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A view of downtown San Jose, the self-proclaimed "Capital of Silicon Valley"

Silicon Valley is the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California, United States. The term originally referred to the region's large number of silicon chip innovators and manufacturers, but eventually came to refer to all the high-tech businesses in the area; it is now generally used as a metonym for the high-tech sector. Despite the development of other high-tech economic centers throughout the United States, Silicon Valley continues to be the leading high-tech hub because of its large number of cutting-edge entrepreneurs, engineers and venture capitalists. Geographically, the Silicon Valley encompases all of the Santa Clara Valley including the city of San Jose (and adjacent communities), the southern Peninsula, and the southern East Bay.

Contents

Origin of the term

The term Silicon Valley was coined by Ralph Vaerst, a Central California entrepreneur. Its first published use is credited to Don Hoefler, a friend of Vaerst's, who used the phrase as the title of a series of articles in the weekly trade newspaper Electronic News. The series, entitled "Silicon Valley USA," began in the paper's issue dated January 11, 1971.[1] Valley refers to the Santa Clara Valley, located at the southern end of San Francisco Bay, while Silicon refers to the high concentration of companies involved in the semiconductor (silicon is used to create most semiconductors commercially) and computer industries that were concentrated in the area. These firms slowly replaced the orchards which gave the area its initial nickname, the Valley of Heart's Delight.

History

"Perhaps the strongest thread that runs through the Valley's past and present is the drive to "play" with novel technology, which, when bolstered by an advanced engineering degree and channeled by astute management, has done much to create the industrial powerhouse we see in the Valley today."[2]

Looking west over northern San Jose (downtown is at far left) and other parts of Silicon Valley

Since the early twentieth century, Silicon Valley has been home to a vibrant, growing electronics industry. The industry began through experimentation and innovation in the fields of radio, television, and military electronics. Stanford University, its affiliates, and graduates have played a major role in the evolution of this area.[3]

A powerful sense of regional solidarity accompanied the rise of Silicon Valley. From the 1890s, Stanford University's leaders saw its mission as service to the West and shaped the school accordingly. At the same time, the perceived exploitation of the West at the hands of eastern interests fueled booster-like attempts to build self-sufficient indigenous local industry. Thus, regionalism helped align Stanford's interests with those of the area's high-tech firms for the first fifty years of Silicon Valley's development.[4]

During the 1940s and 1950s, Frederick Terman, as Stanford's dean of engineering and provost, encouraged faculty and graduates to start their own companies. He is credited with nurturing Hewlett-Packard, Varian Associates, and other high-tech firms, until what would become Silicon Valley grew up around the Stanford campus. Terman is often called "the father of Silicon Valley."[5]

During 1955-85, solid state technology research and development at Stanford University followed three waves of industrial innovation made possible by support from private corporations, mainly Bell Telephone Laboratories, Shockley Semiconductor, Fairfield Semiconductor, and Xerox PARC. In 1969 the Stanford Research Institute operated one of the four original nodes that comprised ARPANET, predecessor to the Internet.[6]

Social roots of information technology revolution

It was in Silicon Valley that the silicon-based integrated circuit, the microprocessor, the microcomputer, among other key technologies, were developed, and has been the site of electronic innovation for over four decades, sustained by about a quarter of a million information technology workers. Silicon Valley was formed as a milieu of innovations by the convergence on one site of new technological knowledge; a large pool of skilled engineers and scientists from major universities in the area; generous funding from an assured market with the Defense Department; the development of an efficient network of venture capital firms; and, in the very early stage, the institutional leadership of Stanford University.[7]

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Roots in radio and military technology

The San Francisco Bay Area had long been a major site of U.S. Navy research and technology. In 1909, Charles Herrold started the first radio station in the United States with regularly scheduled programming in San Jose. Later that year, Stanford University graduate Cyril Elwell purchased the U.S. patents for Poulsen arc radio transmission technology and founded the Federal Telegraph Corporation (FTC) in Palo Alto. Over the next decade, the FTC created the world's first global radio communication system, and signed a contract with the U.S. Navy in 1912.[2]

In 1933, Air Base Sunnyvale, California, was commissioned by the United States Government for use as a Naval Air Station (NAS) to house the airship USS Macon in Hangar One. The station was renamed NAS Moffett Field, and between 1933 and 1947, US Navy blimps were based here.[8] A number of technology firms had set up shop in the area around Moffett to serve the Navy. When the Navy gave up its airship ambitions and moved most of its West Coast operations to San Diego, NACA (the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, forerunner of NASA) took over portions of Moffett for aeronautics research. Many of the original companies stayed, while new ones moved in. The immediate area was soon filled with aerospace firms such as Lockheed.

Stanford Industrial Park

After World War II, universities were experiencing enormous demand due to returning students. To address the financial demands of Stanford's growth requirements, and to provide local employment opportunities for graduating students, Frederick Terman proposed the leasing of Stanford's lands for use as an office park, named the Stanford Industrial Park (later Stanford Research Park). Leases were limited to high technology companies. Its first tenant was Varian Associates, founded by Stanford alumni in the 1930s to build military radar components. However, Terman also found venture capital for civilian technology start-ups . One of the major success stories was Hewlett-Packard. Founded in Packard's garage by Stanford graduates William Hewlett and David Packard, Hewlett-Packard moved its offices into the Stanford Research Park slightly after 1953. In 1954, Stanford created the Honors Cooperative Program to allow full-time employees of the companies to pursue graduate degrees from the University on a part-time basis. The initial companies signed five-year agreements in which they would pay double the tuition for each student in order to cover the costs. Hewlett-Packard has become the largest personal computer manufacturer in the world, and transformed the home printing market when it released the first ink jet printer in 1984. In addition, the tenancy of Eastman Kodak and General Electric made Stanford Industrial Park a center of technology in the mid-1990s.[9][10]

Silicon transistor

In 1953, William Shockley left Bell Labs in a disagreement over the handling of the invention of the transistor. After returning to California Institute of Technology for a short while, Shockley moved to Mountain View, California in 1956, and founded Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory. Unlike many other researchers who used germanium as the semiconductor material, Shockley believed that silicon was the better material for making transistors. Shockley intended to replace the current transistor with a new three-element design (today known as the Shockley diode), but the design was considerably more difficult to build than the "simple" transistor. In 1957, Shockley decided to end research on the silicon transistor. As a result, eight engineers left the company to form Fairchild Semiconductor. Two of the original employees of Fairchild Semiconductor, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, would go on to found Intel.[11]

Venture capital firms

By the early 1970s there were many semiconductor companies in the area, computer firms using their devices, and programming and service companies serving both. Industrial space was plentiful and housing was still inexpensive. The growth was fueled by the emergence of the venture capital industry on Sand Hill Road, beginning with Kleiner Perkins in 1972; the availability of venture capital exploded after the successful $1.3 billion IPO of Apple Computer in December 1980.

The rise of software

Although semiconductors are still a major component of the area's economy, Silicon Valley has been most famous in recent years for innovations in software and Internet services. Silicon Valley has significantly influenced computer operating systems, software, and user interfaces.

Using money from NASA and the U.S. Air Force, Doug Engelbart invented the mouse and hypertext-based collaboration tools in the mid-1960s, while at Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International). When Engelbart's Augmentation Research Center declined in influence due to personal conflicts and the loss of government funding, Xerox hired some of Engelbart's best researchers. In turn, in the 1970s and 1980s, Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) played a pivotal role in object-oriented programming, graphical user interfaces (GUIs), Ethernet, PostScript, and laser printers.

While Xerox marketed equipment using its technologies, for the most part its technologies flourished elsewhere. The diaspora of Xerox inventions led directly to 3Com and Adobe Systems, and indirectly to Cisco, Apple Computer and Microsoft. Apple's Macintosh GUI was largely a result of Steve Jobs' visit to PARC and the subsequent hiring of key personnel.[12] Microsoft's Windows GUI is based on Apple's work, more or less directly.[13] Cisco's impetus stemmed from the need to route a variety of protocols over Stanford's campus Ethernet.

San Jose State University

Although Stanford University provides the historical basis for high-technology growth in the South Bay, and remains at the center of high-technology academic research in Silicon Valley, San Jose State University has emerged as the largest supplier of working engineers to high-technology companies in the region.[14][15][16]

In this light, SJSU engineering, business and computer science graduates often are viewed as the workhorses that power Silicon Valley from day to day.[14][15] Former SJSU students and SJSU alumni also have founded or co-founded a number of important high-technology firms, many of which were integral to the commercial growth and development of the region.[17] Included among those companies founded or co-founded by former SJSU students and SJSU alumni are Intel Corporation, Oracle Corporation, Quantum Corporation, Seagate Technology, and Atmel Corporation.[17][18][19]

SJSU alumni also have risen to the level of CEO and/or senior vice president at numerous high-technology firms in the region including ROLM Corporation, Cisco Systems, IBM, Google and Solectron Corporation.[20][21][22][17][23] Additionally, Ray Dolby and Charles Ginsburg are two Silicon Valley luminaries with close ties to San Jose State.[17]

Internet bubble

Silicon Valley is generally considered to have been the center of the dot-com bubble which started from the mid-1990s and collapsed after the NASDAQ stock market began to decline dramatically in April 2000. During the bubble era, real estate prices reached unprecedented levels. For a brief time, Sand Hill Road was home to the most expensive commercial real estate in the world, and the booming economy resulted in severe traffic congestion.

Even after the dot-com crash, Silicon Valley continues to maintain its status as one of the top research and development centers in the world. A 2006 Wall Street Journal story found that 13 of the 20 most inventive towns in America were in California, and 10 of those were in Silicon Valley.[24] San Jose led the list with 3,867 utility patents filed in 2005, and number two was Sunnyvale, at 1,881 utility patents.[25]

Economy

According to a 2008- study by AeA in 2006 Silicon Valley was the third largest (cybercity) high-tech center in the United States, behind the New York metropolitan area and Washington metropolitan area, with 225,300 high-tech jobs. The Bay Area as a whole however, of which Silicon Valley is a part, would rank first with 386,000 high-tech jobs. Silicon Valley has the highest concentration of high-tech workers of any metropolitan area, with 285.9 out of every 1,000 private-sector workers. Silicon Valley has the highest average high-tech salary at $144,800.[26]

The region is the biggest high-tech manufacturing center in the United States.[27] The unemployment rate of the region was 9.4% in January 2009, up from 7.8% in the previous month.[28]

Notable companies

Thousands of high technology companies are headquartered in Silicon Valley; among those, the following are in the Fortune 1000:

Additional notable companies headquartered (or with a significant presence) in Silicon Valley include (some defunct or subsumed):

Silicon Valley is also home to the high-tech superstore retail chain Fry's Electronics.

Notable government facilities

Universities

Cities

A number of cities are located in Silicon Valley (in alphabetical order):


Cities sometimes associated with the region:

See also

Further reading

  • Making Silicon Valley: Innovation and the Growth of High Tech, 1930–1970 by Christophe Lécuyer, MIT Press (2006)
  • Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution by Steven Levy, Garden City, New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday (1984)
  • Behind the Silicon Curtain: The Seductions of Work in a Lonely Era, Dennis Hayes, London: Free Association Books (1989)
  • Silicon Valley, Inc.: Ruminations on the Demise of a Unique Culture, The San Jose Mercury News (1997)
  • Cultures@Silicon Valley, J. A. English-Lueck, Stanford: Stanford University Press (2002)
  • The Silicon Valley of Dreams: Environmental Injustice, Immigrant Workers, and the High-Tech Global Economy, David Naguib Pellow and Lisa Sun-Hee Park, New York University Press (2003)
  • What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry, John Markoff, Viking (2005)
  • Silicon Follies: A Dot. Comedy, Thomas Scoville, Pocket Books (2000)
  • The Silicon Boys: And Their Valleys Of Dreams, David A. Kaplan, Harper Perinneal (April 2000), ISBN 0-688-17906-1
  • Cities of knowledge: Cold War science and the search for the next Silicon Valley, Margaret Pugh O’Mara, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, (2005)
  • Accidental Empires: How the boys of Silicon Valley make their millions, battle foreign competition, and still can't get a date, Robert X. Cringely, Addison-Wesley Publishing, (1992), ISBN 0-201-57032-7
  • Silicon Valley: 110 Year Renaissance, John McLaughlin, Leigh Weimers, Ward Winslow, Santa Clara Valley Historical Association (2008), ISBN 096492174X
  • Fire in the Valley: The Making of The Personal Computer by Paul Freiberger & Michael Swaine, McGraw-Hill (1984)

References

  1. ^ Don Hoefler profile from NetValley.com
  2. ^ a b Timothy J. Sturgeon, Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Timothy J. Sturgeon, Massachusetts Institute of Technology SV GlobalizationPDF (90.0 KiB)
  3. ^ Markoff, John (2009-04-17). "Searching for Silicon Valley". New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://travel.nytimes.com/2009/04/17/travel/escapes/17Amer.html?pagewanted=1. Retrieved 2009-04-17. 
  4. ^ Stephen B. Adams, "Regionalism in Stanford's Contribution to the Rise of Silicon Valley," Enterprise & Society 2003 4(3): 521-543
  5. ^ C. Stewart Gillmor, "Fred Terman at Stanford: Building a Discipline, a University, and Silicon Valley" (2004); netvalley.com background
  6. ^ Christophe Lécuyer, "What Do Universities Really Owe Industry? The Case of Solid State Electronics at Stanford," Minerva: a Review of Science, Learning & Policy 2005 43(1): 51-71
  7. ^ The Information Technology Revolution by Marvel Castells (On the history of formation of Silicon Valley by Rogers and Larsen 1984 and Malone 1985)
  8. ^ moffettfieldmuseum
  9. ^ 1984 printer
  10. ^ SV History
  11. ^ Goodheart July 2, 2006
  12. ^ Graphical User Interface (GUI) from apple-history.com
  13. ^ Inventors of the Modern Computer: The History of the Graphical User Interface or GUI - The Apple Lisa by Mary Bellis
  14. ^ a b "CalState". The California State University. 2009. http://www.calstate.edu/impact/PDF/SanJose.pdf. Retrieved February 8, 2010. 
  15. ^ a b "Points of Pride". San Jose State University. 2008. http://www.sjsu.edu/about_sjsu/pride/. Retrieved February 8, 2010. 
  16. ^ "The Making of Silicon Valley". Santa Clara Valley Historical Association. 2010. http://www.siliconvalleyhistorical.org/home/silicon_valley. Retrieved February 8, 2010. 
  17. ^ a b c d "Distinguished Alumni". SJSU. 2009. http://www.sjsu.edu/about_sjsu/history/alumni/. Retrieved Feb 8, 2010. 
  18. ^ "1980-2008 Alumni Awards of Distinction". SJSU. 2009. http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/alumni/awards-of-distinction. Retrieved Feb 8, 2010. 
  19. ^ "Engineering Alumni". SJSU. 2009. http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/alumni/profiles/david-a-brown. Retrieved Feb 4, 2010. 
  20. ^ "1980-2008 Alumni Awards of Distinction". SJSU. 2009. http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/alumni/awards-of-distinction. Retrieved Feb 8, 2010. 
  21. ^ "1980-2008 Alumni Awards of Distinction". SJSU. 2009. http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/alumni/awards-of-distinction. Retrieved Feb 8, 2010. 
  22. ^ "IBM:Pressroom". IBM. April 2009. http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/biography/10063.wss. Retrieved Feb 8, 2010. 
  23. ^ "Engineering Alumni". SJSU. 2009. http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/alumni/profiles/koichi-nishimura. Retrieved Feb 4, 2010. 
  24. ^ Reed Albergotti, "The Most Inventive Towns in America," Wall Street Journal, 22-23 July 2006, P1.
  25. ^ Ibid.
  26. ^ Cybercities 2008: An Overview of the High-Technology Industry in the Nation's Top 60 Cities
  27. ^ Silicon Valley and N.Y. still top tech rankings
  28. ^ Silicon Valley unemployment rate jumps to 9.4 percent
  29. ^ Silicon Valley. "Silicon Valley Online". http://www.siliconvalleyonline.org/cities.html#santacruz. Retrieved 2007-11-11. 

External links

Coordinates: 37°22′N 122°02′W / 37.37°N 122.04°W / 37.37; -122.04


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

The Silicon Valley lies in the South Bay and the southern Peninsula of the San Francisco Bay Area. Once best known for its prune orchards, the area underwent explosive growth with the creation of the high-tech industry in the 1960s. Although much of the area suffers from the suburban sprawl typical of much of the western United States, it still has some remarkable charm. The nearby Santa Cruz mountains make for a welcome respite from bustling 21st-century cyberliving.

Understand

The term Silicon Valley was invented in the mid 1970s. Naturally, the local residents had names for their region prior to this newfangled name, such as "Santa Clara Valley" and "Valley of Heart's Delight," and still use them. The term Silicon Valley overlaps several of the pre-existing names for this region including parts of the South Bay and Peninsula.

Because the electronics industry is considered somewhat prestigious, nearby communities often redefine the term Silicon Valley to include themselves. Some of these communities were mostly farmland when the term was invented, so it was pretty natural that the term didn't originally include them, but they might reasonably be considered part of the Silicon Valley now. On the other hand, the Mercury News's Silicon Valley 100 Index extends the term to such fabulous lengths that even Watsonville — a small coastal community on the other side of the Santa Cruz mountains — is included.

So if you're looking to visit the Silicon Valley as a tourist, look to Palo Alto, Santa Clara, and the museums of San Jose. But if you're visiting a company which is "in the Silicon Valley," you may have to look further afield around the South Bay, Peninsula, and East Bay regions.

Birthplace of Silicon Valley

Designated by the State of California as a historical landmark, the "HP Garage" located at 367 Addison Avenue, Palo Alto, is the birthplace of the world's first high-technology region, "Silicon Valley."

As inscribed on the monument, "the idea for such a region originated with Dr. Frederick Terman, a Stanford University professor who encouraged his students to start up their own electronics companies in the area instead of joining established firms in the East. The first two students to follow his advice were William R. Hewlett and David Packard, who in 1938 began developing their first product, an audio oscillator, in this garage."

The HP Garage was designated California Historical Landmark No. 976 in 1989.

Stanford Research Park

In the 1950s, Professor Frederick Terman suggested to Stanford University that the newly founded Stanford Industrial Park leases be limited to high-tech companies so a center of high technology could be created.

In October 1951, Varian Associates signed a lease with the university for a 10-acre tract along El Camino Real and built their $1 million R&D laboratory in the Stanford Industrial Park the following year. Soon after, Eastman Kodak, General Electric, Preformed Line Products, Admiral Corporation, Beckman Instruments, Lockheed, Hewlett-Packard, and others followed suit.

Stanford Industrial Park was renamed Stanford Research Park in 1974.

By 2005, Stanford Research Park was home to more than 150 companies in electronics, software, biotechnology, as well a number of top law firms, financial service firms, consultancies, and venture capital companies. R&D and service companies occupied some 10 million square feet in more than 160 buildings on 704 acres.

Stanford Research Park is considered by many the foundation of Silicon Valley.

Origin of the Name

"Silicon Valley", first used by Don C. Hoefler, publisher of Microelectronics News, in his article titled "Silicon Valley USA" on January 11, 1971, has become synonymous with the center of high technology research and development. "Silicon" refers to the high concentration of semiconductor and computer-related industries in the area at the time. "Valley" refers to the Santa Clara Valley.

Silicon Valley today has extended beyond the greater Santa Clara Valley which includes the entire Santa Clara county and parts of San Mateo, Alameda, and Santa Cruz counties in northern California. It is the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay Area, also known as, South Bay, which covers cities such as San Jose, Santa Clara, Sunnyvale, Cupertino and Los Gatos. Silicon Valley also includes parts of the San Francisco Peninsula from Redwood Shores down to the South Bay, and cities such as Fremont and Newark in the lower East Bay.

Get in

San Jose Airport connects to light rail by bus line whose website is http://www.vta.org/. Taxis also serve the airport and can transport you to Sunnyvale for around $25 one way, for example. San Jose Airport connects to Caltrain and a bus line 22 by bus line ???.

Do

Silicon Valley is located in the south bay, and is surrounded by many hills. For those who enjoy hiking, Almaden Quicksilver County Park[[1]] provides many hiking trails. From the San Jose Airport, head south in Highway 87 until Almaden Expressway. Drive south on Almaden until Camden Avenue and take a right. On Camden, drive until McAbee Road, and take a left. Drive to the end. There are various other entrances as well, but this is known as the main entrance.

Stay safe

Be careful to check for ticks [2] after hiking in fields in the Bay Area. There is a high rate of lyme disease transmission in the Bay Area. If a bulls' eye rash develops at the tick bite site, immediately seek medical help and treatment with antibiotics.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

From "Silicon Valley USA", the title of a series of articles appearing in 1971 in Electronic News by the journalist Don Hoefler, from silicon, the element used by these industries + valley from Santa Clara Valley, the area where many of these industries are located

Alternative forms

Proper noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Silicon Valley

  1. A nickname originally for the region of San Francisco in which there are a high number of industries producing silicon chips and later extended to mean the entire concentration of high-tech businesses in this area.

Derived terms

  • Mexican Silicon Valley
  • Silicon Valley North
  • Silicon Valley of India
  • Silicon Valley of Sweden
  • Silicon Valley of the East Coast

Related terms

Translations

  • French: Silicon Valley f.
  • Italian: Silicon Valley f.
  • Portuguese: Vale do Silício m.
  • Spanish: Silicon Valley m., Valle del Silicio m.

See also


Simple English

San Jose, the self-proclaimed "Capital of Silicon Valley."]]

Silicon Valley is the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California in the United States. The term originally meant the innovators and manufacturers of silicon chip who worked here, but now means all the high tech businesses in the area. Even though it's not truly a valley, it is a term for the high-tech sector generally.

Silicon Valley includes the northern part of Santa Clara Valley and adjacent communities in the southern parts of the San Francisco Peninsula and East Bay. It reaches from Menlo Park (on the Peninsula) and the Fremont/Newark area in the East Bay down to San Jose.

Contents

Origin of the term

The term Silicon Valley was coined by journalist Don Hoefler in 1971. He used it as the title of a series of articles "Silicon Valley USA" in a weekly trade newspaper Electronic News which started with the January 11, 1971 issue. Valley refers to the Santa Clara Valley, located at the southern end of San Francisco Bay, while Silicon refers to the high concentration of semiconductor and computer-related industries in the area. These and similar technology firms slowly replaced the orchards which gave the area its initial nickname, the Valley of Heart's Delight.

History

The San Francisco Bay Area had long been a major site of U.S. Navy work, as well as the site of the Navy's large research airfield at Moffett Field. A number of technology firms had set up shop in the area around Moffett to serve the Navy. When the Navy moved most of its West Coast operations to San Diego, NASA took over portions of Moffett for aeronautics research. Many of the original companies stayed, while new ones moved in. The immediate area was soon filled with aerospace firms.

However, there was almost no civilian "high-tech" industry in the area. Although there were a number of excellent schools in the area, graduating students almost always moved east or south (that is, to Los Angeles County) to find work. This was particularly annoying to Frederick Terman, a professor at Stanford University. He decided that a vast area of unused Stanford land was perfect for real estate development, and set up a program to encourage students to stay in the area by enabling them to easily find venture capital. One of the major success stories of the program was that it convinced two students to stay in the area, William Hewlett and David Packard. In 1939, they founded Hewlett-Packard in Packard's garage, which would go on to be one of the first "high tech" firms in the area that was not directly related to NASA or the U.S. Navy.

Notable companies

Thousands of high technology companies are headquartered in Silicon Valley; among those, the following are in the Fortune 1000:

building]]

Additional notable companies headquartered (or with a significant presence) in Silicon Valley include (some defunct or subsumed):

  • 3Com (headquartered in Marlborough, Massachusetts)
  • Adaptec
  • Amdahl
  • Aricent
  • Atari
  • Atmel
  • Covansys
  • Cypress Semiconductor
  • Foundry Networks
  • Fujitsu (headquartered in Tokyo, Japan)
  • Hitachi Global Storage Technologies
  • Knight-Ridder (acquired by The McClatchy Company)
  • LSI Logic
  • McAfee
  • Netscape (acquired by AOL)
  • NeXT Computer, Inc. (acquired by Apple)
  • Palm, Inc.
  • PalmSource, Inc. (acquired by ACCESS)
  • PayPal (now part of eBay)
  • Rambus
  • Redback Networks
  • SanDisk
  • SAP AG
  • Silicon Graphics
  • Solectron
  • TiVo
  • VA Software (Slashdot)
  • VeriSign
  • Veritas Software (acquired by Symantec)
  • VMware (acquired by EMC)

Befitting its heritage, Silicon Valley is home to the high-tech superstore chain Fry's Electronics.

For a larger list of companies, see Category:Companies based in Silicon Valley

Universities

  • Carnegie Mellon University (West Coast Campus)
  • San José State University
  • Santa Clara University
  • Stanford University
  • National University (San Jose Campus)
  • DeVry University (Fremont Campus)

Technically the following universities are not located in Silicon Valley, but have been instrumental as sources of research and new graduates:

Cities

A number of cities are located in Silicon Valley (in alphabetical order):

Cities sometimes associated with the region:

  • Newark
  • Pleasanton
  • Livermore
  • Scotts Valley
  • Santa Cruz [2]
  • Union City

Trivia

In the James Bond film A View to a Kill, villain Max Zorin plans to destroy Silicon Valley by detonating explosives between the Hayward Fault and San Andreas Fault, causing them to flood. He dubs the operation 'Main Strike' in order to gain complete control of the microchip market by selling his own and destroying the competition.

Further reading

  • Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution by Steven Levy, Garden City, New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday (1984)
  • Behind the Silicon Curtain: The Seductions of Work in a Lonely Era, Dennis Hayes, London: Free Association Books (1989)
  • Silicon Valley, Inc.: Ruminations on the Demise of a Unique Culture, The San Jose Mercury News (1997)
  • Cultures@Silicon Valley, J. A. English-Lueck, Stanford: Stanford University Press (2002)
  • The Silicon Valley of Dreams: Environmental Injustice, Immigrant Workers, and the High-Tech Global Economy, David Naguib Pellow and Lisa Sun-Hee Park, New York University Press (2003)
  • What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry, John Markoff, Viking (2005)
  • The Silicon Boys: And Their Valleys Of Dreams, David A. Kaplan, Harper Perinneal (April 2000), ISBN 0-688-17906-1
  • Cities of knowledge: Cold War science and the search for the next Silicon Valley, Margaret Pugh O’Mara, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, (2005)

References

  1. Although Redwood City is not part of the region traditionally recognized as Silicon Valley, many now consider it to be part of the region, because of its proximity to Menlo Park and its high density of technology companies.
  2. Although Santa Cruz County is not always considered part of Silicon Valley, several smaller high-tech companies have located in the Scotts Valley and Santa Cruz area.

Other websites


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