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Sindh
سنڌ
Flag of Sindhسنڌ Map of Pakistan with Sindhسنڌ highlighted
Country
Pakistan Pakistan
Capital
Coordinates
Karachi
24°52′N 67°03′E / 24.87°N 67.05°E / 24.87; 67.05
Largest city Karachi
Population (2009 est.)
 • Density
35,470,648[1]
 • 270/km²
Area
140,914 km²
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Main language(s) Sindhi (Provincial)
Urdu (National)
English (Official)

Other languages spoken:
Punjabi, Pashto, Balochi, Saraiki[2][3][4]

Status Province
Districts 23
Towns 160
Union councils 1094[5]
Established 1 July, 1970
Governor/Commissioner Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ibad Khan
Chief Minister Syed Qaim Ali Shah
Legislature (seats) Provincial Assembly (168[6])
Website Government of Sindh

Sindh (pronounced /sin̪d̪ʱ/) (Sindhi: سنڌ ) (Urdu: سندھ ) (Arabic: السند ‎) (Hindi: सिन्ध ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. Different cultural and ethnic groups also reside in Sindh including Urdu-speaking Muslim refugees who migrated to Pakistan from India upon independence as well as the people migrated from other provinces after independence. The neighbouring regions of Sindh are Balochistan to the west and north, Punjab to the north, Gujarat and Rajasthan to the southeast and east, and the Arabian Sea to the south. The main language is Sindhi. The name is derived from Sanskrit, and was known to the Assyrians (as early as the seventh century BCE) as Sinda, to the Greeks as Sinthus, to the Romans as Sindus, to the Persians as Abisind, to the Arabs as Al-Sind, and to the Chinese as Sintow. To the Javanese the Sindhis have long been known as the Santri.

Contents

Origin of the name

The province of Sindh and the people inhabiting the region had been designated after the river known in Ancient times as the Sindhus River, now also known by Indus River. In Sanskrit, síndhu means "river, stream". However, the importance of the river and close phonetical resemblance in nomenclature would make one consider síndhu as the probable origin of the name of Sindh. The Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indós, hence the modern Indus, when the British conquered South Asia, they expanded the term and applied the name to the entire region of South Asia and called it India.

Prehistoric period

Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan.

The Indus Valley civilization is the farthest visible outpost of archaeology in the abyss of prehistoric times. The prehistoric site of Kot Diji in Sindh has furnished information of high significance for the reconstruction of a connected story which pushes back the history of South Asia by at least another 300 years, from about 2500 BC. Evidence of a new element of pre-Harappan culture has been traced here. When the primitive village communities in Balochistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a highly cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji one of the most developed urban civilization of the ancient world that flourished between the year 25th century BC and 1500 BC in the Indus valley sites of Moenjodaro and Harappa. The people were endowed with a high standard of art and craftsmanship and well-developed system of quasi-pictographic writing which despite ceaseless efforts still remains un-deciphered. The remarkable ruins of the beautifully planned Moenjodaro and Harappa towns, the brick buildings of the common people, roads, public-baths and the covered drainage system envisage the life of a community living happily in an organized manner.

This civilisation is now identified as a possible pre-Aryan civilisation and most probably an indigenous civilization which was met its downfall around the year 1700BC. The downfall of the Indus Valley Civilization is still a hotly debated topic, and was probably caused by a massive earthquake, which dried up the Ghaggar River.

Sindh is mentioned in the Mahabharata as Sindhudesh and its ruler was Jayadratha. He was married with Duryodhana sister Dushala. He was killed by Arjun during war as the revenge of the death of Abhimanyu.

Geography

Sindh is located on the western corner of South Asia, bordering the Iranian plateau in the west. Geographically it is the third largest province of Pakistan, stretching about 579 km from north to south and 442 km (extreme) or 281 km (average) from east to west, with an area of 140,915 square kilometres (54,408 sq mi) of Pakistani territory. Sindh is bounded by the Thar Desert to the east, the Kirthar Mountains to the west, and the Arabian Sea in the south. In the centre is a fertile plain around the Indus river.

Climate

Aerial view of Karachi

Sindh is situated in a subtropical region; it is hot in the summer and cold in winter. Temperatures frequently rise above 46 °C (115 °F) between May and August, and the minimum average temperature of 2 °C (36 °F) occurs during December and January. The annual rainfall averages about seven inches, falling mainly during July and August. The southwest monsoon wind begins to blow in mid-February and continues until the end of September, whereas the cool northerly wind blows during the winter months from October to January.

Sindh lies between the two monsoons — the southwest monsoon from the Indian Ocean and the northeast or retreating monsoon, deflected towards it by the Himalayan mountains — and escapes the influence of both. The average rainfall in Sindh is only 6–7 in (15–18 cm) per year. The region's scarcity of rainfall is compensated by the inundation of the Indus twice a year, caused by the spring and summer melting of Himalayan snow and by rainfall in the monsoon season. These natural patterns have recently changed somewhat with the construction of dams and barrages on the Indus River.

Sindh is divided into three climatic regions: Siro (the upper region, centred on Jacobabad), Wicholo (the middle region, centred on Hyderabad), and Lar (the lower region, centred on Karachi). The thermal equator passes through upper Sindh, where the air is generally very dry. Central Sindh's temperatures are generally lower than those of upper Sindh but higher than those of lower Sindh. Dry hot days and cool nights are typical during the summer. Central Sindh's maximum temperature typically reaches 43–44 °C (109–111 °F). Lower Sindh has a damper and humid maritime climate affected by the southwestern winds in summer and northeastern winds in winter, with lower rainfall than Central Sindh. Lower Sindh's maximum temperature reaches about 35–38 °C (95–100 °F). In the Kirthar range at 1,800 m (5,900 ft) and higher at Gorakh Hill and other peaks in Dadu District, temperatures near freezing have been recorded and brief snowfall is received in the winters.

Demographics and society

Sindh Demographic Indicators
Indicator Statistic
Urban population 55.00%
Rural population 45.00%
Population growth rate 2.80%
Gender ratio (male per 100 female) 112.24
Economically active population 22.75%
Historical populations
Census Population Urban

1951 6,047,748 29.23%
1961 8,367,065 37.85%
1972 14,155,909 40.44%
1981 19,028,666 43.31%
1998 30,439,893 48.75%
2009 35,470,648

The 1998 Census of Pakistan indicated a population of 30.4 million, the current population in 2009 is 51,337,129 million using a compound growth in the range of 2% to 2.8% since then. With just under half being urban dwellers, mainly found in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Mirpurkhas, Nawabshah District, Umerkot and Larkana. Sindhi is the sole official language of Sindh since the 19th century. According to the 2008 Pakistan Statistical Year Book,[2] Sindhi-speaking households make up 59.7% of Sindh's population; Urdu-speaking households make up 21.1%; Punjabi 7.0%; Pashto 4.2%; Balochi 2.1%; Saraiki 1.0% and other languages 4.9%. Other languages include Gujarati, Memoni, Kutchi (both dialects of Sindhi), Khowar, Thari, Persian/Dari and Brahui.

Sindh's population is mainly Muslim (91.32%), and Sindh is also home to nearly all (93%) of Pakistan's Hindus forming 7.5% of the province's population. A large number of the Sindhi Hindus migrated to India at the time of the independence. Smaller groups of Christians (0.97%), Ahmadi (0.14%); Parsis or Zoroastrians, Armenian, Sikh and a Jewish community can also be found in the province.

The Sindhis as a whole are composed of original descendants of an ancient population known as Sammaat, various sub-groups related to the Seraiki or Baloch origin are found in interior Sindh. Sindhis of Balochi origin make up about 60% of the total population of Sindh, while Urdu-speaking Muhajirs make up more than 20% of the total population of the province. Also found in the province is a small group claiming descent from early Muslim settlers including Arabs, and Persian.

History

Ancient history

Sindh's first known village settlements date as far back as 7,000 BCE. Permanent settlements at Mehrgarh to the west expanded into Sindh. This culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilization rivaled the contemporary civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in both size and scope numbering nearly half a million inhabitants at its height with well-planned grid cities and sewer systems.

Sindh was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the sixth century BCE. In the late 300s BCE, Sindh was conquered by a mixed army led by Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great. The region remained under control of Greek satraps only for a few decades. After Alexander's death, there was a brief period of Seleucid rule, before Sindh was traded to the Mauryan Empire led by Chandragupta in 305 BCE. During the rule of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, the Buddhist religion spread to Sindh.

Mauryan rule ended in 185 BCE with the overthrow of the last king by the Sunga Dynasty. In the disorders that followed, Greek rule returned when Demetrius I of Bactria led a Greco-Bactrian invasion of India and annexed most of northwestern lands, including Sindh. Demetrius was later defeated and killed by a usurper, but his descendants continued to rule Sindh and other lands as the Indo-Greek Kingdom. Under the reign of Menander I many Indo-Greeks followed his example and converted to Buddhism.

In the late 100s BCE, Scythian tribes shattered the Greco-Bactrian empire and invaded the Indo-Greek lands. Unable to take the Punjab region, they seized Sistan and invaded South Asia by coming through Sindh, where they became known as Indo-Scythians (later Western Satraps). Subsequently, the Tocharian Kushan Empire annexed Sindh by the first century CE. Though the Kushans were Zoroastrian, they were tolerant of the local Buddhist tradition and sponsored many building projects for local beliefs.

The Kushan Empire were defeated in the mid 200s CE by the Sassanid Empire of Persia, who installed vassals known as the Kushanshahs. These rulers were defeated by the Kidarites in the late 300s. By the late 400s, attacks by Hephthalite tribes known as the Indo-Hephthalites or Hunas (Huns) broke through the Gupta Empire's North-Western borders and overran much of Northern and Western India. During these upheavals, Sindh became independent under the Rai Dynasty around 478 AD. The Rais were overthrown by Chachar of Alor around 632.

Arrival of Islam

In 711 AD the Umayyad force of 20,000 cavalry and 5 catapults led by Muhammad bin Qasim was aided by Mokah Basayah, Thakore of Bhatta, Ibn Wasayo; Jat and Med tribes. Muhammad bin Qasim eventually defeats the Brahman Raja Dahir, and capture the cities of Alor, Multan and Debal. Large numbers of Sindhi tribes, Buddhists, Yogis and polytheists embraced Islam.

Sindh became the easternmost province of the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphate, referred to as "Al-Sindh" on Arab maps, with lands further east known as "Hind". Muhammad bin Qasim built the city of Mansura as his capitol; the city then produced famous historical figures such as Abu Mashar Sindhi, Abu Ata Sindhi, Abul Hassan Sindhi, Abu Raja Sindhi, Sind ibn Ali and Mohammad Hayya Al-Sindhi; at the port city of Debal most of the Bawarij embraced Islam and became known as Sindhi Sailors they became famous due to their skills in: navigation, geography and languages, in fact they they inspired the One Thousand and One Nights character Sindbad the Sailor. By the year 750.AD Debal was second only to Basra, Sindhi sailors from the port city of Debal voyaged to Basra, Bushehr, Musqat, Aden, Kilwa, Zanzibar, Sofala, Malabar, Sri Lanka and Java, where Sindhi merchants were known as the Santri.

Muslim geographers, historians and travelers such as al-Masudi, Ibn Hawqal, Istakhri, Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi, al-Tabari, Baladhuri, al-Biruni, Ibn Battutah and Katip Çelebi[7] wrote about or visited the region and also sometimes used the name "Sindh" for the entire area from the Arabian Sea to the Hindu Kush.

Soomro period

Direct Arab rule ended in 998 with the ascension of the local Soomra Dynasty, and they were the first local Sindhi Muslims to translate the Quran into the Sindhi language. The Soomros controlled Sindh directly as vassals the Abbasids from 1026 to 1351.

The Soomro's were one of the first Sindhi tribes to convert to Islam and they were known to the Arabs as the Al-Sumrah. Highly influenced by the Fatimid Caliphate, they were taught Cavalry skills by the Arabs, and were renown masters at riding the Arabian Horse and Camel, they created a network in Sindh which eventually facilitated their rule centered at Mansura. They often fought Hindu rebellions and raiders.

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, challenged the Fatmid Ismaili Soomra Dynasty and sieged their capital of Mansura, the city was conquered, people converted to Sunni Hanafi sect and took allegience with Abbasid Caliphate. After the defeat most of the Soomra became nothing more than simple land-owners. However some Soomra created forts such as Tharri and ruled as Amirs, nearly 14 km eastwards of Matli on the Puran. Puran was later abandoned due to changes in the course of Puran river. Then Thatta was the capital for about 95 years until the end of their rule in 1351 AD. During this period, Kutch was ruled by the Samma Dynasty, who enjoyed good relations with the Soomras in Sindh. The Soomros also produced many historical figures such as the brothers Dodo Bin Khafef Soomro III and Chenaser; and the Rano the Soomro prince in the Folk-story Mumal-Rano.

Sindh was also ruled by Muhammad Ibn Tughluq, his descendants and various other figures until the year 1524.

Samma period

Though a part of larger empires, Sindh enjoyed a certain autonomy as a Muslim domain.

In 1339 Jam Unar founded a Sindhi Muslim Samma Dynasty title of Sultan Of Sindh, which reached its peak during the reign of Jam Nizamuddin II (also known by the nickname Jám Nindó). During his reign from 1461 to 1509, Nindó greatly expanded the new capital of Thatta and its Makli hills, which replaced Debal. He also patronized Sindhi art, architecture and culture. Important court figures included Sardar Darya Khan, Moltus Khan, Makhdoom Bilwal and Kazi Kazan. However, Thatta was a port city; unlike garrison towns, it could not mobilize large armies against the Arghun Mongol invaders, who killed many regional Sindhi Mirs and Amirs loyal to the Samma.

The ruthless Arghuns and the Tarkhans sacked Thatta during the rule of Jam Ferozudin and established their own dynasties in the year 1519.

The Samma had left behind a popular legacy; they were highly influenced by the Lodis and introduced the Pashto alphabets to Sindh, some of which are still used in the Malay language of Southeast Asia.

Mughal period

Rohri Town Sukkur by Jas. Atkinson, esq. (published 1842)

In the year 1524 the few remaining Sindhi Amirs welcomed the Mughal Empire and helped Babur defeat his Arghun enemies. Sindh became a region fiercely loyal to the Mughals. A network of forts manned by cavalry and musketeers further extended Mughal power in Sindh.[8][9]

In 1540 a deadly mutiny by Sher Shah Suri forced the Mughal Emperor Humayun to withdraw to Sindh, where he joined the Sindhi Amir Hussein. In 1541 Humayun married Hamida Banu Begum. She gave birth to the infant Akbar at Umarkot in the year 1542.

In 1556 the Ottoman Admiral Seydi Ali Reis visited Humayun; various regions of the South Asia including Sindh (Makran coast and the Mehran delta) are mentioned in his book Mirat ul Memalik. The Portuguese navigator Fernão Mendes Pinto claims that Sindhi sailors joined the Ottoman Admiral Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis on his expedetion to Aceh in 1565.[8][10]

During the reign of Akbar, the Mughal chronicler Abu'l-Fazl (1551-1602) was a descendant of a Sindhi Shaikh family from Rel, Siwistan in Sindh. He became the author of Akbarnama (an official biographical account of Akbar) and the Ain-i-Akbari (a detailed document recording the administration of Akbar's empire).

In the year 1603 Shah Jahan visited the province of Sindh; at Thatta he was generously welcomed by the locals after the death of his father Jahangir. Shah Jahan ordered the construction of the Shahjahan Mosque, which was completed during the early years of his rule. Also during his reign, in the year 1659 (1070 AH) in Agra, the capital of the Mughal Empire, Muhammad Salih Tahtawi of Thatta created a seamless celestial globe with Arabic and Persian inscriptions using a wax casting method.[11][12]

After the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire and its institutions began to decline. Various warring Nawabs took control of vast territories; they ruled independently of the Mughal Emperor.

Meanwhile, Sindh faced many threats from the outside. Mian Yar Mouhammed Kalhoro (Khudabad) challenged the invader Nadir Shah but failed according to legend. To avenge the massacre of his allies he sent a small force to assassinate Nadir Shah and turn events in favor of the Mughal Emperor during the Battle of Karnal in 1739; this plot failed as well.

British period

Moulana Ubaidullah Sindhi

The British East India Company made its first contacts in the Sindhi port city of Thatta, which according to a report was: "a city as large as London containing 50,000 houses which were made of stone and mortar with large verandahs some three or four stories high the...the city has 3000 looms...the textiles of Sind were the flower of the whole produce of the East, the international commerce of Sind gave it a place among that of Nations, Thatta has 400 schools and 4,000 Dhows at its docks, the city is guarded by well armed Sepoys..."

British and Bengal Presidency forces under General Charles James Napier arrived in Sindh in the nineteenth century and conquered Sindh in 1843. The Sindhi coalition led by Talpurs and Kalhoras under the Sindhi general Mir Nasir Khan Talpur were defeated in the Battle of Miani, during which 50,000 Sindhis were killed. Shortly afterward, Mir Sher Muhammad Talpur commanded another army at the Battle of Dubbo, where the young Sindhi general Hoshu Sheedi and 5,000 Sindhis were killed. The first Agha Khan helped the British in their conquest of Sindh, and as result he was granted a lifetime pension. The British East India Company conquered Karachi on February 3, 1839 and started developing it as a major port town.

Flag House, colonial-style building constructed during the British Raj

Within weeks, Charles Napier and his forces occupied Sindh. After 1853, the British divided Sindh into districts. In each district they assigned a ruthless wadera to collect taxes for the British authorities. Wealthy businesses owned by Sindhi Muslim merchants were handed over to the minority Hindu Brahmans, leading the province to further unrest and a severe economic depression. Many Sindhi landowners had to take loans with high interest rates from Banias, money lenders who flocked to Sindh, and later many Sindhi landowners lost their land because they could not pay these loans.

In a highly controversial move, Sindh was later made part of British India's Bombay Presidency—much to the surprise of the local population, who found the decision offensive. A powerful unrest followed, after which Twelve Martial Laws were imposed by the British authorities. Shortly afterwards, the decision was reversed and Sindh became a separate province in 1935.

Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi pioneered the Hur Freedom Movement against British colonialists. He was hanged by the British rulers on 20 March 1943 in the Central Jail Hyderabad, Sindh. His burial place is not known and is still a mystery. The people of Sindh have been demanding the British government to disclose his burial place; however, so far this demand has not received any attention.

Pakistan Resolution in the Sindh Assembly

Muhammad Ali Jinnah as a young lawyer

The Sindh assembly was the first British Indian legislature to pass the resolution in favour of Pakistan.

The Sindh assembly was the first British Indian legislature to pass the resolution in favour of Pakistan. G. M. Syed, an influential Sindhi activist, revolutionary and Sufi and one of the important leaders to the forefront of the provincial autonomy movement joined the Muslim League in 1938 and presented the Pakistan resolution in the Sindh Assembly. G. M. Syed can rightly be considered as the founder of Sindhi nationalism.

In 1890 Sindh got representation for the first time in the Bombay Legislative Assembly. Four members represented Sindh at that time. After some struggle, and with the support of the Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Sindh gained independence from the Bombay Presidency. H.H. Sir Agha Khan, G.M. Syed, Sir Abdul Qayyum Khan and other Indian Muslim leaders played an important role in ensuring separation of Sindh from the Bombay Presidency, which finally took place on 1 April 1936.

The newly created province, Sindh, secured a Legislative Assembly of its own, elected on the basis of communal and minorities’ representation. Sir Lancelot Graham was appointed as the first Governor of Sindh by the British Government on 1 April 1936. He was also the Head of the Council, which comprised 25 Members, including two advisors from the Bombay Council to administer the affairs of Sindh until 1937. The British ruled the area for a century. According to Richard Burton, Sindh was one of the most restive provinces during the British Raj and was home to many prominent Muslim leaders such as Muhammad Ali Jinnah who strove for greater Muslim autonomy.

Modern history after independence of Pakistan

On 14 August 1947, Pakistan gained independence from colonial British colonial rule. The province of Sindh attained self-rule for the first time since the defeat of Sindhi Talpur Amirs in the Battle of Miani on 17 February 1843. The first challenge faced by the Government of Sindh was the settlement of Muslim refugees. Nearly 7 million Muslims from India migrated to Pakistan while a nearly equal number of Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistan migrated to India. The Muslim refugees known as Muhajirs from India settled in most urban areas of Sindh. At the time of independence, Sindh was home to a large number of Hindus, who accounted for 23% of the total population of the province. They were more concentrated in the urban centres of the province and had a strong hold on the province's economy and business. The relations between the local Muslims and Hindus were good but with the arrival of Muslim refugees in the urban centres of the province, Hindus started to feel unsafe. Many among Sindh's Hindu community were enticed by their co-religionists in India to depart with all their belongings and financial capital, further crippling the new nation.

Sindh did not witness any massive rioting (as did the Punjab region and other areas of the subcontinent; there were comparatively few riots in Karachi and Hyderabad, and overall the situation remained peaceful. According to the 1998 census, there were 2.3 million Hindus in Sindh, representing around 7% of the total population of the province.[13] Sindhi Hindus in Pakistan (i.e., caste Hindus, accounting for 86% of the total Hindu population of Pakistan as of 1998) mainly operate small- to medium-sized businesses. They are mainly traders, retailers/wholesalers, builders, and employees in the fields of medical, engineering, law and financial services. However, the scheduled caste Hindus (Dalits) live in poorer conditions, mostly as bonded labour in the rural areas of the province. Most Muslim refugees are settled in urban areas of Sindh, especially in Karachi and Hyderabad.

Since independence of Pakistan in 1947, Sindh has been the destination of a continuous stream of migration from South Asian countries like Bangladesh, Burma, and Afghanistan, as well as Pashtun and Punjabi immigrants from the North West Frontier Province and the Punjab province of Pakistan to Karachi. This is due to the fact that Karachi is the economic magnet of the country, attracting people from all over Pakistan. Some native Sindhis resent this influx. Nonetheless, traditional Sindhi families remain prominent in Pakistani politics, especially the Bhutto, Zardari and Soomro dynasties. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, a 20th-century politician regarded as the founder of Pakistan, was from Karachi, of Gujarati descent.

Provincial government

The Provincial Assembly of Sindh is unicameral and consists of 168 seats of which 5% are reserved for non-Muslims and 17% for women. The provincial capital of Sindh is Karachi.

Politics

Most of the Sindhi tribes in the province are involved in Pakistan's politics. Sindh is a stronghold of the centre-left Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), which is the largest political party in the province.

Districts

The twenty three districts of Sindh, Pakistan

There are 23 districts in Sindh, Pakistan.[14]

Major cities

Economy

A view of Karachi downtown, the capital of Sindh province
GDP by Province

Sindh has the 2nd largest economy in Pakistan. Historically, Sindh's contribution to Pakistan's GDP has been between 30% to 32.7%. Its share in the service sector has ranged from 21% to 27.8% and in the agriculture sector from 21.4% to 27.7%. Performance wise, its best sector is the manufacturing sector, where its share has ranged from 36.7% to 46.5%.[15] Since 1972, Sindh's GDP has expanded by 3.6 times.[16]

Endowed with coastal access, Sindh is a major centre of economic activity in Pakistan and has a highly diversified economy ranging from heavy industry and finance centred in and around Karachi to a substantial agricultural base along the Indus. Manufacturing includes machine products, cement, plastics, and various other goods.

Agriculture is very important in Sindh with cotton, rice, wheat, sugar cane, bananas, and mangoes as the most important crops. Sindh is the richest province in natural resources of gas, petrol, and coal.

Flora and fauna

Provincial symbols of Sindh
Provincial emblem Coat of arms of Sindh Sindh Coat of Arms PK.PNG
Provincial flag Flag of Sindh Flag of Sindh.PNG
Provincial language سنڌي (unofficial) Nastaliq-proportions.jpg
Provincial animal Sindh Ibex
Provincial bird Sind Sparrow Sind Sparrow (Passer pyrrhonotus)- Male at Sultanpur I Picture 178.jpg
Provincial tree Kandi Khejri.jpg
Provincial flower Water Hyacinth Common Water hyacinth.jpg

The province is mostly arid with scant vegetation except for the irrigated Indus Valley. The dwarf palm, Acacia Rupestris (kher), and Tecomella undulata (lohirro) trees are typical of the western hill region. In the Indus valley, the Acacia nilotica (babul) (babbur) is the most dominant and occurs in thick forests along the Indus banks. The Azadirachta indica (neem) (nim), Zizyphys vulgaris (bir) (ber), Tamarix orientalis (jujuba lai) and Capparis aphylla (kirir) are among the more common trees.

Mango, date palms, and the more recently introduced banana, guava, orange, and chiku are the typical fruit-bearing trees. The coastal strip and the creeks abound in semi-aquatic and aquatic plants, and the inshore Indus delta islands have forests of Avicennia tomentosa (timmer) and Ceriops candolleana (chaunir) trees. Water lilies grow in abundance in the numerous lake and ponds, particularly in the lower Sindh region.

Among the wild animals, the Sindh ibex (sareh), wild sheep (urial or gadh) and black bear are found in the western rocky range, where the leopard is now rare. The pirrang (large tiger cat or fishing cat) of the eastern desert region is also disappearing. Deer occur in the lower rocky plains and in the eastern region, as do the striped hyena (charakh), jackal, fox, porcupine, common gray mongoose, and hedgehog. The Sindhi phekari, ped lynx or Caracal cat, is found in some areas. In the Kirthar national park of sind, there is a project to introduce tigers and Asian elephants.

Phartho (hog deer) and wild bear occur particularly in the central inundation belt. There are a variety of bats, lizards, and reptiles, including the cobra, lundi (viper), and the mysterious Sindh krait of the Thar region, which is supposed to suck the victim's breath in his sleep. Crocodiles are rare and inhabit only the backwaters of the Indus and the eastern Nara channel. Besides a large variety of marine fish, the plumbeous dolphin, the beaked dolphin, rorqual or blue whale, and a variety of skates frequent the seas along the Sind coast. The pallo (sable fish), a marine fish, ascends the Indus annually from February to April to spawn.

Education

Year Literacy rate
1972 30.2%
1981 31.5%
1998 45.29%
2008 57.7%

Sources:[17][18]

This is a chart of the education market of Sindh estimated by the government in 1998.[19]

Qualification Urban Rural Total Enrollment ratio (%)
14,839,862 15,600,031 30,439,893
Below Primary 1,984,089 3,332,166 5,316,255 100.00
Primary 3,503,691 5,687,771 9,191,462 82.53
Middle 3,073,335 2,369,644 5,442,979 52.33
Matriculation 2,847,769 2,227,684 5,075,453 34.45
Intermediate 1,473,598 1,018,682 2,492,280 17.78
BA, BSc... degrees 106,847 53,040 159,887 9.59
MA, MSc... degrees 1,320,747 552,241 1,872,988 9.07
Diploma, Certificate... 440,743 280,800 721,543 2.91
Other qualifications 89,043 78,003 167,046 0.54

Major public and private educational institutes of Sindh include:

Admissions to state-run educational institutions in Pakistan are based on the provincial level. Pakistan's other three provinces have a policy of merit-based intraprovincial admissions to state-run educational institutes. Sindh is an exception to this general rule; here admissions are determined by the district domiciles of the candidates and their parents. Critics of this controversial arrangement say that it discriminates against meritorious students of Sindhi ethnic background, denying them admission to the educational institutes and courses of their choice.

The armed forces have also entered the education sector in Sindh. They are funded by the government and operate like private costly education providers.

Arts and crafts

The traditions of Sindhi craftwork reflect the cumulative influence of 5000 years of invaders and settlers, whose various modes of art were eventually assimilated into the culture. The elegant floral and geometrical designs that decorate everyday objects—whether of clay, metal, wood, stone or fabric—can be traced to Muslim influence.

Though chiefly an agricultural and pastoral province, Sindh has a reputation for ajraks, pottery, leatherwork, carpets, textiles, and silk cloths which, in design and finish, are matchless. The chief articles produced are blankets, coarse cotton cloth (soosi), camel fittings, metalwork, lacquered work, enamel, gold and silver embroidery. Hala is famous for pottery and tiles; Boobak for carpets; Nasirpur, Gambat and Thatta for cotton lungees and khes. Other popular crafts include the earthenware of Johi, the metal vessels of Shikarpur, the relli, embroidery and leather articles of Tharparkar, and the lacquered work of Kandhkot.

Prehistoric finds from archaeological sites like Mohenjo-daro, engravings in various graveyards, and the architectural designs of Makli and other tombs have provided ample evidence of the people's literary and musical traditions.

Modern painting and calligraphy have also developed in recent times. Some young trained men have taken up commercial art.

Cultural heritage

The ruins of an ancient mosque at Bhambore
Sindhi women collecting water from a reservoir on the way to Mubarak Village

Sindh has a rich heritage of traditional handicraft that has evolved over the centuries. Perhaps the most professed exposition of Sindhi culture is in the handicrafts of Hala, a town some 30 kilometres from Hyderabad. Hala’s artisans manufacture high-quality and impressively priced wooden handicrafts, textiles, paintings, handmade paper products, and blue pottery. Lacquered wood works known as Jandi, painting on wood, tiles, and pottery known as Kashi, hand woven textiles including khadi, susi, and ajraks are synonymous with Sindhi culture preserved in Hala’s handicraft.

The Small and Medium Enterprises Authority (SMEDA) is planning to set up an organization of artisans to empower the community. SMEDA is also publishing a directory of the artisans so that exporters can directly contact them. Hala is the home of a remarkable variety of traditional crafts and traditional handicrafts that carry with them centuries of skill that has woven magic into the motifs and designs used.[citation needed]

Sindh is known the world over for its various handicrafts and arts. The work of Sindhi artisans was sold in ancient markets of Armenia, Baghdad, Basra, Istanbul, Cairo and Samarkand. Referring to the lacquer work on wood locally known as Jandi, T. Posten (an English traveller who visited Sindh in the early 19th century) asserted that the articles of Hala could be compared with exquisite specimens of China.[citation needed] Technological improvements such as the spinning wheel (charkha) and treadle (pai-chah) in the weaver's loom were gradually introduced and the processes of designing, dyeing and printing by block were refined. The refined, lightweight, colourful, washable fabrics from Hala became a luxury for people used to the woolens and linens of the age.

The ajrak has existed in Sindh since the birth of its civilization. The colour blue is predominantly used for ajraks. Sindh was traditionally a large producer of indigo and cotton cloth and both used to be exported to the Middle East. The ajrak is a mark of respect when it is given to an honoured guest or friend. In Sindh, it is most commonly given as a gift at Eid, at weddings, or on other special occasions like homecoming.

The Rilli, or patchwork quilt, is another Sindhi icon and part of the heritage and culture. Most Sindhi homes have a set of Rillis—one for each member of the family and a few spare for guests. The Rilli is made with small pieces of cloth of different geometrical shapes sewn together to create intricate designs. They may be used as a bedspread or a blanket, and are often given as gifts to friends and guests.

Many women in rural Sindh are skilled in the production of caps. Sindhi caps are manufactured commercially on a small scale at New Saeedabad and Hala New. These are in demand with visitors from Karachi and other places; however, these manufacturing units have a limited production capacity.

Sindh has one distinctive cap that stands out for its colorful embroidery and glasswork; the Sindhi topi (Urdu: سندھی ٹويی ). It is round in shape, except that a portion in front is cut out to expose the forehead. It comes in two varieties: hard and soft. The hard variety keeps its shape when not worn, while the soft variety can be folded and put in one’s pocket. Most Sindhis, rich or poor, own a Sindhi cap.

Sindhi people began celebrating Sindhi Topi Day on December 6, 2009 to preserve the historical culture of Sindh by wearing Ajrak and Sindhi topi.[20]

The Sindhi language

File:Sindhi Alphabet.jpg
Sindhi Language Alphabet

Sindhī (Arabic script: سنڌي, Devanagari script: सिन्धी) is spoken by about 15 million people in the province of Sindh. The largest Sindhi-speaking city is Hyderabad, Pakistan. It is an Indo-European language, related to Kutchi, Gujarati and other Indo-European languages prevalent in the region with substantial Persian, Turkish and Arabic loan words. In Pakistan it is written in a modified Arabic script.

Sindhi is an official language in both Pakistan, where it is spoken by approximately 18.5 million speakers, and in India, where it is spoken by close to three million speakers in the northern region of the country. Outside Pakistan and India, Sindhi is spoken in Oman, United Arab Emirates, the Philippines, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and in the USA. Although Sindhi is an Indo-Aryan language, it shows some signs of Dravidian influence (in both the lexicon and phonology), making it a noteworthy Indic language both linguistically and culturally.

Sindhi is spoken in Pakistan and is also one of the constitutional languages of India. It is spoken by about 20 million people in the province of Sind, southern Pakistan, Balochistan and by about 2 million more across the border in India. In Pakistan it is written in the Arabic script with several additional letters to accommodate special sounds. The largest Sindhi-speaking city is Hyderabad, Pakistan. Sindhi literature is also spiritual in nature and Shah Abdul Latif Bhattai (1689-1752) was one of its legendary poet who wrote Sassi Punnu, Umar Marwi in his famous book "Shah jo Rasalo".

Key dialects: Kachchi, Lari, Lasi, Thareli, Vicholo (Central Sindhi), Macharia, Dukslinu (Hindu Sindhi), and Sindhi Musalmani (Muslim Sindhi).

Places of interest

Sindh has numerous tourist sites, the most notable being the ruins of Mohenjo-daro near the city of Larkana. Islamic architecture is quite prominent in the province; numerous mausoleums dot the province, including the very old Shahbaz Qalander mausoleum dedicated to the Iranian-born Sufi, and the beautiful mausoleum of Muhammad Ali Jinnah (known as the Mazar-e-Quaid) in Karachi. Also of note is the Jama Masjid in Thatta, built by the Mughal emperor Shahjahan.

Famous Sindhi people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Sind - type and level of administrative division". World Gazetteer. http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gpro&lng=en&des=wg&geo=-2944&srt=pnan&col=abcdefghinoq&msz=1500. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  2. ^ a b "Percentage Distribution of Households by Language Usually Spoken and Region/Province, 1998 Census." Pakistan Statistical Year Book 2008. Federal Bureau of Statistics - Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 15 December 2009.
  3. ^ "Sindh (province, Pakistan)" at Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  4. ^ "About Sindh" at SindhToday.net
  5. ^ "Government of Sindh". http://www.sindh.gov.pk/dpt/abtsindh/Adminsetup.htm. 
  6. ^ Provincial Assembly Seats
  7. ^ http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?articleID=1137
  8. ^ a b The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia by Nicholas Tarling p.39 [1]
  9. ^ Cambridge illustrated atlas, warfare: Renaissance to revolution, 1492-1792 by Jeremy Black p.16 [2]
  10. ^ http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/01475176655936417554480/p0000002.htm Cervantes Virtual website
  11. ^ Savage-Smith, Emilie (1985), Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their History, Construction, and Use, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 
  12. ^ Kazi, Najma (24 November 2007). "Seeking Seamless Scientific Wonders: Review of Emilie Savage-Smith's Work". FSTC Limited. http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?articleID=832. Retrieved 2008-02-01. 
  13. ^ Hindu Population in Pakistan according to 1998 census. Pakistan Hindu Concil
  14. ^ District Nazims of the Province of Sindh
  15. ^ Provincial Accounts of Pakistan: Methodology and Estimates 1973-2000
  16. ^ http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PAKISTANEXTN/Resources/293051-1241610364594/6097548-1257441952102/balochistaneconomicreportvol2.pdf
  17. ^ http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001459/145959e.pdf
  18. ^ http://www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/fbs/publications/lfs2007_08/results.pdf
  19. ^ "Population by Level of Education and Rural/Urban". Statistics Division: Ministry of Economic Affairs and Statistics. Government of Pakistan. http://www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/pco/statistics/pop_education/pop_education_rural_urban.html. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  20. ^ Sindh celebrates first ever ‘Sindhi Topi Day’

References

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

The ancient city of Moenjodaro
The ancient city of Moenjodaro

Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. Known by various names in the past, the name Sindh comes from the Indo-Aryans whose legends claimed that the Indus River flowed from the mouth of a lion or Sinh-ka-bab. In Sanskrit, the province was dubbed Sindhu meaning "ocean". The Assyrians (as early as the seventh century BCE) knew the region as Sinda, the Persians Abisind, the Greeks Sinthus, the Romans Sindus, the Chinese Sintow, while the Arabs dubbed it Sind. It is mentioned to be a part of Abhirrdesh (Abhira Kingdom) in Srimad Bhagavatam [2]. Sindh was the first place where Islam spread in South Asia. As a result, it is often referred to as "Bab-al-Islam" (Gate of Islam).

  • Karachi - the financial capital and the largest city of the country, it's an industrial port city and the provincial capital of Sindh
  • Hyderabad is the 2nd largest city of Sindh
  • Sukkur is the 3rd largest city of Sindh. A Must see
  • Mirpurkhas - Near Thar Desert
  • Larkana - Famous for Moen-Jo-Daro
  • Thatta - Once a famous center of learning, arts and commerce and provisional capital for about four centuries in the past
  • Moenjodaro – an ancient city not to be missed by history buffs

Sindh has numerous tourist sites with the most prominent being the ruins of Mohenjo-daro near the city of Larkana. Islamic architecture is quite prominent in the province with the Jama Masjid in Thatta built by the Mughal emperor Shahjahan and numerous mausoleums dot the province including the very old Shahbaz Qalander mausoleum dedicated to the Iranian-born Sufi and the beautiful mausoleum of Muhammad Ali Jinnah known as the Mazar-e-Quaid in Karachi.

Understand

There are many villages in Sindh where it is mostly difficult to find English or Urdu speakers, it can be because sindh is the only province of pakistan where Sindhi is an official language. However, people have learned to develop gestures, and forms thereof, to help them communicate with foreigners as Sindh has seen a large growth in their position as a tourist destination.

However if you find yourself in need for real english speaking fellow, you can always visit the village's primary school(s). More often than not, you would find a teacher who speaks in English or at least understands it solves your problem.

Get in

By plane

Karachi is the main gateway to Sindh by air.

  • Jinnah International Airport in Karachi [1] is served by many international airlines, including Air China, Biman Bangladesh Airlines, Cathy Pacific, Etihad, Emirates, Gulf, Kuwait Airways, Qatar Airways, Saudi Airlines, Syrian Airlines, SriLankan Airlines, Singapore Airlines, Indian Airlines, Iran Air, Malaysia Airlines, Thai Airways, Turkish Airlines and Turkmenistan Airlines. The main hub of the national flag carrier "PIA"and other 4 private airlines of Pakistan (Air Blue, Aero Asia and Shaheen Air) is Karachi's Jinnah International Airport.

By boat

Karachi is a major trading hub for dhows from around the Indian Ocean. Travellers wanting to arrive in the city this way will probably need to make their own arrangements with the captain of the vessel.

By Train

First Class travel with Pakistan Railways [2] is good, and Sindh has railway connections with various major cities in Pakistan including Lahore, Rawalpindi & Peshawar.

By Highway

Sindh is connected with Punjab via National highway, Balochistan via RCD Highway and Gwadar via Makran coastal highway..

Get around

By Plane, Train, Car and Bus.

See

Ranikot

It is the largest fort in the world, situated in the Kirthar Range about 30 km southwest of Sann, Jamshoro district of Sindh, approximately 90 km north of Hyderabad, in Pakistan. It has an approximate diameter of 9 km. Its walls are on the average 6 meters high and are made of gypsum and lime cut sandstone and its total circumference is about 29 km of which 8 km walls are man-made. While originally constructed for bow and arrow warfare it was later expanded to withstand firearms.

Bhambore

About 64 km east of Karachi, on the National Highway, is an interesting archaeological site, Bhambore, originally the sea-port of Debal where the young Arab warrior Mohammad Bin Qasim landed his armies in 711 AD. Three different periods in Sindh history coincide here: the Scytho-Parthians, the Hindu-Buddhist and the early Islamic. There is a museum and a rest house at the site.

Thatta

Once a famous center of learning, arts and commerce and provisional capital for about four centuries in the past, Thatta is situated 98 km east of Karachi. Today, it is notable for the Jamia Masjid built by the Moghal Emperor Shah Jehan who also built Taj Mahal, and the Makli Tombs (15th - 17th centuries), a vast necropolis spread over 15.5 km², depicting exquisite specimens of architecture, stone carvings and glazed tile decorations.

Keenjhar Lake

Some 24 km north of Thatta, is the large man-made Keenjhar Lake, which is 30 km long and 10 km wide. The lake has facilities for angling and boating. PTDC motels offer food and accommodation.

Kirthar National Park

Located about 48 km from Karachi in the midst of the barren rocks of the Kirthar Range in Dadu district, near Thano Boola Khan is Kirthar National Park. Designed and planned with the help of the research and planning group of the [nternational Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, the park is approved and recognized by international wildlife bodies. It is the last bastion of a wide variety of the region's wildlife that includes Sindh ibex, urial, deer, leopard, gray partridges and Houbara bustard. The Sindh Wildlife Management Board plans tours and provides transport from Karachi.

Hyderabad

Situated at about 164 km northeast of Karachi, Hyderabad was the capital of Sindh during the reign of the Talpur Mirs in the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, it is known for Sindh University, Jamshoro; the provincial museum; the Institute of Sindhology and the Sindhi Adabi Board and also for colourful handicrafts such as glass bangles, glazed tiles, lacquered wood furniture, handloom cloth called 'soosi', block-printed 'Ajrak', leather shoes, etc. Historic monuments include old Mud Fort, Sheikh Makai Fort, Kalhoro Monuments, Talpur Monuments and Miani Forest.

Nasarpur

It is the oldest town of sindh located 45 km north west o Hyderabad. Famous for the Prodution of Mangoes,Khes and its Tubewells.Few archelogical sites are also present.Its the Village of Chaudry Muhammad Mansoor Majeed Arain.

Mir Shahdad jo Qubo

Tomb of Mir Shahdad Talpur (who is regarded as one of the finest military commanders of Sindh) one of the historical heritages of Sindh is at Shahpur Chakar Distt: Sanghar. This is a graveyard of the family members of Mir Shahdad Talpur. Shahdadpur a big city of Province Sindh is named behind Mir Shahdad Talpur, whereas Shahpur Chakar is named behind his son Mir Chakar Talpur.

Hala

Hala is famous for its glazed pottery and enameled wood work. Situated on the National Highway about 56 km from Hyderabad, it is frequently visited by hundreds of devotees of Hazrat Makhdoom Noah (10th century Hijra), a contemporary of Mughal Emperor Akbar and a religious divine, who converted a large number of people of Islam and also translated the Quran into Persian which is one of its earliest Persian translations in South Asia.

Bhitshah

Situated at about 56 km from Hyderabad on the National Highway, Bhitshah is the resting place of Sindh's renowned saint and mystic poet Hazrat Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai (1689 - 1752). He is remembered for the compendium of his poetry called 'Risalo', a treasure house of wisdom as well as romantic folklore and fine pottery. He also founded a musical tradition of his own which is still popular. Devotees sing with fervor and frenzy his love-intoxicated Kafis to the strains of ek-tara (single string instrument) mainly on the occasion of his "Urs" held every year between 13th and 15th of Safar, the second Islamic lunar month.

Sehwan

Situated on the right bank of River Indus at a distance of 135 km from Hyderabad, Sehwan is an old town of pre-Islamic period. Here are the remains of Kafir-Qila, a fort reported to have been constructed by Alexander the Great. Sehwan is famous for the resting place of the great mystic poet, saint and scholar Shaikh Usman Marvandvi (1117 - 1274), popularly known as Shahbaz Qalandar whose mausoleum is visited by thousands of the devotees throughout the year. During the Urs celebrations (18th Shahban - the eighth Islamic lunar month), devotees dance rhythmically and with total abandon to the beat of drums (Naqqara Dhamal), finally ending in a spiritual trance.

Manchar Lake

About 16 km from Sehwan, Manchar, the largest fresh water lake in Asia, is as old as the Indus River. Spread over 254 km2, it is a perfect spot for relaxing and the best location for duck-shooting during winter.

Daraza Sharif

Daraza Sharif, a small village, some 52 km from Khairpur, is known for the tomb of Sachal Sarmast who was a great master of Islamic learning, lived a pious life and composed poetry in Sindhi, Seraiki, Persian and Urdu. Sachal Sarmast's Urs is celebrated on 14th of Ramzan (9th month of Islamic lunar calendar).

Kot Deji

Kot Deji is regarded as one of the world's most important archaeological sites, dating back to 3000 BC, older than Moen-jo-daro and Harappa. Excavations made in 1955 unearthed an astoundingly well-organized city with a citadel that testifies to its being the finest fortified town in South Asian subcontinent.

Moen-jo-Daro

About 563 km from Karachi off the Indus Highway lie the world-famous ruins of Moen-jo-Daro (the Mound of the Dead), now being preserved with UNESCO's help. The museum at Moen-jo-Daro is unique and a visit takes you back centuries back when the location was a civilized city and a busy river Port. Air and train services from Karachi and an air-conditioned rest house have been built there.

Other Places

Among other historical sites are Amri, Umerkot (the birthplace of Emperor Akbar) and the legendary Arab city of Mansura near Shahdadpur in Sanghar district. Other interesting places include Matiari, town of old beautiful mosques and one of the centers of 'Ajrak'. On its outskirts lie the ruins of a Buddhist stupa. Nasarpur is famous for 'Khes', exquisite embroidery, decorative pottery, and wood work. It is also a holy place for the Hindu community.

Itineraries

Full day tour of Thatta from Karachi

Drive from your residence or hotel at 8AM, Leave for Thatta 100 km from Karachi. On the way to Thatta stop at Chaukundi. 15 - 18th century tombs scattered on a large area. Each tomb is unique in it design and motifs. Rich carved sandstone depicting the relation of the local tribes with the neighboring Iran, central Asia and Turkey. Banbhore archeological site of Daibal excavated in 1962, is the site where Alexander established a town in 325BC and then the first Muslim conqueror in South East Asia came in 711AD.It is Beautiful site with a small museum. On arrival at Thatta Visit Makli largest cemetery of the world. Witness the beautiful Moghul Architecture in the magnificent mausoleums of the kings and ministers of 16 - 18 century. Also Visit Shahjehan mosque a master piece of Moghul architecture its blue glazed tile work is still the most well preserved in the subcontinent. visit Haleji Lake famous bird sanctuary and Keenjhar Lake, 24 kms from Thatta is the biggest man-made lake of the country. The place has been developed into a resort with boating & fishing facilities. Late afternoon visit Sunway Lagoon water park and return to Karachi.

Full Day Excursion to Moen Jo Daro & Sukkur city

Early morning you are transferred to Airport for your flight to Moen Jo Daro, On arrival transfer to the archeological site, the site of the great Indus civilization which flourished as an earliest Urban culture from 3000 - 1700 BC. We have a large No. of detailed sites well laid by the expert archeologists. Indus civilization was probably the most advanced urban culture in the past , From the sites we can see the complete planning of the city, a separate area for Administration/ state, a rich residential area, Industrial area and an area for poor or workers. All the streets present an excellent grid system and were maintained with covered drainage , Dustbins and Market places. It is also proved that they had binary system of weights. The state was very strict. We don't see any difference in weights found from different sites. Taxes were collected in form of wheat, Barley or sesame, and mud pots were sealed to prove the clearance of dues. They used a language with 300 Different semi-pictographic characters, which are not deciphered yet.

We start our tour with DK area It is an administrative area. We shall see the stupa of 2nd Century Ad which was built by Buddhist much later than the site it self; we then see Assembly hall, drainage, wells, state granary where taxes were collected, streets and the great bath. Then we visit DK area which is main citadel or rich Residential area we shall see the advanced life style of the people of the Indus. We also witness different levels of civilization and the planning of houses street etc.

After the sites we will visit the site museum which has some findings of the site presented in a professional manner. Rest of the day at leisure or optional tour of Sukkur/ Larkhana and nearby villages.

Tour of Ranikot from Karachi

Day 1 : 0700 hours leave by road from Karachi to Ranikot Fort. (270 kms from Karachi) approximately 21 kms from National Highway is a sandy track across rugged scrubland to be covered by jeep to the Fort.

Reach Ranikot Fort by 12.00 noon (carry lunch boxes). Ranikot is one of the largest forts in the World. The Fort’s massive 10 meter high walls of dressed sandstone are 30 kms in circumference.

Seen from a distance, portions of its ramparts resemble the Great Wall of China, as they dip and turn to the contours of the hills. The Fort was built by Imran Bin Musa Barmaki, the Governor of Sindh in 836 A.D. The Fort’s structure, encircling many hills, has a diameter of about 9 kms. The entire walls are made of Gypsum and lime cut stone. It was originally constructed for bow and arrow warfare but it was later enlarged to accommodate, fire arms.

1600 hours, leave for Sehwan Sharif (80 kms from Ranikot Fort). Reach Sehwan Sharif at 1900 hours and check in at Sindh Government Motel/Rest House. Overnight stay.

Day 2: After breakfast visit the Shrine of Saint Qalandar Shahbaz, which attracts millions of devotees from all over the world, not only Muslims but a large number of Hindus as well, seek blessing of the saint Shahbaz Qalandar. The devotees believe that their prayers and wishes are granted by Saint Lal Shahbaz Qalandar.

After lunch return to Karachi via a short visit to Hyderabad.

Tour of Sehwan sharif

Day 1: 0800 hours leave by road for Hyderabad via National Highway. Visit Chaukundi Tomb (30 kms from Karachi). This is the site of graveyards from 16th to 18th centuries. The sandstone tombs of these graves are exquisitely carved in relief with intricate motifs.

After visiting of Chaukundi – proceed to Bhanbore. This archaeological site is believed to be the ancient port city of Debul, which flourished in the 8th century AD. It is also where Arab conqueror Mohammed Bin Qasim first touched the shores of the sub-continent in 712 A.D. and where, after a fierce battle with the then reigning Raja, the Arabs consolidated their hold for subsequent expansion. Bhanbore is 64 kms from Karachi. Popular folklore has it that in the vicinity of Bhanbore was the trysting-place of the star-crossed lovers, Sassi and Punnu, celebrated in local stories and song.

After visiting Bhanbore, proceed to Thatta (100 kms from Karachi). Thatta is the biggest Necropolis with more then one million graves and tombs spread over an area of 15 sq.kms. There are Tombs of Kings, Queens, Saints, Scholars and Soldier of bygone eras, renowned for their culture and learning between the 16th and 18th century. The gravestones and mausoleums at Makli (Thatta) are masterpieces of stone carving and perforated stone work represented by the style of their ornamentation. Also visit Shahjehan Mosque, representative of Muslim architecture. It was built in 1647 AD by the Moghal Emperor Shahjehan.

Proceed to Hyderabad (about 90 kms from Thatta). Check in at Hotel, overnight stay at Hyderabad.

Day 2: After breakfast, take a short tour of Hyderabad and see the monuments of the Kalhora and Talpur rulers.

Proceed to Sehwan Sharif, one night stay at Sindh Government Motel/Rest House.

Day 3: After breakfast visit the Shrine of Saint Shahbaz Qalander, a religious place where million of devotees come to visit and pay homage to the Saint.

After early lunch leave for Karachi.

Four days in Karachi

Arrive in the city, transfer to your hotel & relax, at night begin your tour with a visit to the Boat Basin food street, from there take a Dhow cruise tour of the Arabian sea, also see the Water jet fountain, the tallest jet fountain in the world.

On second day begin your tour from Frere Hall, Clifton beach, visit its nearby attractions like Sea view promenade. Visit Beach park (entrance on fee), Ride on Victoria horse carriage, Enjoy your Lunch at Floating ship – a buffet theme restaurant, evening meals at Sea view Mc Donalds. During late evening hours visit Bagh-e-Ibn-Qasim (entrance free), a huge park with historical sites like Jahangir kothari parade, Lady Lloyd pier, an underground hindu temple, mausoleum, mosque and a century old amusement park. Visit Park towers, a shopping mall and Mohatta Palace museum (entrance on fee) located next to Bagh-e-Ibn Qasim. Enjoy your dinner at Bar BQ tonight restaurant, also see Boat Basin food street. After dinner you can go shopping at Zamzama Avenue or Gulf market and its nearby malls like Forum or enjoy the city’s nightlife.

On third day, explore the city starting from 9.00am from a visit to Quaid mausoleum & museum (entrance on fee), Masjid Tooba (entrance is free). Walk from Mereweather tower to the National museum on Dr Ziauddin road via II Chundrigar road, see Arts council, and take a tour to nearby Zainab market for shopping. Enjoy Lunch at the revolving restaurant, after that take the taxi ride to the Karsaz district for visit to PAF Museum, Maritime museums, PIA Planetarium, Karachi Expo center and Aga Khan University hospital. You can also visit Arena gaming arcade in the late evening.Enjoy your dinner at Lal Qila restaurant. Later arrive at Tariq road shopping bazaar, also visit its nearby shopping malls like Dolmen, Jumeirah and Lavish at night.

On fourth day you can visit Dream world family resort for a full day or can visit Alladin amusement park, Safari park and Go Aish Adventure Park.

On your last day you can have a last minute shopping from Makro wholesale center on your way to the Airport.

  • Sightseeing
  • Shopping in Karachi
  • Water Sports, Golf, Boating, Spa, Ice Skating in Karachi
  • Water parks located on the superhighway like Fiesta, Cosy, Samzu, Water world, and Sunway Lagoon.
  • BarBQ Tonight, Clifton, Karachi
  • Floating Ship [3], Sea View, Karachi
  • Lal Qila [4], Sh Faisal, Karachi
  • Revolving Restaurant [5], Sh Faisal Karachi
  • Sky grill located inside Avari towers, club rd, Karachi
  • The Village, Sea View Karachi
  • The Second floor [6], Zamzama, Karachi

Stay safe

Security wise, Sindh province is safe and the people are very hospitable. They tend to welcome any foreigner very warmly. But, Street Crime in large cities like Karachi is at a rate you could expect from most mega cities of this size. Use common sense and avoid slums. You should always keep the emergency telephone contact numbers of your country's foreign mission in Karachi.

Aga Khan Hospital in Karachi is by far the best in the province and has world class medical care facility at an affordable cost. The public hospitals aren't up to par with what you may be used to in the west.

It is recommended not to attend any rallies, protests or religious gatherings.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Sindh

Plural
-

Sindh

  1. One of the southern provinces of Pakistan, whose capital is Karachi. It is also the area in which the Indus Valley Civilization flourished.

Translations

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of dhins
  • hinds

Simple English

Sindh
File:Flag of [[Image:|100px|Map of Pakistan with Sindh highlighted.]]
Capital
 • Coordinates
Karachi
 • 24.52° N 67.03° E
Population (2008)
 • Density
46,378,000 (Estimate) [1]
 • 216/km²
Area
140914 km²
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Main language(s) Urdu (national)
English (national)
Sindhi (official)

Balochi
Pashto
Punjabi
Status Province
 • Districts  •  23
 • Towns  •  160
 • Union Councils  •  1094[1]

established = 1970-07-01

Established
 • Governor/Commissioner
 • Chief Minister
 • Legislature (seats)
   {{{established}}}
 • Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ibad Khan
 • Syed Qaim Ali Shah
 • Provincial Assembly (168)
Website Government of Sindh

Sindh (Urdu:صوبہ سندھستان، پاکستان) is a province in Pakistan. The capital of Sindh is Karachi. Sindh has a population of 30 million people and an area of 54,407 mi² or (140,914 km²); in terms of area the provincial region of SINDH is greater in area than Greece but smaller than Tajikistan. The southern boundary with the Indian state of Gujarat is contested, the Kori Creek was considered as part of the region during the British India era, today it is part of the ongoing dispute of the Rann of Kachchh since the 1965 war.

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Provincial emblem of Sindh

Contents

History

Sindh (Sind) (Sindhi: سنڌ) is officially one of the provinces of Pakistan. Sindh was home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization which is 5,500 years old. Hind is the corruption word for Sind.

Districts of Sindh

References

  1. "Government of Sindh". http://www.sindh.gov.pk/dpt/abtsindh/Adminsetup.htm. 

Other pages

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