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aluminiumsiliconphosphorus
C

Si

Ge
Appearance
crystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces

Broken silicon ingot
General properties
Name, symbol, number silicon, Si, 14
Element category metalloid
Group, period, block 143, p
Standard atomic weight 28.0855(3)g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 4 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 2.3290 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 2.57 g·cm−3
Melting point 1687 K, 1414 °C, 2577 °F
Boiling point 3538 K, 3265 °C, 5909 °F
Heat of fusion 50.21 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 359 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 19.789 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1908 2102 2339 2636 3021 3537
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3 , 2 , 1[1] -1, -2, -3, -4
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.90 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 786.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1577.1 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3231.6 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 111 pm
Covalent radius 111 pm
Van der Waals radius 210 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure diamond cubic
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[2]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 103 [3]Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 149 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 2.6 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 8433 m/s
Young's modulus 185[3] GPa
Shear modulus 52[3] GPa
Bulk modulus 100 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.28[3]
Mohs hardness 7
CAS registry number 7440-21-3
Band gap energy at 300 K 1.12 eV
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of silicon
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
28Si 92.23% 28Si is stable with 14 neutrons
29Si 4.67% 29Si is stable with 15 neutrons
30Si 3.1% 30Si is stable with 16 neutrons
32Si trace 170 y β 13.020 32P
Silicon (pronounced /ˈsɪlɨkən/ SIL-ə-kən or /ˈsɪlɨkɒn/ SIL-ə-kon, Latin: silicium) is the most common metalloid. .It is a chemical element, which has the symbol Si and atomic number 14. A tetravalent metalloid, silicon is less reactive than its chemical analog carbon.^ To the east of Brae, the Miller reservoir exists with a carbon dioxide concentration slightly less than than of Brae.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What Gold forgets is that since there are no stable elements of (atomic) mass numbers 5 and 8, construction of the elements by this route is not tenable.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, therefore, the origin of nitrogen (atomic number 14) in the German reservoirs is unexplained.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, silicon very rarely occurs as the pure free element in nature, but is more widely distributed in dusts, planetoids and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates.^ Moreover, in these studies concomitant exposure to other elements such as silica seems to offer a more likely explanation of the fibrosis than the titanium dioxide itself.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The inflammability of coal dust varies with different coals, but none can be said to be entirely free from risk.

^ Weak fibrosis, found in association with exposure to various titanium dusts, is likely to be due to concomitant exposure to other components rather than to the titanium dioxide.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.In Earth's crust, silicon is the second most abundant element after oxygen, making up 25.7% of the crust by mass.^ The different elements making up the drawing arrangements of a colliery are - (r) the cage, (2) the shaft or pit fittings, (3) the drawing-rope, (4) the engine and (5) the surface arrangements.

[4]
Silicon has many industrial uses. It is the principal component of most semiconductor devices, most importantly integrated circuits or microchips. .Silicon is widely used in semiconductors because it remains a semiconductor at higher temperatures than the semiconductor germanium and because its native oxide is easily grown in a furnace and forms a better semiconductor/dielectric interface than any other material.^ He uses a coarser granulation of sugar for his fruit jellies because it does not melt as easily.

^ Because it dissolves so instantly, it is particularly useful for sprinkling on berries to be consumed immediately because the berries keep all their juice instead of forming a syrup.

^ Mobility of aluminum in the Hubbard Brook soils is significantly lower than in the Dutch soils, because of higher soil-solution pH values.

.In the form of silica and silicates, silicon forms useful glasses, cements, and ceramics.^ Aluminum compounds and materials also have a wide variety of uses, including production of glass, ceramics, rubber, wood preservatives, pharmaceuticals and waterproofing textiles.

^ In addition, titanium dioxide is used in ceramic capacitors and electromechanical transducers, welding-rod coatings, and in the production of glass fibres.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is also a constituent of silicones, a class-name for various synthetic plastic substances made of silicon, oxygen, carbon and hydrogen, often confused with silicon itself.^ A substance made up of elements, such as hydrogen or sodium.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They all contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen , forming the carbonaceous or combustible portion, and some quantity of mineral matter, which remains after combustion as a residue or " ash ."

^ The amount of hydrogen is from 42 to 6%, while the oxygen may vary within much wider limits, or from about 3 to 14%.

Silicon is an essential element in biology, although only tiny traces of it appear to be required by animals.[5] .It is much more important to the metabolism of plants, particularly many grasses, and silicic acid (a type of silica) forms the basis of the striking array of protective shells of the microscopic diatoms.^ Thus, the protective role of superoxide dismutase is particularly important.

^ But when there is much small duff, with intermixed shale, more elaborate sizing and washing plant becomes necessary.

^ The ionized forms of calcium, such as citrate and citrate malate, tend to be more soluble and have a greater absorption rate, especially in people who are deficient in hydrochloric acid.

Contents

Notable characteristics

.The outer electron orbitals (half filled subshell holding up to eight electrons) have the same structure as in carbon and the two elements are sometimes similar chemically.^ The same chemicals increased the frequency of radiation-induced aberrations during two periods of mitotic cycle, namely, in the end of the G1 stage and in the G2 stage.

^ The facts suggested that the six carbon atoms formed a chain, and that a hydroxy group was attached to five of them, for it is very rare for two hydroxy groups to be attached to the same carbon atom .

.Even though it is a relatively inert element, silicon still reacts with halogens and dilute alkalis, but most acids (except for some hyper-reactive combinations of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid) do not affect it.^ Separate from acids, alkalies, halogenated compounds, oxidizers, combustible materials.

^ In some reservoirs, compaction of the rock grains has not been fully achieved, even though such reservoirs are many miles below the surface.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bilateral aortic neurotomy or unilateral carotid neurotomy did not affect significantly the minimal sensitivity to the drug, although maximal reactivity was reduced in some cats.

.Having four bonding electrons however gives it, like carbon, many opportunities to combine with other elements or compounds under the right circumstances.^ Aluminum occurs ubiquitously in the environment in the form of silicates, oxides and hydroxides, combined with other elements such as sodium and fluorine and as complexes with organic matter.

.Both silicon and (in certain aspects) carbon are semiconductors, readily either donating or sharing their four outer electrons allowing many different forms of chemical bonding.^ A protein that is made by many different types of cells and is involved in processes that take place both inside and outside of the cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The different lymphoma cells may form in the same tissue or organ or in many different tissues or organs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Pure silicon has a negative temperature coefficient of resistance, since the number of free charge carriers increases with temperature.^ Negative Temperature Coefficient Thermistors .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
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  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

.The electrical resistance of single crystal silicon significantly changes under the application of mechanical stress due to the piezoresistive effect.^ BRAHNOVA, I.T. & SKURKO, G.A. (1973) [Hygienic assessment of the effect produced on the body by transition metal hydrides with due regard for their electronic and crystal structure.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Known as "strong" sugar because it resists color changes and inversion at high temperatures due to the absence of impurities, this type of sugar is ideal for confections and cordials and also for preparing caramel because impurities can cause crystallization.

^ The multiple-effect evaporator, originally invented and constructed by Norberto Rilleux in New Orleans in 1840, has under gone many changes in design and construction since Effect that year.

In its crystalline form, pure silicon has a gray color and a metallic luster. It is similar to glass in that it is rather strong, very brittle, and prone to chipping.
.Silicon is one of the few substances, like water and gallium, whose density is higher in liquid than in solid state, so it expands when it freezes.^ Although I might not particularly like the taste of it, it is by far the easiest and cheapest way to disinfect water and make it drinkable, and it probably helped to save more lives than any other single chemical substance on Earth.
  • Alltop - Top Water News 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC water.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed.

^ The top of it was more than four feet down, one end higher than the other.
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

History

Silicon was first identified by Antoine Lavoisier in 1787 (as a component of the Latin silex, silicis for flint, flints), and was later mistaken by Humphry Davy in 1800 for a compound. In 1811 Gay-Lussac and Thénard probably prepared impure amorphous silicon through the heating of potassium with silicon tetrafluoride. .In 1824, Berzelius, generally given credit for discovering the element silicon, prepared amorphous silicon using approximately the same method as Lussac.^ Another method of enabling more work to be done in a given time in a given cistern is the use of a bag twice the ordinary length, open at both ends.

^ Xylose was discovered by Koch in 1886; its enantiomorph is prepared from d-gulose by Wohl's method.

^ The use of preparing rolls with corrugations, to crush and equalize the feed of canes to the mill, or to the first of a series of mills, has become general.

Berzelius also purified the product by repeatedly washing it.[6][7]

Occurrence

.Measured by mass, silicon makes up 25.7% of the Earth's crust and is the second most abundant element in the crust, after oxygen.^ Natural Occurrence Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sources and uses Titanium, the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust, is widely distributed.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Pure silicon crystals are very rarely found in nature; they can be found as inclusions with gold and in volcanic exhalations.^ The cave has only one entrance, unlike all other caves found in Pokémon Gold, Silver , and Crystal , but goes deep into the mountain.
  • Mt. Silver - Bulbapedia, the community-driven Pokémon encyclopedia 8 January 2010 3:31 UTC bulbapedia.bulbagarden.net [Source type: Academic]

.Silicon is usually found in the form of silicon dioxide (also known as quartz), and other more complex silicate minerals.^ Aluminum occurs ubiquitously in the environment in the form of silicates, oxides and hydroxides, combined with other elements such as sodium and fluorine and as complexes with organic matter.

^ A slow-growing type of tumor usually found in the gastrointestinal system (most often in the appendix), and sometimes in the lungs or other sites.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Silica occurs in minerals consisting of (practically) pure silicon dioxide in different crystalline forms.^ A rare form of lymphoma (cancer that begins in cells of the immune system) in which different types of lymphoma cells occur at the same time.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Amethyst, agate, quartz, rock crystal, chalcedony, flint, jasper, and opal are some of the forms in which silicon dioxide appears. .Biogenic silica occurs in the form of diatoms, radiolaria and siliceous sponges.^ Aluminum occurs ubiquitously in the environment in the form of silicates, oxides and hydroxides, combined with other elements such as sodium and fluorine and as complexes with organic matter.

.Silicon also occurs as silicate minerals (various minerals containing silicon, oxygen and one or another metal), for example the feldspar group.^ They may occur as one large stone or as many small ones, and vary from the size of a golf ball to a grain of sand.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Interactions: Groups of 120 Atlantic salmon fry (Salmo salar, 1 g mass) were kept in through-flow tanks of water (pH 5) containing various concn of aluminum and silicic acid.

^ For example, one group may have been exposed to a particular substance that the other was not.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.These minerals occur in clay, sand and various types of rock such as granite and sandstone.^ Back Would this have included limestone, sandstone and clay—the latter being another complex mineral made by God?
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They may occur as one large stone or as many small ones, and vary from the size of a golf ball to a grain of sand.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The problem is to explain how oil from the supposed source rock beneath the Bridport Sands in the south moved three miles to the north to enter Bridport and Sherwood sandstones.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Feldspar, pyroxene, amphibole, and mica are a few of the many common silicate mineral groups.
Silicon is a principal component of many meteorites, and also is a component of obsidian and tektites, which are natural forms of glass.

Isotopes

.Silicon has numerous known isotopes, with mass numbers ranging from 22 to 44. 28Si (the most abundant isotope, at 92.23%), 29Si (4.67%), and 30Si (3.1%) are stable; 32Si is a radioactive isotope produced by cosmic ray spallation of argon.^ PEER REVIEWED** Absorption of inhaled aluminum compounds has not been studied in detail; one reason for this is probably the fact that no stable radioactive isotope of aluminum is available.

^ What Gold forgets is that since there are no stable elements of (atomic) mass numbers 5 and 8, construction of the elements by this route is not tenable.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATURALLY OCCURRING ISOTOPE: (27) ALUMINUM ; IN ADDN, 6 RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES & 1 ISOMER ARE KNOWN [The Merck Index.

.Its half-life has been determined to be approximately 170 years (0.21 MeV), and it decays by beta - emission to 32P (which has a 14.28 day half-life )[8] and then to 32S.^ The 32 separate size distributions were determined by proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Twenty-four white women, aged 14 to 28 years, with hypothalamic amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea were prospectively enrolled for a 12-month intervention period.

^ In the two reports available, the biological half-life for titanium in man has been calculated to be about 320 days and 640 days, respectively.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Production

.Silicon is commercially prepared by the reaction of high-purity silica with wood, charcoal, and coal, in an electric arc furnace using carbon electrodes.^ The Fisher-Tropsch process is an industrial process used to convert a material with a high carbon content (such as coal) into petroleum liquids in the presence of catalysts such as ferric oxides and/or silicates.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Methods of Manufacturing: Sodium cyanide can be prepared by heating sodium amide with carbon, by melting sodium chloride and calcium cyanamide together in an electric furnace ...

^ Electric Arc Furnaces .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

At temperatures over 1,900 °C (3,450 °F), the carbon reduces the silica to silicon according to the chemical equations:
SiO2 + C → Si + CO2
SiO2 + 2 C → Si + 2 CO
Liquid silicon collects in the bottom of the furnace, and is then drained and cooled. The silicon produced via this process is called metallurgical grade silicon and is at least 98% pure. .Using this method, silicon carbide (SiC) may form.^ Titanium does not easily atomize and has a tendency to form refractory oxides, which may influence the use of atomic absorption assays.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

However, provided the concentration of SiO2 is kept high, the silicon carbide can be eliminated:
2 SiC + SiO2 → 3 Si + 2 CO
In September 2008, metallurgical grade silicon cost about USD 1.45 per pound ($3.20/kg),[9] up from $0.77 per pound ($1.70/kg) in 2005.[10]
Pure silicon (>99.9%) can be extracted directly from solid silica or other silicon compounds by molten salt electrolysis.[11][12][13][14] .This method, known from 1854[15] (see also FFC Cambridge Process) has the potential to directly produce solar grade silicon without any CO2 emission and at much lower energy consumption.^ American Water has set a goal to lower its greenhouse gas emissions per volume of water produced by 16 percent by the year 2017.
  • Alltop - Top Water News 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC water.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ American Water to lower its greenhouse gas emissions per volume of water produced by 16 percent .
  • Alltop - Top Water News 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC water.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Crystallization

Silicon crystallizes in the diamond cubic crystal structure
.Silicon, like carbon and other group IV elements form face-centered diamond cubic crystal structure.^ Aluminum occurs ubiquitously in the environment in the form of silicates, oxides and hydroxides, combined with other elements such as sodium and fluorine and as complexes with organic matter.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Color/Form: White cubic crystals [Lide, D.R. (ed.

Silicon, in particular, forms a face-centered cubic structure with a lattice spacing of 5.430710 Å (0.5430710 nm).[16]
.The majority of silicon crystals grown for device production are produced by the Czochralski process, (CZ-Si) since it is the cheapest method available and it is capable of producing large size crystals.^ The principal method for the commercial production of titanium sponge metal is the Kroll process, which involves the reduction of titanium tetrachloride with magnesium metal in an inert atmosphere.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ View Website Chicago, IL 800-782-7776 Request For Quote Accurate Products is capable of producing custom rubber products in a variety of materials.
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The two main methods used for aluminum production are Soderberg and prebake, which encompass a number of processes and job categories.

However, silicon single-crystals grown by the Czochralski method contain impurities since the crucible which contains the melt dissolves. .For certain electronic devices, particularly those required for high power applications, silicon grown by the Czochralski method is not pure enough.^ The risks of an adverse reaction between calcium citrate and aluminum-containing compounds are especially high for individuals with kidney failure, particularly those on dialysis.

For these applications, float-zone silicon (FZ-Si) can be used instead. It is worth mentioning though, in contrast with CZ-Si method in which the seed is dipped into the silicon melt and the growing crystal is pulled upward, the thin seed crystal in the FZ-Si method sustains the growing crystal as well as the polysilicon rod from the bottom. .As a result, it is difficult to grow large size crystals using the float-zone method.^ In this method, particles were collected and segregated according to size, using cascade impactors.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Using a food processor it is possible to make a more finely granulated sugar, but the crystals will not be as uniform in size as in commercially produced finer grain sugars.

^ When used in cakes, it results in a fine crumb and lighter texture because, with smaller crystals, more surface area is available to trap air.

.Today, all the dislocation-free silicon crystals used in semiconductor industry with diameter 300 mm or larger are grown by the Czochralski method with purity level significantly improved.^ Golden castor (fine granulated from the first boiling or crystallization) I use this sugar for all baking except meringues and fondants where I prefer a pristine white color and sugar syrups where more purity (refinement) helps to avoid crystallization.

^ This is partially because an inferior grade of industrial molasses is often used and the molasses merely coats the outside of the sugar crystal and is no longer part of the crystal itself.

Purification

Silicon ingot
The use of silicon in semiconductor devices demands a much greater purity than afforded by metallurgical grade silicon. .Historically, a number of methods have been used to produce high-purity silicon.^ The two main methods used for aluminum production are Soderberg and prebake, which encompass a number of processes and job categories.

Physical methods

Early silicon purification techniques were based on the fact that if silicon is melted and re-solidified, the last parts of the mass to solidify contain most of the impurities. .The earliest method of silicon purification, first described in 1919 and used on a limited basis to make radar components during World War II, involved crushing metallurgical grade silicon and then partially dissolving the silicon powder in an acid.^ Numbers from 1 to 3 may be used to describe how abnormal the cells are and how much of the cervical tissue is involved.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This is useful when the solution will be used in a way that will involve repeatedly dipping into it, such as for making spun sugar.

^ It is used by many cells in the body to make energy from fatty acids.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

When crushed, the silicon cracked so that the weaker impurity-rich regions were on the outside of the resulting grains of silicon. .As a result, the impurity-rich silicon was the first to be dissolved when treated with acid, leaving behind a more pure product.^ Although the color and therefore amount of molasses varies, I find that the resulting product has a flavor ranging from merely more pure to slightly more flavorful.

^ Amber crystal and golden caster sugar are the result of the first crystallization, where there is a higher proportion of sucrose to impurities.

^ The second and optional process in sugar production is refining to remove “impurities.” This refers to anything that is not purely sucrose such as molasses and minerals.

.In zone melting, also called zone refining, the first silicon purification method to be widely used industrially, rods of metallurgical grade silicon are heated to melt at one end.^ And they are the ones most useful for human life (heating, plastics, petrol, and diesel).
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural aluminum minerals, especially bentonite and zeolite, are used in water purification, sugar refining, brewing and paper industries.

^ Nish is known for his layers of flavors, He uses the “tarq” method in which oil and dry spices are heated until smoking.

Then, the heater is slowly moved down the length of the rod, keeping a small length of the rod molten as the silicon cools and re-solidifies behind it. .Since most impurities tend to remain in the molten region rather than re-solidify, when the process is complete, most of the impurities in the rod will have been moved into the end that was the last to be melted.^ I love your Mahogany Butter Crunch Toffee, however most times it comes out soft and chewy rather than hard and cruncy?

^ The production of elemental titanium is a comparatively difficult process since titanium in the molten state has a great affinity for oxygen, nitrogen, and moisture in the air, as well as for carbon and most refractory materials.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

This end is then cut off and discarded, and the process repeated if a still higher purity is desired.

Chemical methods

.Today, silicon is purified by converting it to a silicon compound that can be more easily purified by distillation than in its original state, and then converting that silicon compound back into pure silicon.^ Titanium(IV) compounds are easily hydrolysed into titanium dioxide (Stamper, 1970; ACGIH, 1973; Weast, 1980).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Trichlorosilane is the silicon compound most commonly used as the intermediate, although silicon tetrachloride and silane are also used.^ Metallic titanium, titanium dioxide, and titanium tetrachloride are the compounds most widely used in industry.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For long-term therapy, an intermediate-acting agent such as prednisone in single, early morning doses is most commonly used to minimize suppression of the HPA axis.

^ Titanium tetrachloride is also widely employed as the intermediate raw material for the production of most organic titanium compounds, such as alkyl esters of titanium, alkyl titanates, other titanium esters, and butyl titanate (Feld & Cowe, 1965), which are used as cross-linking agents and catalysts.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.When these gases are blown over silicon at high temperature, they decompose to high-purity silicon.^ Our standard materials include Neoprene, EPDM, Bunga-N, Natural Rubber & high or low temperature silicone.
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]

^ High Temperature Silicone Adhesives .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
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^ High Temperature Silicone Gaskets .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
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At one time, DuPont produced ultra-pure silicon by reacting silicon tetrachloride with high-purity zinc vapors at 950 °C, producing silicon:
SiCl4 + 2 Zn → Si + 2 ZnCl2
However, this technique was plagued with practical problems (such as the zinc chloride byproduct solidifying and clogging lines) and was eventually abandoned in favor of the Siemens process.
A polycrystalline silicon rod made by the Siemens process
In the Siemens process, high-purity silicon rods are exposed to trichlorosilane at 1150 °C. The trichlorosilane gas decomposes and deposits additional silicon onto the rods, enlarging them:
2 HSiCl3 → Si + 2 HCl + SiCl4
Silicon produced from this and similar processes is called polycrystalline silicon. .Polycrystalline silicon typically has impurity levels of less than 10−9.^ No patient on sodium valproate monotherapy had subnormal levels of calcium (less than 2.1 mmol/l).

^ After 10 doses of gentamicin, blood-urea nitrogen values in group 1 averaged 213 +/- 15 (SE) and 25 +/- 3 (P less than 0.001) in group 2.

^ FCaA was 30.8 +/- 3.7% lower than the normal of 42.2 +/- 2.5% (P less than 0.025), and baseline 25-OHD levels were 30.5 +/- 3.4 ng/ml (normal 15 to 50 ng/ml).

In 2006 REC announced construction of a plant based on fluidized bed technology using silane:[17]
3 SiCl4 + Si + 2 H2 → 4 HSiCl3
4 HSiCl3 → 3 SiCl4 + SiH4
SiH4 → Si + 2 H2

Different forms of silicon

One can notice the color change in silicon nanopowder. This is caused by the quantum effects which occur in particles of nanometric dimensions. See also Potential well, Quantum dot, and Nanoparticle.

Compounds

PDMS – a silicone compound
.Silicon forms binary compounds called silicides with many metallic elements whose properties range from reactive compounds, e.g.^ A series of x-ray pictures of the esophagus taken after a patient drinks a liquid containing barium sulfate (a form of the silver-white metallic element barium).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

magnesium silicide, Mg2Si through high melting refractory compounds such as molybdenum disilicide, MoSi2.[18] Silicon carbide, SiC (carborundum) is a hard, high melting solid and a well known abrasive. Silane, SiH4, is a pyrophoric gas with a similar tetrahedral structure to methane, CH4. Additionally there is a range of catenated silicon hydrides that form a homologous series of compounds, SinH2n+2 where n = 2-8 (analogous to the alkanes).[19] These are all readily hydrolyzed and are thermally unstable, particularly the heavier members.[19] Disilenes contain a silicon-silicon double bond (analogous to the alkenes) and are generally highly reactive requiring large substituent groups to stabilize them.[20] A disilyne with a silicon-silicon triple bond was first isolated in 2004; although as the compound is non-linear, the bonding is dissimilar to that in alkynes.[21] Tetrahalides, SiX4, are formed with all of the halogens.[18] Silicon tetrachloride, for example, readily reacts with water; unlike its carbon analogue, carbon tetrachloride.[19] .Silicon dihalides are formed by the high temperature reaction of tetrahalides and silicon; with a structure analogous to a carbene they are reactive compounds.^ Our standard materials include Neoprene, EPDM, Bunga-N, Natural Rubber & high or low temperature silicone.
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The risks of an adverse reaction between calcium citrate and aluminum-containing compounds are especially high for individuals with kidney failure, particularly those on dialysis.

^ High Temperature Silicone Adhesives .
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]

[19] Silicon difluoride condenses to form a polymeric compound, (SiF2)n.[19] .Silicon dioxide is a high melting solid with a number of different crystal forms; the most familiar of which is the mineral quartz.^ Blackstrap Molasses is the most concentrated form of molasses produced during the third and final centrifuging of the raw sugar crystals.

^ The most common titanium minerals are ilmenite (TiFeO 3 ), which can contain a maximum concentration of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) of 530 g/kg, and rutile, which is 100% titanium dioxide.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I tried making caramelized sugar and the granulated sugar was forming hard, crystal chunks before it even got to melt.

[18] In quartz each silicon atom is surrounded by four oxygen atoms that bridge to other silicon atoms to form a three dimensional lattice.[18] .Silica is soluble in water at high temperatures forming monosilicic acid, (Si(OH)4)[19] and this property is used in the manufacture of quartz crystals used in electronics.^ Aluminum was transferred to the patients' blood during the dialysis treatments, because of the high metal content in the tap water used to prepare the dialysates.

^ Ordinarily, stearic acid, which chemically combines with aluminum to form aluminum stearate, was used as a lubricant to retard surface oxidation during milling of such flake.

^ The addition of a significant amount of an ingredient, such as nuts, can lower the temperature considerably and this will cause crystallization to occur instantly if no interfering agent was used.

[18]
.Under the right conditions monosilicic acid readily polymerizes to form more complex silicic acids, ranging from the simplest condensate, disilicic acid (H6Si2O7) to linear, ribbon, layer and lattice structures which form the basis of the many different silicate minerals.^ It is present in the form of titanium(IV) compounds; the rarer oxidation form of titanium(III) is also known in certain iron minerals as are complex titanium(IV) compounds (Vinogradov 1959; Stamper, 1970).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Corticosteroids have many different effects in the body, and are used to treat many different conditions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Aluminum occurs ubiquitously in the environment in the form of silicates, oxides and hydroxides, combined with other elements such as sodium and fluorine and as complexes with organic matter.

[19] Silicates are also important constituents of concretes.[18] .With oxides of other elements the high temperature reaction of silicon dioxide can give a wide range of glasses with various properties.^ Our standard materials include Neoprene, EPDM, Bunga-N, Natural Rubber & high or low temperature silicone.
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Aluminum occurs ubiquitously in the environment in the form of silicates, oxides and hydroxides, combined with other elements such as sodium and fluorine and as complexes with organic matter.

^ High Temperature Silicone Tubing .
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]

[19] .Examples include soda lime glass, borosilicate glass and lead crystal glass.^ Soda Lime Borosilicate Glass .
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Soda Lime Float Glass .
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]

Silicon sulfide, SiS2 is a polymeric solid (unlike its carbon analogue the liquid CS2).[18] Silicon forms a nitride, Si3N4 which is a ceramic.[18] Silatranes, a group of tricyclic compounds containing five-coordinate silicon, may have physiological properties.[22] .Many transition metal complexes containing a metal-silicon bond are now known, which include complexes containing SiHnX3−n ligands, SiX3 ligands, and Si(OR)3 ligands.^ Bonded Silicon to Metal .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Silicon Bonded to Metal .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Silicon Bonded to Metal Parts .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

[22] Silicones are large group of polymeric compounds with an (Si-O-Si) backbone. An example is the silicone oil PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane).[18] These polymers can be crosslinked to produce resins and elastomers.[18] Many organosilicon compounds are known which contain a silicon-carbon single bond. .Many of these are based on a central tetrahedral silicon atom, and some are optically active when central chirality exists.^ Even so, many healthcare provider trained in nutritional therapies s have suggested the need for calcium supplementation by some patients using these drugs.

Long chain polymers containing a silicon backbone are known, such as polydimethysilylene (SiMe2)n.[23] .Polycarbosilane, [(SiMe2)2CH2]n with a backbone containing a repeating -Si-Si-C unit, is a precursor in the production of silicon carbide fibers.^ The products that are available in the United States may not contain the same amount or mixture of ingredients and may not be effective.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Silicon Carbide Products .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

[23]

Applications

.As the second most abundant element in the earth's crust, silicon is vital to the construction industry as a principal constituent of natural stone, glass, concrete and cement.^ [Bjorksten JA; Comp Therapy 8: 73-6 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED** Natural Pollution Sources: WIDELY DISTRIBUTED IN EARTH'S CRUST IN COMBINATION WITH OXYGEN, FLUORINE, SILICON AND OTHER CONSTITUENTS. ITS MOST IMPORTANT SOURCES FROM THE INDUSTRIAL POINT OF VIEW ARE BAUXITE, CRYOLITE, ALUMINUM , CORUNDUM AND THE KAOLIN MINERALS. [Browning, E. Toxicity of Industrial Metals.

.Silicon's greatest impact on the modern world's economy and lifestyle has resulted from silicon wafers used as substrates in the manufacture of discrete electronic devices such as power transistors, and in the development of integrated circuits such as computer chips.^ Abstract: The long-term use of glucocorticoid drugs frequently results in the development of osteoporosis.

^ The long-term use of glucocorticoid drugs frequently results in the development of osteoporosis.

Alloys

.The largest application of metallurgical grade silicon, representing about 55% of the world consumption, is in the manufacture of aluminium-silicon alloys to produce cast parts, mainly for the automotive industry.^ There are about 30 commercially available grades of pure titanium and alloys.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Metallic titanium is mainly used in the aircraft industry and in the production of high-strength, corrosion-resistant alloys.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This is partially because an inferior grade of industrial molasses is often used and the molasses merely coats the outside of the sugar crystal and is no longer part of the crystal itself.

Silicon is an important constituent of electrical steel, modifying its resistivity and ferromagnetic properties. .Silicon is added to molten cast iron as ferrosilicon or silicocalcium alloys to improve its performance in casting thin sections, and to prevent the formation of cementite at the surface.^ Iron Alloy Castings .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

^ OTHER ELEMENTS MAY BE ADDED AS ALLOYING COMPONENTS, SUCH AS BERYLIUM, COPPER, MAGNESIUM, MANGANESE, IRON & SILICA IN DURALUMIN. [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.

^ Cast Iron Alloys .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

Electronics

.Pure silicon is used to produce ultra-pure silicon wafers used in the semiconductor industry, in electronics and in photovoltaic applications.^ The remainder is used in the chemical and electrochemical processing industries, for handling some of the most corrosive processes, and in marine and ordnance applications.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Ultra-pure silicon can be doped with other elements to adjust its electrical response by controlling the number and charge (positive or negative) of current carriers.^ Cholestyramine-fed rats had a net negative balance for calcium and a lower net positive balance for magnesium, iron, and zinc than the controls.

^ However, the exposure in these studies was not to pure titanium dioxide and a possible explanation for the fibrogenic activity may be concomitant exposure to other elements, such as silica (SiO 2 ).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Such control is necessary for transistors, solar cells, integrated circuits, microprocessors, semiconductor detectors and other semiconductor devices which are used in electronics and other high-tech applications.^ It is also used together with other drugs to treat advanced, metastatic, or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A type of cell that makes neurohormones (chemicals that are made by nerve cells and used to send signals to other cells) and releases them into the blood.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A type of neurohormone (a chemical that is made by nerve cells and used to send signals to other cells).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In silicon photonics, it can be used as a continuous wave Raman laser medium to produce coherent light, though it is ineffective as a light source.^ Continuous Wave Lasers .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

.Hydrogenated amorphous silicon is used in the production of low-cost, large-area electronics in applications such as LCDs, and of large-area, low-cost thin-film solar cells.^ Leukemia is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow, and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A slowly progressing cancer that starts in blood-forming tissues such as the bone marrow, and causes large numbers of white blood cells to be produced and enter the blood stream.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This condition may result from the hydrogen fluoride that evolves from the use of fluorine-bearing materials in the production of metallic aluminum .

Silicones

.The second largest application of silicon (about 40% of world consumption) is as a raw material in the production of silicones, compounds containing silicon-oxygen and silicon-carbon bonds that have the capability to act as bonding intermediates between glass and organic compounds, and to form polymers with useful properties such as impermeability to water, flexibility and resistance to chemical attack.^ It is also used in the chemical industry as a lining material, because of its corrosion-resistant properties.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Titanium tetrachloride is the common intermediate in the production of titanium catalysts and is also used for the synthesis of organic titanium compounds.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A chemical used to disinfect water and as a bleach.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Silicones are used in waterproofing treatments, molding compounds and mold-release agents, mechanical seals, high temperature greases and waxes, caulking compounds and even in applications as diverse as breast implants, contact lenses, explosives and pyrotechnics.^ In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.

^ It is also used to treat metastatic breast cancer that has not improved after treatment with certain other anticancer drugs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ PEER REVIEWED** SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting.

[24]
.
  • Construction: Silicon dioxide or silica in the form of sand and clay is an important ingredient of concrete and brick and is also used to produce Portland cement.
  • Pottery/Enamel is a refractory material used in high-temperature material production and its silicates are used in making enamels and pottery.
  • Glass: Silica from sand is a principal component of glass.^ Titanium dioxide is also used in the production of titanium carbides.
    • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Calcium in the form of antacids, milk products, and supplements should be avoided while using tetracycline.

    ^ Uses of Titanium Titanium, used as a construction material, is usually in the form of alloys, most of which have higher strength than pure titanium and enhanced corrosion resistance.
    • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    Glass can be made into a great variety of shapes and with many different physical properties. .Silica is used as a base material to make window glass, containers, insulators, and many other useful objects.
  • Abrasives: Silicon carbide is one of the most important abrasives.
  • Silly Putty was originally made by adding boric acid to silicone oil.^ It is used by many cells in the body to make energy from fatty acids.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Glass blowers Didymium Safety Glasses may be used to block out this emission to observe the less intense colors from other elements.
    • Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although my ascribing the origin of oil to the direct creation of God is something new, the idea that minerals were already present on the earth (and oil is one of many minerals) as part of the rich diversity in creation has been made before, and therefore strengthens the case I am making.
    • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [25]

Energy storage

It has been proposed [26] that, given sufficient solar energy, silicon might be refined for use as a coal replacement

In popular culture

.Because silicon is an important element in semiconductors and high-technology devices, Silicon Valley in California is named after this element since it is the base for a number of technology related industries.^ Industrial exposure to high concentrations of aluminum -containing airborne dusts has resulted in a number of cases of occupational pneumoconiosis.

^ What Gold forgets is that since there are no stable elements of (atomic) mass numbers 5 and 8, construction of the elements by this route is not tenable.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other geographic locations with connections to the industry have since characterized themselves as Siliconia as well, for example Silicon Forest in Oregon, Silicon Hills in Austin, Silicon Saxony in Germany, and Silicon Border in Mexicali.

See also

References

  1. ^ R. S. Ram et al. "Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A2D–X2P Transition of SiH and SiD" J. Mol. Spectr. 190, 341–352 (1998)
  2. ^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  3. ^ a b c d http://www.ioffe.ru/SVA/NSM/Semicond/Si
  4. ^ "Silicon: the essentials". WebElements Ltd.. http://www.webelements.com/silicon/. Retrieved 2009-09-30. 
  5. ^ Nielsen, FH (1984). "Ultratrace Elements in Nutrition". Annual Review of Nutrition 4: 21–41. doi:10.1146/annurev.nu.04.070184.000321. PMID 6087860. 
  6. ^ Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements: XII. Other elements isolated with the aid of potassium and sodium: beryllium, boron, silicon, and aluminum". Journal of Chemical Education: 1386–1412. 
  7. ^ . doi:10.1134/S1070427207120397. 
  8. ^ "Phosphorus - 32". sciencegateway.org. http://sciencegateway.org/isotope/phosp32.html. Retrieved 2008-02-20. 
  9. ^ "Metallurgical silicon could become a rare commodity – just how quickly that happens depends to a certain extent on the current financial crisis". Photon International. http://www.photon-magazine.com/news_archiv/details.aspx?cat=News_PI&sub=worldwide&pub=4&parent=1555. Retrieved 2009-03-04. 
  10. ^ "Silicon". usgs.gov. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/silicon/silicmcs06.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-20. 
  11. ^ Rao, Gopalakrishna M. (1980). "Electrowinning of Silicon from K2SiF6-Molten Fluoride Systems". Journal of the Electrochemical Society 127: 1940. doi:10.1149/1.2130041. 
  12. ^ De Mattei, Robert C. (1981). "Electrodeposition of Silicon at Temperatures above Its Melting Point". Journal of the Electrochemical Society 128: 1712. doi:10.1149/1.2127716. 
  13. ^ R. Monnier et al. "Dual cell refining of silicon and germanium" U.S. Patent 3,219,561 Issue date: Nov 1965
  14. ^ R. Monnier et al. "Refining of silicon and germanium" U.S. Patent 3,254,010 Issue date: May 1966
  15. ^ H. St. C. Deville (1854). "Recherches sur les métaux, et en particulier sur l'aluminium et sur une nouvelle forme du silicium". Ann. Chim. Phys. 43: 31. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k34784b.image.f31.langFR. 
  16. ^ O'Mara, William C. (1990). Handbook of Semiconductor Silicon Technology. William Andrew Inc.. p. 349–352. ISBN 0815512376. http://books.google.com/books?id=COcVgAtqeKkC&pg=PA351&dq=Czochralski+Silicon+Crystal+Face+Cubic&lr=&as_brr=3&sig=ht-dgSy1lzBMYC7IXPp9W5QBqYo. Retrieved 2008-02-24. 
  17. ^ "Analyst_silicon_field_trip_March_28,_2007". hugin.info. http://hugin.info/136555/R/1115224/203491.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-20. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E.; Wiberg, N. (2001). Inorganic Chemistry, 1st Edition. Academic Press. ISBN 0123526515. 
  20. ^ (Multiply Bonded Main Group Metals and Metalloids: Multiple Bonded Main Group Metals and Metalloids, F. G. Stone, Robert West, Academic Press, 1996, ISBN 0120311399)
  21. ^ Sekiguchi, A; Kinjo, R; Ichinohe, M (2004). "A stable compound containing a silicon-silicon triple bond.". Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5691): 1755–7. doi:10.1126/science.1102209. PMID 15375262. 
  22. ^ a b Lickiss, Paul D. (1994). Inorganic Compounds of Silicon, in Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 3770–3805. ISBN 0471936200. 
  23. ^ a b Mark, James. E (2005). Inorganic polymers. Oxford University Press. pp. 200–245. ISBN 0195131193. 
  24. ^ Koch, E.C.; Clement, D.. Special Materials in Pyrotechnics: VI. Silicon - An Old Fuel with New Perspectives. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/114279686/ABSTRACT. 
  25. ^ Walsh, Tim (2005). "Silly Putty". Timeless toys: classic toys and the playmakers who created them. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 9780740755712. http://books.google.com/books?id=jftapGDTmYUC&pg=PA90. 
  26. ^ Prof. W. Earl Bardsley, Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, 3240, New Zealand. "The Sustainable Global Energy Economy: Hydrogen or Silicon?". Springer Link. http://www.springerlink.com/content/4m534g6833jv7487/. 

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

.Silicon is a chemical element which has specific properties useful in modern electronics, such as semi-conduction.^ It is also used in the chemical industry as a lining material, because of its corrosion-resistant properties.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Certain chemical substances, termed accelerators, when used with sulfur shorten the time of vulcanization and improve the physical properties of rubber.
  • Your Document-Electric Library 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.slac.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Elemental silicon has two basic forms; amorphous, which has no regular structure, and crystalline, in which the atoms are arranged into a regular lattice.^ Elements in titanium alloys fall into two categories, i.e., those that strengthen and stabilize the alpha or room temperature modification, and those that strengthen the beta or high temperature modification.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Back There is little or no barium or strontium in seawater, probably because of the presence of sulfate which forms an insoluble salt with these two anions.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The facts suggested that the six carbon atoms formed a chain, and that a hydroxy group was attached to five of them, for it is very rare for two hydroxy groups to be attached to the same carbon atom .

.Both forms find use in modern electronics, but crystalline is the most useful form.^ The former plan, being the older, has been most largely used, but is becoming replaced by some form of machine.

^ Uses of Titanium Titanium, used as a construction material, is usually in the form of alloys, most of which have higher strength than pure titanium and enhanced corrosion resistance.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Calcium carbonate and calcium citrate are the two most commonly used forms of calcium.
  • CALCIUM: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

The growth of silicon crystals is a long and complex process.

See also


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

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Simple English

File:Silizium
Small grains of silicon because it has been crushed. This is not the silicon used in computers.
File:Silicon wafer with mirror
A thin cut of a large crystal of silicon that is very smooth. This is the type of silicon can be used in computers because it is very pure.

Silicon is element 14 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Si.

Silicon looks like a metal, but does not do everything a metal does, like conduct electricity very easily. It is a metalloid. Silicon is used a great deal in today's computers and virtually every electronic device. Germanium can also be used in computers, but silicon is easier to find.

There is a lot of silicon on the Earth. At the beach, there is silicon in the form of sand. Sand is a compound of silicon known as silicon dioxide or silica. Glass is made by heating sand (or silicon dioxide) hot enough. The glass can have different colors by adding colored compounds. Silicon also makes up a lot of different rocks and minerals, and they are known as silicates.

Silicon is a semiconductor.

Other pages

frr:Silitsium


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 19, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Silicon, which are similar to those in the above article.








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