Sigma (upper case Σ, lower case σ, lower case in word-final position ς; Greek Σιγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, and carries the /s/ sound. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 200. When used at the end of a word, and the word is not all upper case, the final form (ς) is used, e.g. Ὀδυσσεύς (Odysseus) - note the two sigmas in the center of the name, and the word-final sigma at the end. It is not to be confused with the cedilla ç.
In Eastern forms of Greek writing (as opposed to the Western Greek alphabet used in the European Greek colonies) and in the Middle Ages, the lunate sigma (upper case Ϲ, lower case ϲ) — which resembles, but which is not at all related to, the Latin letter C — was often used. Lunate sigma was frequently used for writing Medieval Greek, and can still be seen in inscriptions in Greek Orthodox churches, and also in certain printed editions of classical authors.
A dotted lunate sigma (sigma periestigmenon, encoded at U+03FE Ͼ) was used by Aristarchus of Samothrace as an editorial sign indicating that the line so marked is at an incorrect position. Similarly, an antisigma (encoded at U+03FD Ͻ) may mark a line that is out of place. A dotted antisigma (antisigma periestigmenon, encoded at U+03FF Ͽ) may indicate a line after which rearrangements should be made, or to variant readings of uncertain priority.
Upper case Σ is used as a symbol for:
Lower case σ is used for: