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Sindh
سنڌ
Flag of Sindhسنڌ Map of Pakistan with Sindhسنڌ highlighted
Country
Pakistan Pakistan
Capital
Coordinates
Karachi
24°52′N 67°03′E / 24.87°N 67.05°E / 24.87; 67.05
Largest city Karachi
Population (2009 est.)
 • Density
35,470,648[1]
 • 270/km²
Area
140,914 km²
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Main language(s) Sindhi (Provincial)
Urdu (National)
English (Official)

Other languages spoken:
Punjabi, Pashto, Balochi, Saraiki[2][3][4]

Status Province
Districts 23
Towns 160
Union councils 1094[5]
Established 1 July, 1970
Governor/Commissioner Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ibad Khan
Chief Minister Syed Qaim Ali Shah
Legislature (seats) Provincial Assembly (168[6])
Website Government of Sindh

Sindh (pronounced /sin̪d̪ʱ/) (Sindhi: سنڌ ) (Urdu: سندھ ) (Arabic: السند ‎) (Hindi: सिन्ध ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. Different cultural and ethnic groups also reside in Sindh including Urdu-speaking Muslim refugees who migrated to Pakistan from India upon independence as well as the people migrated from other provinces after independence. The neighbouring regions of Sindh are Balochistan to the west and north, Punjab to the north, Gujarat and Rajasthan to the southeast and east, and the Arabian Sea to the south. The main language is Sindhi. The name is derived from Sanskrit, and was known to the Assyrians (as early as the seventh century BCE) as Sinda, to the Greeks as Sinthus, to the Romans as Sindus, to the Persians as Abisind, to the Arabs as Al-Sind, and to the Chinese as Sintow. To the Javanese the Sindhis have long been known as the Santri.

Contents

Origin of the name

The province of Sindh and the people inhabiting the region had been designated after the river known in Ancient times as the Sindhus River, now also known by Indus River. In Sanskrit, síndhu means "river, stream". However, the importance of the river and close phonetical resemblance in nomenclature would make one consider síndhu as the probable origin of the name of Sindh. The Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indós, hence the modern Indus, when the British conquered South Asia, they expanded the term and applied the name to the entire region of South Asia and called it India.

Prehistoric period

Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan.

The Indus Valley civilization is the farthest visible outpost of archaeology in the abyss of prehistoric times. The prehistoric site of Kot Diji in Sindh has furnished information of high significance for the reconstruction of a connected story which pushes back the history of South Asia by at least another 300 years, from about 2500 BC. Evidence of a new element of pre-Harappan culture has been traced here. When the primitive village communities in Balochistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a highly cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji one of the most developed urban civilization of the ancient world that flourished between the year 25th century BC and 1500 BC in the Indus valley sites of Moenjodaro and Harappa. The people were endowed with a high standard of art and craftsmanship and well-developed system of quasi-pictographic writing which despite ceaseless efforts still remains un-deciphered. The remarkable ruins of the beautifully planned Moenjodaro and Harappa towns, the brick buildings of the common people, roads, public-baths and the covered drainage system envisage the life of a community living happily in an organized manner.

This civilisation is now identified as a possible pre-Aryan civilisation and most probably an indigenous civilization which was met its downfall around the year 1700BC. The downfall of the Indus Valley Civilization is still a hotly debated topic, and was probably caused by a massive earthquake, which dried up the Ghaggar River.

Sindh is mentioned in the Mahabharata as Sindhudesh and its ruler was Jayadratha. He was married with Duryodhana sister Dushala. He was killed by Arjun during war as the revenge of the death of Abhimanyu.

Geography

Sindh is located on the western corner of South Asia, bordering the Iranian plateau in the west. Geographically it is the third largest province of Pakistan, stretching about 579 km from north to south and 442 km (extreme) or 281 km (average) from east to west, with an area of 140,915 square kilometres (54,408 sq mi) of Pakistani territory. Sindh is bounded by the Thar Desert to the east, the Kirthar Mountains to the west, and the Arabian Sea in the south. In the centre is a fertile plain around the Indus river.

Climate

Aerial view of Karachi

Sindh is situated in a subtropical region; it is hot in the summer and cold in winter. Temperatures frequently rise above 46 °C (115 °F) between May and August, and the minimum average temperature of 2 °C (36 °F) occurs during December and January. The annual rainfall averages about seven inches, falling mainly during July and August. The southwest monsoon wind begins to blow in mid-February and continues until the end of September, whereas the cool northerly wind blows during the winter months from October to January.

Sindh lies between the two monsoons — the southwest monsoon from the Indian Ocean and the northeast or retreating monsoon, deflected towards it by the Himalayan mountains — and escapes the influence of both. The average rainfall in Sindh is only 6–7 in (15–18 cm) per year. The region's scarcity of rainfall is compensated by the inundation of the Indus twice a year, caused by the spring and summer melting of Himalayan snow and by rainfall in the monsoon season. These natural patterns have recently changed somewhat with the construction of dams and barrages on the Indus River.

Sindh is divided into three climatic regions: Siro (the upper region, centred on Jacobabad), Wicholo (the middle region, centred on Hyderabad), and Lar (the lower region, centred on Karachi). The thermal equator passes through upper Sindh, where the air is generally very dry. Central Sindh's temperatures are generally lower than those of upper Sindh but higher than those of lower Sindh. Dry hot days and cool nights are typical during the summer. Central Sindh's maximum temperature typically reaches 43–44 °C (109–111 °F). Lower Sindh has a damper and humid maritime climate affected by the southwestern winds in summer and northeastern winds in winter, with lower rainfall than Central Sindh. Lower Sindh's maximum temperature reaches about 35–38 °C (95–100 °F). In the Kirthar range at 1,800 m (5,900 ft) and higher at Gorakh Hill and other peaks in Dadu District, temperatures near freezing have been recorded and brief snowfall is received in the winters.

Demographics and society

Sindh Demographic Indicators
Indicator Statistic
Urban population 55.00%
Rural population 45.00%
Population growth rate 2.80%
Gender ratio (male per 100 female) 112.24
Economically active population 22.75%
Historical populations
Census Population Urban

1951 6,047,748 29.23%
1961 8,367,065 37.85%
1972 14,155,909 40.44%
1981 19,028,666 43.31%
1998 30,439,893 48.75%
2009 35,470,648

The 1998 Census of Pakistan indicated a population of 30.4 million, the current population in 2009 is 51,337,129 million using a compound growth in the range of 2% to 2.8% since then. With just under half being urban dwellers, mainly found in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Mirpurkhas, Nawabshah District, Umerkot and Larkana. Sindhi is the sole official language of Sindh since the 19th century. According to the 2008 Pakistan Statistical Year Book,[2] Sindhi-speaking households make up 59.7% of Sindh's population; Urdu-speaking households make up 21.1%; Punjabi 7.0%; Pashto 4.2%; Balochi 2.1%; Saraiki 1.0% and other languages 4.9%. Other languages include Gujarati, Memoni, Kutchi (both dialects of Sindhi), Khowar, Thari, Persian/Dari and Brahui.

Sindh's population is mainly Muslim (91.32%), and Sindh is also home to nearly all (93%) of Pakistan's Hindus forming 7.5% of the province's population. A large number of the Sindhi Hindus migrated to India at the time of the independence. Smaller groups of Christians (0.97%), Ahmadi (0.14%); Parsis or Zoroastrians, Armenian, Sikh and a Jewish community can also be found in the province.

The Sindhis as a whole are composed of original descendants of an ancient population known as Sammaat, various sub-groups related to the Seraiki or Baloch origin are found in interior Sindh. Sindhis of Balochi origin make up about 60% of the total population of Sindh, while Urdu-speaking Muhajirs make up more than 20% of the total population of the province. Also found in the province is a small group claiming descent from early Muslim settlers including Arabs, and Persian.

History

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Ancient history

Sindh's first known village settlements date as far back as 7,000 BCE. Permanent settlements at Mehrgarh to the west expanded into Sindh. This culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilization rivaled the contemporary civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in both size and scope numbering nearly half a million inhabitants at its height with well-planned grid cities and sewer systems.

Sindh was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the sixth century BCE. In the late 300s BCE, Sindh was conquered by a mixed army led by Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great. The region remained under control of Greek satraps only for a few decades. After Alexander's death, there was a brief period of Seleucid rule, before Sindh was traded to the Mauryan Empire led by Chandragupta in 305 BCE. During the rule of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, the Buddhist religion spread to Sindh.

Mauryan rule ended in 185 BCE with the overthrow of the last king by the Sunga Dynasty. In the disorders that followed, Greek rule returned when Demetrius I of Bactria led a Greco-Bactrian invasion of India and annexed most of northwestern lands, including Sindh. Demetrius was later defeated and killed by a usurper, but his descendants continued to rule Sindh and other lands as the Indo-Greek Kingdom. Under the reign of Menander I many Indo-Greeks followed his example and converted to Buddhism.

In the late 100s BCE, Scythian tribes shattered the Greco-Bactrian empire and invaded the Indo-Greek lands. Unable to take the Punjab region, they seized Sistan and invaded South Asia by coming through Sindh, where they became known as Indo-Scythians (later Western Satraps). Subsequently, the Tocharian Kushan Empire annexed Sindh by the first century CE. Though the Kushans were Zoroastrian, they were tolerant of the local Buddhist tradition and sponsored many building projects for local beliefs.

The Kushan Empire were defeated in the mid 200s CE by the Sassanid Empire of Persia, who installed vassals known as the Kushanshahs. These rulers were defeated by the Kidarites in the late 300s. By the late 400s, attacks by Hephthalite tribes known as the Indo-Hephthalites or Hunas (Huns) broke through the Gupta Empire's North-Western borders and overran much of Northern and Western India. During these upheavals, Sindh became independent under the Rai Dynasty around 478 AD. The Rais were overthrown by Chachar of Alor around 632.

Arrival of Islam

In 711 AD the Umayyad force of 20,000 cavalry and 5 catapults led by Muhammad bin Qasim was aided by Mokah Basayah, Thakore of Bhatta, Ibn Wasayo; Jat and Med tribes. Muhammad bin Qasim eventually defeats the Brahman Raja Dahir, and capture the cities of Alor, Multan and Debal. Large numbers of Sindhi tribes, Buddhists, Yogis and polytheists embraced Islam.

Sindh became the easternmost province of the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphate, referred to as "Al-Sindh" on Arab maps, with lands further east known as "Hind". Muhammad bin Qasim built the city of Mansura as his capitol; the city then produced famous historical figures such as Abu Mashar Sindhi, Abu Ata Sindhi, Abul Hassan Sindhi, Abu Raja Sindhi, Sind ibn Ali and Mohammad Hayya Al-Sindhi; at the port city of Debal most of the Bawarij embraced Islam and became known as Sindhi Sailors they became famous due to their skills in: navigation, geography and languages, in fact they they inspired the One Thousand and One Nights character Sindbad the Sailor. By the year 750.AD Debal was second only to Basra, Sindhi sailors from the port city of Debal voyaged to Basra, Bushehr, Musqat, Aden, Kilwa, Zanzibar, Sofala, Malabar, Sri Lanka and Java, where Sindhi merchants were known as the Santri.

Muslim geographers, historians and travelers such as al-Masudi, Ibn Hawqal, Istakhri, Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi, al-Tabari, Baladhuri, al-Biruni, Ibn Battutah and Katip Çelebi[7] wrote about or visited the region and also sometimes used the name "Sindh" for the entire area from the Arabian Sea to the Hindu Kush.

Soomro period

Direct Arab rule ended in 998 with the ascension of the local Soomra Dynasty, and they were the first local Sindhi Muslims to translate the Quran into the Sindhi language. The Soomros controlled Sindh directly as vassals the Abbasids from 1026 to 1351.

The Soomro's were one of the first Sindhi tribes to convert to Islam and they were known to the Arabs as the Al-Sumrah. Highly influenced by the Fatimid Caliphate, they were taught Cavalry skills by the Arabs, and were renown masters at riding the Arabian Horse and Camel, they created a network in Sindh which eventually facilitated their rule centered at Mansura. They often fought Hindu rebellions and raiders.

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, challenged the Fatmid Ismaili Soomra Dynasty and sieged their capital of Mansura, the city was conquered, people converted to Sunni Hanafi sect and took allegience with Abbasid Caliphate. After the defeat most of the Soomra became nothing more than simple land-owners. However some Soomra created forts such as Tharri and ruled as Amirs, nearly 14 km eastwards of Matli on the Puran. Puran was later abandoned due to changes in the course of Puran river. Then Thatta was the capital for about 95 years until the end of their rule in 1351 AD. During this period, Kutch was ruled by the Samma Dynasty, who enjoyed good relations with the Soomras in Sindh. The Soomros also produced many historical figures such as the brothers Dodo Bin Khafef Soomro III and Chenaser; and the Rano the Soomro prince in the Folk-story Mumal-Rano.

Sindh was also ruled by Muhammad Ibn Tughluq, his descendants and various other figures until the year 1524.

Samma period

Though a part of larger empires, Sindh enjoyed a certain autonomy as a Muslim domain.

In 1339 Jam Unar founded a Sindhi Muslim Samma Dynasty title of Sultan Of Sindh, which reached its peak during the reign of Jam Nizamuddin II (also known by the nickname Jám Nindó). During his reign from 1461 to 1509, Nindó greatly expanded the new capital of Thatta and its Makli hills, which replaced Debal. He also patronized Sindhi art, architecture and culture. Important court figures included Sardar Darya Khan, Moltus Khan, Makhdoom Bilwal and Kazi Kazan. However, Thatta was a port city; unlike garrison towns, it could not mobilize large armies against the Arghun Mongol invaders, who killed many regional Sindhi Mirs and Amirs loyal to the Samma.

The ruthless Arghuns and the Tarkhans sacked Thatta during the rule of Jam Ferozudin and established their own dynasties in the year 1519.

The Samma had left behind a popular legacy; they were highly influenced by the Lodis and introduced the Pashto alphabets to Sindh, some of which are still used in the Malay language of Southeast Asia.

Mughal period

Rohri Town Sukkur by Jas. Atkinson, esq. (published 1842)

In the year 1524 the few remaining Sindhi Amirs welcomed the Mughal Empire and helped Babur defeat his Arghun enemies. Sindh became a region fiercely loyal to the Mughals. A network of forts manned by cavalry and musketeers further extended Mughal power in Sindh.[8][9]

In 1540 a deadly mutiny by Sher Shah Suri forced the Mughal Emperor Humayun to withdraw to Sindh, where he joined the Sindhi Amir Hussein. In 1541 Humayun married Hamida Banu Begum. She gave birth to the infant Akbar at Umarkot in the year 1542.

In 1556 the Ottoman Admiral Seydi Ali Reis visited Humayun; various regions of the South Asia including Sindh (Makran coast and the Mehran delta) are mentioned in his book Mirat ul Memalik. The Portuguese navigator Fernão Mendes Pinto claims that Sindhi sailors joined the Ottoman Admiral Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis on his expedetion to Aceh in 1565.[8][10]

During the reign of Akbar, the Mughal chronicler Abu'l-Fazl (1551-1602) was a descendant of a Sindhi Shaikh family from Rel, Siwistan in Sindh. He became the author of Akbarnama (an official biographical account of Akbar) and the Ain-i-Akbari (a detailed document recording the administration of Akbar's empire).

In the year 1603 Shah Jahan visited the province of Sindh; at Thatta he was generously welcomed by the locals after the death of his father Jahangir. Shah Jahan ordered the construction of the Shahjahan Mosque, which was completed during the early years of his rule. Also during his reign, in the year 1659 (1070 AH) in Agra, the capital of the Mughal Empire, Muhammad Salih Tahtawi of Thatta created a seamless celestial globe with Arabic and Persian inscriptions using a wax casting method.[11][12]

After the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire and its institutions began to decline. Various warring Nawabs took control of vast territories; they ruled independently of the Mughal Emperor.

Meanwhile, Sindh faced many threats from the outside. Mian Yar Mouhammed Kalhoro (Khudabad) challenged the invader Nadir Shah but failed according to legend. To avenge the massacre of his allies he sent a small force to assassinate Nadir Shah and turn events in favor of the Mughal Emperor during the Battle of Karnal in 1739; this plot failed as well.

British period

Moulana Ubaidullah Sindhi

The British East India Company made its first contacts in the Sindhi port city of Thatta, which according to a report was: "a city as large as London containing 50,000 houses which were made of stone and mortar with large verandahs some three or four stories high the...the city has 3000 looms...the textiles of Sind were the flower of the whole produce of the East, the international commerce of Sind gave it a place among that of Nations, Thatta has 400 schools and 4,000 Dhows at its docks, the city is guarded by well armed Sepoys..."

British and Bengal Presidency forces under General Charles James Napier arrived in Sindh in the nineteenth century and conquered Sindh in 1843. The Sindhi coalition led by Talpurs and Kalhoras under the Sindhi general Mir Nasir Khan Talpur were defeated in the Battle of Miani, during which 50,000 Sindhis were killed. Shortly afterward, Mir Sher Muhammad Talpur commanded another army at the Battle of Dubbo, where the young Sindhi general Hoshu Sheedi and 5,000 Sindhis were killed. The first Agha Khan helped the British in their conquest of Sindh, and as result he was granted a lifetime pension. The British East India Company conquered Karachi on February 3, 1839 and started developing it as a major port town.

Flag House, colonial-style building constructed during the British Raj

Within weeks, Charles Napier and his forces occupied Sindh. After 1853, the British divided Sindh into districts. In each district they assigned a ruthless wadera to collect taxes for the British authorities. Wealthy businesses owned by Sindhi Muslim merchants were handed over to the minority Hindu Brahmans, leading the province to further unrest and a severe economic depression. Many Sindhi landowners had to take loans with high interest rates from Banias, money lenders who flocked to Sindh, and later many Sindhi landowners lost their land because they could not pay these loans.

In a highly controversial move, Sindh was later made part of British India's Bombay Presidency—much to the surprise of the local population, who found the decision offensive. A powerful unrest followed, after which Twelve Martial Laws were imposed by the British authorities. Shortly afterwards, the decision was reversed and Sindh became a separate province in 1935.

Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi pioneered the Hur Freedom Movement against British colonialists. He was hanged by the British rulers on 20 March 1943 in the Central Jail Hyderabad, Sindh. His burial place is not known and is still a mystery. The people of Sindh have been demanding the British government to disclose his burial place; however, so far this demand has not received any attention.

Pakistan Resolution in the Sindh Assembly

Muhammad Ali Jinnah as a young lawyer

The Sindh assembly was the first British Indian legislature to pass the resolution in favour of Pakistan.

The Sindh assembly was the first British Indian legislature to pass the resolution in favour of Pakistan. G. M. Syed, an influential Sindhi activist, revolutionary and Sufi and one of the important leaders to the forefront of the provincial autonomy movement joined the Muslim League in 1938 and presented the Pakistan resolution in the Sindh Assembly. G. M. Syed can rightly be considered as the founder of Sindhi nationalism.

In 1890 Sindh got representation for the first time in the Bombay Legislative Assembly. Four members represented Sindh at that time. After some struggle, and with the support of the Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Sindh gained independence from the Bombay Presidency. H.H. Sir Agha Khan, G.M. Syed, Sir Abdul Qayyum Khan and other Indian Muslim leaders played an important role in ensuring separation of Sindh from the Bombay Presidency, which finally took place on 1 April 1936.

The newly created province, Sindh, secured a Legislative Assembly of its own, elected on the basis of communal and minorities’ representation. Sir Lancelot Graham was appointed as the first Governor of Sindh by the British Government on 1 April 1936. He was also the Head of the Council, which comprised 25 Members, including two advisors from the Bombay Council to administer the affairs of Sindh until 1937. The British ruled the area for a century. According to Richard Burton, Sindh was one of the most restive provinces during the British Raj and was home to many prominent Muslim leaders such as Muhammad Ali Jinnah who strove for greater Muslim autonomy.

Modern history after independence of Pakistan

On 14 August 1947, Pakistan gained independence from colonial British colonial rule. The province of Sindh attained self-rule for the first time since the defeat of Sindhi Talpur Amirs in the Battle of Miani on 17 February 1843. The first challenge faced by the Government of Sindh was the settlement of Muslim refugees. Nearly 7 million Muslims from India migrated to Pakistan while a nearly equal number of Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistan migrated to India. The Muslim refugees known as Muhajirs from India settled in most urban areas of Sindh. At the time of independence, Sindh was home to a large number of Hindus, who accounted for 23% of the total population of the province. They were more concentrated in the urban centres of the province and had a strong hold on the province's economy and business. The relations between the local Muslims and Hindus were good but with the arrival of Muslim refugees in the urban centres of the province, Hindus started to feel unsafe. Many among Sindh's Hindu community were enticed by their co-religionists in India to depart with all their belongings and financial capital, further crippling the new nation.

Sindh did not witness any massive rioting (as did the Punjab region and other areas of the subcontinent; there were comparatively few riots in Karachi and Hyderabad, and overall the situation remained peaceful. According to the 1998 census, there were 2.3 million Hindus in Sindh, representing around 7% of the total population of the province.[13] Sindhi Hindus in Pakistan (i.e., caste Hindus, accounting for 86% of the total Hindu population of Pakistan as of 1998) mainly operate small- to medium-sized businesses. They are mainly traders, retailers/wholesalers, builders, and employees in the fields of medical, engineering, law and financial services. However, the scheduled caste Hindus (Dalits) live in poorer conditions, mostly as bonded labour in the rural areas of the province. Most Muslim refugees are settled in urban areas of Sindh, especially in Karachi and Hyderabad.

Since independence of Pakistan in 1947, Sindh has been the destination of a continuous stream of migration from South Asian countries like Bangladesh, Burma, and Afghanistan, as well as Pashtun and Punjabi immigrants from the North West Frontier Province and the Punjab province of Pakistan to Karachi. This is due to the fact that Karachi is the economic magnet of the country, attracting people from all over Pakistan. Some native Sindhis resent this influx. Nonetheless, traditional Sindhi families remain prominent in Pakistani politics, especially the Bhutto, Zardari and Soomro dynasties. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, a 20th-century politician regarded as the founder of Pakistan, was from Karachi, of Gujarati descent.

Provincial government

The Provincial Assembly of Sindh is unicameral and consists of 168 seats of which 5% are reserved for non-Muslims and 17% for women. The provincial capital of Sindh is Karachi.

Politics

Most of the Sindhi tribes in the province are involved in Pakistan's politics. Sindh is a stronghold of the centre-left Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), which is the largest political party in the province.

Districts

The twenty three districts of Sindh, Pakistan

There are 23 districts in Sindh, Pakistan.[14]

Major cities

Economy

A view of Karachi downtown, the capital of Sindh province
GDP by Province

Sindh has the 2nd largest economy in Pakistan. Historically, Sindh's contribution to Pakistan's GDP has been between 30% to 32.7%. Its share in the service sector has ranged from 21% to 27.8% and in the agriculture sector from 21.4% to 27.7%. Performance wise, its best sector is the manufacturing sector, where its share has ranged from 36.7% to 46.5%.[15] Since 1972, Sindh's GDP has expanded by 3.6 times.[16]

Endowed with coastal access, Sindh is a major centre of economic activity in Pakistan and has a highly diversified economy ranging from heavy industry and finance centred in and around Karachi to a substantial agricultural base along the Indus. Manufacturing includes machine products, cement, plastics, and various other goods.

Agriculture is very important in Sindh with cotton, rice, wheat, sugar cane, bananas, and mangoes as the most important crops. Sindh is the richest province in natural resources of gas, petrol, and coal.

Flora and fauna

Provincial symbols of Sindh
Provincial emblem Coat of arms of Sindh Sindh Coat of Arms PK.PNG
Provincial flag Flag of Sindh Flag of Sindh.PNG
Provincial language سنڌي (unofficial) Nastaliq-proportions.jpg
Provincial animal Sindh Ibex
Provincial bird Sind Sparrow Sind Sparrow (Passer pyrrhonotus)- Male at Sultanpur I Picture 178.jpg
Provincial tree Kandi Khejri.jpg
Provincial flower Water Hyacinth Common Water hyacinth.jpg

The province is mostly arid with scant vegetation except for the irrigated Indus Valley. The dwarf palm, Acacia Rupestris (kher), and Tecomella undulata (lohirro) trees are typical of the western hill region. In the Indus valley, the Acacia nilotica (babul) (babbur) is the most dominant and occurs in thick forests along the Indus banks. The Azadirachta indica (neem) (nim), Zizyphys vulgaris (bir) (ber), Tamarix orientalis (jujuba lai) and Capparis aphylla (kirir) are among the more common trees.

Mango, date palms, and the more recently introduced banana, guava, orange, and chiku are the typical fruit-bearing trees. The coastal strip and the creeks abound in semi-aquatic and aquatic plants, and the inshore Indus delta islands have forests of Avicennia tomentosa (timmer) and Ceriops candolleana (chaunir) trees. Water lilies grow in abundance in the numerous lake and ponds, particularly in the lower Sindh region.

Among the wild animals, the Sindh ibex (sareh), wild sheep (urial or gadh) and black bear are found in the western rocky range, where the leopard is now rare. The pirrang (large tiger cat or fishing cat) of the eastern desert region is also disappearing. Deer occur in the lower rocky plains and in the eastern region, as do the striped hyena (charakh), jackal, fox, porcupine, common gray mongoose, and hedgehog. The Sindhi phekari, ped lynx or Caracal cat, is found in some areas. In the Kirthar national park of sind, there is a project to introduce tigers and Asian elephants.

Phartho (hog deer) and wild bear occur particularly in the central inundation belt. There are a variety of bats, lizards, and reptiles, including the cobra, lundi (viper), and the mysterious Sindh krait of the Thar region, which is supposed to suck the victim's breath in his sleep. Crocodiles are rare and inhabit only the backwaters of the Indus and the eastern Nara channel. Besides a large variety of marine fish, the plumbeous dolphin, the beaked dolphin, rorqual or blue whale, and a variety of skates frequent the seas along the Sind coast. The pallo (sable fish), a marine fish, ascends the Indus annually from February to April to spawn.

Education

Year Literacy rate
1972 30.2%
1981 31.5%
1998 45.29%
2008 57.7%

Sources:[17][18]

This is a chart of the education market of Sindh estimated by the government in 1998.[19]

Qualification Urban Rural Total Enrollment ratio (%)
14,839,862 15,600,031 30,439,893
Below Primary 1,984,089 3,332,166 5,316,255 100.00
Primary 3,503,691 5,687,771 9,191,462 82.53
Middle 3,073,335 2,369,644 5,442,979 52.33
Matriculation 2,847,769 2,227,684 5,075,453 34.45
Intermediate 1,473,598 1,018,682 2,492,280 17.78
BA, BSc... degrees 106,847 53,040 159,887 9.59
MA, MSc... degrees 1,320,747 552,241 1,872,988 9.07
Diploma, Certificate... 440,743 280,800 721,543 2.91
Other qualifications 89,043 78,003 167,046 0.54

Major public and private educational institutes of Sindh include:

Admissions to state-run educational institutions in Pakistan are based on the provincial level. Pakistan's other three provinces have a policy of merit-based intraprovincial admissions to state-run educational institutes. Sindh is an exception to this general rule; here admissions are determined by the district domiciles of the candidates and their parents. Critics of this controversial arrangement say that it discriminates against meritorious students of Sindhi ethnic background, denying them admission to the educational institutes and courses of their choice.

The armed forces have also entered the education sector in Sindh. They are funded by the government and operate like private costly education providers.

Arts and crafts

The traditions of Sindhi craftwork reflect the cumulative influence of 5000 years of invaders and settlers, whose various modes of art were eventually assimilated into the culture. The elegant floral and geometrical designs that decorate everyday objects—whether of clay, metal, wood, stone or fabric—can be traced to Muslim influence.

Though chiefly an agricultural and pastoral province, Sindh has a reputation for ajraks, pottery, leatherwork, carpets, textiles, and silk cloths which, in design and finish, are matchless. The chief articles produced are blankets, coarse cotton cloth (soosi), camel fittings, metalwork, lacquered work, enamel, gold and silver embroidery. Hala is famous for pottery and tiles; Boobak for carpets; Nasirpur, Gambat and Thatta for cotton lungees and khes. Other popular crafts include the earthenware of Johi, the metal vessels of Shikarpur, the relli, embroidery and leather articles of Tharparkar, and the lacquered work of Kandhkot.

Prehistoric finds from archaeological sites like Mohenjo-daro, engravings in various graveyards, and the architectural designs of Makli and other tombs have provided ample evidence of the people's literary and musical traditions.

Modern painting and calligraphy have also developed in recent times. Some young trained men have taken up commercial art.

Cultural heritage

The ruins of an ancient mosque at Bhambore
Sindhi women collecting water from a reservoir on the way to Mubarak Village

Sindh has a rich heritage of traditional handicraft that has evolved over the centuries. Perhaps the most professed exposition of Sindhi culture is in the handicrafts of Hala, a town some 30 kilometres from Hyderabad. Hala’s artisans manufacture high-quality and impressively priced wooden handicrafts, textiles, paintings, handmade paper products, and blue pottery. Lacquered wood works known as Jandi, painting on wood, tiles, and pottery known as Kashi, hand woven textiles including khadi, susi, and ajraks are synonymous with Sindhi culture preserved in Hala’s handicraft.

The Small and Medium Enterprises Authority (SMEDA) is planning to set up an organization of artisans to empower the community. SMEDA is also publishing a directory of the artisans so that exporters can directly contact them. Hala is the home of a remarkable variety of traditional crafts and traditional handicrafts that carry with them centuries of skill that has woven magic into the motifs and designs used.[citation needed]

Sindh is known the world over for its various handicrafts and arts. The work of Sindhi artisans was sold in ancient markets of Armenia, Baghdad, Basra, Istanbul, Cairo and Samarkand. Referring to the lacquer work on wood locally known as Jandi, T. Posten (an English traveller who visited Sindh in the early 19th century) asserted that the articles of Hala could be compared with exquisite specimens of China.[citation needed] Technological improvements such as the spinning wheel (charkha) and treadle (pai-chah) in the weaver's loom were gradually introduced and the processes of designing, dyeing and printing by block were refined. The refined, lightweight, colourful, washable fabrics from Hala became a luxury for people used to the woolens and linens of the age.

The ajrak has existed in Sindh since the birth of its civilization. The colour blue is predominantly used for ajraks. Sindh was traditionally a large producer of indigo and cotton cloth and both used to be exported to the Middle East. The ajrak is a mark of respect when it is given to an honoured guest or friend. In Sindh, it is most commonly given as a gift at Eid, at weddings, or on other special occasions like homecoming.

The Rilli, or patchwork quilt, is another Sindhi icon and part of the heritage and culture. Most Sindhi homes have a set of Rillis—one for each member of the family and a few spare for guests. The Rilli is made with small pieces of cloth of different geometrical shapes sewn together to create intricate designs. They may be used as a bedspread or a blanket, and are often given as gifts to friends and guests.

Many women in rural Sindh are skilled in the production of caps. Sindhi caps are manufactured commercially on a small scale at New Saeedabad and Hala New. These are in demand with visitors from Karachi and other places; however, these manufacturing units have a limited production capacity.

Sindh has one distinctive cap that stands out for its colorful embroidery and glasswork; the Sindhi topi (Urdu: سندھی ٹويی ). It is round in shape, except that a portion in front is cut out to expose the forehead. It comes in two varieties: hard and soft. The hard variety keeps its shape when not worn, while the soft variety can be folded and put in one’s pocket. Most Sindhis, rich or poor, own a Sindhi cap.

Sindhi people began celebrating Sindhi Topi Day on December 6, 2009 to preserve the historical culture of Sindh by wearing Ajrak and Sindhi topi.[20]

The Sindhi language

File:Sindhi Alphabet.jpg
Sindhi Language Alphabet

Sindhī (Arabic script: سنڌي, Devanagari script: सिन्धी) is spoken by about 15 million people in the province of Sindh. The largest Sindhi-speaking city is Hyderabad, Pakistan. It is an Indo-European language, related to Kutchi, Gujarati and other Indo-European languages prevalent in the region with substantial Persian, Turkish and Arabic loan words. In Pakistan it is written in a modified Arabic script.

Sindhi is an official language in both Pakistan, where it is spoken by approximately 18.5 million speakers, and in India, where it is spoken by close to three million speakers in the northern region of the country. Outside Pakistan and India, Sindhi is spoken in Oman, United Arab Emirates, the Philippines, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and in the USA. Although Sindhi is an Indo-Aryan language, it shows some signs of Dravidian influence (in both the lexicon and phonology), making it a noteworthy Indic language both linguistically and culturally.

Sindhi is spoken in Pakistan and is also one of the constitutional languages of India. It is spoken by about 20 million people in the province of Sind, southern Pakistan, Balochistan and by about 2 million more across the border in India. In Pakistan it is written in the Arabic script with several additional letters to accommodate special sounds. The largest Sindhi-speaking city is Hyderabad, Pakistan. Sindhi literature is also spiritual in nature and Shah Abdul Latif Bhattai (1689-1752) was one of its legendary poet who wrote Sassi Punnu, Umar Marwi in his famous book "Shah jo Rasalo".

Key dialects: Kachchi, Lari, Lasi, Thareli, Vicholo (Central Sindhi), Macharia, Dukslinu (Hindu Sindhi), and Sindhi Musalmani (Muslim Sindhi).

Places of interest

Sindh has numerous tourist sites, the most notable being the ruins of Mohenjo-daro near the city of Larkana. Islamic architecture is quite prominent in the province; numerous mausoleums dot the province, including the very old Shahbaz Qalander mausoleum dedicated to the Iranian-born Sufi, and the beautiful mausoleum of Muhammad Ali Jinnah (known as the Mazar-e-Quaid) in Karachi. Also of note is the Jama Masjid in Thatta, built by the Mughal emperor Shahjahan.

Famous Sindhi people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Sind - type and level of administrative division". World Gazetteer. http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gpro&lng=en&des=wg&geo=-2944&srt=pnan&col=abcdefghinoq&msz=1500. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  2. ^ a b "Percentage Distribution of Households by Language Usually Spoken and Region/Province, 1998 Census." Pakistan Statistical Year Book 2008. Federal Bureau of Statistics - Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 15 December 2009.
  3. ^ "Sindh (province, Pakistan)" at Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  4. ^ "About Sindh" at SindhToday.net
  5. ^ "Government of Sindh". http://www.sindh.gov.pk/dpt/abtsindh/Adminsetup.htm. 
  6. ^ Provincial Assembly Seats
  7. ^ http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?articleID=1137
  8. ^ a b The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia by Nicholas Tarling p.39 [1]
  9. ^ Cambridge illustrated atlas, warfare: Renaissance to revolution, 1492-1792 by Jeremy Black p.16 [2]
  10. ^ http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/01475176655936417554480/p0000002.htm Cervantes Virtual website
  11. ^ Savage-Smith, Emilie (1985), Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their History, Construction, and Use, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 
  12. ^ Kazi, Najma (24 November 2007). "Seeking Seamless Scientific Wonders: Review of Emilie Savage-Smith's Work". FSTC Limited. http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?articleID=832. Retrieved 2008-02-01. 
  13. ^ Hindu Population in Pakistan according to 1998 census. Pakistan Hindu Concil
  14. ^ District Nazims of the Province of Sindh
  15. ^ Provincial Accounts of Pakistan: Methodology and Estimates 1973-2000
  16. ^ http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PAKISTANEXTN/Resources/293051-1241610364594/6097548-1257441952102/balochistaneconomicreportvol2.pdf
  17. ^ http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001459/145959e.pdf
  18. ^ http://www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/fbs/publications/lfs2007_08/results.pdf
  19. ^ "Population by Level of Education and Rural/Urban". Statistics Division: Ministry of Economic Affairs and Statistics. Government of Pakistan. http://www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/pco/statistics/pop_education/pop_education_rural_urban.html. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  20. ^ Sindh celebrates first ever ‘Sindhi Topi Day’

References

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SIND, a former province of India, now a division of the Bombay presidency. It is the most northerly portion of the presidency, lying between 23° 35' and 28° 29' N. and between 66° 40' and 71° 10' E., having an area of 53,116 sq. m. and a population (1901) of 3,410,223. It includes the six districts of Karachi, Hyderabad, Thar and Parkar, Larkhana, Sukkur and Upper Sind Frontier, together with the native state of Khairpur. It differs widely in physical features and climate, no less than in the language, dress and customs of the people, from the rest of the presidency, from which it is cut off by the deserts or the sea. It is bounded on the N. by Baluchistan and the Punjab; on the E. by the desert tracts of W. Rajputana; on the S. by the Runn of Cutch and the Indian Ocean; and on the W. by Baluchistan.

Table of contents

Physical features

Sind proper, or the central alluvial plain watered by the Indus, lies between the Kohistan or hilly country that rises to the Kirthar range on the Baluchistan border, and the Registan or Thar desert that stretches E. into Rajputana. The Kohistan in years of good rainfall yields abundant fodder for cattle and camels, and supports a scanty tillage on the banks of the hill streams or naffs, one of which, named the Hab, forms the boundary between Sind and Baluchistan. Central Sind lies on both banks of the Indus, which flows S. in a bed that has been raised by the deposit of silt above the surrounding country. Except where its bed is confined by rocks, as at Sukkur, Rohri and along the edge of the Kohistan from Lakhi to Jhirak, the river constantly changes its course, especially in the delta, the head of which is now opposite Shahbandar. Central Sind depends on the yearly inundation of the Indus, which begins to rise in March and reaches its highest point about the middle of August. The water is distributed by a very ancient system of canals, which has been greatly improved and extended since the British conquest. The soil is a plastic clay desposited by the river.

The great geographical feature in Sind is the lower Indus, which passes through the entire length of the country, first in a S.W. direction, then turning somewhat to the E., then returning to a line more directly S., and finally inclining to the W., to seek an outlet at the sea. The distant line of mountains between Sukkur and Schwan, the steep pass overhanging the water at Lakhi, and the hill country below Sehwan give a distinctive character to the right bank. Sind has been aptly likened to Egypt. If the one depends for life and fertility on the Nile, so does the other on the Indus. The cities and towns are not so readily to be compared. Hyderabad, notwithstanding its remarkable fortress and handsome tombs, can scarcely vie in interest as a native capital with Cairo; nor can Karachi, as a Europeanized capital, be said to have attained the celebrity of Alexandria. The province contains many monuments of archaeological and architectural interest.

Owing to the deficiency of rain, the continuance of hot weather in Sind is exceptional. Lying between two monsoons, it just escapes the influence of both. The S.W. monsoon stops short at Lakhpat in Cutch, the N.W. monsoon at Karachi, and even here the annual rainfall is not reckoned at more than 6 or 8 in. At times there is no rain for two or three years, while at others there is a whole season's rainfall in one or two days. The average temperature of the summer months rises to 95° F., and the winter average is 60°, the summer maximum being 120° and the winter minimum 28°. The temperature on the sea-coast is much more equable than elsewhere. In northern Sind we find frost in winter, while both here and in Lower Sind the summer heat is extreme and prolonged. This great heat, combined with the poisonous exhalations from the pools left after the annual inundation and the decaying vegetable deposits, produces fever and ague, to which even the natives fall a prey.

Agriculture

The salt of the delta is the only mineral product of commercial importance. Timber and fuel are supplied chiefly by the babul (Acacia arabica), bahan (Populus euphratica), kandi (Prosopis spicigera) and iron wood (Tocoma undulata), and fruit by the date, mango and pomegranate. The chief rabi or spring crops, sown from August to October and reaped from February to April, are wheat, barley, gram, oilseeds and vegetables. The chief winter or kharif crops, sown from May to July and reaped from October to December, are the millets (bajri and juar), rice, urad (Phaseolus radiatus), mung (Phaseolus mungo), cotton and indigo. Efforts are being made to introduce the long-stapled Egyptian cotton. Agriculture is almost entirely dependent upon irrigation from the Indus.

Manufactures

Among the chief manufactures may be mentioned gold, silver, and silk embroideries, carpets, cloths, lacquered ware, horse-trappings and other leather-work, paper, pottery, tiles, swords and matchlocks, and the boxes and other articles of inlaid work introduced from Shiraz. Lac work, a widely extended industry in India, is also in vogue in Sind. Variously coloured lac is laid in succession on the boxes while turning on the lathe, and the design is then cut through the different colours. Hyderabad was long famous for its silks and cottons, silver and gold work and lacquered ornaments, and the district could once boast of skilled workmen in arms and armour; but these old industries are now on the decline. In the cloths called sudi, silk is woven with the striped cotton - a practice possibly due to the large Mahommedan population of the country, as no Moslem may wear a garment of pure silk. Chundari, or knotting, is another method of decorating cotton and silk goods. The extension of cotton cultivation in Sind has caused a brisk development in ginning factories of recent years. The Sind cottonprinters are the most skilful and tasteful in the Bombay presidency. Cotton carpets, rugs, horse-cloths, towels and napkins are manufactured at the gaols. Woollen saddle-cloths, blankets and felts are also made. Sind produces the best pottery of India. The art was introduced or developed by the Mahommedans, whose rulers gave it every encouragement. Magnificent tombs and mosques, now in ruins, testify to the skill of the ancient potters. Leather is worked in a variety of articles, such as saddle-covers for camels and horses, shoes, leggings and accoutrements. In 1904 two new flour and rice-cleaning mills were started at Sukkur.

Trade

The trade of Sind is carried on through Karachi with foreign countries, and across the land frontier with Afghanistan, Baluchistan and Seistan. Karachi is the great port for the grain trade of all N. India, and is also the great strategic military port for the N.W. frontier. The chief articles of import are cotton and woollen goods, iron and steel, mineral oil, sugar, tea and machinery; while the chief exports are wheat and other grains, cotton, wool, oilseeds, hides and skins, and bones. On the land frontier the chief articles of import are horses, ponies, mules, sheep and goats, woollen and cotton piece-goods, wheat, gram and pulse, rice, fruits and nuts, provisions, stores, leather, ghee, raw wool, silver, assafoetida, drugs, hides, fish, seeds, manufactured silk, spices and tobacco; while the exports are cotton twist and yarn, piece-goods, leather, metals, coal and coke, wheat, husked rice, liquors, ghee, sugar, tea, tobacco, wool and silver.

Fauna

The last tiger in Sind was shot about 1885. Among other wild animals are the hyaena, the gurkhar or wild ass (in the S. of the Thar and Parkar district), the wolf, jackal, fox, wild hog, antelope, pharho or hog deer, hares and porcupines. Of birds of prey, the vulture and several varieties of falcon may be mentioned. The flamingo, pelican, stork, crane and Egyptian ibis frequent the shores of the delta. Besides these there are the ubara (bustard) or tilur, the rock-grouse, quail, partridge and various kinds of parrots. Waterfowl are plentiful; in the cold season the lakes or dhandhs are covered with wild geese, kulang, ducks, teal, curlew and snipe. Among other animals to be noted are scorpions, lizards, centipedes and many snakes.

The domestic animals include camels (one-humped), buffaloes, sheep and goats, horses and asses (small but hardy), mules and bullocks. Of fish there are, on the sea-coast, sharks, saw-fish, rays and skate; cod, sir, cavalho, red-snapper, gassir, begti, dangara and buru abound. A kind of sardine also frequents the coast. In the Indus, the finest flavoured and most plentiful fish is the pa/o, generally identified with the hilsa of the Ganges. Dambhro (Labeo rohita) and mullet, morako (Cirrhina mrigala), gandan (Notopterus kapirat), khago or catfish (Rita buchanani), popri (Barbus sarana), shakur, jerkho and singhari (Macrones aor) are also found. Otter, turtle and porpoise are frequently met with; so too are long-snouted crocodiles and water-snakes.

Forests

The area of reserved forest in Sind is 1065 sq. m. The forests are situated for the most part on the banks of the Indus. and extend S. from near Rohri to the middle delta. They are narrow strips of land, from 2 to 3 m. in length, and ranging from 2 furlongs to 2 m. in breadth. The largest are between 9000 and 10,000 acres in area, but are subject to diminution owing to the encroachments of the stream. The wood is principally babul (Acacia arabica), bahan (Populus euphratica) and kandi (Prosopis spicigera). The tali (Dalbergia Sissoo) grows to some extent in Upper Sind; the iron-wood tree (Tocoma undulata) is found near the hills in the Mehar districts. There are, besides, the nim (Melia Azadirachta), the pipal (Ficus religiosa), the ber (Zizyphus Jujuba). The delta has no forests, but its shores abound with mangrove trees. Of trees introduced are the tamarind (Tamarindus indica), several Australian wattle trees, the water-chestnut (Trapa natans), the aula (Emblica officinalis), the bahera (Terminalia Bellerica), the carob tree (Ceratonia Siliqua), the China tallow (Stillingia sebifera), the bel (Aegle Marmelos) and the manah (Bassia latifolia). There is a specially organized forest department.

Irrigation

The Indus at its source is 16,000 ft. above sea-level. At Attock it is still 2000 ft. above the sea. It is, therefore, a rapid river, which brings down a great quantity of silt from the mountains and deposits it in the Sind valley. The bed of the river is always rising, and has to be constantly watched to prevent its overflowing its banks, while the quantity of silt that the water contains makes it very valuable to the cultivator. The inundation canals of the Indus have, therefore, been carried to a high degree of perfection, though the water of the river cannot be fully utilized until the proposed barrage is constructed at Sukkur. The chief of the existing canals are: on the right bank of the Indus, the Desert, Undarwah, Begari, Mahiwah, Sukkur, Ghar, Sattah, Sind and Western Nara canals; and on the left bank the Eastern Nara, Hirai, Jamrao ! Dad, Nasrat, Fuleli and Hasanali canals. Within the area watered by these canals all vegetation is luxuriant; but beyond the reach of the siltladen waters the dry and hardened ground is almost bare.

Railways

Sind is traversed by the North-Western railway, which follows the Indus from the Punjab to the sea at Karachi. The Indus is twice bridged: at Rohri where the main line crosses the river and a branch goes off to Quetta; and at Kotri, opposite Hyderabad, whence a narrow-gauge line was opened into Rajputana in 1900, and another branch runs S. to Budin in the delta. A chord line connects Hyderabad with Rohri, to evade the erosion of the Indus, giving an alternative route from Karachi to Quetta and the N.W. frontier. One of the main purposes of the Indus valley line is the strategic defence of that frontier.

Population

The great majority of the inhabitants of Sind are of Hindu descent, converted to Islam. They speak a language of their own, which is akin to that of the Punjab, though retaining many archaic peculiarities. Mahommedans, who form more than three-fourths of the total, may be divided into Sindis proper and naturalized Sindis. The Sindi proper is a descendant of the original Hindu. In sect he is a Suni, though the Talpur mirs adopted the Shiah persuasion. There is, as a rule, no distinction of caste, except that followers of certain vocations - such as weavers, leather-workers, sweepers, huntsmen - are considered low and vile. The six different classes of naturalized Sindis are - the four families of the Saiyids (the Bokhari, Mathari, Shirazi and Laghari); the Afghans; the Baluchis; the slaves or Sidis - originally Africans; the Memans; and the Khwajas. More than half of the Hindus are Lohanas, originally traders, who have almost monopolised government service and the professions. Brahmans are few and uninfluential. Sikhs are numerous.

Administration

Sind is administered as a non-regulation province, under a commissioner, who resides at Karachi. The highest court, independent of the High Court at Bombay, is that of the judicial commissioner, consisting of three judges, one of whom must be a barrister specially qualified to deal with mercantile cases. The Karachi brigade, forming part of the Quetta or fourth division of the Southern army, is distributed in cantonments at Karachi, Hyderabad and Jacobabad.

History

Sind has a history of its own, distinct from the rest of India. In the early centuries of the Christian era it was ruled by a Buddhist dynasty, with capitals at Alor and Brahmanabad. It was the first part of the peninsula to be invaded by the Mahommedans, under Mahommed bin Kasim, a general of the caliph, in 711. The invasion was by sea, from the mouth of the Indus; and for nearly three centuries Sind remained nominally subject to the Arab caliphs. Though conquered by Mahmud of Ghazni in the course of his raids into India, Sind long preserved a semiindependence under two local dynasties, the Sumras and the Sammas, both of Rajput descent but Mahommedans in religion. The latter had their capital at Tatta, in the delta of the Indus, which continued to be a seaport until the 18th century. The Sammas were followed by the Arghuns, of foreign origin, and the Arghuns by the short-lived Turkhan dynasty. It was not till the time of Akbar, who had himself been born at Umarkot in Sind, that the province was regularly incorporated in the Delhi empire. When that empire broke up on the death of Aurangzeb, local dynasties again arose. The first of these was the Kalhoras, who were succeeded by the Talpurs, of Baluch descent, who were ruling under the title of Mirs, with their capital at Hyderabad, when the British first entered into close relations with the country.

The East India Company had established a factory at Tatta in 1758; but the Talpur mirs were never friendly to trade, and the factory was withdrawn in 1775. In 1830 Alexander Burnes was permitted to pass up the Indus on his way to the court of Ranjit Singh at Lahore, and two years later Henry Pottinger concluded a commercial treaty with the mirs. It was, however, the expedition to Afghanistan in 1838 for the restoration of Shah Shuja that forced on matters. The British army under Sir John Keane marched through Sind, and the mirs were compelled to accept a treaty by which they paid a tribute to Shah Shuja, surrendered the fort of Bukkur to the British, and allowed a steam flotilla to navigate the Indus. The crisis did not arrive till 1842, when Sir Charles Napier arrived in Sind and fresh terms were imposed on the mirs. The Baluch army resented this loss of independence, and attacked the residency near Hyderabad, which was bravely defended by Outram. Then followed the decisive battle of Meeanee and the annexation of Sind. A course of wise, firm and kindly administration inaugurated by Sir Charles Napier himself, and continued by Sir Bartle Frere, Sir W. Merewether and later commissioners, has since made the province peaceful and prosperous.

See H. M. Birdwood, The Province of Sind (Society of Arts, 1903); and Sir Richard Burton, Scinde (1851).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to sind article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Danish

Noun

sind n. (singular definite sindet, plural indefinite sind)

  1. mind
  2. temper, disposition

Derived terms

  • have i sinde at
  • i sit stille sind

Inflection


Estonian

Pronoun

sind

  1. accusative singular form of sina or sa

German

Pronunciation

Verb

sind

  1. first-person plural indicative present form of sein
    Wir sind hier. - "We are here."
  2. third-person plural indicative present form of sein
    Wo sind Sie? - "Where are you (polite)?"
    Da sind sie. - "There they are."

Old High German

Noun

sind

  1. way
  2. travel

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