened up on the infantry.[21] Throughout the day several British cannon fired on the Americans but there were few casualties. Fire from American riflemen and the Hessian Jaegers was exchanged.[21]

Cornwallis pulled back from all of his outer defenses, except for the Fusilier's redoubt on the west side of the town and redoubts 9 and 10 in the east.[1] Cornwallis had his forces occupy the earthworks immediately surrounding the town because he had received a letter from Clinton that promised relief force of 5,000 men within a week and he wished to tighten his lines.[1][22] The Americans and the French occupied the abandoned defenses and began to establish their own batteries there.[1] With the British outer defenses in their hands, allied engineers began to lay out positions for the artillery. The men improved their works and deepened their trenches.[23] The British also worked on improving their defenses.[23]

On September 30, the French attacked the British Fusiliers redoubt.[24] The skirmish lasted two hours, in which the French were repulsed suffering several casualties. On October 1, the allies learned from British deserters that, to preserve their food, the British had slaughtered hundreds of horses and thrown them on the beach.[24] In the American camp, thousands of trees were cut down to provide wood for earthworks. Preparations for the parallel also began.[25]

As the allies began to put their artillery into place, the British kept up a steady fire to disrupt them.[26] British fire increased on the 2nd and the allies suffered moderate casualties. General Washington continued to make visits to the front, despite concern shown by several of his officers over the increasing enemy fire.[27] On the night of October 2, the British opened a storm of fire to cover up the movement of the British cavalry to Gloucester where they were to escort infantrymen on a foraging party.[27] On the 3rd, the foraging party, led by Banastre Tarleton, went out but collided with Lauzun's Legion, and John Mercer's Virginia militia, led by the Marquis de Choisy. The British cavalry quickly retreated back behind their defensive lines, losing 50 men.[28]

By October 5, Washington was almost ready to open the first parallel.[29] That night the sappers and miners worked, putting strips of pine on the wet sand to mark the path of the trenches.[29]

Bombardment

After nightfall on October 6, troops moved out in stormy weather to dig the first parallel: the heavily overcast sky negated the waning full moon and shielded the massive digging operation from the eyes of British sentries.[30] Washington ceremoniously struck several blows with his pick axe to begin the trench. The trench was to be 2,000 yards (1,800 m) long, running from the head of Yorktown to the York River.[31] Half of the trench was to be commanded by the French, the other half by the Americans. On the northernmost end of the French line, a support trench was dug so that they could bombard the British ships in the river.[31] The French were ordered to distract the British with a false attack, but the British were told of the plan by a French deserter and the British artillery fire turned on the French from the Fusiliers redoubt.[32]

On October 7, the British saw the new allied trench just out of musket-range.[32] Over the next two days the allies completed the gun placements and dragged the artillery into line. The British fire began to weaken when they saw the amount of guns the allies had.[33]

Washington firing the first gun.

By October 9, all of the French and American guns were in place.[33] Among the American guns there were three twenty-four pounders, three eighteen pounders, two eight-inch (203 mm) howitzers and six mortars. At 3:00 pm, the French guns opened the barrage and drove the British frigate, HMS Guadeloupe across the York River, where she was scuttled to prevent capture. At 5:00 pm the Americans opened fire.[33] Washington fired the first gun and legend has it that it smashed into a table where British officers were eating. The allied guns began to tear apart the British defenses.[34] Washington ordered that the guns fire all night so that the British could not make repairs.[34] All of the British guns on the left were soon silenced. The British soldiers began to pitch their tents in their trenches and soldiers began to desert in large numbers.[35] British ships in the harbor were also damaged because some of the cannon balls flew across the town into the harbor.[35]

On October 10, the Americans spotted a large house in Yorktown.[36] Believing that Cornwallis might be stationed there, they aimed at it and quickly destroyed it. Cornwallis sank more than a dozen of his ships in the harbor. The French began to fire at the British ships and scored a hit on the British HMS Charon, which caught fire, and in turn set two or three other ships on fire.[37] Cornwallis received word from Clinton that the British fleet was to depart on October 12, however Cornwallis responded by saying that he would not be able to hold out for long.[38]

On the night of October 11, Washington ordered that the Americans dig a second parallel.[38] It was 400 yards (370 m) closer to the British lines, but could not be extended to the river because there were two British redoubts in the way; redoubts #9 and #10. During the night, the British fire continued to land in the old line; Cornwallis did not suspect that a new parallel was being dug.[38] By morning of the 12th, the allied troops were in position on the new line.[38]

Assault on the redoubts

Storming of Redoubt #10.

By October 14, the trenches were within 150 yards (140 m) of redoubts #9 and #10.[39] Washington ordered that all guns within range begin blasting the redoubts in order to weaken them for an assault that evening.[40] Washington planned to use the cover of a moonless night to gain the element of surprise.[41] To reinforce the darkness, he added silence, ordering that no soldier should load his musket until reaching the fortifications- the advance would be made with only "cold steel." Redoubt 10 was near the river and held only 70 men, while redoubt 9 was a quarter of a mile inland, and was held by 120 British and Germans.[40] Both redoubts were heavily fortified with rows of abatis surrounding them, along with muddy ditches that surrounded the redoubts at about 25 yards.[39] Washington devised a plan in which the French would launch a diversionary attack on the Fusiliers redoubt, and then a half an hour later, the French would assault redoubt 9 and the Americans redoubt 10.[40][42] Redoubt 9 would be assaulted by 400 French Regular soldiers under the command of the German Lieutenant Colonel Wilhelm von Zweibrücken and redoubt 10 would be assaulted by 400 light infantry troops under the command of Alexander Hamilton.[42] There was briefly a dispute as to who should lead the attack on redoubt #10, Lafayette named his aide, the Chevalier de Gimat,[43] to lead the attack, but Hamilton protested, saying that he was the senior officer. Washington concurred with Hamilton and gave him command of the attack.[40][44]

Storming of Redoubt #9

At 6:30 pm, gunfire announced the diversionary attack on the Fusiliers redoubt.[45] At other places in the line, movements were made as if preparing for an assault on Yorktown itself, which caused the British to panic.[45] With bayonets fixed, the Americans marched towards redoubt #10. Hamilton sent John Laurens around to the rear of the redoubt to prevent the British from escaping.[46] The Americans reached the redoubt and began chopping through the British wooden defenses with their axes. A British sentry called a challenge, and then fired at the Americans.[46] The Americans responded by charging with their bayonets towards the redoubt. They hacked through the abatis, crossed a ditch and climbed the parapet into the redoubt.[47] The Americans forced their way into the redoubt falling into giant shell holes from the bombardment of the redoubts. The British fire was heavy, but the Americans overwhelmed them.[47] Someone in the front shouted "Rush on boys! The fort's ours!" The British threw hand grenades at the Americans with little effect.[47] Men in the trench stood on the shoulders of their comrades to climb into the redoubt. The bayonet fight cleared the British out of the redoubt and almost the entire garrison was captured, including the commander of the redoubt, Major Campbell.[48] In the assault, the Americans lost 9 dead and 25 wounded.[48]

The French assault began at the same time, but they were halted by the abatis, which was undamaged by the artillery fire.[48] The French began to hack at the abatis and a Hessian sentry came out and asked who was there. When there was no response, the sentry opened fire as did other Hessians on the parapet.[49] the French soldiers fired back, and then charged the redoubt. The Germans charged the Frenchmen climbing over the walls but the French fired a volley, driving them back.[49] The Germans then took a defensive position behind some barrels, but when the French prepared a bayonet charge, the Hessians threw down their arms and surrendered.[49]

The storming of Redoubt #10, by Eugene Lami.

With the capture of redoubts 9 and 10, Washington was able to have his artillery shell the town from three directions and the allies moved some of their artillery into the redoubts.[50][51] On the October 15, Cornwallis turned all of his guns onto the nearest allied position. He then ordered a storming party of 350 British troops under the command of Colonel Robert Abercromby to attack the allied lines in order to spike the American and French cannons.[52] The allies were sleeping and unprepared. As the British charged, Abercromby shouted "Push on my brave boys, and skin the bastards!"[51] The British party spiked several cannons in the parallel and then spiked the guns on an unfinished redoubt.[53] However, a French party came and drove them out of the allied lines and back to Yorktown. The British had been able to spike six guns, but by the morning they were all repaired.[53] The bombardment resumed, with the American and French troops engaged in friendly competition to see who could do the most damage to the enemy defenses.[51]

On the morning of October 16, more allied guns were in line and the fire intensified.[53] In desperation, Cornwallis attempted to evacuate his troops across the York River to Gloucester Point.[51] At Gloucester point the troops could break through the allied lines and escape into Virginia and then march to New York.[54] One wave of boats made it across, but when they returned to take more soldiers across, a squall hit, making the evacuation impossible.[55]

Surrender

The fire on Yorktown from the allies was heavier than ever as new artillery pieces joined the line.[56] Cornwallis talked with his officers that day and they agreed that their situation was hopeless.[57]

On the morning of October 17, a drummer appeared followed by an officer waving a white handkerchief.[58] The bombardment ceased, and the officer was blindfolded and led behind the Allied lines. Negotiations began on October 18, between two British officers, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Dundas and Major Alexander Ross, and Colonel John Laurens, who represented the Americans, and the Marquis de Noailles, who represented the French.[58] In order to make sure that nothing fell apart between the allies at the last minute, Washington ordered that the French be given an equal share in every step of the surrender process.[58]

The Articles of Capitulation were signed on October 19, 1781.[58] Cornwallis' British men were declared prisoners of war, promised good treatment in American camps, and officers were permitted to return home after taking their parole. At 2:00 pm the allied army entered the British positions, with the French on the left and the Americans on the right.[58] The British and Hessian troops marched between them, while according to legend the British drummers and fifers played to the tune of "The World Turn'd Upside Down". The British soldiers had been issued with new uniforms hours before the surrender and until prevented by General O'Hara some threw down their muskets with the apparent intention of smashing them. Others wept or appeared to be drunk.[59] 8,000 troops, 214 artillery pieces, thousands of muskets, 24 transport ships, wagons and horses were captured.[60]

Cornwallis refused to meet formally with Washington, and also refused to come to the ceremony of surrender, claiming illness.[60] Instead, Brigadier General Charles O'Hara presented the sword of surrender to Rochambeau. Rochambeau shook his head and pointed to Washington.[61] O'Hara offered it to Washington, but he refused to accept it, and motioned to his second in command, Benjamin Lincoln, who had been humiliated by the British at Charleston, to accept it.[60] The British soldiers marched out and laid down their arms in between the French and American armies, while many civilians watched.[62] At this time, the troops on the other side of the river in Gloucester also surrendered.[63]

Casualties

The French casualties were 60 killed and 194 wounded and the American casualties were 28 killed and 107 wounded: a grand total of 88 killed and 301 wounded.[2]

The British official casualty return for the siege listed 156 killed, 326 wounded and 70 missing. Cornwallis surrendered 7,087 officers and enlisted men in Yorktown when he capitulated and a further 840 sailors from the British fleet in the York River. Another 84 prisoners had been taken during the assault on the redoubts on October 16.[3] Since only 70 men were reported as missing, this would suggest that 14 of the men officially marked down as ‘killed’ had in fact been captured. This gives a grand total of 142 killed, 326 wounded prisoners and 7, 685 other prisoners. Jerome A. Greene mentions a German account that gives much higher figures: 309 killed and 595 wounded.[2]

Article 10 controversy

George Washington refused to accept the Tenth Article of the Articles of Capitulation, which granted immunity to American Loyalists and Cornwallis failed to make any effort to press the matter. "The outcry against the Tenth Article was vociferous and immediate, as Americans on both sides of the Atlantic proclaimed their sense of betrayal."[64]

Aftermath

Five days later, on October 24, the British fleet sent by Clinton to rescue the British army arrived. The fleet picked up several Loyalists who had escaped on October 18, and they informed Admiral Thomas Graves that they believed Cornwallis had surrendered.[65] Graves picked up several more Loyalists along the coast, and they confirmed this fact. Graves sighted the French Fleet, but chose to leave because he was outnumbered by nine ships, and thus he sent the fleet back to New York.[66]

After the British surrender, Washington sent Tench Tilghman to report the victory to Congress.[67] After a difficult journey, he arrived in Philadelphia, which celebrated for several days. Washington moved his army to New Windsor, New York[68] where they remained stationed until the Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783, ending the war officially.[69]

Legacy

On October 19, 1881, an elaborate ceremony took place to honor the battle's centennial. U.S. naval vessels floated on Chesapeake Bay, and special markers highlighted where Washington and Lafayette's siege guns were placed. Chester Arthur, sworn in only thirty days before, following James Garfield's death, made his first public speech as president. Also present were some descendants of Lafayette, Rochambeau, de Grasse and Steuben. To close the ceremony, Arthur gave an order to salute the British flag.[70]

There is a belief that General Cornwallis' sword, surrendered by Charles O'Hara after the battle, is to this day on display at the White House. However, U.S. National Park Service historian Jerome Green, in his 2005 history of the siege, The Guns of Independence, concurs with the 1881 centennial account by Johnston, noting simply that when Brigadier General O'Hara presented Cornwallis' sword to Major General Lincoln, "he held it for a moment and immediately returned it to O'Hara."[71]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lengel p.337
  2. ^ a b c Greene, p. 307
  3. ^ a b Greene, pp. 307-308
  4. ^ a b Lengel p.328
  5. ^ a b c d e f Lengel p.329
  6. ^ Ferling, p. 510
  7. ^ a b c Lengel p.330
  8. ^ Lengel p.331
  9. ^ Davis p.3
  10. ^ Davis p.14
  11. ^ a b Lengel p.332
  12. ^ a b Lengel p.333
  13. ^ a b c d Lengel p.335
  14. ^ Davis p.21
  15. ^ Davis p.36
  16. ^ a b c d Lengel p.336
  17. ^ Conserved in the Galerie des Batailles, Château de Versailles, France. A copy is displayed at the Yorktown National Park Visitors' Center, Yorktown, Virginia.
  18. ^ Davis p.189
  19. ^ Davis p.193
  20. ^ Davis p.194
  21. ^ a b Davis p. 195
  22. ^ Davis p.197
  23. ^ a b Davis p.199
  24. ^ a b Davis p.202
  25. ^ Davis p.203
  26. ^ Davis p.204
  27. ^ a b Davis p.205
  28. ^ Davis p.207
  29. ^ a b Davis p.208
  30. ^ Davis p.214; the moon was Full on 2 October
  31. ^ a b Davis p.215
  32. ^ a b Davis p.216
  33. ^ a b c Davis p.217
  34. ^ a b Davis p.218
  35. ^ a b Davis p.219
  36. ^ Davis p.221
  37. ^ Davis p.222
  38. ^ a b c d Davis p.224
  39. ^ a b Lengel p.338
  40. ^ a b c d Davis p.225
  41. ^ The pitch dark of a new moon occurred 17 October 1781; NASA Eclipse Website - Phases of the Moon 1700-1799; accessed 4 October 2009; http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/phase/phases1701.html
  42. ^ a b Lengel p. 339
  43. ^ Lt-Col Jean-Joseph Sourbader de Gimat. Gimat also commanded a battalion of Continental light infantry.
  44. ^ Hamilton, Gimat, and John Laurens commanded the three (of six) battalions of light infantry in LaFayette's Light Division that participated in the assault on redoubt 10.
  45. ^ a b Lengel p.340
  46. ^ a b Davis p.227
  47. ^ a b c Davis p.228
  48. ^ a b c Davis p.229
  49. ^ a b c Davis p.230
  50. ^ Davis p.232
  51. ^ a b c d Lengel p.341
  52. ^ Davis p.234
  53. ^ a b c Davis p.235
  54. ^ Davis p.236
  55. ^ Davis p.237
  56. ^ Davis p.255
  57. ^ Fleming p.16
  58. ^ a b c d e Lengel p.342
  59. ^ Hibbert p.330
  60. ^ a b c Lengel p.343
  61. ^ Davis p.265
  62. ^ Davis p.267
  63. ^ Davis p.268
  64. ^ Skemp, Shiela L. (1990) William Franklin Oxford University Press p253
  65. ^ Fleming p.34
  66. ^ Fleming p.35
  67. ^ Fleming p.21
  68. ^ Fleming p.194
  69. ^ Fleming p.312
  70. ^ Reeves p.253
  71. ^ Johnston, Henry Pheleps. The Yorktown Campaign and the Surrender of Cornwallis, 1781. (New York: 1881) page 156; accessed 5 October 2009; [1]

References

  • Alden, John (1969). A History of the American Revolution. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0306803666. 
  • Anderson, Dale (2004). The Battle of Yorktown. Gareth Stevens Publishing. 
  • Davis, Burke (2007). The Campaign that Won America. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0836853933. 
  • Ferling, John E (2007). Almost a miracle: the American victory in the War of Independence. New York: Oxford University Press US. ISBN 9780195181210. 
  • Fleming, Thomas (1970). The Perils of Peace. New York: The Dial Press. ISBN 978-0061139116. 
  • Greene, Jerome A. (2005). The Guns of Independence: The Siege of Yorktown, 1781. New York: Savas Beattie. ISBN 1-932714-05-7. 
  • Hibbert, Christopher (2002). Redcoats and Rebels. W. W. Norton & Company Paperbacks. 
  • Lengel, Edward (2005). General George Washington. New York: Random House Paperbacks. ISBN 0812969502. 
  • Reeves, Thomas C (1975). Gentleman Boss. American Political Biography Press. ISBN 978-0945707035. 

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