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The Honourable
 Silvio Berlusconi


Incumbent
Assumed office 
8 May 2008
President Giorgio Napolitano
Preceded by Romano Prodi
In office
11 June 2001 – 17 May 2006
President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
Deputy Giulio Tremonti
Gianfranco Fini
Marco Follini
Preceded by Giuliano Amato
Succeeded by Romano Prodi
In office
10 May 1994 – 17 January 1995
President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
Deputy Giuseppe Tatarella
Roberto Maroni
Preceded by Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
Succeeded by Lamberto Dini

In office
6 January 2002 – 14 November 2002
Preceded by Renato Ruggiero
Succeeded by Franco Frattini

In office
3 July 2004 – 16 July 2004
Preceded by Giulio Tremonti
Succeeded by Domenico Siniscalco

In office
10 March 2006 – 17 May 2006
Preceded by Francesco Storace
Succeeded by Livia Turco

In office
21 April 1994 – 13 April 2008
Constituency XIX - Campania I

Incumbent
Assumed office 
14 April 2008
Constituency XVIII - Molise

Born 29 September 1936 (1936-09-29) (age 73)
Milan, Italy
Political party The People of Freedom (2009–present)
Other political
affiliations
Forza Italia (1994–2008)
Spouse(s) Carla Dall'Oglio (1965–1985)
Veronica Lario (1990–present)
Children Marina Berlusconi
Pier Silvio Berlusconi
Barbara Berlusconi
Eleonora Berlusconi
Luigi Berlusconi
Residence Arcore, Italy
Alma mater University of Milan
Profession Businessperson
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature
.About this sound Silvio Berlusconi (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian politician, the current Prime Minister of Italy, as well as a successful entrepreneur.^ September 29, 1936 Milan, Italy .
  • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Business career Silvio Berlusconi with Bettino Craxi, the Prime Minister of Italy at the time.
  • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Italian prime minister ordered to rest...
  • Silvio Berlusconi - Blogrunner 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

.He is the longest-serving Prime Minister of Italy, a position he has held on three separate occasions: from 1994 to 1995, from 2001 to 2006 and currently since 2008.[1] He is the leader of the People of Freedom political movement, a centre-right party he founded in 2009. As of November 2009, he is the longest-serving current leader of a G8 country.^ Mr Berlusconi told supporters of his People of Freedom party that his government had scored a number of successes since being elected last year, claiming that he had acted swiftly to tackle the effects of the global economic crisis and ensure that Italy had a more solid banking system than many other countries.
  • Silvio Berlusconi | The Awl 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.theawl.com [Source type: General]

^ There are solid, competent leaders who reassure but don't inspire, such as German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Prime Minister Stephen Harper.
  • Silvio Berlusconi | Related Topics | National Post 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: News]

^ G8 leaders, usually sealed off from their peers at summits, found themselves living side by side at the gathering - and they seemed to enjoy it.
  • silvio berlusconi on News24 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: News]

.Berlusconi's political rise was rapid and surrounded by controversy.^ Controversy concerning Berlusconi's conflicts of interest are normally centered around the use of his media and marketing power for political gain; however, there is also controversy regarding financial gains.
  • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Among openDemocracy's articles on Italy's politics: Sarah Pozzoli & Mario Rossi, " The fall and rise of Silvio Berlusconi " (21 April 2005) Sarah Pozzoli, " Who rules Italy?
  • Silvio Berlusconi: ten more questions | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: General]

.He was elected as a Member of Parliament for the first time and appointed as Prime Minister following the March 1994 snap parliamentary elections, when Forza Italia gained a relative majority a mere three months after having been officially launched.^ April 1994: Mr. Berlusconi is elected to his first term as Italian prime minister.
  • A Pesky Paparazzo Stalks the Wily Berlusconi - WSJ.com 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ The margin of victory, in a genuinely sweet irony, came from the foreign vote--the very group included for the first time in the Senate elections by the action of this government.
  • Steve Shore: Berlusconi Defeated 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: General]

^ He is the leader of the Forza Italia political movement, a party which he officially announced in January 1994, to run for the first time in the general election in March of the same year.
  • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.However, his cabinet collapsed after seven months, due to internal disagreements in his coalition.^ The resignation was also due to internal problems in his coalition.
  • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.In the April 1996 snap parliamentary elections, Berlusconi ran for Prime Minister again but was defeated by centre-left candidate Romano Prodi.^ A Spanish newspaper Friday published what it said are five exclusive photographs of racy parties at Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi's villa on the island of Sardinia.
  • Silvio Berlusconi: News & Videos about Silvio Berlusconi - CNN.com 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Italian police arrested a man who tried to reach the hospital room of Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, who is recovering from an attack that left him with a fractured nose and broken teeth Wednesday, Dec.
  • Silvio Berlusconi | Related Topics | National Post 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: News]

^ "The era of fast-tracked careers for pretty faces in Prime Minister's Silvio Berlusconi's TV empire, which led to rumours of a casting couch, could be at an end.
  • Silvio Berlusconi | The Awl 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.theawl.com [Source type: General]

.In the May 2001 parliamentary elections, he was again the centre-right candidate for Prime Minister and won against the centre-left candidate Francesco Rutelli.^ Split nearly -- but not quite -- equally, the popular vote exceeding even the 2001 national elections, the center-left coalition headed by Romano Prodi has displaced the ruling right wing coalition of Silvio Berlusconi by a slim 0.1% of the vote.
  • Steve Shore: Berlusconi Defeated 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: General]

^ At orgies there are more or less the same number of men and women, but here there was only one man with copulation rights – the Prime Minister."
  • Silvio Berlusconi | The Awl 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.theawl.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, would you put any conditions on criticisms the press may make of the prime minister?
  • Silvio Berlusconi: ten more questions | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: General]

Berlusconi then formed his second and third cabinets, until 2006.
.Berlusconi was leader of the centre-right coalition in the April 2006 parliamentary elections, which he lost by a very narrow margin, his opponent again being Romano Prodi.^ The margin of victory, in a genuinely sweet irony, came from the foreign vote--the very group included for the first time in the Senate elections by the action of this government.
  • Steve Shore: Berlusconi Defeated 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: General]

^ Split nearly -- but not quite -- equally, the popular vote exceeding even the 2001 national elections, the center-left coalition headed by Romano Prodi has displaced the ruling right wing coalition of Silvio Berlusconi by a slim 0.1% of the vote.
  • Steve Shore: Berlusconi Defeated 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: General]

^ On April 20, 2005, Berlusconi tendered the resignation of his government, after his party reported large losses in regional elections.
  • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.He was re-elected in the parliamentary elections of April 2008 following the collapse, on 24 January 2008, of Romano Prodi's government and sworn in as prime minister on 8 May 2008 (see also 2008 Italian political crisis).^ April 1994: Mr. Berlusconi is elected to his first term as Italian prime minister.
  • A Pesky Paparazzo Stalks the Wily Berlusconi - WSJ.com 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ Italian prime minister ordered to rest...
  • Silvio Berlusconi - Blogrunner 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ A Spanish newspaper Friday published what it said are five exclusive photographs of racy parties at Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi's villa on the island of Sardinia.
  • Silvio Berlusconi: News & Videos about Silvio Berlusconi - CNN.com 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.Berlusconi also practically owns all Italian media.^ It could be that in the years ahead every Italian alive in the strange years of Silvio Berlusconi, as both his nation's leading media mogul and domina...
  • Silvio Berlusconi : Pictures, Videos, Breaking News 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Less abstractly, Berlusconi dominates politics and the media in a society fascinated by both and in which, largely because of his own efforts, the two overlap to a troubling extent.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Berlusconi has built his own reality and persuades Italians that all is fault of "Sinistra" ("Comunist").
  • Silvio Berlusconi: ten more questions | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: General]

[2][3]

Contents

Family background and private life

.Berlusconi was born in Milan and raised there in an upper middle-class family.^ Vittorio Mangano In 1974 Berlusconi moves with his family into Villa Casati, in Milan.
  • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

His father Luigi (1908–1989) was a bank employee, and his mother was Rosa Bossi (1911–2008). .Silvio was the first of three children; his siblings are Maria Francesca Antonietta Berlusconi (1943–2009) and Paolo Berlusconi (born 1949), both entrepreneurs.^ Silvio was the first of three children, the others being Maria Antonietta Berlusconi (born 1943) and Paolo Berlusconi (born 1949), now both entrepreneurs.
  • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Not logged in 2 June 2009 - 9:16am Basta con questa assurda campagna denigratoria contro Silvio Berlusconi.
  • Silvio Berlusconi: ten more questions | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: General]

^ Silvio Berlusconi assaulted in Milan 13 Dec 2009: Italian prime minister leaves hospital in Milan four days after being hit in the face .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.After completing his secondary school education at a Salesian college, he studied law at the Università Statale in Milan, graduating with a thesis on the legal aspects of advertising in 1961. Berlusconi was not required to serve the standard one-year stint in the Italian army which was compulsory at the time.^ After completing his secondary school education at a Salesian college, which he worked his way through as a singing waiter, he then studied law at the Università Statale in Milan, graduating cum laude with a thesis on the legal aspects of advertising in 1961.
  • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Berlusconi did not serve the standard one-year stint in the army which was compulsory at the time.
  • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ These actions whose aim is clear (to destroy the image of one of the gratest men in Italian recent history) will have the effect to give Berlusconi more and more votes.
  • Silvio Berlusconi: ten more questions | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: General]

[4] During his university studies he was an upright bass player in a group formed with the now Mediaset Chairman and amateur pianist Fedele Confalonieri and occasionally performed as a cruise ship crooner. .In later life he wrote AC Milan's anthem with the Italian music producer and pop singer Tony Renis and Forza Italia's anthem with the opera director Renato Serio.^ Berlusconi also owns the football club AC Milan, which some think has been an important factor in the success of his political career ("Forza Italia" means "Go Italy!", and before the party was founded it was connected to football supporters of the national team).
  • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

With the Neapolitan singer Mariano Apicella he wrote two Neapolitan song albums: Meglio 'na canzone in 2003 and L'ultimo amore in 2006.
.In 1965, he married Carla Elvira Dall'Oglio, and they had two children: Maria Elvira, better known as Marina (born 1966), and Pier Silvio (b.^ By then, however, she had already borne him three children, the first while he was still married to his first wife, Carla Dell'Oglio.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

1969). .By 1980, Berlusconi had established a relationship with the actress Veronica Lario (born Miriam Bartolini), with whom he subsequently had three children: Barbara (b.^ While he was away she claims to have used her mobile phone to film herself in the room, which contained a framed photograph of Mr Berlusconi's wife, Veronica Lario.
  • Is the party over for Silvio Berlusconi? - Telegraph 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Veronica Lario, Berlusconi's Wife, Seeks $65 Million A Year In Alimony .
  • Silvio Berlusconi : Pictures, Videos, Breaking News 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Comments Veronica Lario, Berlusconi's Wife, Seeks $65 Million A Year...
  • Silvio Berlusconi : Pictures, Videos, Breaking News 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

1984), Eleonora (b. 1986) and Luigi (b. 1988). .He was divorced from Dall'Oglio in 1985, and married Lario in 1990. At this time, Berlusconi was a well-known entrepreneur, and his wedding was a notable social event.^ At that time Berlusconi feared for his empire as well.

^ Bossi’s reluctance to subordinate the Lega Nord under Berlusconi’s Forza Italia was well known from the beginning of the game.

^ Using all these roles that are well known to the Average Joe, and not only appealing to intellectuals, Berlusconi laid the foundation for a new phase of symbolic politics.

.One of his best men was former Prime Minister and leader of the Italian Socialist Party Bettino Craxi.^ Italian prime minister ordered to rest...
  • Silvio Berlusconi - Blogrunner 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ Berlusconi and wary allies, including Bettino Craxi, the stunningly corrupt former Prime Minister, were able—in spite of a seemingly airtight agreement between DeBenedetti and the Mondadori famly—to manipulate the courts so that Berlusconi wound up in control of the publishing giant.
  • Silvio Berlusconi | The Awl 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.theawl.com [Source type: General]

^ For Italians reality is not what actually happens but what they watch on the TV channels or read in the newspapers owned by the Prime Minister.
  • Silvio Berlusconi : Pictures, Videos, Breaking News 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

In May 2009, Lario announced that she was to file for divorce.[5]
Silvio Berlusconi (left) with Bettino Craxi (right), the then Prime Minister of Italy, in 1984.

Business career

Milano 2

.Berlusconi's business career began in construction during the 1960s.^ After finishing his law studies with a price-winning thesis about advertisement, Berlusconi enters the booming construction business.

^ Berlusconi’s career during the years of corruption seems like it was taken from a picture book.

.In the latter part of that decade, he had the idea of developing Milano 2, a garden city of around 10,500 apartments, which he eventually built at Segrate on the eastern outskirts of Milan.^ Milano 2, a city for the rich and famous at the periphery of Milan, helps him become famous as a star entrepreneur all over the country.

Telemilano

.Berlusconi first entered the media world in 1973 by setting up a small cable television company, Telemilano, to service units built on his Segrate properties.^ The media mogul now takes up a biblical image for the first time: "I am just a small guy, who had the courage to fight the colossus of state-owned TV" (L’Espresso, 5.8.1994, 36).

^ The new city needs a cable program and subsequently "Telemilano" goes on air in 1973.

It began transmitting in September the following year. .After buying two further channels, Berlusconi relocated the station to central Milan in 1977 and began broadcasting over the airwaves.^ As a result, Berlusconi faces two trials in Milan, one on tax fraud and the other on corruption.
  • Berlusconi back in Rome after attack :: CHICAGO SUN-TIMES :: World 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC poll.suntimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Berlusconi fought the war against the gigantic power of the state-owned Goliath, RAI and finally persuades the channel to adopt to the entertainment programming of his stations.

[6]

Fininvest

.In 1978 Berlusconi formed his first media group, Fininvest,at the time he joined Propaganda 2(P2).^ The margin of victory, in a genuinely sweet irony, came from the foreign vote--the very group included for the first time in the Senate elections by the action of this government.
  • Steve Shore: Berlusconi Defeated 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: General]

In the five years leading up to 1983 it earned 113,000,000,000 lire (€58.3 million). .The funding sources are still unknown because of the complex system of holding companies that makes them impossible to trace, despite investigations conducted by various state attorneys.^ Left to his own devices by the Socialist Party, he gives the state attorney in charge of the case, Antonio Di Pietro, deep insights into the corrupt system.

Fininvest expanded into a country-wide network of local TV stations which had similar programming, forming, in effect, a single national network. This was seen as breaching the Italian public broadcaster RAI's statutory monopoly on creating a national network which was later abolished. In 1990 Berlusconi founded Italy's first private national network, Canale 5, followed shortly thereafter by Italia 1 which was bought from the Rusconi family in 1982, and Rete 4, which was bought from Mondadori in 1984.[7]
.Berlusconi was assisted in his successful effort to create the first and only Italian commercial TV empire by his connections to Bettino Craxi, secretary-general of the Italian Socialist Party and also prime minister of Italy at that time, whose government passed, on 20 October 1984, an emergency decree legalizing the nationwide transmissions made by Berlusconi's television stations.^ Silvio Berlusconi's oldest daughter was "surprised" by the Italian premier's attendance at a girl's 18th birthday party, which prompted her mother to seek a divorce.
  • silvio berlusconi on News24 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: News]

^ Setting up a television station for his new development was what lured Berlusconi into the media and, for a while, turned him into a free enterprise crusader – the man who smashed the national television monopoly of Italy's public broadcaster, RAI. He did this by spotting a loophole that excluded local television from RAI's monopoly and exploiting his friendship with the socialist leader, Bettino Craxi , who conveniently altered the law to meet Berlusconi's needs.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi has said sorry for an editorial attack on France's first lady Carla Bruni-Sarkozy for staying away from G8 Summit events.
  • silvio berlusconi on News24 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: News]

[7] This was because, on 16 October 1984, judges in Turin, Pescara and Rome, enforcing a law which previously restricted nationwide broadcasting to RAI, had ordered these private networks to cease transmitting.
After some political turmoil in 1985 the decree was approved definitively. .But for some years, Berlusconi's three channels remained in a legal limbo, and were not therefore allowed, for instance, to broadcast news and political commentary.^ Berlusconi’s departure to the New World of politics is associated with Greek mythology.

^ It’s a strategy to display his sexual power -- Berlusconi is 58 years old when he enters the political stage -- and to hide his real age.

^ And of course, Forza Italia, Berlusconi’s party, was all new, because it was designed more like a fan club than like a political movement.

They were elevated to the status of full national TV channels in 1990 by the so-called Mammì law.
In 1995, Berlusconi sold a portion of his media holdings, first to the German media group Kirch (now bankrupt) and then by public offer. In 1999 Berlusconi expanded his media interests by forming a partnership with Kirch called the Epsilon MediaGroup.[8]

Wealth

.Berlusconi is the proprietor of three analogue television channels, various digital television channels, as well as some of the larger-circulation national news magazines.^ Silvio Berlusconi, who resigned from the Italian prime ministership three days ago, was sworn in Saturday as the next leader of a new government.
  • Silvio Berlusconi: News & Videos about Silvio Berlusconi - CNN.com 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

Together these account for nearly half the Italian market. He is the founder and major shareholder of Fininvest, which is among the ten largest privately owned companies in Italy[9] and currently operates in media and finance. With Ennio Doris he founded Mediolanum, one of the country's biggest banking and insurance groups. .Berlusconi, together with the Saudi Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal,[10][11] is the main shareholder of Mediaset, a publicly traded company.^ Mediaset RTI! (one of Berlusconi's family's many companies, for the non-Italians) .
  • Charlie's Diary: More politics 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

He is the owner of the Italian football club A.C. Milan, which has won a number of national and international trophies under his ownership. According to Forbes magazine, Berlusconi is Italy's third richest person, with personal assets worth $9.4 billion (USD) in 2008.[12]
.Berlusconi's main company Mediaset comprises three national television channels, which together have approximately half the national viewing audience, and Publitalia, the leading Italian advertising and publicity agency.^ Most helpful to bring out Fininvest’s -- that’s the name of Berlusconi’s company -- newest "product" (himself as a candidate) was of course his own advertising agency, Publitalia.

^ His strategy succeeds as the people like what they see: In 1984, Berlusconi owns the three, major private networks which reach half of Italy’s TV viewer; by means of which he also has more advertising revenue than the public RAI. Berlusconi now is "Signor TV" (ibid., 146) in the public image.

^ Once told about Berlusconi’s misery, the Italian public learns more about its leader’s conspiracy theories: "We are kept from governing.

.He also owns Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, the largest Italian publishing house, whose publications include Panorama, one of the country's most popular news magazines.^ These actions whose aim is clear (to destroy the image of one of the gratest men in Italian recent history) will have the effect to give Berlusconi more and more votes.
  • Silvio Berlusconi: ten more questions | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: General]

^ "Some call this demagogy, the art to imitate the simplicity of ordinary people to propel one’s own popularity" (Schwartzenberg 70-81).

^ Of even more concern is the fact that the new Prime Minister owns Italy‘s three most popular TV stations, the country’s biggest publishing house as well as its biggest advertising agency.

He has interests in cinema and home video distribution firms (Medusa and Penta), insurance and banking (Mediolanum and Mediobanca) and a variety of other activities. .His brother, Paolo Berlusconi, owns and operates il Giornale, a centre-right wing newspaper which provides a strong pro-Berlusconi slant on Italy and its politics.^ Travaglio [-said]: Thanks to Palermo court documents, we know that Berlusconi entered the political arena in 1994, both for his own interests and for those of the mob, .
  • EMM News Explorer: Silvio Berlusconi 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC emm.newsexplorer.eu [Source type: News]

^ Italy PM joins political targets Berlusconi attacker apologises Berlusconi to stay in hospital .
  • silvio berlusconi on News24 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: News]

^ In Italy, it was a response to the possibility of an ideological opposite gaining power - and in GB since the 1970s, our political parties haven't been that far apart, or that far from the centre.
  • Charlie's Diary: More politics 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

.Il Foglio, one of the most influential Italian right-wing newspaper is partially owned by his wife, Veronica Lario.^ Veronica Lario, the wife of Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, is seeking €43m a year in a divorce settlement.
  • silvio berlusconi on News24 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: News]

^ During the last few weeks you have denied being directly involved in the selection of TV showgirls as parliamentary candidates for your party, even though your own newspaper Il Giornale has admitted as much.
  • Silvio Berlusconi: ten more questions | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: General]

"Forza Italia" (meaning "Go Italy!", "Forward, Italy!" or simply "Italy Forward") was best known, before the political party of the same name was founded, as the slogan of the Italian national football team.[13]

Political career

Entering "the field"

Italy is the country I love. Here I have my roots, my hopes, my horizons. Here I have learned, from my father and from life, how to be an entrepreneur. Here I have also acquired the passion for liberty.
.I have chosen to enter the field and become a public servant because I do not want to live in an illiberal country, ruled by immature forces and by people who are well and truly bound to a past that proved both a political and economic failure.^ Travaglio [-said]: Thanks to Palermo court documents, we know that Berlusconi entered the political arena in 1994, both for his own interests and for those of the mob, .
  • EMM News Explorer: Silvio Berlusconi 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC emm.newsexplorer.eu [Source type: News]

^ Less abstractly, Berlusconi dominates politics and the media in a society fascinated by both and in which, largely because of his own efforts, the two overlap to a troubling extent.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Supported by his own market researchers, Berlusconi told the people what the wanted to hear, ascribed to himself the images of figures well-known to the public in order to act in, and react to, every possible environment.


 — Silvio Berlusconi, discourse on Entering the field ("la discesa in campo") – 26 January 1994.[14]

Policies

General guidelines

.As he founded his Forza Italia party and entered politics, Berlusconi expressed his support for "freedom, the individual, family, enterprise, Italian tradition, Christian tradition and love for weaker people"[15] and his intention to combat fiscal, judicial and bureaucratic oppression of Italians.^ Silvio Berlusconi's oldest daughter was "surprised" by the Italian premier's attendance at a girl's 18th birthday party, which prompted her mother to seek a divorce.
  • silvio berlusconi on News24 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: News]

^ The Forza-Italia lead "Pole of Freedom" -- that’s the name Berlusconi chose for his alliance with the Lega Nord and the Alleanza Nationale, two far right parties -- in his vision is the only way to defend the liberty of the Italians.

^ But in Berlusconi's party, the Freedom People (PdL), the process has been given a peculiar twist.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.The political family of the European People's Party was joined by Forza Italia in 1999 and by the People of Freedom in 2009.[16] Some allies of Berlusconi, especially the Lega Nord, push for controls on immigration.^ Martens [ stated]: The attack against Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi is deplorable and on behalf of the European People's Party I wholly condemn it; such acts of political violence have no place in the Europe of the 21st century.
  • EMM News Explorer: Silvio Berlusconi 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC emm.newsexplorer.eu [Source type: News]

^ The Forza-Italia lead "Pole of Freedom" -- that’s the name Berlusconi chose for his alliance with the Lega Nord and the Alleanza Nationale, two far right parties -- in his vision is the only way to defend the liberty of the Italians.

^ Earlier in the evening Berlusconi had received a rock star’s welcome at a rally to mark the opening of public membership to the People of Freedom party.
  • BREAKING >>> Berlusconi Bloodied at Rally - Guy Fawkes' blog 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC order-order.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Berlusconi himself has shown some reluctance to pursue such policies as strongly as his allies might like.^ Like Caesar, Berlusconi is "killed" by his former friend and ally.

^ It is one thing that an ageing alpha male like Berlusconi might want to feed his self-esteem by encouraging the attentions of younger women.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[17] A number of measures have been taken, with mixed results. .The government, after introducing a controversial immigration law (the "Bossi-Fini" law, from the names of the Lega Nord and National Alliance leaders, as first authors of the text) is seeking the cooperation of European and other Mediterranean countries in reducing the large number of immigrants trying to reach Italian coasts on old and overloaded ferries and fishing boats, risking (and, often, losing) their lives.^ Umberto Bossi, the leader of the Lega Nord, joint in to the government only very reluctantly.

^ Bossi’s reluctance to subordinate the Lega Nord under Berlusconi’s Forza Italia was well known from the beginning of the game.

^ The Forza-Italia lead "Pole of Freedom" -- that’s the name Berlusconi chose for his alliance with the Lega Nord and the Alleanza Nationale, two far right parties -- in his vision is the only way to defend the liberty of the Italians.

Legal problems

.I'm the universal record-holder for the number of trials in the entire history of man -- and also of other creatures who live on other planets.^ Kezza the Hat says: December 13, 2009 at 7:59 pm Lates from the NuBeeb is ‘…a man, who reportedly has a history of mental problems, has been arrested.’ .
  • BREAKING >>> Berlusconi Bloodied at Rally - Guy Fawkes' blog 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC order-order.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


 — Silvio Berlusconi, at the G8 press conference in Hokkaido – 5 July 2008 [18]

Clear record up to now

.Silvio Berlusconi has an extensive record of criminal allegations, including mafia collusion, false accounting, tax fraud, corruption and bribery of police officers and judges.^ Berlusconi skips tax fraud trial .
  • silvio berlusconi on News24 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: News]

^ Premier Silvio Berlusconi says he will not resign even though a top Italian court has overturned an immunity law shielding him from a corruption trial in Milan.
  • silvio berlusconi on News24 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: News]

^ Silvio Berlusconi: The Times attacks me because I taxed Rupert Murdoch's channels .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Berlusconi has been tried in Italian courts in several cases.^ Defiant Berlusconi is back in the dock as Italian court strips premier of legal immunity September 27, 2009 - October 28, 2009 .
  • EMM News Explorer: Silvio Berlusconi 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC emm.newsexplorer.eu [Source type: News]

.In three of these cases accusations were dropped by the judiciary because of laws passed by Berlusconi's parliamentary majority shortening the time limit for prosecution of various offences and making false accounting illegal only if there is a specific damaged party reporting the fact to the authorities.^ Silvio Berlusconi: The Times attacks me because I taxed Rupert Murdoch's channels .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Rodolphe 2 June 2009 - 9:26am Thank you very much for publishing these question, but Berlusconi will never respond to these questions because he responds only to the questions that are preventively approved and cleared!!!!
  • Silvio Berlusconi: ten more questions | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: General]

^ Why did you not make real Laws to combat the Media Egemony of Berlusconi when you had the Legislation in Your Hand?
  • Silvio Berlusconi: ten more questions | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: General]

[19][20] .In all of them, but one, he was acquitted, either by a court of first instance or on appeal, or when proceedings came to a halt because the statute of limitations had expired.^ We don't have an all-in-one-place written constitution of course, but one bit that is written down and appears to be quite clear is "That the Freedome of Speech and Debates or Proceedings in Parlyament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any Court or Place out of Parlyament."
  • Charlie's Diary: More politics 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

Therefore he has a clear record up to now.[21][22][23][24][25] .Berlusconi claimed that "this is a manifest judicial persecution, against which I am proud to resist, and the fact that my resistance and sacrifice will give the Italians a more fair and efficient judicial system makes me even more proud",[26] and added that "789 prosecutors and magistrates took an interest in the politician Berlusconi from 1994 to 2006 with the aim of subverting the votes of the Italian people" reeling off statistics that he said have constituted a "calvary including 577 visits by police, 2,500 court hearings and 174 million euros in lawyers' bills paid by me".[27][28] Berlusconi has always been able to afford top lawyers, for example Nicolas Sarkozy was one of his French top advocates.^ He is the people’s advocate who cares for Italians’ interests.

^ At the end of March 1994, the Italians give their vote for Berlusconi.

^ Thus, Berlusconi always has to claim the opposite.

[29][30][31] Some of his former prosecutors are members of the parliamentary opposition. Some of his attorneys are also members of parliament.
Status of Trial Allegation
Dropped trials Time limits extinct crimes
  • Lodo Mondadori: bribery of judges (statute of limitation acquittance)
  • All Iberian 1: 23 bilions Liras bribe to Bettino Craxi via an offshore bank account code-named All Iberian (first court sentence: 2 years 4 month jail; appeal: acquitted since the statute of limitations expired before the appeal)
  • Lentini affair: false accounting (not guilty because of changes in the false accounting law)
Amnesty extinct crimes
  • Propaganda 2 (P2) masonic lodge trial: false testimony (guilty but amnesty applied)
  • Macherio estates: false accounting (amnesty applied following the 1992 fiscal remission law)
Acquittals Acquittal for variation of the Law
  • All Iberian 2: false accounting (acquittal following the new law on the false accounting passed by the Berlusconi government)
  • Sme-Ariosto 2: false accounting (acquittal following the new law on the false accounting passed by the Berlusconi government)
Other acquittals
  • Sme-Ariosto 1: charge for the sale by IRI, bribes to judges (first instance court sentence)
  • Bribery of the Guardia di Finanza (first sentence: 2 years 9 months jail; appeal: statute of limitations for 3 charges, acquittal for the fourth (not proven)
  • Medusa Cinema company: false accounting (acquitted since too rich for being aware of such small amounts)
  • Sme-Ariosto 1: bribes to the judge Renato Squillante
  • Macherio estates: embezzlement, tax evasion, another false accounting (the statute of limitations expired before the first court verdict for one charge; and before the appeal court for the second one)
  • Television rights: false accounting, tax evasion, embezzlement
Archived trials Archiving for variation of the Law
  • Fininvest balance: false accounting and embezzlement (archived thanks to the new law on the false accounting passed by the Berlusconi government)
  • Consolidato Fininvest: false accounting (archived thank to the new law on the false accounting passed by the Berlusconi government)
Other archived trials
  • Agreement on the division of publicity between Rai and Fininvest televisions
  • Traffic of drug
  • Tax bribery on the Pay-tv
  • Collusion into the 1992-1993 slaughters
  • Mafia collusion, together with Marcello Dell'Utri, money laundering
Ongoing trials
  • Bribe to the lawyer David Mills: corruption to influence a judiciary sentence
  • Corruption of senators of the Romano Prodi government camp (procedure transferred from Naples to Rome)

Delaying tactics

.The Italian legal system, trying to contain the excessive length of judgments, allows the statute of limitations to continue to run during the course of the trial.^ Under a legal system that allows for up to three trials, however, Berlusconi has never been definitively convicted.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Due to the unceasing slow justice system, the delaying tactics adopted by Berlusconi's attorneys (including repeated motions for change of venue) have served to nullify pending charges on many occasions.^ Another strike follows: The "Mani Pulite" go after Berlusconi himself charging him with paying bribes.

.Some of Berlusconi's close collaborators, friends and firm managers have been found guilty of related crimes, notably his brother, Paolo, who in 2001 agreed to pay 100,000,000 Italian Liras (52,000 Euros) as a plea bargain for various charges including corruption.^ In the summer, things get heavy for the prime minister: the "Mani Pulite" group adds Berlusconi’s Fininvest to its suspects list, and Berlusconi’s brother Paolo is accused of having paid at least some $150.000 bribes.

^ To hide his conflicts of interest between political and economic power, Berlusconi puts his old friend, Fede Confalonieri, in charge of Fininvest and officially resigns as an executive.

^ In the summer of 2008, he and a friend sank €70,000 a month into renting a villa on the Sardinian Costa Smeralda, near Berlusconi's.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

False testimony regarding membership of the "Propaganda 2" (P2) masonic lodge

Receipt for membership of Silvio Berlusconi to "Propaganda 2" (P2) masonic lodge
.In 1981, a scandal arose after the police discovery of Licio Gelli's secret freemasonry lodge Propaganda 2 (P2), which aimed to change the Italian political system to a more authoritarian regime to oppose communism.^ For quite a long time politicians knew that the TV as a communication medium has changed electoral contests, and politics as such, forever.

The list of people involved in P2 included members of the secret services and some prominent characters from political arena, business, military and media. .Silvio Berlusconi, who was then just starting to gain popularity as the founder and owner of "Canale 5" TV channel, was listed as a member of P2.[32][33] The P2 lodge was dissolved by the Italian Parliament in December 1981 and a law was passed declaring similar organizations illegal, but no specific crimes were alleged against individual members of the P2 lodge.^ Cheap jokes aside, I can't help noticing that Silvio Berlusconi was a member of a certain secret organization back in the 1970s and early 1980s.
  • Charlie's Diary: More politics 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Silvio Berlusconi assaulted in Milan 13 Dec 2009: Italian prime minister leaves hospital in Milan four days after being hit in the face .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ October 11, 2009 15:22 3: I've just started a Masters degree in London, and am living in a housing block with a bunch of Italian students.
  • Charlie's Diary: More politics 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.Berlusconi later (in 1989) sued three journalists for libel for writing articles hinting at his involvement in financial crimes.^ An Italian journalist writes an article, published in an Italian newspaper, decrying the terrible state of affairs in Italian politics; b) The same journalist writes his column in e.g.
  • Charlie's Diary: More politics 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

.In court, he declared that he had joined the P2 lodge "only for a very short time before the scandal broke" and "he had not even paid the entry fee". Such statements conflicted with the findings of the parliamentary inquiry commission appointed to investigate the lodge's activity, with material evidence, and even with previous testimony of Berlusconi, all of which proved that he had actually been a member of P2 since 1978 and had indeed paid 100,000 Italian liras (52 Euros) as an entry fee.^ The two communist parties combined won more than the Christian Democrats--oops, the UDC--who are the survivors of the former dominant party of Italian politics before being toppled by the political scandals of the 1980s; the only reason Berlusconi is even close in the Senate is the 13 seats won by the Europhobic racist crazies from the Northern League.
  • Steve Shore: Berlusconi Defeated 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: General]

^ Berlusconi launched his new law right in the middle of Italian vacation season, and only after his oracle, his market research firm, Diakron, signaled green light to act immediately, before all the Leftists media outlets not yet "equalized" by Berlusconi, would jump on it.

^ Before the play had even started Berlusconi already had a huge repertoire of roles to make use of.

In 1990 the court of appeal of Venice found Berlusconi guilty of false testimony in front of the Court of Verona, however the court did not proceed to sentence because the wrongdoing had been extinguished by an amnesty passed in 1989.[34]
.Some political commentators claim that Berlusconi's electoral programme followed the P2 plan.^ The breakdown of his old world -- the partitocrazia -- and his move forward was followed by the propaganda-driven electoral race that ends with Berlusconi’s victory in the third act.

^ Berlusconi’s move into politics is accompanied by some selective changes in his repertoire.

^ In reality, Berlusconi is supported by a secret plan of a political counter-revolutionary organization, the "P2," funded by obscure sources, mainly from the Mafia, and the secrets of his success are "buried in the treasures of several Swiss banks" (Guarino/Ruggeri 94, 72).

[35]

"Jowellgate"/David Mills bribery case

The link between him and the difficulties of British Culture Secretary, Tessa Jowell, has attracted less media attention in Italy than in the United Kingdom, where the media has sensed a whiff of something scandalous (or at least hypocritical and embarrassing) for the government. .David Mills, lawyer husband of the British cabinet minister in the Blair government, had acted for Berlusconi in the early 1990s and has been accused by Italian prosecutors of money laundering and of accepting a gift from Berlusconi in return for friendly evidence given as a prosecution witness against Berlusconi.^ Once told about Berlusconi’s misery, the Italian public learns more about its leader’s conspiracy theories: "We are kept from governing.

However, Mills has asserted that the money in question did not come from Berlusconi but from another client. .No formal indictment has yet been issued but on 10 March 2006 it was reported that prosecuting magistrates in Italy had submitted evidence to a judge, seeking an indictment for bribery against Berlusconi and Mills27: all parties vehemently deny wrong-doing and Berlusconi commented that the timing showed that the prosecution is political.^ March 27, 2006 .
  • Steve Shore: Berlusconi Defeated 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: General]

^ On 29 April, the evening news on RAI 1 opened with a report of Berlusconi's irate denial of the insinuations levelled at him in the Noemi Letizia affair.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ This time the accusations surrounding Berlusconi could land him in court, reports John Hooper .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

Berlusconi denied meeting Mills. .The British media have not yet unearthed anything to warrant Jowell's resignation or which proves the guilt of Mills, Berlusconi or their intermediaries.^ Lario, on the other hand, has gradually changed from a model partner into an avenging fury who could yet prove to be Berlusconi's nemesis.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

Mills separated from his wife around this time. .On 17 February 2009, Mills was found guilty of accepting a bribe of about 400,000 Sterling Pounds, allegedly from Silvio Berlusconi.^ Silvio Berlusconi assaulted in Milan 13 Dec 2009: Italian prime minister leaves hospital in Milan four days after being hit in the face .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ On the 17 February 1992, Mario Chiesa, an executive of a Milan senior foundation, is caught as he accepts 7 million lire "tangente" (dirty money).

^ Digg it John Hooper The Guardian , Saturday 31 October 2009 Noemi Letizia, 18, poses with a portrait of Silvio Berlusconi in her home in Naples, Italy.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

Mills was sentenced to four-and-a-half years in prison but is appealing.[36]

Controversies

The debate about motives

.According to journalists Marco Travaglio and Enzo Biagi, Berlusconi entered politics to save his companies from bankruptcy and himself from convictions.^ It’s a strategy to display his sexual power -- Berlusconi is 58 years old when he enters the political stage -- and to hide his real age.

^ Yet when he himself entered politics, in 1994, he managed to bring off the remarkable trick of portraying himself to the electorate as the standard-bearer of a new Italy.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Berlusconi who has entered the stage of politics according to his self-presentation only to save the virtues of his country feels hindered in his fight for Italy’s new glory since his inauguration.

[37] From the very beginning he said it clearly to his associates. .Berlusconi's supporters hailed him as the "new man", an outsider who was going to bring a new efficiency to the public bureaucracy and reform the state from top to bottom.^ The new Ms. Berlusconi also adds to his image as a loving family man.

^ Rise and fall are closely related in the Mediterranean, and the people who voted for Berlusconi in March also sent him back home after he failed to live up to his promises.

^ Alexander Cockburn on Lodi case where Feds paid $250,000 to man who "saw" world's three top terrorists at mosque.
  • Steve Shore: Berlusconi Defeated 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: General]

While investigating these matters, three journalists noted the following facts:
.
  • Mediobanca's annual report about the 10 biggest Italian companies showed that, in 1992, Berlusconi's media and finance group Fininvest had about 7,140 billion lire of debts, 8,193 billion lire of assets (with 35% of liquidity) and a net worth (that is, assets minus debts) of 1,053 billion lire.^ Once told about Berlusconi’s misery, the Italian public learns more about its leader’s conspiracy theories: "We are kept from governing.

    ^ "In the eyes of the people Berlusconi is a winner," says Vittorio Sgarbi, a show moderator in one of Fininvest’s stations in an interview with L’Espresso (10.12.1993, 57).

    ^ Most helpful to bring out Fininvest’s -- that’s the name of Berlusconi’s company -- newest "product" (himself as a candidate) was of course his own advertising agency, Publitalia.

    The asset-debt ratio represented a patrimonial situation bordering on bankruptcy..July 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]
  • Between 1992 and 1993, Fininvest was investigated several times by prosecutors in Milan, Turin and Rome.^ Jetting around between Rome and Milan, Berlusconi is always seen in action.

    .The investigations regarded: alleged bribes (to political parties and public officials with the aim of getting contracts), alleged fake invoicing by Publitalia, the financing of political congresses and abuse of television frequencies.
  • On the other hand Bruno Vespa noticed that "In January 1994, Silvio Berlusconi was under no proceedings.^ Silvio Berlusconi’s Empire in 1994 .

    ^ Earlier in the evening Berlusconi had received a rock star’s welcome at a rally to mark the opening of public membership to the People of Freedom party.
    • BREAKING >>> Berlusconi Bloodied at Rally - Guy Fawkes' blog 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC order-order.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And of course, Forza Italia, Berlusconi’s party, was all new, because it was designed more like a fan club than like a political movement.

    .Two members of the staff from the Ministry of the Finances were charged to be corrupted for a minor episode by a Fininvest manager, but the accusation would have later fallen.^ Although his brother and other Fininvest executives are charged with corruption Silvio Berlusconi knows from nothing.

    .Aldo Brancher, who was working with Fininvest at the time, was charged for having financed some stands at the "Feste dell'Unità" and "L'Avanti!", and he would have been declared fully not guilty only in 2004. Paolo Berlusconi [Silvio Berlusconi's brother] was instead arrested [...] after the Cavaliere went into politics."^ In the summer, things get heavy for the prime minister: the "Mani Pulite" group adds Berlusconi’s Fininvest to its suspects list, and Berlusconi’s brother Paolo is accused of having paid at least some $150.000 bribes.

    ^ To hide his conflicts of interest between political and economic power, Berlusconi puts his old friend, Fede Confalonieri, in charge of Fininvest and officially resigns as an executive.

    ^ Berlusconi, who worked as a crooner on a cruise liner in his student days, would himself give voice.
    • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    .After having decided to enter the political arena, Berlusconi was investigated for forty different inquests in less than two years.^ It’s a strategy to display his sexual power -- Berlusconi is 58 years old when he enters the political stage -- and to hide his real age.

    ^ Less abstractly, Berlusconi dominates politics and the media in a society fascinated by both and in which, largely because of his own efforts, the two overlap to a troubling extent.
    • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ In this mix of ancient Greek mythology and American wild-west culture, Berlusconi is portrayed as an adventurous guy who enters the political arena to follow his need to discover new realms.

    [38]

Bettino Craxi

Berlusconi's career as an entrepreneur is also often questioned by his detractors. .The allegations made against him generally include suspicions about the extremely fast increase of his activity as a construction entrepreneur in years 1961-63, hinting at the possibility that in those years he received money from unknown and possibly illegal sources.^ Thus, it’s no wonder that Berlusconi changes roles once again, now playing the victim of a conspiracy made up against him by the domestic and foreign press.

.These accusations are regarded by Berlusconi and his supporters as empty slander, trying to undermine Berlusconi's reputation of a self-made man.^ These are important parts of Berlusconi’s self-promotion as well.

^ And "since the hero gains his reputation through the 'deed,' he is condemned to be successful" (ibid., 49), which is exactly what Berlusconi, the man of success, built on from the beginning.

^ This "self-made man" image is closely related to the Biblical story of David versus Goliath.

Frequently cited by opponents are also events dating to the 1980s, including supposed "favour exchanges" between Berlusconi and Bettino Craxi, the former Socialist prime minister and leader of the Italian Socialist Party convicted in 1994 for various corruption charges.The Milan magistrates who indicted and successfully convicted Mr. Craxi in their "Clean Hands" investigation laid bare an entrenched system in which businessmen paid more than hundreds of millions of dollars to political parties or individual politicians in exchange for sweetheart deals with Italian state companies and the government itself.[39] Berlusconi acknowledges a personal friendship with Craxi.

Legislative changes

.On some occasions, which raised a strong upheaval in the Italian political opposition, laws passed by the Berlusconi administration have effectively delayed ongoing trials on him.^ Again, this can be seen as a part of the strong bind between symbolic politics and advertising that Berlusconi’s promotional mix established.

Relevant examples are the law reducing punishment for all cases of false accounting and the law on legitimate suspicion, which allowed defendants to request their cases to be moved to another court if they believe that the local judges are biased against them. .7, 8 Because of these legislative actions, political opponents accuse Berlusconi of passing these laws on the purpose of protecting himself from legal charges.^ And of course, Forza Italia, Berlusconi’s party, was all new, because it was designed more like a fan club than like a political movement.

^ To hide his conflicts of interest between political and economic power, Berlusconi puts his old friend, Fede Confalonieri, in charge of Fininvest and officially resigns as an executive.

^ Less abstractly, Berlusconi dominates politics and the media in a society fascinated by both and in which, largely because of his own efforts, the two overlap to a troubling extent.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.An enquiry realized by the newspaper "La Repubblica" sustained that Berlusconi passed 17 different laws which have advantaged himself;[40] Berlusconi and his allies, on the other hand, maintain that such laws are consistent with everyone's right to a rapid and just trial, and with the principle of presumption of innocence (garantismo); furthermore, they claim that Berlusconi is being subjected to a political "witch hunt", orchestrated by certain (allegedly left-wing) judges 11.^ It’s a strategy to display his sexual power -- Berlusconi is 58 years old when he enters the political stage -- and to hide his real age.

^ Berlusconi is not only a very honorable business man, he also claims that he has built his empire with his own hands.

^ In the 1960s, Murray Edelman described the divide existing in political reality as being that of the layer of presentation as a spectacle for the voter on the one hand, and the layer of performance of specific political means through concrete acts on the other.

.For such reasons, Berlusconi and his government have an ongoing quarrel with the Italian judiciary, which reached its peak in 2003 when Berlusconi commented to a foreign journalist that judges are "mentally disturbed" and "anthropologically different from the rest of the human race", remarks that he later claimed he meant to be directed to specific judges only, and of a humorous nature12.^ Once told about Berlusconi’s misery, the Italian public learns more about its leader’s conspiracy theories: "We are kept from governing.

^ In the beginning, Berlusconi carefully hid his debts, and later on his image as a successful guy was pretty strong, putting him above such simple criticism.

.More seriously, the Berlusconi administration has long been planning a judiciary reform intended to limit the flexibility currently enjoyed by judges and magistrates in their decision-making, but which, according to its critics, will instead limit the magistrature's independence, by de facto subjecting the judiciary to the executive's control.^ Berlusconi’s contest looks more like a war campaign against Italy’s worst enemies than like a subject-oriented confrontation with a political adversary.

^ Once off his winning streak, Berlusconi drew more and more critics.

^ However, the more Berlusconi pathetically stresses his "serious" roles at the end the more the audience feels the melodramatic vibes.

This reform has met almost unanimous dissent from the Italian judges 13, 14 and, after three years of debate and struggle, was passed by the Italian parliament in December 2004, but was immediately vetoed by the Italian President, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 15, who said some of the passed laws were "clearly unconstitutional".
Berlusconi has also been indicted in Spain for charges of tax fraud and violation of anti-trust laws regarding the private Television network Telecinco, but his status as a member of the European Parliament allowed him to gain immunity from prosecution until 2005.16 All the accused have been acquitted by the Spanish "Corte de Casacion" in July 2008.[41][42]
.During the night hours between March 5 and March 6, 2010, Berlusconi-led Italy's government passed a decree interpretating the electoral law so as to let the PDL candidate run for governor in Lazio after she had failed to properly register for the elections.^ Let’s have a look at how Berlusconi slips into his new role as a leader of the government.

^ Italy calls April election with Berlusconi in lead .
  • IFES Election Guide - Country Profile: Italy - Elections 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.electionguide.org [Source type: News]

^ Rise and fall are closely related in the Mediterranean, and the people who voted for Berlusconi in March also sent him back home after he failed to live up to his promises.

.The Italian Constitution states that electoral procedures can only be changed in Parliament, and must not ne changed by governmental decree.^ Not that on any Climate research grant application, one must state what part of Climate change you are going to prove and what the negative impact of that change is on mankind.
  • BREAKING >>> Berlusconi Bloodied at Rally - Guy Fawkes' blog 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC order-order.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Italy's President, whose endorsement of the decree was required by law, said amid much controversy that the measure taken by the government may not violate the Constitution.^ Posted: 05/17/2006 Italy's incoming Prime Minister Romano Prodi names his new government after giving a list of ministers to the president.
  • IFES Election Guide - Country Profile: Italy - Elections 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.electionguide.org [Source type: News]

[43][44]

Alleged links to the Mafia

.Silvio Berlusconi has never been tried on charges relating to the Mafia, although several Mafia turncoats have stated that Berlusconi had connections with the Sicilian criminal association.^ Although his brother and other Fininvest executives are charged with corruption Silvio Berlusconi knows from nothing.

.The claims arise mostly from the hiring of Vittorio Mangano, charged for Mafia association, as a gardener and stable-man at Berlusconi's Villa San Martino in Arcore, a small town near Milan.^ Thus, even the cult figure Berlusconi, who is surrounded by the riddles of his own advancement, sometimes gladly descends from his Olympic villa at Arcore to his people.

^ In the summer of 2008, he and a friend sank €70,000 a month into renting a villa on the Sardinian Costa Smeralda, near Berlusconi's.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Berlusconi is not only a very honorable business man, he also claims that he has built his empire with his own hands.

It was Berlusconi's friend Marcello Dell'Utri (convicted of extortion in association with Cosa Nostra in 2004) who introduced Mangano to Berlusconi in 1973.[45][46] Berlusconi denied any ties to the Mafia. Marcello Dell'Utri even stated that the Mafia did not exist at all.
.Heated debate on this issue emerged again in 2004 when Dell'Utri, the manager of Berlusconi's publishing company Publitalia '80 and a Forza Italia senator was sentenced to nine years by a Palermo court on charge of "external association to the Mafia",[46][47] a sentence describing Dell'Utri as a mediator between the economical interests of Berlusconi and members of the criminal organization.^ To hide his conflicts of interest between political and economic power, Berlusconi puts his old friend, Fede Confalonieri, in charge of Fininvest and officially resigns as an executive.

^ Bossi’s reluctance to subordinate the Lega Nord under Berlusconi’s Forza Italia was well known from the beginning of the game.

^ However, Berlusconi had no choice but to create a new product, the "Forza Italia," and to establish himself as the leader of the new movement by making use of his advertising and media power.

Berlusconi refused to comment on the sentence.
In 1996, a Mafia informer, Salvatore Cancemi, declared that Berlusconi and Dell'Utri were in direct contact with Salvatore Riina, head of the Sicilian Mafia in the 1980s and 90s. .Cancemi disclosed that Fininvest, through Marcello Dell'Utri and mafioso Vittorio Mangano, had paid Cosa Nostra 200 million lire (100 000 euro) annually.^ At the same time, he is the seventh biggest taxpayer in his city and declares an annual income of 304 million Lire.

The alleged contacts, according to Cancemi, were to lead to legislation favourable to Cosa Nostra, in particular the harsh 41-bis prison regime. .The underlying premise was that Cosa Nostra would support Berlusconi's Forza Italia party in return for political favours.^ Bossi’s reluctance to subordinate the Lega Nord under Berlusconi’s Forza Italia was well known from the beginning of the game.

^ The Forza-Italia lead "Pole of Freedom" -- that’s the name Berlusconi chose for his alliance with the Lega Nord and the Alleanza Nationale, two far right parties -- in his vision is the only way to defend the liberty of the Italians.

^ However, Berlusconi had no choice but to create a new product, the "Forza Italia," and to establish himself as the leader of the new movement by making use of his advertising and media power.

[48] After a two-year investigation, magistrates closed the inquiry without charges. They did not find evidence to corroborate Cancemi’s allegations. Similarly, a two-year investigation, also launched on evidence from Cancemi, into Berlusconi’s alleged association with the Mafia was closed in 1996.[45]
.According to yet another mafia turncoat, Antonino Giuffrè – arrested on 16 April 2002 – the Mafia turned to Berlusconi's Forza Italia party to look after the Mafia's interests, after the decline in the early 1990s of the ruling Christian Democrat party, whose leaders in Sicily looked after the Mafia's interests in Rome.^ Let’s have a look at how Berlusconi slips into his new role as a leader of the government.

^ Bossi’s reluctance to subordinate the Lega Nord under Berlusconi’s Forza Italia was well known from the beginning of the game.

^ The Forza-Italia lead "Pole of Freedom" -- that’s the name Berlusconi chose for his alliance with the Lega Nord and the Alleanza Nationale, two far right parties -- in his vision is the only way to defend the liberty of the Italians.

The Mafia's fall out with the Christian Democrats became clear when Salvo Lima was killed in March 1992. "The Lima murder marked the end of an era," Giuffrè told the court. ."A new era opened with a new political force on the horizon which provided the guarantees that the Christian Democrats were no longer able to deliver.^ Every day, new scandals make the headlines and the entire old political crew is either sent to prison or to forced retirement -- something no one thought possible anymore after decades of corruption.

.To be clear, that party was Forza Italia."^ And of course, Forza Italia, Berlusconi’s party, was all new, because it was designed more like a fan club than like a political movement.

^ Out of the blue, Forza Italia becomes the strongest party in the vote for parliament with 21 percent.

^ In November 1993, Forza Italia, the first virtual party totally designed by market researchers and tested with focus groups all over the country, is launched.

[49] Dell'Utri was the go-between on a range of legislative efforts to ease pressure on mafiosi in exchange for electoral support, according to Giuffrè. "Dell'Utri was very close to Cosa Nostra and a very good contact point for Berlusconi," he said.[50] .Mafia boss Bernardo Provenzano told Giuffrè that they "were in good hands" with Dell'Utri, who was a "serious and trustworthy person". Provenzano stated that the Mafia's judicial problems would be resolved within 10 years after 1992, thanks to the undertakings given by Forza Italia.^ Anonymous says: December 13, 2009 at 11:17 pm Enemies of the state all have mental problems do they not !
  • BREAKING >>> Berlusconi Bloodied at Rally - Guy Fawkes' blog 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC order-order.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46][49]
.Giuffrè also said that Berlusconi himself used to be in touch with Stefano Bontade, a top Mafia boss, in the mid 1970s.^ Nevertheless, Berlusconi uses the biblical image in order to sanctify himself in the end.

^ However, Berlusconi had no choice but to create a new product, the "Forza Italia," and to establish himself as the leader of the new movement by making use of his advertising and media power.

^ De Nicolo said "the atmosphere is so informal that after a bit I began shyly to [use the familiar form of 'you' with Berlusconi].
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.At the time Berlusconi still was just a wealthy real estate developer and started his private television empire.^ At that time Berlusconi feared for his empire as well.

^ The prime minister who swore to his innocence on the lives of his children at the same time condemned his political adversaries just to keep his power -- threre’s a real farce.

^ The real contest starts with a dramatic highlight in Berlusconi’s presentation.

.Bontade visited Berlusconi's villa in Arcore through his contact Vittorio Mangano.^ Thus, even the cult figure Berlusconi, who is surrounded by the riddles of his own advancement, sometimes gladly descends from his Olympic villa at Arcore to his people.

[51] Berlusconi's lawyer dismissed Giuffrè's testimony as "false" and an attempt to discredit the Prime Minister and his party. .Giuffrè said that other Mafia representatives who were in contact with Berlusconi included the Palermo Mafia bosses Filippo Graviano and Giuseppe Graviano.^ Lario, on the other hand, has gradually changed from a model partner into an avenging fury who could yet prove to be Berlusconi's nemesis.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ No mention of the current trial for links with the mafia (including the murder of two judges and several other people).
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Shortly afterwards, Began said, Tarantini "began to come along with other [female] friends instead of his wife, who moreover was pregnant".
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[52] The Graviano brothers allegedly treated directly with Berlusconi through the business-man Gianni Letta, somewhere between September/October 1993. The alleged pact with the Mafia fell apart in 2002. Cosa Nostra had achieved nothing.[53]
.Dell'Utri's lawyer, Enrico Trantino, dismissed Giuffrè’s allegations as an "anthology of hearsay". He said Giuffrè had perpetuated the trend that every new turncoat would attack Dell'Utri and the former Christian Democrat prime minister Giulio Andreotti in order to earn money and judicial privileges.^ After providing an explanation for their friendship that did not hold water, the prime minister announced he would make a statement to parliament.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Speculation about the prime minister's involvement with young women is hardly new.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The prime minister does not mince his words in his comments on the controversy," RAI's reporter said.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[51]
In October 2009, Gaspare Spatuzza, a Mafioso turned pentito in 2008, has confirmed Giuffrè statements. .Spatuzza testified that his boss Giuseppe Graviano had told him in 1994 that Berlusconi was bargaining with the Mafia, concerning a political-electoral agreement between Cosa Nostra and Berlusconi’s party Forza Italia.^ Yet when he himself entered politics, in 1994, he managed to bring off the remarkable trick of portraying himself to the electorate as the standard-bearer of a new Italy.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

Spatuzza said Graviano disclosed the information to him during a conversation in a bar Graviano owned in the upscale Via Veneto district of the Italian capital Rome. Dell'Utri was the intermediary, according to Spatuzza. Dell'Utri has dismissed Spatuzza's allegations as "nonsense". Berlusconi’s lawyer and MP for the PdL, Niccolò Ghedini said that "the statements given by Spatuzza about prime minister Berlusconi are baseless and can be in no way verified."[54]

Russia and Gazprom

Berlusconi has a warm relationship with Vladimir Putin.[55]
In November 2007 Italy’s state-owned energy company Eni signed an agreement with Russian state-owned Gazprom to build the controversial South Stream pipeline.[56] Investigating Italian parliament members discovered that Central Energy Italian Gas Holding (CEIGH), a part of the Centrex Group, was to play a major role in the lucrative agreement. Bruno Mentasti-Granelli, a close friend of Berlusconi, owned 33 percent of CEIGH. Italian parliament blocked the contract and accused Berlusconi of having a personal interest in the Eni-Gazprom agreement.[56][57]

The Economist

.One of Berlusconi's strongest critics in the media outside Italy is the British weekly The Economist (nicknamed by Berlusconi "The Ecommunist"), which in its issue of the 26 April 2001 carried a title on its front cover, 'Why Silvio Berlusconi is unfit to lead Italy'.[58] The war of words between Berlusconi and The Economist has gained notoriety, with Berlusconi taking the publication to court in Rome and The Economist publishing letters against him.^ At a TV awards ceremony, Berlusconi gestured towards one of his MPs, a former topless model, Mara Carfagna, and declared to the other guests: " Take a look at her!
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Yet another issue of public interest, and one that has grown in importance as the affair has unfolded, is what it reveals about Berlusconi's attitude to women.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Berlusconi's plan to turn largely unqualified young women into lawmakers is just one of several issues of public interest in the affair.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[59] .The newspaper claimed that the documentation contained in its article proves that Berlusconi is 'unfit' for office[60] because of his numerous conflicts of interest.^ Interesting article, though it seems totally preoccupied with the aspect of Berlusconi's (alleged) sexual proclivities, promiscuities and depravities.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

Berlusconi claimed the article contained "a series of old accusations" that was an "insult to truth and intelligence".
.According to The Economist's findings, Berlusconi, while Prime Minister of Italy, retained effective control of 90% of all national television broadcasting.^ Berlusconi does want to avoid stepping down from his prime ministry by all means.

^ Italy's billionaire prime minister rents the second floor and part of the first from the family that gives the building its name.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Silvio Berlusconi assaulted in Milan 13 Dec 2009: Italian prime minister leaves hospital in Milan four days after being hit in the face .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

This figure included stations he owns directly as well as those over which he had indirect control by dint of his position as Prime Minister and his ability to influence the choice of the management bodies of these stations. .The Economist has also claimed that the Italian Prime Minister is corrupted and self-serving.^ Silvio Berlusconi assaulted in Milan 13 Dec 2009: Italian prime minister leaves hospital in Milan four days after being hit in the face .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ In 2004, he became the leader of the Republic's longest-serving government and earlier this year its longest-serving prime minister.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Another recording appears to confirm something claimed by both Berlusconi and Tarantini – that the prime minister was unaware that any of the women were paid.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

A key journalist for The Economist, David Lane, has set out many of these charges in his book Berlusconi's Shadow.[2]
.Lane points out that Berlusconi has not defended himself in court against the main charges, but has relied upon political and legal manipulations, most notably by changing the statute of limitation to prevent charges being completed in the first place.^ Several of the disappointed contenders complained bitterly at being dropped after having been promised a place on the slate presented by Berlusconi's party.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Berlusconi himself is destined for a pink marble and granite sarcophagus in the centre of the main burial chamber.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

In order to publicly prove the truth of the documented accusations contained in their articles, the newspaper has publicly challenged Berlusconi to sue The Economist for libel. .Berlusconi did so,[61] losing versus The Economist, and being charged for all the trial costs on 5 September 2008, when the Court in Milan issued a judgment rejecting all Mr Berlusconi's claims and sentenced him to compensate for legal expenses.^ This time the accusations surrounding Berlusconi could land him in court, reports John Hooper .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

Influence on the media

.Berlusconi's extensive control over the media has been widely criticised by both analysts[62] and press freedom organisations, who allege Italy's media has limited freedom of expression.^ Less abstractly, Berlusconi dominates politics and the media in a society fascinated by both and in which, largely because of his own efforts, the two overlap to a troubling extent.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ In Italy, party leaders have total control over who stands for election, and with what→ likelihood of success.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

The Freedom of the Press 2004 Global Survey, an annual study issued by the American organization Freedom House, downgraded Italy's ranking from 'Free' to 'Partly Free' [63] due to Berlusconi's influence over RAI, a ranking which, in "Western Europe" was shared only with Turkey (as of 2005). .Reporters Without Borders states that in 2004, "The conflict of interests involving prime minister Silvio Berlusconi and his vast media empire was still not resolved and continued to threaten news diversity".[64] In April 2004, the International Federation of Journalists joined the criticism, objecting to the passage of a law vetoed by Carlo Azeglio Ciampi in 2003, which critics believe is designed to protect Berlusconi's reported 90% control of the Italian national media.^ Michael Moore: 'Democracy is not a spectator sport' 7 Sep 2009: Michael Moore pours scorn on Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi while promoting his new documentary, Capitalism: A Love Story, at the Venice film festival .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Silvio Berlusconi assaulted in Milan 13 Dec 2009: Italian prime minister leaves hospital in Milan four days after being hit in the face .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ And Sabina Began, the actress who organised the banquet on Sardinia at which Berlusconi met Tarantini, has a tattoo of a butterfly on her right foot – a symbol, she told the Italian edition of Vanity Fair, of her "absolutely platonic" friendship with the prime minister.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[3]
Berlusconi's influence over RAI became evident when in Sofia, Bulgaria he expressed his views on journalists Enzo Biagi and Michele Santoro,[65] and comedian Daniele Luttazzi. .Berlusconi said that they "use television as a criminal means of communication". They lost their jobs as a result.^ De Nicolo said "the atmosphere is so informal that after a bit I began shyly to [use the familiar form of 'you' with Berlusconi].
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[66] This statement was called by critics "Editto Bulgaro".
.The TV broadcasting of a satirical programmme called RAIot was censored in November 2003 after the comedienne Sabina Guzzanti, made outspoken criticism of the Berlusconi media empire.^ At an opposition rally in Rome, a satirist, Sabina Guzzanti, suggested that Carfagna owed her job to a sexual involvement with Berlusconi.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[67] .Mediaset, one of Berlusconi's companies, sued RAI over Guzzanti's program, demanding 20 million euros for "damages"; in November 2003 the show was cancelled by the president of RAI, Lucia Annunziata.^ With Berlusconi in office, this is true not just of Mediaset, but of the state-controlled RAI. .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

The details of the event were made into a Michael Moore-style documentary called Viva Zapatero!, which was produced by Guzzanti.
.Mediaset, Berlusconi's television group, has stated that it uses the same criteria as the public (state-owned) television RAI in assigning a proper visibility to all the most important political parties and movements (the so-called 'Par Condicio') - which has been since often disproved.^ With Berlusconi in office, this is true not just of Mediaset, but of the state-controlled RAI. .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ December 13, 2009 at 7:49 pm Berlusconi owns all the msn in Italy, Brown owns State broadcasting in the U.K. and it seems every other institution including the Met office and University research departments.
  • BREAKING >>> Berlusconi Bloodied at Rally - Guy Fawkes' blog 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC order-order.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "He applies the same criteria to politics as would be applied to a TV show."
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[68][69] In March 2006, on the television channel Rai Tre, in a television interview with Lucia Annunziata during his talk show, In 1/2 h, he stormed out of the studio because of a disagreement with the host journalist regarding the economic consequences of his government.[70] .In November 2007, allegations of news manipulation caused the departure from RAI of Berlusconi's personal assistant.^ On 29 April, the evening news on RAI 1 opened with a report of Berlusconi's irate denial of the insinuations levelled at him in the Noemi Letizia affair.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Berlusconi’s departure to the New World of politics is associated with Greek mythology.

[71]
Enrico Mentana, the news anchor long seen as a guarantor of Canale 5’s independence, walked out in April 2008, saying that he no longer felt “at home in a group that seems like an electoral (campaign) committee” [72]
.On 24 June 2009, Silvio Berlusconi during the Confindustria young members congress in Santa Margherita Ligure, Italy has invited the advertisers to interrupt or boycott the advertising contracts with the magazines and newspapers published by Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso,[73] in particular the newspaper la Repubblica and the newsmagazine L'espresso, calling the publishing group "shameless",[73] because is fueling the economic crisis speaking more and more about it and accusing also to make a subversive attack against him to replace with an "un-elected".[74] The publishing group has announced to begin legal proceedings against Berlusconi, to protect the image and the interests of the group.^ Berlusconi is an amateur in politics, but that makes him much more charming.

^ In April of the same year photographs were published showing Berlusconi in the grounds of his sumptuous Sardinian villa with a posse of young women.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ There is no one who could make this assurance with more credibility than" himself (L’Espresso, 11.3.1994, 45).

[74]
On 12 October 2009, Silvio Berlusconi during the Confindustria Monza and Brianza members congress, has again invited the industrialists present to a "widespread rebellion" against a "newspaper that hadn't any limits in discrediting the government and the country and indoctrinating foreign newspapers".[75]
.In October 2009, Reporters Without Borders secretary-general Jean-François Julliard declared that Berlusconi "is on the verge of being added to our list of Predators of Press Freedom", which would be a first for a European leader.^ Silvio Berlusconi assaulted in Milan 13 Dec 2009: Italian prime minister leaves hospital in Milan four days after being hit in the face .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Closing this window without pressing "Report" will result in your words being lost.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Berlusconi thereby opens up the "fight between the Pole of Freedom and the cartel of leftists" and declares a "holy war" on the left (L’Espresso, 7.1.1994).

He also added that Italy will probably be ranked last in the European Union in the upcoming edition of the RWB press freedom index.[76]

Conflicts of interest

.To better understand the controversies over a conflict of interest between Berlusconi's personal business empire and his political office, it is necessary to look at the structure of governmental control over State television.^ With Berlusconi in office, this is true not just of Mediaset, but of the state-controlled RAI. .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ To hide his conflicts of interest between political and economic power, Berlusconi puts his old friend, Fede Confalonieri, in charge of Fininvest and officially resigns as an executive.

^ Berlusconi is not only a very honorable business man, he also claims that he has built his empire with his own hands.

Under the law, the Speakers of the two Houses appoint the RAI president and board of directors. .In practice, the decision is a political one, generally resulting in some opposition representatives becoming directors, while top managerial posts go to people sympathetic to the government.^ "Some call this demagogy, the art to imitate the simplicity of ordinary people to propel one’s own popularity" (Schwartzenberg 70-81).

It was normal to have two directors and the president belonging to the parliamentary majority, and two directors who are opposition supporters. A parliamentary supervisory commission also exists, whose president is traditionally a member of the opposition. During the tenure of Mr. Baldassarre as RAI president, the two opposition directors and the one closer to the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats left over internal disagreements that mainly regarded censorship issues. RAI continued to be run by a two-man team (mockingly nicknamed by the opposition the Japanese after the Japanese soldiers who kept fighting on in the Pacific Ocean after the end of World War II).
.The former Italian Left coalition under Prodi was often criticized for failing to pass a law to regulate the potential conflict of interest that might arise between media ownership and the holding of political office, despite having governed Italy for an entire legislature from 1996 to 2001. In 2002, Luciano Violante, a prominent member of the Left, said in a speech in Parliament: "Honourable Anedda, I invite you to ask the honourable Berlusconi, because he certainly knows that he received a full guarantee in 1994, when the government changed — that TV stations would not be touched.^ "As I reached Berlusconi, he said excitedly: 'Did you touch her?
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ His first government, in 1994, was a disaster, though – wracked by fierce controversy over the conflicts of interest with his media ownership.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Critics also stressed his conflicts of interest between private media power and state power from the beginning.

He knows it and the Honourable Letta knows it."[77]
.The authors of the book Inciucio26 cite this sentence as evidence for the idea that the Left made a deal with Berlusconi in 1994, in which a promise was made not to honour a law in the Constitutional Court of Italy that would have required Berlusconi to give up one of his three TV channels in order to uphold pluralism and competition.^ At a TV awards ceremony, Berlusconi gestured towards one of his MPs, a former topless model, Mara Carfagna, and declared to the other guests: " Take a look at her!
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ That’s a tricky game for Berlusconi who is more or less "the best example for an entrepreneur" who up with the old regime (Braun 1994, 164).

^ Everybody knew how the system functioned, but Berlusconi gives the impression of a new start without any efforts" (Wochenpost 13/1994).

.According to the authors, this would be an explanation of why the Left, despite having won the 1996 elections, didn't pass a law to solve the conflicts of interest between media ownership and politics.^ To hide his conflicts of interest between political and economic power, Berlusconi puts his old friend, Fede Confalonieri, in charge of Fininvest and officially resigns as an executive.

^ His first government, in 1994, was a disaster, though – wracked by fierce controversy over the conflicts of interest with his media ownership.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Critics also stressed his conflicts of interest between private media power and state power from the beginning.

.Controversy concerning Berlusconi's conflicts of interest are normally centred around the use of his media and marketing power for political gain.^ Less abstractly, Berlusconi dominates politics and the media in a society fascinated by both and in which, largely because of his own efforts, the two overlap to a troubling extent.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ His first government, in 1994, was a disaster, though – wracked by fierce controversy over the conflicts of interest with his media ownership.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ At the last European election, Berlusconi was intending to use that power to send what Libero, one of the papers closest to his party, termed "a troupe of showgirls" to Strasburg.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

However, there is also controversy regarding his financial gains. .When RAI was being run by a two-man team appointed by the presidents of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate (both in Berlusconi's coalition), the state broadcaster increased its viewers, but lost a significant share of its advertising revenue to the rival Mediaset group, owned and run by the Berlusconi family, which has led to large personal gain.^ With Berlusconi in office, this is true not just of Mediaset, but of the state-controlled RAI. .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Less abstractly, Berlusconi dominates politics and the media in a society fascinated by both and in which, largely because of his own efforts, the two overlap to a troubling extent.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Berlusconi is not only a very honorable business man, he also claims that he has built his empire with his own hands.

[citation needed]
His government has passed some laws that have shortened statutory terms for tax fraud. Berlusconi responded to critics by saying that he would not take advantage of these himself, but later did..April 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Romano Prodi, who defeated Berlusconi in 2006, claimed that these were ad personam laws, meant to solve Berlusconi's problems and defend his interests.^ Noemi Letizia, the 18-year-old who became famous for saying that she called Berlusconi " papi" ("daddy"), told Corriere del Mezzogiorno in April that she wanted to be a showgirl, but added: "Politics interests me, too."
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[78][79][80][81]

Remarks on western civilization and Islam

On 26 September 2001, after the 11 September 2001 attacks in New York, USA, Berlusconi said: "We must be aware of the superiority of our civilisation, a system that has guaranteed well-being, respect for human rights and - in contrast with Islamic countries - respect for religious and political rights, a system that has as its value understanding of diversity and tolerance."[82][83] This declaration caused an uproar, not only in the Arab and Muslim world, but also all around Europe, including Italy.[84][84] .Subsequently Berlusconi told the press: "We are aware of the crucial role of moderate Arab countries...^ "One evening", he told police, "prime minister Berlusconi introduced me to [the junior minister in charge of civil protection] whom I met subsequently."
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Thus, it’s no wonder that Berlusconi changes roles once again, now playing the victim of a conspiracy made up against him by the domestic and foreign press.

I am sorry that words that have been misunderstood have offended the sensitivity of my Arab and Muslim friends."[85]

Wiretaps and accusations of corruption through the exploitation of prostitution

.In December 2007 the audio recording of a phone call between Berlusconi, then leader of the opposition parties, and Agostino Saccà (general director of RAI) were published by the magazine L'espresso and caused a scandal in several media.^ Several of the disappointed contenders complained bitterly at being dropped after having been promised a place on the slate presented by Berlusconi's party.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Berlusconi thereby opens up the "fight between the Pole of Freedom and the cartel of leftists" and declares a "holy war" on the left (L’Espresso, 7.1.1994).

^ And Berlusconi according to L’Espresso even is a leader "in the subject of Applied Demagogy" (14.1.1994, 38).

[86] .The wiretap was being part of an investigation by the Public Prosecutor Office of Naples, where Berlusconi was investigated for corruption.^ In Puglia , the region of which Bari is the capital, prosecutors have launched no less than four investigations in seven years into alleged corruption in the health sector.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[87] .In the phone call, Saccà expresses words of impassioned political support to Berlusconi and criticises the behaviour of Berlusconi's allies.^ In his last words he puts the blame on Bossi whom he calls the "embodiment of a political destroyer" ruining the image of the country.

.Berlusconi urges Saccà to broadcast a telefilm series which was strongly advocated by his ally Umberto Bossi.^ The catastrophe was unavoidable when his own fellow, Umberto Bossi, the leader of the Lega Nord and a member of Berlusconi’s government, saw a chance to get rid of the tyrant and withdrew his support.

^ And Umberto Bossi attacks his "ally" again, telling everybody who wants to listen that the country is "close to ruin" (cf.

Saccà laments that many people have spread rumors on this agreement causing problems to him. .Then Berlusconi asks Saccà to find a job in RAI for a young woman explicitly telling him that this woman would serve as an asset in a secret exchange with a senator of the majority who would help him to cause Prodi, with his administration, to fall.^ There is the RAI that condemns his work; there is the press that doesn’t leave out any opportunity to criticize; and there are the represents of justice who want to confront him with old stories.

^ Berlusconi, who worked as a crooner on a cruise liner in his student days, would himself give voice.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Rise and fall are closely related in the Mediterranean, and the people who voted for Berlusconi in March also sent him back home after he failed to live up to his promises.

[88] .After the publication of these wiretaps, Berlusconi has been accused by other politicians and by some journalists of political corruption through the exploitation of prostitution.^ Using all these roles that are well known to the Average Joe, and not only appealing to intellectuals, Berlusconi laid the foundation for a new phase of symbolic politics.

^ Berlusconi’s move into politics is accompanied by some selective changes in his repertoire.

^ Although his brother and other Fininvest executives are charged with corruption Silvio Berlusconi knows from nothing.

.Berlusconi said, in his own defense: "In the entertainment world everybody knows that, in certain situations in RAI TV you work only if you prostitute yourself or if you are leftist.^ And once in power, Berlusconi unites his own interests with the interests of the state in the way of an absolute monarch: One of his first decrees pushes the heads of the public TV station, RAI to resign.

^ "As I reached Berlusconi, he said excitedly: 'Did you touch her?
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ He is the only man capable of working on "a new Italian miracle" he tells the TV viewers in his video statement on "Berlusconi Day" and everybody can read this message from billboards all over the country.

I have intervened on behalf of some personalities who are not leftists and have been completely set apart by RAI TV."[89]

Right-to-die case

.After the family of Eluana Englaro (who had been comatose for 17 years) succeeded in having her right to die recognized by the judges and getting doctors to start the process of allowing her to die in the way established by the court, Berlusconi issued a decree to stop the doctor from letting her die.^ Hold an auction for the right to punch in the face anyone who has held Ministerial posts in the last twelve years, it would dwarf the 3G Auctions.
  • BREAKING >>> Berlusconi Bloodied at Rally - Guy Fawkes' blog 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC order-order.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Stating that, "This is murder. I would be failing to rescue her. I'm not a Pontius Pilate", Berlusconi went on to defend his decision by claiming that she was "in the condition to have babies",[90] arguing that comatose women were still subject to menstruation.

Prostitution accusations and divorce case

Noemi Letizia at the 2009 Venice Film Festival.
.At the end of April 2009, Veronica Lario wrote an open letter expressing her anger at Berlusconi's choice of young, attractive female candidates—some with little or no political experience—to represent the party in the 2009 European Parliament elections.^ And of course, Forza Italia, Berlusconi’s party, was all new, because it was designed more like a fan club than like a political movement.

^ However, Berlusconi had no choice but to create a new product, the "Forza Italia," and to establish himself as the leader of the new movement by making use of his advertising and media power.

^ Berlusconi’s political adventure is no exception to the rule.

.Berlusconi demanded a public apology, claiming that for the third time his wife had "done this to me in the middle of an election campaign", and stated that there was little prospect of his marriage continuing.^ She demanded – and received – a public apology.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ When Berlusconi first came to the attention of the public, he seemed the typical successful businessman with a trophy wife.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[91] .On 3 May, Veronica Lario announced she was filing for divorce following her husband's attendance at a girl's 18th birthday party in Casoria, province of Naples.^ Her announcement coincided with the discovery that Berlusconi had attended the 18th birthday party in Naples of an aspiring actress and model, Noemi Letizia.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[92][93] .She claimed that Berlusconi had not attended his own sons' 18th birthday parties, and that she "cannot remain with a man who consorts with minors" and "is not well".[94][95] Noemi Letizia, the girl in question, gave interviews to the Italian press, revealing that she calls Berlusconi "papi" ("daddy"), that they often spent time together in the past, and that Berlusconi would take care of her career as showgirl or politician, whichever she opted to pursue.^ Her announcement coincided with the discovery that Berlusconi had attended the 18th birthday party in Naples of an aspiring actress and model, Noemi Letizia.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ She claimed she called Berlusconi "papi" or "Daddy" and was photographed sporting a gold and diamond necklace the premier reportedly gave her as a birthday gift.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ "Papi Silvio will take care of it."
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[96]
.In the following days Silvio Berlusconi gave explanations about the incident to press[97][98] and television,[99][100] swearing that he knew the girl only through her father and that he never met her alone without her parents.^ Silvio Berlusconi assaulted in Milan 13 Dec 2009: Italian prime minister leaves hospital in Milan four days after being hit in the face .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Viewers must have wondered what on earth the reporter was on about, since the previous night's bulletin had made no mention of Berlusconi's presence at the girl's birthday celebration.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ "The war that Berlusconi starts with all his people, technical equipment and programs against the public television is a total one" (Guarino/Ruggeri 1994, 99).

[101] .However, on 14 May, newspaper la Repubblica published an article showing the many inconsistencies and contradictions arisen so far and formally asking Berlusconi to answer ten questions in order to clarify the situation.^ In April of the same year photographs were published showing Berlusconi in the grounds of his sumptuous Sardinian villa with a posse of young women.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ In June, a Spanish newspaper published paparazzi photographs showing naked and semi-naked guests at Villa Certosa, Berlusconi's retreat on Sardinia.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[101][102]
.Ten days later, Letizia's ex-boyfriend Luigi Flaminio claimed that Berlusconi contacted the girl personally in October 2008, impressed by her "purity" and "angelic face" after seeing pictures of her in a photobook, brought to him by the journalist Emilio Fede (director of TG4).^ Berlusconi doesn’t get tired in stresssing that it wasn’t the network of good old friends that brought him to power.

^ Thus, L’Espresso puts a "photoshopped" picture on one of its covers showing Berlusconi in the robe of Ludwig XIV under the headline "The state, that’s him" (13.5.1995).

^ He is celebrated as the big godfather and n some bars you can even find pictures on the wall with the face of Berlusconi, an honor normally only granted to the president of state.

.Flaminio also mentioned that she spent a week without her parents at Berlusconi's Sardinian villa around New Year's Eve 2009,[103] a fact confirmed later by her mother.^ In April of the same year photographs were published showing Berlusconi in the grounds of his sumptuous Sardinian villa with a posse of young women.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ In the summer of 2008, he and a friend sank €70,000 a month into renting a villa on the Sardinian Costa Smeralda, near Berlusconi's.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Everybody knew how the system functioned, but Berlusconi gives the impression of a new start without any efforts" (Wochenpost 13/1994).

[104] .Photographs of the event taken by a paparazzo were confiscated by the Prosecutor's Office of Rome for violation of privacy[105] but a selection of those photos was published in El País on 4 June.^ In June, a Spanish newspaper published paparazzi photographs showing naked and semi-naked guests at Villa Certosa, Berlusconi's retreat on Sardinia.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[106][107][108]
.On 28 May 2009, Silvio Berlusconi said that he never had "spicy" relations with Noemi Letizia, swearing also on his sons.^ Silvio Berlusconi may be on his way down.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Silvio Berlusconi assaulted in Milan 13 Dec 2009: Italian prime minister leaves hospital in Milan four days after being hit in the face .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Her announcement coincided with the discovery that Berlusconi had attended the 18th birthday party in Naples of an aspiring actress and model, Noemi Letizia.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

He said also if had any such thing like this occurred, he would have resigned immediately.[109]
.On 17 June 2009, Patrizia D'Addario, a 42-year old escort and retired actress[110] from Bari, Italy, claimed that she had been recruited twice (by a common friend, who paid her 2000 Euros) in order to spend the evening, and once also the night with Berlusconi.^ Noemi Letizia, the 18-year-old who became famous for saying that she called Berlusconi " papi" ("daddy"), told Corriere del Mezzogiorno in April that she wanted to be a showgirl, but added: "Politics interests me, too."
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Patrizia D'Addario claims to have come away from her night in the prime minister's bedroom with a piece of costume jewellery – and a promise that Berlusconi would get her planning permission for a building scheme.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Patrizia D'Addario, who admits she is a prostitute, claims she, too, was heading for Strasburg until Veronica Lario stepped in.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[111] Magistrates in Bari are investigating this case, since the common friend could be prosecuted for favouring prostitution.
Silvio Berlusconi denied any knowledge of D'Addario being a paid escort: "I have never paid a woman - he declared - I have never understood what satisfaction there is if the pleasure of conquest is absent".[112] He also accused an unspecified person of maneuvering and paying D'Addario (accusations which she vehemently denied).[113]
.Other young women have also described to the press the parties held in Berlusconi's Rome residence (Palazzo Grazioli):[114] while photos and transcripts of audio cassettes circulated widely in the press: these descriptions have raised, in particular, concerns about the lack of security measures and the uncontrolled access to the PM's residence.^ You can see at once that Palazzo Grazioli, which occupies an entire block near the Piazza Venezia , is no ordinary noble Roman residence.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ In April of the same year photographs were published showing Berlusconi in the grounds of his sumptuous Sardinian villa with a posse of young women.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Several of the women who visited Palazzo Grazioli said they came away with jewellery in the shape of a butterfly.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[115]
.On 26 June 2009, the "10 questions" to Berlusconi were reformulated by la Repubblica newspaper, and then frequently republished on it.^ Technomist says: December 13, 2009 at 10:26 pm I am wondering how the curse of Jonah is going to manifest himself after this latest trip to Afghanistan.
  • BREAKING >>> Berlusconi Bloodied at Rally - Guy Fawkes' blog 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC order-order.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[116] No answers were given, until 28 August 2009, when Berlusconi sued Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso, the owner company of the newspaper, and defined these ten questions as "defamatory" and "rhetorical".[117]
Berlusconi's lifestyle has raised eyebrows in Catholic circles, with vigorous criticism being expressed in particular by the newspaper Avvenire, owned by the Conferenza Episcopale Italiana (Conference of Italian Bishops). This was followed by the publication in the newspaper il Giornale (owned by the Berlusconi family) of details with regard to legal proceedings against the editor of Avvenire, Dino Boffo, which seemed to imply him for harassments case against the wife of his ex-partner.[118] Dino Boffo has always declared the details of proceeding as false, although hasn't denied the fact.[119]
After a period of tense exchanges and polemics, on 3 September 2009, Boffo resigned from his editorial position[120][121] and the assistant editor Marco Tarquinio became editor ad interim.[122]
On 22 September 2009, Silvio Berlusconi after a press conference declared that he has asked his ministers not to respond anymore to questions regarding "gossip". He has stated also that the Italian press should talk only about the "successes" of Italian Government in internal and foreign policies, adding also that the press now will be able only to ask questions such as "how many apartments will be given in L'Aquila", i.e. on his administration and not on gossip.[123]
During a contested[124][125] episode of AnnoZero on 1 October 2009, the journalist and presenter Michele Santoro has interviewed Patrizia D'Addario.[126] .She has stated she was contacted by Giampaolo Tarantini - a businessman from Bari - who already knew her and requested her presence to Palazzo Grazioli with "the President".[127] D'Addario also stated that XX1 knows that she was a paid escort.^ Several of the women who visited Palazzo Grazioli said they came away with jewellery in the shape of a butterfly.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Then there is the fact that, just before Tarantini began his visits to Palazzo Grazioli, Mara Carfagna tabled a bill to punish both prostitutes and their clients and pimps.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Those are among the products offered by a small firm in Bari run by Claudio Tarantini and his younger brother, Giampaolo.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[128]

Jokes, gestures and blunders

Berlusconi is notorious for his questionable sense of humour.
.In February 2002, at a European Union summit of foreign ministers, Berlusconi, who was present since the replacement of his previous foreign minister, Renato Ruggiero, had not yet been appointed, made a vulgar gesture (the "corna") behind the head of the Spanish foreign minister, Josep Piqué, intimating he was a cuckold during an official photo shoot.^ Viewers must have wondered what on earth the reporter was on about, since the previous night's bulletin had made no mention of Berlusconi's presence at the girl's birthday celebration.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The young entrepreneur made contact with the prime minister by getting himself invited to a dinner hosted by Berlusconi in honour of Roman Abramovich.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Lario, on the other hand, has gradually changed from a model partner into an avenging fury who could yet prove to be Berlusconi's nemesis.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

This is a common joke among Italian children, but many felt it was utterly out of place in an international meeting. He later explained that he "was just kidding", and was trying to create a relaxed atmosphere, that this sort of meeting was meant to "create friendship, cordiality, fondness and kind relationships" between the participants, and that he wanted to amuse a small group of Boy Scout bystanders.
.On 2 July 2003, one day after taking over the rotating presidency of the EU Council of Ministers, he was heavily criticised by the German SPD Member of the European Parliament Martin Schulz because of his domestic policy and his alleged links to the Mafia.^ As President of the European Council the student maoist Barroso, born in Portugal, should have hundreds of millions of mortal enemies.
  • BREAKING >>> Berlusconi Bloodied at Rally - Guy Fawkes' blog 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC order-order.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Berlusconi responded: "Mr Schulz, I know a movie producer in Italy who is making a movie about Nazi concentration camps. I will recommend you for the role of a Kapo. You are perfect for the part!". Responding to the shoutings that then came from the Socialist MEP backbenchers, Berlusconi insisted that he was only joking, but soon after accused Martin Schulz and others leftish MEPs to be "bad-willing tourists of democracy". His comparisons with the Nazis caused a brief cooling of Italy's relationship with Germany.[129]
In 2003, during an interview with Nicholas Farrell and Boris Johnson, then editor of The Spectator magazine, Berlusconi claimed that Mussolini "had been a benign dictator who did not murder opponents but sent them "on holiday".[130]
Pizza Berlusconi.
In mid-May 2005, while opening the European Food Safety Authority in Parma (preferred over a Finnish location, after Berlusconi made an assertion of Finns "not knowing what prosciutto is"), Berlusconi claimed that he had to "dust off my playboy skills" with the Finnish president, Tarja Halonen, to convince her to locate the EFSA in Parma. .This caused criticism from both Italy and Finland, with the Italian ambassador in Finland being summoned by the Finnish foreign minister.^ Silvio Berlusconi assaulted in Milan 13 Dec 2009: Italian prime minister leaves hospital in Milan four days after being hit in the face .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[131] .A minister of his cabinet later 'explained' the comment by saying that "anyone who had seen a picture of Halonen must have been aware that he had been joking". Before that, speaking to a group of Wall Street traders, he listed a series of reasons to invest in Italy.^ FrankFisher says: December 13, 2009 at 10:19 pm Y’know, I don’t I have ever seen anyone looking more stupid than that, ever.
  • BREAKING >>> Berlusconi Bloodied at Rally - Guy Fawkes' blog 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC order-order.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first of them was that "we have the most beautiful secretaries in the world". This resulted in uproar in Italy, where, for a day, female Members of Parliament took part in a cross-party protest.^ The parties, the women, the rumours - inside the world of Italy's billionaire prime minister .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Less than five years after appearing semi-nude in a men's magazine, she was a member of parliament and secretary of its constitutional affairs commission.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Over the prosciutto comment, the Finnish pizza chain Kotipizza later came back with a new variety of pizza called Pizza Berlusconi, using smoked reindeer as the topping.^ As far back as 1986, police investigating an associate listened in as he telephoned Berlusconi on New Year's Eve to find him in an ill humour.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

The pizza won first prize in America's Plate International pizza contest in March 2008.[132][133]
In March 2006, Berlusconi defended accusations he made that the "Communists used to eat children", by responding with claims that "... read the .Black Book of Communism and you will discover that in the communist China of Mao, they did not eat children, but had them boiled to fertilise the fields". He later admitted, "It was questionable irony ...^ For fucks sake, when did you ever see a black snowman!” .
  • BREAKING >>> Berlusconi Bloodied at Rally - Guy Fawkes' blog 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC order-order.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

because this joke is questionable. But I did not know how to restrain myself." His political opponent, Romano Prodi, told the press, "The damage caused to Italy by an insult to 1.3 billion people is by all means a considerable one", and that Berlusconi's comments were "unthinkable".[134] Berlusconi replied by gifting 1000 copies of the Black Book of Communism during one of his election rallies.[citation needed]
On 4 April 2006, less than a week before the upcoming political elections in Italy, during a speech given at the National Chamber for Trade, Berlusconi stated that he holds "too high esteem of the Italians' intelligence to think that there are so many coglioni (literally "testicles", a vulgar term often used about people considered stupid) around voting against their interest". He later apologized for the "rude but effective language".[135]
.At an awards dinner in January 2007, Berlusconi was quoted as saying, "If I wasn't already married, I would marry you right away," and "With you, I'd go anywhere" to Mara Carfagna, a representative of Forza Italia and former showgirl.^ At a TV awards ceremony, Berlusconi gestured towards one of his MPs, a former topless model, Mara Carfagna, and declared to the other guests: " Take a look at her!
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Four-eyed English Genius says: December 14, 2009 at 12:22 pm It would be against their attackers human rights!
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^ Sir William Waad says: December 13, 2009 at 9:29 pm Berlusconi took it pretty well, don’t you think ?
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.These flirtatious comments prompted his wife Veronica to demand an apology in a front-page letter to the Italian newspaper la Repubblica, one of Berlusconi's rival publications.^ She demanded – and received – a public apology.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Yet another issue of public interest, and one that has grown in importance as the affair has unfolded, is what it reveals about Berlusconi's attitude to women.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Berlusconi's plan to turn largely unqualified young women into lawmakers is just one of several issues of public interest in the affair.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

In a statement released through his political party, he begged for forgiveness and stated that he would "always protect [Veronica's] dignity."[136] Mara Carfagna is now serving under him as minister for Equal Opportunities.[137]
.In the run-up to the 2008 Italian general election, Berlusconi claimed that right-wing female politicians were better looking than their left-wing counterparts.^ Lorenzo says: December 14, 2009 at 12:58 am Note that Berlusconi is polling better than Obama.
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His remarks provoked an angry reaction from Italian centre-left parties, which accused him of being sexist. Berlusconi was quoted as saying that when he looked round Parliament, he found that female politicians from the right were "more beautiful" and that "The left has no taste, even when it comes to women".[138]
.During a televised encounter with voters on 10 April 2008 a young woman asked Silvio Berlusconi what the younger generation should do about the lack of secure jobs.^ In April of the same year photographs were published showing Berlusconi in the grounds of his sumptuous Sardinian villa with a posse of young women.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

He promptly suggested that she try to marry "the son of Berlusconi... with a smile like yours, you could try."[139]
.Since the 2008 general election, Berlusconi has already begun to court controversy at European level.^ At the last European election, Berlusconi was intending to use that power to send what Libero, one of the papers closest to his party, termed "a troupe of showgirls" to Strasburg.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The controversy over Berlusconi's relationship with Noemi Letizia had already erupted by then.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.He has publicly criticized the current composition of the Council of Ministers of the Spanish Government as being too 'pink' by virtue of the fact that it has (once the President of the Council, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, is counted) an equal number of men and women.^ After the Spanish prime minister, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, presented a cabinet in 2004 in which half the members were women, there was urgent discussion in Italy about how to increase the number of its female lawmakers and ministers.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ And an outcry over his appointment last year of Carfagna to be equal opportunities minister in his new government.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

He also stated that he doubted that such a composition would be possible in Italy given the "prevalence of men" in Italian politics.[140]
.At a joint press-conference at Villa La Certosa (17 April 2008) in Sardinia with the Russian president Vladimir Putin, a Russian journalist from Nezavisimaya Gazeta newspaper, Natalia Melikova, put a question to Putin, asking him if he intended divorcing his wife and marrying Alina Kabayeva, an Olympic gold medalist and an MP in Russia.^ By then, however, she had already borne him three children, the first while he was still married to his first wife, Carla Dell'Oglio.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ In June, a Spanish newspaper published paparazzi photographs showing naked and semi-naked guests at Villa Certosa, Berlusconi's retreat on Sardinia.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.When his guest showed annoyance, Berlusconi intervened with a gesture toward the journalist that imitated a gunman shooting.^ At a TV awards ceremony, Berlusconi gestured towards one of his MPs, a former topless model, Mara Carfagna, and declared to the other guests: " Take a look at her!
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ In June, a Spanish newspaper published paparazzi photographs showing naked and semi-naked guests at Villa Certosa, Berlusconi's retreat on Sardinia.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[141] The journalist was reportedly reduced to tears. Putin denied rumours that he was to marry Kabaeva. A spokesman for Berlusconi tried to play down the shooting gesture. He said: "It was just a gesture, a playful gesture, in fact it was appreciated given the technical time needed for a long and tedious Russian translation." Afterwards, Melikova said: "I saw Berlusconi's gesture and I know he has a reputation as being a joker. I hope there are no consequences." Vittorio Feltri, founder and editor of the right-wing newspaper Libero, argued that, given the records in transparency that Russia scores, Berlusconi actually 'saved' Melikova's life by making that gesture.[citation needed]
Berlusconi and George W. Bush are known to be intimate friends and spend time together on Bush's Crawford, Texas ranch. He declared that he and Bush would "remain friends forever", nostalgic at the end of Bush's term as a president.[142] On an official dinner in the White House on October 2008, Berlusconi, tripping over a microphone cable, crumbled the podium, too excited about greeting Bush and embracing him. .Then Berlusconi commented: "did you see what a huge love can do?"^ For fucks sake, when did you ever see a black snowman!” .
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^ John, you words demonstartae you have lived the Berlusconi trilogy, yet the Italians still love him.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ "As I reached Berlusconi, he said excitedly: 'Did you touch her?
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[143]
On 6 November 2008, two days after Barack Obama was elected the first African-American US President, Berlusconi "complimented" Obama on his "suntan":[144]
I will try to help relations between Russia and the United States where a new generation has come to power. I don't see problems for Medvedev to establish good relations with Obama because he is young, handsome and even tanned, therefore I think that a good cooperation can be developed.[145][146]
On 26 March 2009 he added:
I'm paler [than Mr Obama], because it's been so long since I went sunbathing. He's more handsome, younger and taller.[147]
Subsequently at a tent camp on the outskirts of L'Aquila housing some of the more than 30,000 people who lost their homes during the 2009 earthquake he said to an African priest:
you have a nice tan.[148]
Berlusconi then grabbed the priest and told him:
hold me tight and call me Papa.[148]
On 18 November 2008, Berlusconi played "hide-and-seek" with German Chancellor Angela Merkel. He was set to receive Merkel but opted to hide behind a column while Merkel and her entourage walked by. According to reporters present, Berlusconi called out "coo coo", prompting Mrs Merkel to turn around, saying "Oh, Silvio".[149]
.On 24 January 2009 Berlusconi announced his aim to enhance the numbers of military patrolling the Italian cities from 3000 to 30000 in order to crack down on what he called an "evil army" of criminals.^ December 13, 2009 at 7:35 pm Punch an Italian leader don’t want to get nearer 118 24 7 it’s Mussoliniiiiii , all over again .
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Responding to a female journalist who asked him if this tenfold increase in patrolling soldiers would be enough to secure Italian women from being raped, he said:
We could not field a big enough force to avoid this risk [of rape]. .We would need as many soldiers as beautiful women and I don't think that would be possible, because our women are so beautiful.^ He can count on our soldiers, all of whom would risk their necks to save Brown from such embarrassment.
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Opposition leaders called the remarks insensitive and in bad taste. Berlusconi retorted that he had merely wanted to compliment Italian women. Other critics accused him of creating a "police state".[150]
On 3 April 2009, Berlusconi appeared to have annoyed Queen Elizabeth II at a photo session during the G20 summit. During the photo session, Berlusconi shouted "Mr Obama, Mr. Obama", prompting her to turn around and chastise Berlusconi, “What is it? Why does he have to shout?”.[151][152] The following day, at the NATO meeting in Kehl, Berlusconi was seen talking on his mobile phone, while the German Chancellor Angela Merkel and other NATO leaders waited for him for a photo on a Rhine bridge.[153] .(Afterwards, Berlusconi claimed he was talking to Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan about accepting the Secretary Generalship of Anders Fogh Rasmussen).^ Silvio Berlusconi assaulted in Milan 13 Dec 2009: Italian prime minister leaves hospital in Milan four days after being hit in the face .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Speculation about the prime minister's involvement with young women is hardly new.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Another recording appears to confirm something claimed by both Berlusconi and Tarantini – that the prime minister was unaware that any of the women were paid.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

Responding to the Italian media's reaction to these incidents, he said he was considering "hard measures" against reporters, and referred to some of their claims as "slander".[154]
.Two days after the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake, devastating the capital city of the Abruzzo region and causing more than 290 deaths, Berlusconi said to n-tv that the people left homeless by the earthquake should view their experience as a camping weekend.^ Dave H. says: December 14, 2009 at 9:41 am Yet, Guido, you have stated more than once your admiration for this clown.
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^ Silvio Berlusconi assaulted in Milan 13 Dec 2009: Italian prime minister leaves hospital in Milan four days after being hit in the face .
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ As for Blair, nothing less than a punch so hard it will break his skull, haemorrhage the brain and cause death would suffice.
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[155] In that occasion he asked woman councillor Lia Beltrami, "Can I fondle you?" on a tour of an earthquake site.[156]
.On May 2009 Berlusconi said to a reporter while he was on a live television in Rome that when he was in Finland he had to travel three hours to see a two hundred year old church in the countryside.^ Apart from a two-year interlude in which the country was governed by the centre-left, Berlusconi has been running Italy since 2001.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ In May of this year, Berlusconi's wife lifted the catch on a Pandora's box of allegation and speculation when she let it be known she was divorcing her then 72-year-old husband because she could no longer stay with a man who "frequented minors".
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

In his opinion that wooden church would have been destroyed if it was in Italy. Mr Berlusconi had made a non-official visit to Finland in 1999 and had never seen any Finnish church. He had just been visiting Iceland.[157] [158]

Assault at rally

.On 13 December 2009 Berlusconi was hit in the face with an alabaster[159] statuette of Milan Cathedral after a rally in Milan's Piazza Duomo.^ December 13, 2009 at 8:54 pm .
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^ December 13, 2009 at 6:41 pm .
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^ Number 7 says: December 13, 2009 at 9:16 pm Just break his jaw.
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As Berlusconi was shaking hands with the public, a man in the crowd stepped forward and launched the statuette at him. .The attack was captured on film and the assailant was subsequently detained and identified as Massimo Tartaglia, a 42 year-old surveyor with a history of mental illness but no criminal record, living in the outskirts of Milan.^ FrankFisher says: December 13, 2009 at 9:49 pm I have to say, decking a 73 year old feller is a bit grim, and no doubt the assailant was some lefty prick thinking he has history on his side… .
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[160][161] .According to a letter released to the Italian news agency ANSA, Tartaglia has apologised for the attack, writing: "I don't recognise myself", and adding that he had "acted alone [with no] form of militancy or political affiliation". Berlusconi suffered facial injuries, a broken nose and two broken teeth; he was subsequently hospitalised.^ As president of this association, I write - almost every day - letters to different italian news papers, and I have also written to the Pope, to the honorable President of our republic Mr. Napolitano, a real gentleman, and to various politics of all parties, obiously, with no results.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Less abstractly, Berlusconi dominates politics and the media in a society fascinated by both and in which, largely because of his own efforts, the two overlap to a troubling extent.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Irn Bru Snorter says: December 14, 2009 at 8:44 pm Well…hardly..except for a broken nose and two broken teeth and some deep cuts and a lot of blood.
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[162] .Italian president Giorgio Napolitano and politicians from all parties in Italy condemned the attack.^ They then toasted the new president of the Italian republic, Giorgio Napolitano.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ As president of this association, I write - almost every day - letters to different italian news papers, and I have also written to the Pope, to the honorable President of our republic Mr. Napolitano, a real gentleman, and to various politics of all parties, obiously, with no results.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.In the night of 15–16 December a 26-year old man was stopped by police and Berlusconi's bodyguards while trying to gain access to Berlusconi's hospital room.^ As far back as 1986, police investigating an associate listened in as he telephoned Berlusconi on New Year's Eve to find him in an ill humour.
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Old Holborn says: December 13, 2009 at 9:16 pm Wait .
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^ In May of this year, Berlusconi's wife lifted the catch on a Pandora's box of allegation and speculation when she let it be known she was divorcing her then 72-year-old husband because she could no longer stay with a man who "frequented minors".
  • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

A search revealed that he carried no weapons, although three hockey sticks and two knives were later found in his car. The suspect was known to have a history of mental illness and mandatory treatment in mental institutions.[163]
Berlusconi was discharged from hospital on 17 December 2009.[164]

See also

References

Bibliography

  • (Italian) Il mistero Sindona
  • (German) Geschäfte mit dem Vatikan. Die Affäre Sindona. München 1987. ISBN 3-426-03970-2
  • Amedeo Benedetti, Il linguaggio e la retorica della nuova politica italiana: Silvio Berlusconi e Forza Italia, Erga, Genova, 2004, ISBN 8881633639
  • L'odore dei soldi. .Origini e misteri delle fortune di Silvio Berlusconi (Elio Veltri and Marco Travaglio, 2001, Editori Riuniti, ISBN 88-359-5007-4 ).
  • (Italian) [3],[167] Journalists Marco Travaglio (interviewed by Daniele Luttazzi in his show Satyricon)
  • (Italian) Berlusconi bankruptcy risks and legal investigation before entering politics: Mani pulite.^ Silvio Berlusconi assaulted in Milan 13 Dec 2009: Italian prime minister leaves hospital in Milan four days after being hit in the face .
    • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ I believe things might get slightly better in Italy when Berlusconi dies but until the Italians decide to do something about the mafia mentality which dominates so many aspects of their lives, little will ever change.
    • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ I'm afraid Berlusconi has similar character traits of vanity and moral degradation of many Italian people.
    • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    La vera storia. Da Mario Chiesa a Silvio Berlusconi
    (Gianni Barbacetto, Peter Gomez and Marco Travaglio, 2002, Editori Riuniti, ISBN 88-359-5241-7)
  • (Italian) L'amico degli amici. (Marco Travaglio and Peter Gomez, 2005, RCS MediaGroup, ISBN 88-17-00707-2)

Notes

  1. ^ Technically, Berlusconi has been sworn in four times because after a cabinet reshuffle, as happened with Berlusconi in 2005, the new ministry is sworn in and subjected to a vote of confidence.
  2. ^ a b Lane, David (2005). Berlusconi's Shadow. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-141-01770-8. 
  3. ^ a b "Journalists In New Protest as Berlusconi’s Grip on Italian Media Becomes A Stranglehold". Archived from the original on 27 September 2004. http://web.archive.org/web/20040927133724/http://www.ifj-europe.org/default.asp?index=2451&Language=EN. 
  4. ^ Guarino, Mario. L'orgia del potere. Il Mulino. "[The author] claims that Berlusconi avoided it because he was the first-born child in his family. However, this did not constitute reasonable grounds for exemption" 
  5. ^ "Berlusconi's wife to divorce him". BBC News. 3 May 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8031520.stm. 
  6. ^ Mastellarini, Gabriele. Assalto alla stampa: Controllare i media per governare l’opinione pubblica. Bari: Dedalo. pp. 159ff. 
  7. ^ a b "Berlusconi- tv. Un impero nato per decreto-Craxi" (in Italian). l'Unità. http://www.articolo21.info/499/editoriale/berlusconi-tv-un-impero-nato-per-decretocraxi.html. 
  8. ^ Altmeppen, Klaus-Dieter; Karmasin, Matthias (2003). Medien und Ökonomie. VS Verlag. p. 153. "Leo Kirch und Silvio Berlusconi setzten 1999 eine schon bewährte Zusammenarbeit fort, also sie mit der Gründung des Gemeinschaftsunternehmens Epsilon Group auf die Entwicklung eines europaweiten Rundfunkverbundes zielten" 
  9. ^ (Italian) Le principali società industriali e di servizi italiane
  10. ^ "Berlusconi preferisce Al Waleed" (in Italian). Corriere della Sera. 11 July 1995. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1995/luglio/11/Berlusconi_preferisce_Waleed_co_8_9507112726.shtml. 
  11. ^ "Berlusconi Al Waleed, intesa alla stretta finale" (in Italian). Corriere della Sera. 16 July 1995. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1995/luglio/16/Berlusconi_Waleed_intesa_alla_stretta_co_0_9507161019.shtml. 
  12. ^ "Forbes; Ferrero Italiano Più Ricco, Berlusconi Terzo" (in Italian). APCOM. 6 March 2008. http://www.la7.it/news/dettaglio_news.asp?id_news=61228&cat=economia. 
  13. ^ "Silvio Berlusconi, self-styled man of the people". Archived from the original on 16 April 2001. http://web.archive.org/web/20010416235612/http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001/italy/stories/berlusconi/. 
  14. ^ Il discorso andò in onda a reti unificate: you can watch it discorso sulla discesa in campo on YouTube.
  15. ^ "Forza Italia's Chart of Values". Archived from the original on 27 May 2004. http://web.archive.org/web/20040527120603/http://www.forza-italia.it/notizie/int_2816.htm. 
  16. ^ "PPE: accolta la richiesta d'ingresso del PdL" (in Italian). 12 June 2009. http://www.clandestinoweb.com/number-news/89634-europee-ppe-accolta-la-richiesta-di-ingresso-del-pdl-bruxe.html. 
  17. ^ "Bossi focuses immigration fears". BBC News. 10 May 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1321804.stm. 
  18. ^ "Quotable: Silvio Berlusconi's intergalactic record". Foreign Policy. 15 July 2008. http://blog.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2008/07/15/quotable_silvio_berlusconis_intergalactic_record. 
  19. ^ "All Iberian, Berlusconi assolto "Falso in bilancio non è più reato"" (in Italian). la Repubblica. 26 September 2005. http://www.repubblica.it/2005/i/sezioni/cronaca/allibe/allibe/allibe.html. 
  20. ^ "Caso Lentini, reati prescritti" (in Italian). la Repubblica. 5 July 2002. http://ricerca.repubblica.it/repubblica/archivio/repubblica/2002/07/05/caso-lentini-reati-prescritti.html. 
  21. ^ "Articolo da LaStampa: ...Con questa proposta tutti rimarranno incensurati, giacché nessun processo si potrà concludere nei tempi previsti e tutto questo per favorire un individuo “formalmente incensurato” ma sostanzialmente corruttore qual è Silvio Berlusconi". Lastampa.it. http://www.lastampa.it/redazione/cmsSezioni/politica/200911articoli/49287girata.asp. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  22. ^ "Articolo da L'Occidentale: ...Ma non tutti potranno beneficiare di un'abbreviazione dei tempi. Una categoria ammessa è quella degli incensurati (e Berlusconi lo è)". Loccidentale.it. 1999-02-22. http://www.loccidentale.it/articolo/il+cav.+e+fini+si+accordano+sul+processo+breve+e+per+i+giudici+%C3%A8+partita+la+corsa+contro+il+tempo.0081461. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  23. ^ "Articolo da IlSole24Ore: ...I due processi al premier sono ancora in primo grado e quindi, in base alla norma transitoria, sottoposti alla nuova regola dei 2 anni di tempo massimo per arrivare alla sentenza, se l'imputato è incensurato". Ilsole24ore.com. http://www.ilsole24ore.com/art/SoleOnLine4/Italia/2009/11/berlusconi-processi-mediaset-mills.shtml?uuid=996d6e42-ce94-11de-a8da-0c1a175b3c55&DocRulesView=Libero. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  24. ^ "Articolo da LaRepubblica: ..."Le norme proposte trasformeranno in incensurati anche coloro che non meritano di essere considerati tali", ha aggiunto, "e tutto questo per favorire un individuo 'formalmente incensurato', ma sostanzialmente corruttore, qual e' Silvio Berlusconi"". Repubblica.it. 2009-11-10. http://www.repubblica.it/ultimora/politica/GIUSTIZIA-DI-PIETRO-SPIACE-FINI-SI-PRESTI-A-GIOCO/news-dettaglio/3733131. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
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  139. ^ "Berlusconi to Italy: Come On, You Know You Want To". Time. 2008-03-14. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1722581,00.html. 
  140. ^ "Berlusconi 'regaña' a Zapatero: 'Su Gobierno es demasiado rosa'" (in Spanish). El Mundo. 2008-04-15. http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2008/04/15/internacional/1208272351.html. 
  141. ^ "Berlusconi to lobby EU on behalf of Russian travellers". Russia Today. 2008-04-20. http://russiatoday.ru/Top_News/2008-04-20/Berlusconi_to_lobby_EU_on_behalf_of_Russian_travellers.html. "See embedded video" 
  142. ^ "Berlusconi, Bush's Last Best Friend". Time. 2008-10-14. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1849966,00.html. 
  143. ^ "Bush and Berlusconi: That's Amore". ABC News. 2008-10-13. http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalradar/2008/10/bush-and-berlus.html. 
  144. ^ "Berlusconi Obama Suntanned". Repubblica Radio TV. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ErsgFMFhoPQ. 
  145. ^ "Italy's Berlusconi hails "suntanned" Obama". Reuters. 2008-11-06. http://uk.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUKTRE4A562120081106. 
  146. ^ "L'abbronzato fa il giro del mondo". Repubblica Radio TV. 2008-11-07. http://tv.repubblica.it/copertina/l-abbronzato-fa-il-giro-del-mondo/26102?video. 
  147. ^ "Silvio Berlusconi says he is 'paler' than Barack Obama". The Daily Telegraph. 2009-03-26. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/italy/5055633/Silvio-Berlusconi-says-he-is-paler-than-Barack-Obama.html. 
  148. ^ a b "He's done it AGAIN! Berlusconi tells black priest: 'I wish I had time to get as tanned as you'". Daily Mail. 2009-04-17. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1170655/Hes-AGAIN-Berlusconi-tells-black-priest-I-wish-I-time-tanned-you.html. 
  149. ^ "Berlusconi 'plays hide and seek'". BBC News. 2008-11-18. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7736235.stm. 
  150. ^ "Silvio Berlusconi criticised for 'pretty girl' rape comment". The Daily Telegraph. 2009-04-04. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/italy/4339817/Silvio-Berlusconi-criticised-for-pretty-girl-rape-comment.html. 
  151. ^ "Queen is not amused by Berlusconi". BBC News. 2009-04-03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7980912.stm. 
  152. ^ "Queen shows Silvio Berlusconi how to be a head of state at London summit". The Times. 2009-04-04. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/politics/G20/article6031910.ece. 
  153. ^ "Berlusconi skips NATO ceremonies to talks to Turkey". Reuters. 2009-04-04. http://uk.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUKTRE5330S420090404. 
  154. ^ Nick Squires (2009-04-06). "Silvio Berlusconi threatens news blackout after reports of latest gaffes". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/italy/5110631/Silvio-Berlusconi-threatens-news-blackout-after-reports-of-latest-gaffes.html. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
  155. ^ "Berlusconi: Italy earthquake victims should view experience as a camping weekend". The Guardian. 2009-04-08. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/apr/08/italy-earthquake-berlusconi. Retrieved 2009-04-08. 
  156. ^ "Fondle gaffe for PM Berlusconi". The Sun. 2009-05-07. http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/article2416229.ece. 
  157. ^ "Berlusconi’s church comments met with astonishment in Finland". Helsingin Sanomat. 2009-05-09. http://www.hs.fi/english/article/Berlusconi%E2%80%99s+church+comments+met+with+astonishment+in+Finland/1135245796052. 
  158. ^ "Berlusconi rolls out another Finnish gaffe". Suomen Tietotoimisto. 2009-05-07. http://newsroom.finland.fi/stt/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=21628&group=General. 
  159. ^ "Tartaglia interrogato dai pm 'Gesto folle, ma premeditato'" (in Italian). "La Repubblica. 2009-12-15. http://www.repubblica.it/2009/12/sezioni/politica/giustizia-22/testimone-nuovo/testimone-nuovo.html. 
  160. ^ "Da perito a inventore, è in cura da dieci anni" (in Italian). "Corriere della Sera. 2009-12-14. p. 4. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2009/dicembre/14/perito_inventore_cura_dieci_anni_co_8_091214010.shtml. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  161. ^ "Silvio Berlusconi punched in the face in Milan". The Guardian. 2009-12-13. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/dec/13/silvio-berlusconi-punched-in-face. 
  162. ^ Owen, Richard (2009-12-15). "Silvio Berlusconi will need weeks of treatment after Milan attack". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article6956607.ece. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  163. ^ [2]
  164. ^ Squires, Nick (2009-12-16). "Doctors fear for Berlusconi 'morale'". The Daily Telegraph: p. 17. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/italy/6818922/Fears-for-Silvio-Berlusconis-morale.html. Retrieved 2010-01-04. ; Squires, Nick (2009-12-18). "Battered and bandaged Berlusconi says his pain need not be in vain". The Daily Telegraph: p. 23. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/italy/6834114/Silvio-Berlusconi-leaves-hospital-covered-in-bandages.html. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  165. ^ "Forza Bahamas | BananaBis". Bananabis.splinder.com. 2001-03-07. http://bananabis.splinder.com/post/4560913. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  166. ^ "OneMoreBlog 2.31". Onemoreblog.org. http://www.onemoreblog.org/archives/005805.html. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  167. ^ "Marco Travaglio.it". Marco Travaglio.it. http://www.marcotravaglio.it/interviste/satyricon.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 

Documentaries

Feature films

Further reading

External links

.
Party political offices
New political party President of Forza Italia
1994–2009
Succeeded by
Himself
as President of People of Freedom
President of People of Freedom
2009–present
Incumbent
Political offices
Preceded by
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
Prime Minister of Italy
1994–1995
Succeeded by
Lamberto Dini
Preceded by
Giuliano Amato
Prime Minister of Italy
2001–2006
Succeeded by
Romano Prodi
Preceded by
Renato Ruggiero
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Acting

2002
Succeeded by
Franco Frattini
Preceded by
Giulio Tremonti
Minister of Economy and Finance
Acting

2004
Succeeded by
Domenico Siniscalco
Preceded by
Francesco Storace
Minister of Health
Acting

2006
Succeeded by
Livia Turco
Preceded by
Mario Baccini
Minister of Public Function
Acting

2006
Succeeded by
Luigi Nicolais
Preceded by
Romano Prodi
Prime Minister of Italy
2008–present
Incumbent
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Morihiro Hosokawa
Chair of the G8
1994
Succeeded by
Jean Chrétien
Preceded by
Giuliano Amato
Chair of the G8
2001
Preceded by
Taro Aso
Chair of the G8
2009
Succeeded by
Nicolas Sarkozy
Order of precedence
Preceded by
Gianfranco Fini
as President of the Chamber of Deputies
Italian order of precedence
Prime Minister
Succeeded by
Francesco Amirante
as President of the Constitutional Court

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Silvio Berlusconi
.Silvio Berlusconi (born September 29, 1936, in Milan) is the Prime Minister of Italy and a media mogul.^ You've got to hand it to Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi.
  • Silvio Berlusconi : Pictures, Videos, Breaking News 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ September 29, 1936 Milan, Italy .
  • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Italy's Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi has nominated Antonio Tajani to be the country's new...

Contents

Sourced

2001

  • On hair loss: I have little hair because my brain is so big it pushes the hair out[1]
  • In the wake of 11 September:
We must be aware of the superiority of our civilization, a system that has guaranteed well-being, respect for human rights and - in contrast with Islamic countries - respect for religious and political rights, a system that has as its value understanding of diversity and tolerance ... The West will continue to conquer peoples, even if it means a confrontation with another civilization, Islam, firmly entrenched where it was 1,400 years ago. [2]
  • His response to worldwide condemnation of the above speech on 9/11:
They have tried to hang me on an isolated word, taken out of context from my whole speech ... I did not say anything against the Islamic civilization... It's the work of some people in the Italian leftist press who wanted to tarnish my image and destroy my long-standing relations with Arabs and Muslims.[3]

2002

.
  • I am absolutely sure to be the most democratic man to ever become Prime Minister in Italy.^ Slippery Silvio ; Italy's prime minister.
    • Silvio Berlusconi Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Silvio Berlusconi 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Silvio Berlusconi, Italy’s richest man and current prime minister, must be totally and utterly terrified of Italy’s forces of law and order.
    • Saving Silvio Berlusconi | Blog from Italy 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.blogfromitaly.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Silvio Berlusconi is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, media proprietor, and Prime Minister of Italy (President of the Council of Ministers of Italy), a position he has held three times.
    • Silvio Berlusconi - latest news and videos 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC interceder.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (ASCA, January 25, 2002)

2003

  • I always win, I'm cursed to win. .(ANSA, May 24, 2003)
  • I know in Italy there is a producer, producing a film on Nazi concentration camps.^ Added on July 2, 2003: Today, during a speech to the European parliament, Berlusconi told the German MEP Martin Schulz, after critical remarks by the Social-Democrat regarding the new Italian immunity law and other legal changes: "I know in Italy there is a producer, producing a film on Nazi concentration camps.
    • Silvio Berlusconi and his cabinet 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.cosmopolis.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Italy is formally a democracy, but as anyone who’s spent time there knows, on the ground level, it’s a network of little self-protecting oligarchies.
    • Silvio Berlusconi | WBUR and NPR - On Point with Tom Ashbrook 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.onpointradio.org [Source type: General]

    ^ There is no one in Italy that does not know him (the fact that he captured 80% of Italy's commercial TV market by the 1980s didn't hurt).
    • Silvio Berlusconi Sports Biography, Photos & Rise To Success - AskMen.com 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.askmen.com [Source type: General]

    .I will suggest you for the role of kapo.^ I will suggest you for the role of kapo.
    • Silvio Berlusconi and his cabinet 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.cosmopolis.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I will suggest you to play the role of a Kapo (concentration-camp inmate appointed as supervisor).
    • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .You would be perfect for that role[1][4][3] (said to German MEP Martin Schulz, European Parliament, July 2, 2003)
  • I'm a man of honour, a truthful person, a gentleman of absolute morality.^ You would be perfect for that role."
    • Silvio Berlusconi and his cabinet 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.cosmopolis.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Added on July 2, 2003: Today, during a speech to the European parliament, Berlusconi told the German MEP Martin Schulz, after critical remarks by the Social-Democrat regarding the new Italian immunity law and other legal changes: "I know in Italy there is a producer, producing a film on Nazi concentration camps.
    • Silvio Berlusconi and his cabinet 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.cosmopolis.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Maurizio Sacconi, the Welfare Minister, said the move would not become law until parliament had approved it.
    • Silvio Berlusconi defends TV tax increases - Times Online 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC business.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

    .(From "La Repubblica", July 13, 2003)
  • About magistrates he said: "To do that kind of job you must be mentally disturbed[1].^ In the weeks since, you have accused La Repubblica of orchestrating a left-wing plot that has extended to the international press, drawing in the Times and the Economist , amongst others.
    • Silvio Berlusconi: ten more questions | openDemocracy 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: General]
    • Silvio Berlusconi: ten more questions | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: General]

    ^ But the work "La Repubblica" and you all in GB are carrying is fundamental, the king is naked, while most Italians are still applauding him and his clown costumes.
    • Silvio Berlusconi: ten more questions | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: General]

    ^ It must be much to the chagrin of Silvio Berlusconi that Italian papers, such as rival De Benedetti’s La Repubblica, have been publishing regular round-ups of what is being said in the foreign press about the current goings-on in Italy.
    • Super Berlusconi and Kryptonite | Blog from Italy 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.blogfromitaly.com [Source type: General]

    .If they do that kind of job is because they are anthropologically different from the other human beings" (ANSA, September 5, 2003)
  • Mussolini never killed anyone, he just sent dissenters abroad for vacation.^ A tour guide in Rome explained that in Italy the Prime Minister and President don't have to quit their other businesses just because they're running the country.
    • FARK.com: (4469032) Silvio Berlusconi's TV stations fail to cover Silvio Berlusconi's sex romps with young women for some damn reason or other 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some roles rely on others, or naturally supplement another one, while other roles of his dissent because they aim at different segments of his audience.

    ^ It's especially tough not just because of the sheer magnitude of the value of the capture, but because of the complete conviction with which some fraction of the population will pursue a course that confirms that they are special.
    • Charlie's Diary: More politics 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

    [1] .(From La voce di Rimini, September 11, 2003)
  • At the Brussels summit, at the end of Italy's EU presidency, in December 2003: "Let's talk about football and women."^ Addressing Germany's then chancellor, Gerhard Schröder: "Let's talk about women and football.
    • Scusi is the hardest word: Berlusconi's wife forces him into a public apology | Media | The Guardian 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ In the course of wire-tapping Mr Tarantini and his brother over allegations that they had engaged in corruption in winning contracts for supplying equipment to hospitals, Italy's Guardia di Finanza, or Fraud Squad, allegedly overheard them talking about recruiting young women for the prime minister's parties.
    • Is the party over for Silvio Berlusconi? - Telegraph 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ A short while after the Anglo-American invasion of Iraq, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, in an interview with The Spectator (on September 11, 2003) defended his support for the war despite the widespread opposition it had engendered in Italy.
    • Silvio Berlusconi - Blogrunner 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

    .(Turning to four-times-married German Chancellor, Gerhard Schröder.^ Addressing Germany's then chancellor, Gerhard Schröder: "Let's talk about women and football.
    • Scusi is the hardest word: Berlusconi's wife forces him into a public apology | Media | The Guardian 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ Gerhard Schröder's time in office is something Silvio Berlusconi would like to forget.
    • The Rise and Fall of Silvio Berlusconi | Europe | Deutsche Welle | 06.04.2006 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.dw-world.de [Source type: News]

    ) "Gerhard, why don't you start?" [citation needed]

2004

.
  • Foreign press is usually leftist and describes us differently from what we really are.^ To the foreign press: Please, help us!
    • Is the party over for Silvio Berlusconi? - Telegraph 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    .
    • Speech to the association Azzurri nel mondo, Lugano, October 24, 2004)
  • There is a natural right that says that when the state asks you for a third of what you earned through back-breaking work, this seems to you a reasonable demand and you give in.^ Naturally, you know youre right!!!
    • New Statesman - Is Italy flirting with fascism? 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.newstatesman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If you have to pay, I ask you, what joy is there?
    • Silvio Berlusconi | The Awl 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.theawl.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Dave H. says: December 14, 2009 at 9:41 am Yet, Guido, you have stated more than once your admiration for this clown.
    • BREAKING >>> Berlusconi Bloodied at Rally - Guy Fawkes' blog 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC order-order.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .If the state asks you for more, or much more, then it is a clear abuse against you and then you try to find evasive ways to make you feel coherent to your intimate sense of morality and it doesn't make you feel ethically guilty.^ You better not get involved with european justice if you are innocent...on the othert hand, if you are a criminal, the best thing you can do is try to get transferred to Europe for your trial!!!
    • Berlusconi has more pain... - Topix 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If you are inside the United States, it is still possible for you to enjoy DW-TV. For more information, please click here.
    • Berlusconi vows to stay on despite losing immunity | Europe | Deutsche Welle | 08.10.2009 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.dw-world.de [Source type: News]
    • The Rise and Fall of Silvio Berlusconi | Europe | Deutsche Welle | 06.04.2006 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.dw-world.de [Source type: News]

    ^ Dave H. says: December 14, 2009 at 9:41 am Yet, Guido, you have stated more than once your admiration for this clown.
    • BREAKING >>> Berlusconi Bloodied at Rally - Guy Fawkes' blog 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC order-order.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • November 11, 2004; Speaking in front of the commander of the special italian police corp, Guardia di Finanza, whose job is to fight financial frauds and tax evasion[5]

2005

.
  • If the left wing was to rule, the result would be misery, terror and death, like it happens in every place where communism rules.^ Berlusconi has denied all criminal charges against him, saying they were the result of a left-wing plot -- assertions many Italians believe.
    • Italian Court Ruling Deals Blow to Berlusconi - WSJ.com 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The polarized political situation and Italy's chaotic and uneven economic development helped produce outbreaks of both right-wing and left-wing terrorism.
    • Italy: The Family Business - The New York Review of Books 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.nybooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What is happening in Italy goes beyond left or right wing politics.
    • Berlusconi Conspiracy Theory - Italian Online community - Italian forum 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC my.lifeinitaly.com [Source type: General]

    .(from Corriere della Sera, January 17, 2005)
  • The left has always been on the wrong side.^ Corriere della Sera (591) .
    • EMM News Explorer: Silvio Berlusconi 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC emm.newsexplorer.eu [Source type: News]

    ^ He writes the daily “ Italians ” column for Italy’s Corriere della Sera newspaper.
    • Silvio Berlusconi | WBUR and NPR - On Point with Tom Ashbrook 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.onpointradio.org [Source type: General]

    ^ The leader of the center-left opposition, Walter Veltroni, said Mr. Berlusconi’s remarks “seriously damage the image and dignity of our country on the international scene,” Corriere della Sera reported.
    • Berlusconi Under Fire for Obama ‘Joke’ - The Caucus Blog - NYTimes.com 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
    • Berlusconi Under Fire for Obama ‘Joke’ - The Caucus Blog - NYTimes.com 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

    They were against Hitler, but not against Stalin. .(newspaper La Repubblica, February 3, 2005)
  • I used all my playboy skills and courted the Finnish President.^ SOURCE: News24 1 month ago combat the press campaign by the La Repubblica-Espresso group whom I will ask to answer, in criminal and civil courts, for the damage done to the dignity of my person, my family and the company Fininvest.
    • Silvio Berlusconi - News, photos, topics, and quotes 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.daylife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He earned a rebuke from Finland for claiming that he had used playboy tactics with the Finnish president Tarja Halonen to ensure the European Food Safety Authority was established in Parma, Italy.
    • Silvio Berlusconi: Yes, yes, yes, prime minister - Times Online 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ Presently (February 2005) the law is in process of being re-examined by the parliament, taking into account the President's objections on its constitutionality.
    • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    [6] (at the opening of the European Food Authority in Parma, June 21, 2005, asked to explain how Italy managed to get the support of its biggest competitor over the EU Food Authority dispute)

2006

.
  • We must fight against tax evasion but also defend the rights of tax evaders, or companies that make mistakes[1]
  • By definition, as a Prime Minister I cannot be a liar.^ Silvio Berlusconi, Italy’s richest man and current prime minister, must be totally and utterly terrified of Italy’s forces of law and order.
    • Saving Silvio Berlusconi | Blog from Italy 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.blogfromitaly.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The prime minister, who is known for edgy jokes that sometimes fall flat, may have only enflamed the controversy as he tried to defend himself.
    • Silvio Berlusconi brings baggage to G-8 summit - Josh Gerstein - POLITICO.com 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ PM Silvio Berlusconi will now face prosecution against charges of fraud, corruption, tax evasion and bribery, with an Italian court stripping him of immunity.
    • Silvio Berlusconi – Crikey 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.crikey.com.au [Source type: News]

    .(Italian Radio National Broadcast, January 18 2006)
  • Speaking at his party's convention in Sardinia on January 28, 2006, "Thank you dear Father Massimiliano, I'll try not to let you down and I promise you two and a half months of complete sexual abstinence until April 9 [election]". (Daily Il Giornale, January 29, 2006)
  • Only Napoleon did more than I have done.^ More than two thousand.
    • Silvio Berlusconi: answers, please | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Italian Parliament is expected to be dissolved, with national elections scheduled in April .
    • Silvio Berlusconi: News & Videos about Silvio Berlusconi - CNN.com 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

    ^ April 18, 2006 .
    • Steve Shore: Berlusconi Defeated 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: General]

    But I am definitely taller.[1][7] .(Reuters, February 9, 2006)
  • Churchill liberated us from the Nazis, Silvio Berlusconi is liberating us from communists.^ A national party, like 25 april, (liberation of the nazi-fascism), it would be "The liberation of Berlusconi's fascism" .
    • Is the party over for Silvio Berlusconi? - Telegraph 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ It is known that Silvio Berlusconi has a very high opinion of himself, at times comparing himself to Napoleon, Churchill and Jesus Christ.
    • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Posted: 03/14/2006 Italian PM Silvio Berlusconi and his general election opponent Romano Prodi square off in a live TV debate.
    • IFES Election Guide - Country Profile: Italy - Elections 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.electionguide.org [Source type: News]

    [1] .(Speech in Ancona, February 11, 2006)
  • Berlusconi's advice to Italians trying to escape poverty: "Do it my way and earn more money". (an interview with Italian Telelombardia, March 6, 2006)
  • The April 9th/10th vote is like that one of 1948, when democratic forces rejected the communist offensive and firmly moved the Country to the West, towards democracy and its values.^ April 11, 2006 .
    • Steve Shore: Berlusconi Defeated 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There was only one consolation for the majority who didn't vote for him: Berlusconi had been counting on a much larger consensus.
    • Italy's 'Emperor' Meets Obama 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Italian production, however, was down from 65 million pounds in 2005 to 62 million pounds in 2006, while imports were up from countries like Turkey, China and Egypt.
    • Is garlic essential in Italian food? | Napa Valley Register 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.napavalleyregister.com [Source type: General]

    ("Affari Italiani" magazine, April 7, 2006).
  • On his playboy image: I'll try not to let you down and I promise you two and a half months of complete sexual abstinence until election day[1]

Electoral campaign

.
  • On himself at the launch of the 2006 campaign: I am the Jesus Christ of politics.^ The recently resurrected Silvio Berlusconi is, in his own words, the Jesus Christ of politics.
    • Silvio Berlusconi returns to centre stage - Telegraph 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ It is known that Silvio Berlusconi has a very high opinion of himself, at times comparing himself to Napoleon, Churchill and Jesus Christ.
    • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .I am a patient victim, I sacrifice myself for everyone[1][3] (2006)
  • I have Italian citizens in too good consideration to think that there are so many voting assholes (literally: "coglioni", rude word for testicles) around which could vote against their own interests.^ Short-termism only benefits the strong, and though many Italians think they are smart enough to survive, they are being fooled.
    • Carlo Galli: Berlusconi: Still Doing Nothing, Still There 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Last week Berlusconi announced to supporters at a rally in Naples: "we will win because we are not coglioni," using a vulgar term literally meaning "testicles" to paint the opposition as "assholes."
    • Berlusconi Backfires 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

    ^ For this to happen everyone should make an improvement, even a small one, just thinking that the country belongs to the Italians and not to the government.
    • Silvio Berlusconi : Pictures, Videos, Breaking News 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

    .I apologize for the rude but effective language[3] (Confcommercio meeting in Rome, April 4, 2006)
  • Go and read the black book on communism and you'll find that under Mao's China they didn't eat babies but they boiled them to fertilise the fields.^ China and communism At the beginning of 2006, he deeply offended China, urging people to “read the black book of Communism and you will discover that in the China of Mao, they did not eat children, but had them boiled to fertilise the fields.” .
    • World News Australia - Top 10 gaffes of Silvio Berlusconi 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sbs.com.au [Source type: News]

    ^ If you provide the exact project they're willing to back, they'll come up with the money.
    • Being Silvio Berlusconi | World news | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ And the first thing they are going to read is this intellectual manure?

    [1][3] (Naples Rally, March 28, 2006)

2008

  • On previous comments They're not gaffes. I've made no gaffes.[1]
  • .
  • On women: The women of the Right are certainly the most beautiful ...^ Italian PM Silvio Berlusconi’s stories of sex, scandal and beautiful women make him a more entertaining, and popular, politician than most.
    • Silvio Berlusconi – Crikey 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.crikey.com.au [Source type: News]

    the .Left has no taste, not even when it comes to women[1]
  • On women: Ladies, I have a mission for you on election day: cook!^ The left has no taste, even when it comes to women” – Berlusconi .
    • Michelle Malkin » Berlusconi wins Italian election 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I voted for Prodi (left wing) last election and he did so many stupid things in Italy that even Berlusconi (right wing) is probably better, even though he is a mafioso.
    • Silvio Berlusconi calls Barack Obama tanned...again 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC digg.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You would think with all the troubles he's been having with women lately, the last thing Berlusconi would agree to do was round up women for Gadhafi's mission to "save European women."
    • Silvio Berlusconi : Pictures, Videos, Breaking News 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

    Sweet and exquisite things, please. Bring them to the polling station to be examined. .The boldest can try making a tart, the most skilful, profiteroles[1]
  • On ageing: It's the fate of the lion in winter: all his billions, all his television channels cannot rescue him from the mockery that rains down on the aged lecher, his powers visibly waning.^ In a public letter gleefully received by Italy’s newspapers, Silvio Berlusconi’s wife him of a “lack of discretion in his exercise of power which offends the credibility of all women”.
    • Silvio Berlusconi – Crikey 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.crikey.com.au [Source type: News]

    ^ AM BY Michael Wolff After all these years of trying to solve the most obvious problem in politics—that money creates terrible inequities—it’s...
    • Silvio Berlusconi - Silvio Berlusconi News Summaries | Newser 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: News]

    ^ "The act of a madman (and the idiocy of those who praise him) cannot call into question, even in the most distant way, our freedom of expression."
    • Italy contemplates Web restrictions after Berlusconi attack - censorship, internet censorship - PC World 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.pcworld.idg.com.au [Source type: General]

    [1]
  • On size: They keep calling me a dwarf, but I'm taller than Sarkozy and Putin[1]
  • On the US president-elect to Dmitry Medvedev: "Barack Obama being young, handsome and sun-tanned is going to get along with you swimmingly" [8][9][10][11]
Literally in Italian: "Ho detto a Medvedev che Obama ha tutto per andare d'accordo con lui: è giovane, bello e anche abbronzato"[12]

Electoral campaign

.
  • The journalist Enzo Biagi left the RAI out of free will and that he did it for the money.^ Berlusconi's influence over RAI became evident when in Sofia, Bulgaria he expressed his views on the journalists Enzo Biagi, Michele Santoro, and comedian Daniele Luttazzi after his satiric behaviour and his interview with journalist Marco Travaglio.
    • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Years ago, when suddenly he decided that time had come to get down in the political field, Berlusconi was asked by the journalists of all the world where he had got all his money from: did he ever answer?
    • Silvio Berlusconi: ten more questions | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: General]

    .
    • Enzo Biagi was one of the journalists that had to leave the RAI in 2002 after the so-called Diktat Bulgaro, in which he was accused by Berlusconi to make a criminal use of television.^ Berlusconi calls for calm after leaving hospital .
      • Silvio Berlusconi | Related Topics | National Post 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: News]

      ^ Berlusconi's influence over RAI became evident when in Sofia, Bulgaria he expressed his views on the journalists Enzo Biagi, Michele Santoro, and comedian Daniele Luttazzi after his satiric behaviour and his interview with journalist Marco Travaglio.
      • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

      ^ In response to such claims, Mediaset, Berlusconi's television group, has stated that it uses the same criteria as the public (state-owned) television RAI in assigning a proper visibility to all the most important political parties and movements (the so-called 'Par Condicio').
      • Silvio Berlusconi - some facts and history 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

      [13]
    • .
  • Vittorio Mangano is a hero because he never confessed under pressure compromising things about Berlusconi or Dell’Utri
    • Berlusconi confirms the message of Senator Marcello Dell'Utri about the live sentenced mafia-member Vittorio Mangano.^ Partly under pressure from the banks, Berlusconi appointed a new chief executive, Franco Tato, who says: 'Fininvest is a typical product of the Eighties boom.'
      • Profile: Italy's arch seducer: Silvio Berlusconi. Italians wanted a new party; he sold them one - Opinion - The Independent 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

      ^ It's so widespread, everybody is living under the pressure with the idea [of] don't go over the limit, be quiet, be a good servant.
      • Signs of the Times News for Wed, 13 Jan 2010 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.sott.net [Source type: General]

      ^ A Mafia supergrass, Antonino Giuffre, has alleged that Sicilian-born Mr Dell'Utri, a Forza Italia founder and former business associate of Mr Berlusconi's, helped talk the mafia into switching its support to Mr Berlusconi's Forza Italia party in the early 1990s.
      • Wu Ming 1 - The Crisis of Berlusconism and the So-Called Cultural Hegemony of the Left 10 February 2010 12:10 UTC www.wumingfoundation.com [Source type: Original source]

      [14]

2009

  • On women: "We could not field a big enough force to avoid this risk [of rape]. We would need so many soldiers because our women are so beautiful"[15]
  • On prosecutions against him: "In absolute terms, I am the most legally persecuted man of all times, in the whole history of mankind, worldwide"[16]
  • On himself: The real Italian anomaly is not Silvio Berlusconi but communist prosecutors and communist judges in Milan who have attacked him again and again since he entered politics.[17]

Notes

  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Did I say This?", The Observer, 2008-04-20. URL accessed on 2008-11-06.
  2. Berlusconi: "Attacco mirato senza vittime fra i civili", Repubblica.it, 26 September 2001
  3. a b c d e "In quotes: Berlusconi in his own words", BBC, 2005-05-02. URL accessed on 2008-11-06.
  4. "Silvio Berlusconi vs MEP Martin Schulz; relive the moment", youtube.com, 2008-04-16. URL accessed on 2008-11-06.
  5. [1]
  6. [2]
  7. Hooper, John. "Berlusconi's boundless modesty: first it's Napoleon, now he's Jesus", The Guardian, 2006-02-13. URL accessed on 2008-11-06.
  8. "Italy's Berlusconi hails "suntanned" Obama", Reuters, 2008-11-06. URL accessed on 2008-11-06.
  9. "Berlusconi faces race row as he calls America's first black president 'suntanned'", Mail on Sunday, 2008-11-06. URL accessed on 2008-11-06.
  10. "Italy's Berlusconi hails "suntanned" Obama", Swiss Info, 2008-11-06. URL accessed on 2008-11-06.
  11. "Italy PM calls Obama 'tanned'", CNN Video, 2008-11-06. URL accessed on 2008-11-06.
  12. "Italy PM calls Obama 'tanned'", RAINEWS24, 2008-11-06. URL accessed on 2008-11-08.
  13. "Veteran Italian journalist Enzo Biagi, 87, dies in Milan", Herald Tribune, 2007-11-06. URL accessed on 2008-11-07.
  14. "Berlusconi: "Perizie per i pm" Dell'Utri: "Mangano un eroe"", Repubblica.it, 2007-11-06. URL accessed on 2008-11-07.
  15. "Silvio Berlusconi criticised for 'pretty girl' rape comment", Telegraph, 2009-01-26. URL accessed on 2009-11-03.
  16. "Silvio Berlusconi: I am inferior to no one in history", The Guardian, 2009-10-10. URL accessed on 2009-11-03.
  17. "Silvio Berlusconi booed by audience after angry TV rant", Telegraph, 2009-10-29. URL accessed on 2009-11-03.

External links

Wikipedia
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Simple English

[[File:|200px|thumb|Silvio Berlusconi]] Silvio Berlusconi (born 29 September 1936 in Milan) is one of most important Italian politicians, leader of a coalition named Popolo della Libertà (People for Freedom). He created the party Forza Italia , renamed then Popolo delle Libertà (People of freedoms) in October 2008.

Berlusconi had some problems with justice, like fraud (1994, 1996) and corruption (1998). In the 1990s he decided to enter politics and he has been Head of Government in 1994, in 2001 and since 2008.

Berlusconi is also the most important manager of Italy, he is the owner of television group Mediaset, of the editorial group "Mondadori" of the football team A.C. Milan, of the Bank group Mediolanum SpA.

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Citable sentences

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