The Full Wiki

More info on Singapore

Singapore: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Singapore

Include this on your site/blog:














Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Majulah Singapura"  (Malay)
"Onward, Singapore"
AnthemMajulah Singapura
Images, from top, left to right: Merlion by the CBD, Singapore Zoo entrance, Esplanade - Theatres on the Bay, Gateway of Sentosa, Statue of Thomas Stamford Raffles, Downtown Core of Singapore, Raffles Hotel
Capital Singapore
(Downtown Core, Central)1
1°17′N 103°50′E / 1.283°N 103.833°E / 1.283; 103.833
Official language(s) English (1st language)[1]
Malay
Mandarin Chinese
Tamil
Official scripts English alphabet
Malay alphabet
Simplified Chinese
Tamil script
Demonym Singaporean
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President S.R. Nathan
 -  Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong
 -  Speaker of Parliament Abdullah Tarmugi
 -  Chief Justice Chan Sek Keong
Legislature Parliament
Formation
 -  Founding 29 January 1819[2] 
 -  Self-government 3 June 1959[3] 
 -  Independence from the United Kingdom 31 August 1963[4] 
 -  Merger with Malaysia 16 September 1963 
 -  Separation from Malaysia 9 August 1965 
Area
 -  Total 710.2 km2 (187th)
274.2 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.444
Population
 -  2009 estimate 4,987,600[5] (115th)
 -  2000 census 4,117,700 
 -  Density 6,814[5]/km2 (3rd)
17,275.7/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $239.146 billion[6] (45th)
 -  Per capita $51,226[6] (4th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $181.939 billion[6] (44th)
 -  Per capita $38,972[6] (22nd)
HDI (2007) 0.944[7] (very high) (23rd)
Currency Singapore dollar (SGD)
Time zone SST (UTC+8)
Date formats dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .sg
Calling code +65
1 Singapore is a city-state.
2 02 from Malaysia.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator, south of the Malaysian state of Johor and north of Indonesia's Riau Islands. At 710.2 km2 (274.2 sq mi),[8] Singapore is a microstate and the smallest nation in Southeast Asia. It is substantially larger than Monaco and Vatican City, the only other present-day sovereign city-states.
Singapore is an alpha World City. Singapore is unique as it is the only country in Asia which has English as its first language. Singapore also has one of the highest percentage of foreigners in the world. 36% of the population in Singapore are foreigners and foreigners make up 50% of the service sector in Singapore.[9]
Even before independence in 1965, Singapore was already one of the richest states in East Asia. Its GDP per capita then was $511, roughly the same as Portugal. In comparison, both South Korea and China had a GDP per capita of $105 and $90 respectively in 1965.[10] After independence, Foreign direct investment into Singapore and a state-led drive to industrialization based on plans drawn up by the Goh Keng Swee and Albert Winsemius have created a modern economy focused on industry, education and urban planning.[11] Singapore is the 5th wealthiest country in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) per capita.[12] As of January 2009, Singapore's official foreign reserves stand at US$170.3 billion (9th in the world). The city state is also the second most crowded country in the world after Monaco.[13]
In 2009, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Singapore the tenth most expensive city in the world in which to live—the third in Asia, after Tokyo and Osaka.[14] The 2009 Cost of Living survey, by consultancy firm Mercer, has ranked Singapore similarly as the tenth most expensive city for expatriates to live in.[15][16]
The population of Singapore including non-residents is approximately 4.99 million.[17] Singapore is highly cosmopolitan and diverse with Chinese people forming an ethnic majority with large populations of Malay, Indian and other people. English, Malay, Tamil, and Chinese are the official languages.[18]
Singapore is a parliamentary republic, and the Constitution of Singapore establishes representative democracy as the nation's political system.[19] The People's Action Party (PAP) dominates the political process and has won control of Parliament in every election since self-government in 1959.[20]

Contents

Etymology

The English language name Singapore comes from Malay Singapura, "Lion-city", but it is possible that one element of its name had a more distant original source.[21] Pura comes from Tamil Puram (புரம்),meaning city or a metropolis.[22]
Singa- comes from Tamil Singam (சிங்கம்) , which means lion.[23] Today the city-state is referred to as the Lion City. Studies of Singapore indicate that lions probably never lived there, not even Asiatic lions; the beast seen by Sang Nila Utama, the founder of Singapore who gave it the name meaning "Lion City", was most likely a tiger, probably the Malayan Tiger.[24][25]
"Singapore" is the name of both the city and country, which are the same entity. That is, the entire country constitutes a single municipality. It is considered incorrect to call the city "Singapore City."

History

First settlement (Pre-1819)

The first records of settlement in Singapore are from the 2nd century AD.[26] The island was an outpost of the Sumatran Srivijaya empire and originally had the Javanese name Temasek ('sea town'). Temasek (Tumasek) rapidly became a significant trading settlement, but declined in the late 14th century. There are few remnants of old Temasek in Singapore, but archaeologists in Singapore have uncovered artifacts of that and other settlements.
Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Singapore island was part of the Sultanate of Johor. During the Malay-Portugal wars in 1613, the settlement was set ablaze by Portuguese troops.[27] The Portuguese subsequently held control in that century and the Dutch in the 18th, but throughout most of this time the island's population consisted mainly of fishermen.[citation needed]

British colonial rule (1819–1940)

Statue of Thomas Stamford Raffles by Thomas Woolner, erected at the location where he first landed at Singapore. He is recognised as the founder of modern Singapore
Singapore flag as part of the Straits Settlements from 1826 to 1942
On 29 January 1819, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles landed on the main island. Spotting its potential as a strategic trading post for Southeast Asia, Raffles signed a treaty with Sultan Hussein Shah on behalf of the British East India Company on 6 February 1819 to develop the southern part of Singapore as a British trading post and settlement.
Until 1824, Singapore was still a territory controlled by a Malay Sultan. It officially became a British colony on 2 August 1824 when John Crawfurd, the second resident of Singapore, officially made the whole island a British possession by signing a treaty with Sultan Hussein Shah in which the Sultan and the Temmenggong handed it over to the British East India Company, marking the start of the island's modern era.
Raffles' deputy, William Farquhar, oversaw a period of growth and ethnic migration, largely spurred by a no-restriction immigration policy. The British India office governed the island from 1858, but it was made a British crown colony in 1867, answerable directly to the Crown. By 1869, 100,000 people lived on the island.[28]
The early onset of town planning in colonial Singapore came largely through a "divide and rule" framework where the different ethnic groups were settled in different parts of the South of the island. The Singapore River was largely a commercial area dominated by traders and bankers of various ethnic groups with mostly Chinese and Indian coolies working to load and unload goods from barge boats known as "bumboats".
The Malays, consisting of the local "Orang Lauts" who worked mostly as fishermen and seafarers, and Arab traders and scholars were mostly found in the Southeast part of the river mouth, where Kampong Glam stands today. The European settlers, who were few then, settled around Fort Canning Hill and farther upstream from the Singapore River.
Like the Europeans, the early Indian migrants also settled more inland of the Singapore River, where Little India stands today. Little is known about the rural private settlements in those times (known as kampongs), other than the major move by the post-independent Singapore government to re-settle these residents in the late 1960s.

World War II (1941–1945)

The Japanese Army marching in downtown Singapore
During World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army invaded Malaya, culminating in the Battle of Singapore. The British were defeated in six days, and surrendered the supposedly impregnable fortress to General Tomoyuki Yamashita on 15 February 1942. The surrender was described by the British Prime Minister, Sir Winston Churchill, as, "the worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history."[29] The British naval base (see above) was destroyed before the Japanese could take over the base and make use of it. Widespread indiscriminate killing of the Chinese population occurred (see Sook Ching massacre).[30]
The Japanese renamed Singapore Shōnantō (昭南島?), from Japanese "Shōwa no jidai ni eta minami no shima" ("和の時代に得た"?), or "southern island obtained in the age of Shōwa", and occupied it until the British repossessed the island on 12 September 1945, a month after the Japanese surrender.[31] The name Shōnantō was, at the time, romanised as "Syonan-to" or "Syonan", which means "Light of the South".[citation needed]

Independence (1946–present)

Singapore former flag as a crown colony until 1959
Following the war, the British government allowed Singapore to hold its first general election, in 1955, which was won by a pro-independence candidate, David Marshall, who thus became Chief Minister.
Demanding complete self-rule, Marshall led a delegation to London, but was refused by the British. He resigned upon return, and was replaced by Lim Yew Hock, whose policies then convinced the British. Singapore was granted full internal self-government with its own prime minister and Cabinet overseeing all matters of government except defence and foreign affairs.
Elections were then held on 30 May 1959 with the People's Action Party winning a landslide victory. Singapore eventually became a self-governing state within the British Empire on 3 June 1959 and Lee Kuan Yew was sworn in as the first prime minister of Singapore two days later.[32] Then Governor of Singapore, Sir William Allmond Codrington Goode, served as the first Yang di-Pertuan Negara from 3 June 1959 until 3 December 1959. He was succeeded by Yusof bin Ishak, who would later become the first President of Singapore.
A map of Singapore (2003)
Singapore declared independence from Britain unilaterally in August 1963, before joining the Federation of Malaysia in September along with Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak as the result of the 1962 Merger Referendum of Singapore. Singapore left the federation two years after heated ideological conflict between the state's PAP government and the federal government in Kuala Lumpur. Singapore officially gained sovereignty on 9 August 1965.[4] Yusof bin Ishak was sworn in as President, and Lee Kuan Yew became the first prime minister of the Republic of Singapore.
While trying to be self-sufficient, the fledging nation faced problems like mass unemployment, housing shortages, and a dearth of land and natural resources. During Lee Kuan Yew's term as prime minister from 1959 to 1990, his administration tackled the problem of widespread unemployment, raised the standard of living, and implemented a large-scale public housing programme.[33] It was during this time that the foundation of the country's economic infrastructure was developed; the threat of racial tension was curbed; and an independent national defence system centering around compulsory male military service was created.[34]
In 1990, Goh Chok Tong succeeded Lee as Prime Minister. During his tenure, the country faced the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, the 2003 SARS outbreak, and terrorist threats posed by Jemaah Islamiyah after the September 11 attacks in the United States. In 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, the eldest son of Lee Kuan Yew, became the third prime minister.[35] Amongst his more notable decisions is the plan to open casinos to attract tourism.[36]

Government and politics

Singapore is a parliamentary democracy with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government representing different constituencies. The bulk of the executive powers rests with the Cabinet, headed by the Prime Minister, currently Mr Lee Hsien Loong. The office of President of Singapore, historically a ceremonial one, was granted some veto powers as of 1991 for a few key decisions such as the use of the national reserves and the appointment of judiciary positions. Although the position is to be elected by popular vote, only the 1993 election has been contested to date. The legislative branch of government is the Parliament.[37]
The Members of Parliament (MPs) consist of either elected, non-constituency or nominated Members. The majority of the Members of Parliament are elected into Parliament at a General Election on a first-past-the-post basis and represent either Single Member or Group Representation Constituencies (GRCs).[39]
The elected Members of Parliament act as a bridge between the community and the Government by ensuring that the concerns of their constituents are heard in the Parliament. The present Parliament has 94 Members of Parliament consisting of 84 elected Members of Parliament, one NCMP and nine Nominated members of Parliament.[39]
The People's Action Party (PAP) has been the ruling party in Singapore since self-government was attained.[40] There are several opposition parties in Singapore, the most notable being the Workers' Party of Singapore, the Singapore Democratic Party (SDP) and the Singapore Democratic Alliance (SDA). The Economist Intelligence Unit describes Singapore as a "hybrid regime" of democratic and authoritarian elements.[41] Freedom House ranks the country as "partly free".[42] Although general elections are free from irregularities and vote rigging, the PAP has been criticized by some for manipulating the political system through its use of censorship, gerrymandering, and civil libel suits against opposition politicians.[43]
Singapore has a successful and transparent market economy. Government-linked companies are dominant in various sectors of the local economy, such as media, utilities, and public transport. Singapore has consistently been rated as the least corrupt country in Asia and among the world's ten most free from corruption by Transparency International.[44]
Although Singapore's laws are inherited from English and British Indian laws, and includes many elements of English common law, the government has also chosen not to follow some elements of liberal democratic values. There are no jury trials and there are laws restricting the freedom of speech that may breed ill will or cause disharmony within Singapore's multiracial, multi-religious society. Criminal activity is often punished with heavy penalties including heavy fines or corporal punishment (caning). The Singapore government argues that Singapore has the sovereign right to determine its own judicial system and impose what it sees as an appropriate punishment, including capital punishment (hanging) for first-degree murder and drug trafficking.[45]

Geography and climate

Singapore Downtown as seen from the DHL Balloon
A Housing Development Board estate in Toa Payoh
Singapore Botanic Gardens, a 67.3-hectare (166 acre) Botanic Gardens in Singapore that includes the National Orchid Garden, which has a collection of more than 3,000 species of orchids
Singapore consists of 63 islands, including mainland Singapore. There are two man-made connections to Johor, MalaysiaJohor-Singapore Causeway in the north, and Tuas Second Link in the west. Jurong Island, Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin and Sentosa are the largest of Singapore's many smaller islands. The highest natural point of Singapore is Bukit Timah Hill at 166m.[46]
The south of Singapore, around the mouth of the Singapore River and what is now the Downtown Core, used to be the only concentrated urban area, while the rest of the land was either undeveloped tropical rainforest or used for agriculture. Since the 1960s, the government has constructed new residential towns in outlying areas, resulting in an entirely built-up urban landscape. The Urban Redevelopment Authority was established on 1 April 1974, responsible for urban planning.[citation needed]
Singapore has on-going land reclamation projects with earth obtained from its own hills, the seabed, and neighbouring countries. As a result, Singapore's land area grew from 581.5 km2 (224.5 sq mi) in the 1960s to 704 km2 (271.8 sq mi) today, and may grow by another 100 km² (38.6 sq mi) by 2030.[47] The projects sometimes involve some of the smaller islands being merged together through land reclamation in order to form larger, more functional islands, such as in the case of Jurong Island.[citation needed]
Under the Köppen climate classification system, Singapore has a tropical rainforest climate with no distinctive seasons. Its climate is characterized by uniform temperature and pressure, high humidity, and abundant rainfall. Temperatures range from 22 °C to 34 °C (72° to 93 °F). On average, the relative humidity is around 90% in the morning and 60% in the afternoon. During prolonged heavy rain, relative humidity often reaches 100%.[48] The lowest and highest temperatures recorded in its maritime history are 19.4 °C (66.9 °F) and 35.8 °C (96.4 °F) respectively.
May and June are the hottest months, while November and December make up the wetter monsoon season.[49] From August to October, there is often haze, sometimes severe enough to prompt public health warnings, due to bush fires in neighbouring Indonesia. Singapore does not observe daylight saving time or a summer time zone change. The length of the day is nearly constant year round due to the country's location near the equator.[citation needed]
About 23% of Singapore's land area consists of forest and nature reserves.[50] Urbanisation has eliminated many areas of former primary rainforest, with the only remaining area of primary rainforest being Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. A variety of parks are maintained with human intervention, such as the Singapore Botanic Gardens.[citation needed]

Economy

Singapore's Financial Centre
Singapore has a highly developed market-based economy, which has historically revolved around extended entrepôt trade. Along with Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan, Singapore is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy depends heavily on exports and refining imported goods, especially in manufacturing. Manufacturing constituted 26% of Singapore's GDP in 2005.[51] The manufacturing industry is well-diversified with significant electronics, petroleum refining, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences manufacturing sectors. In 2006, Singapore produced about 10% of the world's foundry wafer output.[52] Singapore has one of the busiest ports in the world and is the world's fourth largest foreign exchange trading centre after London, New York City and Tokyo.[53]
Singapore has been rated as the most business-friendly economy in the world,[54][55] with thousands of foreign expatriates working in multi-national corporations. Singapore is also considered to be one of the top centres of finance in the world. In addition to this, the city-state also employs tens of thousands of foreign blue-collared workers from around the world.
Alternative view of Singapore Central Business District (CBD)
As a result of a global recession and a slump in the technology sector, the country's GDP contracted 2.2% in 2001. The Economic Review Committee (ERC) was set up in December 2001, and recommended several policy changes with a view to revitalising the economy. Singapore has since recovered from the recession, largely due to improvements in the world economy; the Singaporean economy grew by 8.3% in 2004, 6.4% in 2005[56] and 7.9% in 2006.[57] On 19 August 2007, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong announced in his National Day Rally Speech that Singapore's economy is expected to grow by at least 4-6% annually over the next 5–10 years.
The per capita GDP in 2006 was US$29,474.[58] As of September 2007, the unemployment rate is 1.7%, which is the lowest in a decade, having improved to around pre-Asian crisis level.[59] Employment continued to grow strongly as the economy maintained its rapid expansion. In the first three quarters of 2007, 171,500 new jobs were created, which is close to the figure of 176,000 for the whole of 2006.[59] For the whole of 2007, Singapore's economy grew 7.5% and drew in a record S$16 billion (US$10.6b, €8.3b)of fixed asset investments in manufacturing and projects generating S$3 billion (US$2b, €1.6b) of total business spending in services.[60]
Orchard Road is decorated for Christmas, 2009
Singapore introduced a Goods and Services Tax (GST) with an initial rate of 3% on 1 April 1994 substantially increasing government revenue by S$1.6 billion (US$1b, €800m) and stabilising government finances.[61] The taxable GST was increased to 4% in 2003, to 5% in 2004, and to 7% on 1 July 2007.[62]
Because of the economic recession, Singapore's economy expanded by only 1.1% in year 2008, much lower than the expected 4.5% to 6.5% growth, while the unemployment rate was 2.8%.[63] The economy is expected to contract by up to 8% in 2009 and unemployment could rise to 5%, according to several private-sector economists.
The Economic Development Board is a statutory board of the Government of Singapore. It has been tasked to plan and execute strategies to sustain Singapore as a leading global hub for business and investment.

Free Trade Agreements

As of 2009, Singapore has 16 bilateral and multilateral trade agreements with 24 trading partners:[64]

Tourism

Singapore is a popular travel destination, making tourism one of its largest industries. About 7.8 million tourists visited Singapore in 2006.[65] The total visitor arrivals reached around 10.2 million in 2007.[66] The Orchard Road shopping district is one of Singapore's most well-known and popular tourist draws. To attract more tourists, the government decided to legalise gambling and to allow two casino resorts (euphemistically called Integrated Resorts) to be developed at Marina South and Sentosa in 2005.[67] To compete with regional rivals like Bangkok, Hong Kong, Tokyo and Shanghai, the government has announced that the city area would be transformed into a more exciting place by lighting up the civic and commercial buildings.[68] Cuisine has also been heavily promoted as an attraction for tourists, with the Singapore Food Festival in July organised annually to celebrate Singapore's cuisine.
Singapore is fast positioning itself as a medical tourism hub — about 200,000 foreigners seek medical care in the country each year and Singapore medical services aim to serve one million foreign patients annually by 2012 and generate USD 3 billion in revenue.[69] The government expects that the initiative could create an estimated 13,000 new jobs within the health industries.
Singapore is a melting pot of Chinese, Malay, Indian and Arabic communities. Tourists will see women with Chinese features wearing sarongs and Arabic dress, and these cultural aspects help make Singapore an unusual destination to visit.[70]
Under the Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (IDA), Wireless@SG is a government initiative to build Singapore's infocomm infrastructure. Working through IDA's Call-for-Collaboration, SingTel, iCell and QMax deploy a municipal wireless network throughout Singapore. Since late 2006, users have enjoyed free wireless access through Wi-Fi under the "basic-tier" package offered by all three operators for 3 years.
There are approximately 30,000 registered hotel rooms available in Singapore, and average occupancy is around 85%.[66]

Currency

The currency of Singapore is the Singapore dollar, represented by the symbol S$ or the abbreviation SGD. The central bank of Singapore is the Monetary Authority of Singapore, responsible for issuing currency. Singapore established the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Singapore, on 7 April 1967[71] and issued its first coins and notes.[72] The Singapore dollar was exchangeable at par with the Malaysian ringgit until 1973.[72] Interchangeability with the Brunei dollar is still maintained.[72][73]
On 27 June 2007, to commemorate 40 years of currency agreement with Brunei, a commemorative S$20 note was launched; the back is identical to the Bruneian $20 note launched concurrently.[73]

Foreign relations

Singapore maintains diplomatic relations with 175 countries,[74] although it does not maintain a high commission or embassy in many of those countries. It is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth, ASEAN and the Non-Aligned Movement. Due to obvious geographical reasons, relations with Malaysia and Indonesia are most important but the domestic politics of the three countries often threatens their relations. On the other hand, Singapore enjoys good relations with many European nations, including France, Germany and the United Kingdom, the latter sharing ties via the Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) along with Malaysia, Australia and New Zealand. Good relations are also maintained with the United States, a country perceived as a stabilising force in the region to counterbalance the regional powers.
Singapore supports the concept of Southeast Asian regionalism and plays an active role in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), of which Singapore is a founding member. Singapore is also a member of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, which has its Secretariat in Singapore. Singapore also has close relations with fellow ASEAN nation Brunei and maintains Army training facilities in the Sultanate.

Disputes

The dispute over the ownership of Pedra Branca, an outcrop of rocks, was resolved on 24 May 2008 (Singapore time) by the International Court of Justice between Singapore and Malaysia (see text)
Singapore has several long-standing disputes with Malaysia over a number of issues:
  • Water deliveries to Singapore[75][76]
  • Mutual maritime boundaries
  • Air routes between Singapore Changi Airport and Kuala Lumpur International Airport
  • The island known as Pedra Branca in Singapore and as Pulau Batu Puteh in Malaysia (names mean "White Rock" in Portuguese and "White Rock Island" in Malay respectively), is located 24 nautical miles (44 km) off the east coast of Singapore with a land area of 2,000 m2 (2,392 sq yd). The island also comprises the Middle Rocks, two clusters of rocks situated 0.6 nmi (1.1 km) south of the main island. Both countries had staked a claim to the island and were unable to settle the dispute. The case was heard at the International Court of Justice in 2007, with each party presenting its case. The court ruled on 23 May 2008 that Singapore owns Pedra Branca and Malaysia owns Middle Rocks. Ownership of South Ledge, a nearby rock formation which can be seen only at low tide, remains in dispute.
  • Relocating the Singapore railway station of Malaysia's Keretapi Tanah Melayu from Tanjong Pagar to Bukit Timah (see Malaysia-Singapore Points of Agreement of 1990) and moving Malaysia's immigration checkpoint from the railway station to the Causeway.
  • Not allowing laid-off workers employed in Singapore shipyards in 1998 to receive their Central Provident Funds (CPF) contributions, estimated at RM2.4 billion.

Military

The Ministry of Defence (MINDEF), currently headed by Minister Teo Chee Hean, oversees the Singapore Army, the Republic of Singapore Navy, and the Republic of Singapore Air Force, collectively known as the Singapore Armed Forces, along with volunteer private companies involved in supporting roles. The Chief of Defence Forces is Lieutenant-General Desmond Kuek Bak Chye.
The armed forces serve primarily as a deterrent against potential aggressors and also provide humanitarian assistance to other countries. Singapore has mutual defence pacts with several countries, most notably the Five Power Defence Arrangements. There is an extensive overseas network of training grounds in the United States, Australia, Republic of China (Taiwan), New Zealand, France, Thailand, Brunei, India and South Africa. Since 1980, the concept and strategy of "Total Defence" has been adopted in all aspects of security; an approach aimed at strengthening Singapore against all kinds of threats.
The recent rise in unconventional warfare and terrorism has cast increasing emphasis on non-military aspects of defence. The Gurkha Contingent, part of the Singapore Police Force, is also a counter-terrorist force. In 1991, the hijacking of Singapore Airlines Flight 117 ended in the storming of the aircraft by Singapore Special Operations Force and the subsequent deaths of all four hijackers without injury to either passengers or SOF personnel. A concern is Jemaah Islamiyah, a militant Islamic group whose plan to attack the Australian High Commission was ultimately foiled in 2001.
Singapore's defence resources have been used in international humanitarian aid missions, including United Nations peacekeeping assignments involved in 11 different countries.[77] In September 2005, the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) sent three CH-47 Chinook helicopters to Louisiana to assist in relief operations for Hurricane Katrina. In the aftermath of the 2004 Asian Tsunami (or Boxing Day Tsunami), the SAF deployed 3 LSTs (Landing Ship Tank), 12 Super Puma and 8 Chinook helicopters to aid in relief operations to the countries that were affected by the tsunami.

Singapore Armed Forces

An RSAF CH-47SD lands aboard USS Rushmore during Exercise CARAT 2001
The Singapore Armed Forces, the military forces of Singapore, takes charge of the overall defence of the country. It comprises three branches: the Singapore Army, Republic of Singapore Air Force, and the Republic of Singapore Navy.
The Singapore Army is one of the three services of the Singapore Armed Forces. It is headed by the Chief of Army (COA), currently Major General Neo Kian Hong. The Army focuses on leveraging technology and weapon systems as "force-multipliers". It is currently undergoing the transformation into what it terms a "3rd-Generation fighting force".[78]
The Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF), the air force branch, guards the airspace of Singapore. The RSAF was established in 1968 as the Singapore Air Defence Command. It operates four air bases in Singapore and operates its aircraft in several overseas locations in order to provide greater exposure to its pilots. The main aircraft found in its fleet include F-16 Fighting Falcons, F-15 Eagles, AH-64 Apache Attack Helicopters, CH-47 Chinook and C-130 Hercules.
The final branch, the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN), is the navy of the Singapore Armed Forces, responsible for the defence of Singapore against seaborne threats and protection of its sea lines of communications. Operating within the crowded littoral waters of the Singapore Strait, the RSN is regarded as one of the best in the region.[79] The RSN operates from two bases, Tuas Naval Base and Changi Naval Base, and has a large number of vessels, including 4 submarines, 6 frigates, and 4 amphibious transport docks. All commissioned ships of the RSN have a prefix RSS, which means Republic of Singapore Ship.

Singapore Police Force

The Singapore Police Force (SPF) is the main agency tasked with maintaining law and order in the country.[80] Formerly known as the Republic of Singapore Police, it has grown from an 11-man organisation to a 38,587 strong force. It enjoys a relatively positive public image,[81] and is credited for helping to arrest Singapore's civic unrests and lawlessness in its early years, and maintaining the low crime rate today.[82] The organisation structure of the SPF is split between the staff and line functions, roughly modelled after the military. There are currently 15 staff departments and 13 line units. The SPF is headquartered in a block at New Phoenix Park in Novena, adjacent to a twin block occupied by the Ministry of Home Affairs.
Police officers typically respond to calls in rapid-deployment vehicles known as the Fast Response Car. They have been staunch users of Japanese-made saloon cars since the 1980s for patrol duties, with the mainstay models in use being the various generations of the Mitsubishi Lancers, Mazda 323s, Toyota Corollas & Subaru Impreza.

Singapore Civil Defence Force

An SCDF Combined Platform Ladder (CPL) Vehicle
The Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF) is the main agency in charge of the provision of emergency services in Singapore during peacetime and emergencies. A uniformed organisation under the purview of the Ministry of Home Affairs, the SCDF provides ambulance, fire fighting and emergency response services to the Republic of Singapore. It also plays a major role in the Republic's disaster relief operations. It is branched into 6 Operational and Training Divisions beneath the Headquarters Element. Of these six, four are known as Operational Divisions, also known as Territorial Divisions, and each cover vast sections of Singapore corresponding roughly to the four cardinal points of the compass.
The SCDF maintains a large fleet of custom vehicles, called appliances, to provide an emergency response force capable of mitigating any and all kinds of fires and disasters. Ranging from the generic fire truck and ambulance to more sophisticated mobile command structures and disaster mitigation vehicles of all kinds, many of the appliances were designed and commissioned by the Force itself rather than obtaining ready-made designs from industries.

National Service

Singapore legislation requires every able-bodied male Singapore citizen and permanent resident to undertake National Service for a minimum of 2 years upon reaching 18 years of age or completion of his studies (whichever comes first), with exemption on medical or other grounds. After serving for two years, every male is considered operationally ready, and is liable for reservist national service to the age of 40 (50 for commissioned officers). Those who are medically fit are also required to take the Individual Physical Proficiency Test (IPPT) yearly as part of their training program. More than 350,000 men serve as operationally ready servicemen assigned to reservist combat units, and another 72,500 men form the full-time national service and regular corps.

Demographics

Population

Built in 1843, the Sri Mariamman Temple is the largest Hindu temple in Singapore. It is also one of the many religious buildings marked as national monuments for their historical value.
According to government statistics, the population of Singapore as of 2009 was 4.99 million, of whom 3.73 million were Singaporean citizens and permanent residents (termed "Singapore Residents"). There were 3.2 million citizens in 2009.[83] Various Chinese linguistic groups formed 74.2% of Singapore's residents, Malays 13.4%, Indians 9.2%, while Eurasians, Arabs and other groups formed 3.2%.
Singapore also has one of the highest percentage of foreigners in the world. 36% of the population in Singapore are foreigners and foreigners make up 50% of the service sector in Singapore.[84] Many foreigners come from China, Malaysia, Philippines and India and do not speak English fluently, if at all.
In 2006 the crude birth rate stood at 10.1 per 1000, a very low level attributed to birth control policies, and the crude death rate was also one of the lowest in the world at 4.3 per 1000. The total population growth was 4.4% with Singapore residents growth at 1.8%. The higher percentage growth rate is largely from net immigration, but also increasing life expectancy. Singapore is the second-most densely populated independent country in the world after Monaco. In 1957, Singapore's population was approximately 1.45 million, and there was a relatively high birth rate. Aware of the country's extremely limited natural resources and small territory, the government introduced birth control policies in the late 1960s. In the late 1990s, the population was aging, with fewer people entering the labour market and a shortage of skilled workers. In a dramatic reversal of policy, the Singapore government introduced a "baby bonus" scheme in 2001 (enhanced in August 2004) that encouraged couples to have more children.[85]
In 2008, the total fertility rate was only 1.28 children per woman, the 3rd lowest in the world and well below the 2.10 needed to replace the population.[83][86] In 2008, 39,826 babies were born, compared to around 37,600 in 2005. This number, however, is not sufficient to maintain the population's growth. To overcome this problem, the government is encouraging foreigners to immigrate to Singapore. These large numbers of immigrants have kept Singapore's population from declining.[87]

Religion

Religion in Singapore
religion percent
Buddhism
  
42.5%
Islam
  
14.9%
No religion
  
14.8%
Christianity
  
14.6%
Taoism
  
8.5%
Hinduism
  
4%
Others
  
0.6%
Singapore is a multi-religious country. According to Statistics Singapore, around 51% of resident Singaporeans (excluding significant numbers of visitors and migrant workers) practice Buddhism and Taoism. Muslims constitute 15%, of whom Malays account for the majority with a substantial number of Indian Muslims and Chinese Muslims. About 14%, mostly Chinese, Eurasians, and Indians, practice Christianity - a broad classification including Catholicism, Protestantism and other denominations. Smaller minorities practice Sikhism, Hinduism and others, according to the 2000 census.[88]
Some religious materials and practices are banned in Singapore. Jehovah's Witnesses, for example, are prohibited from distributing religious materials[89] and are sometimes jailed for their conscientious refusals to serve in the Singaporean military.[90]
About 15% of the population declared no religious affiliation.

Education

Raffles Institution, the oldest school in Singapore
English is the medium of instruction in Singapore schools. All Singaporeans are required at least primary 6 education and must attend government schools as part of National Education.
Many children attend private kindergartens until they start at primary school at the age of six. Singapore's ruling political party, the PAP, is the largest provider of preschool education through its community arm.
English is the language of instruction for mathematics and the natural sciences. For the Chinese community, there are Special Assistance Plan schools which receive extra funding to teach in Mandarin along with English. Some schools also integrate language subjects with mathematics and the sciences, using both English and a second language.
Curricular standards are set by the Ministry of Education with a mix of private schools and public schools. There is no strict public-private dichotomy: the degree of autonomy, regarding curriculum and student admission, government funding received, and tuition burden on the students is further classified into "government-run", "government-aided", "autonomous", "independent", and "privately funded".[91] In addition, international schools cater to expatriate students, and to a few local students given permission by the education ministry.
There are three Autonomous Universities in Singapore; the National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University and Singapore Management University. A fourth public university, the Singapore University of Technology and Design will open in 2011, as the government looks to provide higher education for 30% of each cohort.[92] There is another category (Private Universities - Comprehensive), SIM University (UniSIM) provides university education to working professionals and adult learners.[93] There are also five polytechnics (Singapore Polytechnic, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Temasek Polytechnic, Nanyang Polytechnic and Republic Polytechnic). Unlike similarly named institutions in many other countries, polytechnics in Singapore do not award degrees.
Students having assembly in the hall of a Singapore secondary school
The educational system features non-compulsory kindergarten for three years, followed by six years of primary education leading up to the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). Four to five years of secondary education follow, leading up to the Singapore-Cambridge GCE 'N' Level or Singapore-Cambridge GCE 'O' Level examinations that assess academic achievement and determine the kind of post-secondary education routes they can pursue.
Junior Colleges and Centralised Institutes provide a two or three-year pre-university education route. An alternative, the Integrated Programme, lets the more academically inclined skip the 'O' Level examination and proceed straight to obtain pre-university qualifications such as the GCE 'A' Level certificate, the International Baccalaureate diploma, or other equivalent academic accreditations. Polytechnics offer courses leading up to at least a diploma for students, while the other tertiary institutions offer various bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees, other higher diplomas, and associate degree courses. Other institutes include the National Institute of Education (NIE), a teaching college to train teachers, various management institutes, and vocational education institutes such as the Institute of Technical Education (ITE).
The Economic Development Board (EDB) has been actively recruiting foreign schools to set up campuses in Singapore under the "Global Schoolhouse" programme which aims to attract 150000 foreign students by 2015.[94] ESSEC Business School, a century-old Parisian business school, provides courses specific to Asia. in 2001 INSEAD, a leading business school, opened its first overseas campus in Singapore, and the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business has a campus in the city as well. The Tisch School of the Arts is the latest to set up a branch campus, opening in 2007.
However, the EDB failed to attract and retain the University of Warwick and University of New South Wales, respectively, citing lack of academic freedom[95] and financial concerns.[96]
In 1999, the Ministry of Education started the Programme for Rebuilding and Improving Existing schools (PRIME) to upgrade school buildings, many of which were built over 20 to 30 years ago, in phases at a cost of S$4.5 billion.[97] This programme aims to provide a better school environment for the students by upgrading school buildings to latest standards. In 2005, the Flexible School Infrastructure (FlexSI) framework was implemented through the building of modular classrooms which can be opened up for larger lectures, and allowing a school's staff members to mould their school's designs to suit the school's unique identity and culture. At the same time, an indoor sports hall will be provided to every school so that schools can carry out physical education lessons in inclement weather.[98]

Languages

Warning sign showing Singapore's four official languages: English, Chinese (in Simplified Script), Tamil, and Malay
Singapore is effectively a multi-lingual nation. Although English is the first language of Singapore, there are also a multitude of other languages spoken in the country that reflect its multi-racial, multi-cultural and multi-lingual society.
The forms of English spoken in Singapore ranges from Standard Singapore English to Singlish. (See Singapore English)
English is the first language of Singapore and has been heavily promoted as such since the country's independence. The English used is primarily based on British English, with some American English influences. The use of English became widespread in Singapore after it was implemented as a first language medium in the education system, and English is the most common language in Singaporean literature. In school, children are required to learn English and one of the three other official languages.
By law, all signs and official publications are required to be primarily in English, although they are occasionally translated versions into the other official languages.
The national language of Singapore is Malay for historical reasons,[18] and it is used in the national anthem, "Majulah Singapura".[99] 85% of Singaporeans do not speak Malay.
Mandarin (Chinese) is also spoken widely in Singapore. Mandarin's use has spread largely as a result of government-sponsored public campaigns and efforts to support its adoption and use over other Chinese languages.[100] It is generally spoken as a common language amongst Singapore's Chinese community. Most Singapore Chinese are, however, descended from immigrants who came from the southern regions of China where other languages were spoken, such as Hokkien, Teochew,Cantonese, Hakka and Hainanese.
Malay is generally spoken by Singapore's Malay community, while Tamil is spoken by about 60% of Singapore's Indian community. Indian languages such as Malayalam and Hindi are also spoken in Singapore.

Culture

The monument to Chopin in the Singapore Botanic Gardens, just south of Symphony Lake.
Singapore is a mixture of an ethnic Malay population with a Chinese majority, as well as Indian and Arab immigrants. There also exist significant Eurasian and Peranakan (known also as 'Straits Chinese') communities.

Cuisine

Enjoying Singaporean cuisine. Hawker centres and kopi tiams are evenly distributed
Singaporean cuisine is an example of diversity and cultural diffusion, with influences from Chinese, Indian, Malay and Tamil cuisine. In Singapore's hawker centres, traditionally Malay hawker stalls selling halal food may serve halal versions of traditionally Tamil food. Chinese food stalls may introduce indigenous Malay ingredients or cooking techniques. This continues to make the cuisine of Singapore a significant cultural attraction.
Local foods are diverse, ranging from Hainanese chicken rice to satay. Singaporeans also enjoy a wide variety of seafood including crabs, clams, squid, and oysters. One such dish is stingray barbecued and served on banana leaf with sambal or chili.
Amongst locals, popular dishes include bak chor mee, mee pok, sambal stingray, laksa, nasi lemak, chili crab and satay. All of these dishes can be found at local hawker centres around Singapore.

Performing arts

Esplanade, Theatres on the Bay
Since the 1990s, the government has been striving to promote Singapore as a centre for arts and culture, and to transform the country into a cosmopolitan 'gateway between the East and West'.[101] The highlight of these efforts was the construction of Esplanade, a centre for performing arts that opened on 12 October 2002.[102]
An annual arts festival is also organised by the National Arts Council that incorporates theatre arts, dance, music and visual arts, among other possibilities.
A first Singapore Biennale took place in 2006 to showcase contemporary art from around the world.
Singapore also has a growing stand-up comedy scene with three active venues, including a weekly open mic to help develop local comedians.[103]
Singapore is also home for original dance works produced by organizations such as ECNAD and Arts Fission Company.
Singapore hosted the 2009 Genee International Ballet Competition, a prestigious classical ballet competition promoted by the Royal Academy of Dance, an international dance examination board based in London, England.[104]

Media

Around 78,000[citation needed] people work in the media in Singapore, including publishing, print, broadcasting, film, music, digital and IT media sectors. The industry contributed 1.56% to Singapore's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2001 with an annual turnover of S$10 billion($6.6b,€5.1b). The industry grew at an average rate of 7.7% annually from 1990 to 2000, and the government seeks to increase its GDP contribution to 3% by 2012.
The "Singapore government" says the media play an important role in the country, and describes the city as one of the key strategic media centres in the Asia-Pacific region.[105] The goal of the government's Media 21 plan, launched in 2002,[106] is to establish Singapore as a global media hub.
In its Annual Worldwide Press Freedom Index for 2004, Reporters Without Borders ranked Singapore 147 out of 167. Most of the local media are directly or indirectly controlled by the government through shareholdings of these media entities by the state's investment arm Temasek Holdings, and are often perceived as pro-government.

Broadcasting

State-owned MediaCorp operates all seven free-to-air terrestrial local television channels licensed to broadcast in Singapore, as well as 14 radio channels. Radio and television stations are all government-owned entities. The radio stations are mainly operated by MediaCorp with the exception of four stations, which are operated by SAFRA Radio and SPH UnionWorks respectively. The Cable and IPTV Pay-TV Service are owned by Starhub TV and Singtel Mio TV. Private ownership of satellite dish receivers capable of viewing uncensored televised content from abroad is illegal.

Print

The Straits Times, the most circulated newspaper in the country
There are a total of 16 newspapers in active circulation. Daily newspapers are published in English, Chinese, Malay and Tamil.
The print media are dominated by Singapore Press Holdings (SPH), government-linked publisher of the flagship English-language daily, The Straits Times. SPH publishes all other daily newspapers, including a free bilingual daily, My Paper -- which claims to be the world's first, with equal coverage in both English and Chinese -- [107] with the exception of Today, a free English-language tabloid published by the state-owned broadcaster MediaCorp, as well as an online version.[108] Most of these papers have parallel online versions. English-language SPH papers available online include The Straits Times, Business Times, and The New Paper.[109]
There are also several popular magazines circulating in Singapore, like i-weekly, 8 days, Citta Bella, Her World, Brides, Men's Health and FHM Singapore.[110]

Sport and recreation

Favourite sports in Singapore include football, rugby union, cricket, swimming, badminton, basketball, tennis, volleyball and table tennis. Most people live in public residential areas that often provide amenities such as swimming pools, outdoor basketball courts and indoor sport complexes. As might be expected on an island, water sports are popular, including sailing, kayaking and water skiing. Scuba diving is another recreation, particularly around the southern island of Pulau Hantu which is known for its rich coral reefs.
Closing ceremony for the use of the National Stadium
Closing ceremony for the use of the National Stadium
The 55,000-seat National Stadium, Singapore in Kallang was opened in July 1973 and was used for sporting, cultural, entertainment and national events until its official closure on 30 June 2007 to make way for the Singapore Sports Hub on the same site. This sports complex is expected to be ready by 2014 and will comprise a new 55,000-capacity National Stadium with a retractable roof, a 6,000-capacity indoor aquatic centre, a 400-metre warm-up athletic track and a 3,000-seat multi-purpose arena. 36,000 square metres of space have also been reserved for commercial development.
Singaporean sportsmen have performed in regional as well as international competitions in sports such as table tennis, badminton, bowling, sailing, silat, swimming and water polo. Athletes such as Fandi Ahmad, Ang Peng Siong, Li Jiawei and Ronald Susilo have become household names in the country.
The Singapore Slingers joined the Australian National Basketball League in 2006, which they left in 2008. They are one of the inaugural teams that began competition in the ASEAN Basketball League in October 2009.
Beginning in 2008, Singapore started hosting a round of the Formula One World Championship. The race was staged at the Marina Bay Street Circuit in the Marina Bay area and became the first night race on the F1 circuit[111] and the first street circuit in Asia.[112]
On 21 February 2008 the International Olympic Committee announced[113] that Singapore won the bid to host the inaugural 2010 Summer Youth Olympics. Singapore beat Moscow in the final by 53 votes to 44.[114]

Architecture

The three tallest buildings in Singapore are located at Raffles Place, namely, from left to right, Republic Plaza, UOB Plaza One and OUB Centre. All three buildings are 280 metres in height
The architecture of Singapore is varied, reflecting the ethnic build-up of the country. Singapore has several ethnic neighbourhoods, including Chinatown and Little India. These were formed under the Raffles Plan to segregate the immigrants. Many places of worship were also constructed during the colonial era. Sri Mariamman Temple, the Masjid Jamae mosque and the Church of Gregory the Illuminator are among those that were built during the colonial period. Work is now underway to preserve these religious sites as National Monuments of Singapore.
Due to the lack of space and lack of preservation policies during the 1960s, 70s and 80s, few historical buildings remain in the Raffles Place area - the Fullerton Hotel and the previously moved Lau Pa Sat being some exceptions. However, just outside of Raffles Place, and throughout the rest of the downtown core, there is a large scattering of pre-WWII buildings - some going back nearly as far as Raffles, as with the Empress Place Building, built in 1827. Many classical buildings were destroyed during the post-war decades, up until the 1990s, when the government started strict programmes to conserve the buildings and areas of historic value.
Past the shopping malls are streets lined with shophouses. Many other such areas have been gazetted as historic districts. Information can be found at the URA Centre in Maxwell Road, where there are exhibits and several models of the island and its architecture. Singapore has also become a centre for postmodern architecture. Historically, the demand for high-end buildings has been in and around the Central Business District (CBD). After decades of development, the CBD has become an area with many tall office buildings. These buildings comprise the skyline along the coast of Marina Bay and Raffles Place, a tourist attraction in Singapore. Plans for tall buildings must be reviewed by the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore.[115] No building in Singapore may be taller than 280 metres.[116] The three tallest buildings in Singapore, namely Republic Plaza, UOB Plaza One and OUB Centre, are all 280 metres in height.

Resources

Water resource

Without natural freshwater rivers and lakes, rainfall is the primary domestic source of water supply in Singapore. About half of Singapore's water comes from rain collected in reservoirs and catchment areas while the rest comes from Malaysia. The two countries have long argued of the legality of agreements to supply water that were signed in colonial times.
Singapore has a network of reservoirs and water catchment areas. In 2001, there were 19 raw water reservoirs, 9 treatment works and 14 storage or service reservoirs locally to serve domestic needs. Marina Barrage is a dam being constructed around the estuary of three Singapore rivers, creating a huge freshwater reservoir by 2009, the Marina Bay reservoir.[117] This will increase the rainfall catchment to two-thirds of the country's surface area.
Historically, Singapore relied on imports from Malaysia to supply half of its water consumption. However, two water agreements that supply water to Singapore are due to expire by 2011 and 2061 respectively. The two countries are engaged in a dispute on the price of water. Without a resolution in sight, the government of Singapore decided to increase self-sufficiency in its water supply.[118] Presently, more catchment areas, facilities to recycle water (producing NEWater) and desalination plants are being built. This "four tap" strategy aims to reduce reliance on foreign supply and to diversify its water sources.[118]. In 2008, a water barrage name - The Marina Barrage was built across the Marina Channel between Marina East and Marina South. The barrage aims to provides additional water supply catchment area, improve flood control and serve as an outdoor attraction for tourists and Singaporeans.

Transport

International

The Port of Singapore with Sentosa island in the background
Singapore is a major international transportation hub in Asia, positioned on many sea and air trade routes.
The Port of Singapore, managed by port operators PSA International and Jurong Port, was the world's second busiest port in 2005 in terms of shipping tonnage handled, at 1.15 billion gross tons, and in terms of containerised traffic, at 23.2 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs). It is also the world's second busiest in terms of cargo tonnage, coming behind Shanghai with 423 million tons handled. In addition, the Port is the world's busiest for transshipment traffic and the world's biggest ship refuelling centre.[119]
PSA Keppel
Singapore is an aviation hub for the Southeast Asian region and a stopover on the Kangaroo route between Australasia and Europe. Singapore Changi Airport has a network of 81 airlines connecting Singapore to 185 cities in 58 countries. It has been rated as one of the best international airports by international travel magazines, including being rated as the world's best airport for the first time in 2006 by Skytrax.[120] The airport currently has three passenger terminals. There is also a budget terminal, which serves budget carrier Tiger Airways and Cebu Pacific. The national carrier is Singapore Airlines (SIA). The government is moving towards privatising Changi airport.
Singapore is linked to Johor, Malaysia via the Johor-Singapore Causeway and the Tuas Second Link, as well as a railway operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu of Malaysia, with its southern terminus at Tanjong Pagar railway station. Frequent ferry service to several nearby Indonesian ports also exists.
A C751B train at Eunos MRT Station on the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system, one of three heavy rail passenger transport lines in Singapore

Domestic

The domestic transport infrastructure has a well-connected island-wide road transport system which includes a network of expressways. The public road system is served by the nation's bus service and a number of licensed taxi-operating companies. The public bus transport has been the subject of criticism by Singaporeans[citation needed], the majority of whom are dependent on it for their daily commuting. Since 1987, the heavy rail passenger Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) metro system has been in operation. The MRT system has been further augmented by the Light Rail Transit (LRT) light rail system, and increases accessibility to housing estates. Established in 2001, the EZ-Link system allows contactless smartcards to serve as stored value tickets for use in the public transport systems in Singapore.
More than 2.85 million people use the bus network daily operated mainly by SBS Transit and SMRT Buses, the two main public bus operators, while more than 1.5 million people use either the LRT or MRT as part of their daily routine. The Circle Line which links different train routes such as the East-West Line, North-South Line and North-East Line is currently undergoing construction works and the whole route is due to be completed by 2012.[121] Approximately 945,000 people use the taxi services daily.[121] Private vehicle use in the Central Area is discouraged by tolls implemented during hours of heavy road traffic, through an Electronic Road Pricing system. Private vehicle ownership is discouraged by the usage of high vehicle taxes and imposing quotas on vehicle purchase.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Kor Kian Beng (18 March 2009). "Mandarin Starts at Home". The Straits Times (Singapore). http://www.straitstimes.com/Breaking%2BNews/Singapore/Story/STIStory_351547.html?vgnmr=1. 
  2. ^ "Singapore: History". Asian Studies Network Information Center. http://inic.utexas.edu/asnic/countries/singapore/Singapore-History.html. Retrieved 2 November 2007. 
  3. ^ Hoe Yeen Nie (2 June 2009). "State of Singapore came into being 50 years ago on 3 June". Channel News Asia (Singapore). http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/433440/1/.html. 
  4. ^ a b "Road to Independence". U.S. Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/singapore/10.htm. Retrieved 14 April 2006. 
  5. ^ a b Population (Mid Year Estimates) & Land Area. 2009. Statistics Singapore. 2009. http://www.singstat.gov.sg/stats/keyind.html#popnarea. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Singapore". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=576&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=64&pr.y=20. Retrieved 1 October 2009. 
  7. ^ "Human Development Report 2009. Human development index trends: Table G". United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf. Retrieved 5 October 2009. 
  8. ^ "Population & Land area". Singapore Department of Statistics Singapore. 15 December 2008. http://www.singstat.gov.sg/stats/keyind.html#popnarea. Retrieved 15 December 2008. 
  9. ^ http://www.singstat.gov.sg/pubn/popn/population2009.pdf
  10. ^ http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_gdp_percap-economy-gdp-nominal-per-capita&date=1968
  11. ^ Murphy, Craig (2006). The United Nations Development Programme: A Better Way?. Cambridge University Press. pp. 101. ISBN 9780521864695. 
  12. ^ "List of GDP () per capita by country, 2007". International Monetary Fund. http://imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2008/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=25&pr.y=9&sy=2007&ey=2007&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=512%2C446%2C914%2C666%2C612%2C668%2C614%2C672%2C311%2C946%2C213%2C137%2C911%2C962%2C193%2C674%2C122%2C676%2C912%2C548%2C313%2C556%2C419%2C678%2C513%2C181%2C316%2C682%2C913%2C684%2C124%2C273%2C339%2C921%2C638%2C948%2C514%2C943%2C218%2C686%2C963%2C688%2C616%2C518%2C223%2C728%2C516%2C558%2C918%2C138%2C748%2C196%2C618%2C278%2C522%2C692%2C622%2C694%2C156%2C142%2C624%2C449%2C626%2C564%2C628%2C283%2C228%2C853%2C924%2C288%2C233%2C293%2C632%2C566%2C636%2C964%2C634%2C182%2C238%2C453%2C662%2C968%2C960%2C922%2C423%2C714%2C935%2C862%2C128%2C716%2C611%2C456%2C321%2C722%2C243%2C942%2C248%2C718%2C469%2C724%2C253%2C576%2C642%2C936%2C643%2C961%2C939%2C813%2C644%2C199%2C819%2C184%2C172%2C524%2C132%2C361%2C646%2C362%2C648%2C364%2C915%2C732%2C134%2C366%2C652%2C734%2C174%2C144%2C328&s=PPPPC&grp=0&a=. 
  13. ^ List of countries and dependencies by population density
  14. ^ Hoe Yeen Nie (10 March 2009). "Survey shows Singapore is world's 10th most expensive city". Channel NewsAsia (Singapore). http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/414327/1/.html. 
  15. ^ "Mercer's 2009 Cost of Living survey highlights - Global". http://www.mercer.com/costofliving. 
  16. ^ Fahmy, Miral (7 July 2009). "Singapore is 10th most expensive city". AsiaOne. Reuters. http://www.asiaone.com/Business/News/Story/A1Story20090707-153429.html. 
  17. ^ "Population - latest data". Singapore Department of Statistics Singapore. 17 October 2008. http://www.singstat.gov.sg/stats/latestdata.html. Retrieved 17 October 2008. 
  18. ^ a b "Republic of Singapore Independence Act". http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/non_version/cgi-bin/cgi_getdata.pl?actno=1997-REVED-RSI&doctitle=REPUBLIC%20OF%20SINGAPORE%20INDEPENDENCE%20ACT%0A&date=latest&method=whole. Retrieved 4 January 2009. 
  19. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook - Singapore". U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sn.html. Retrieved 7 August 2007. 
  20. ^ "Country Report: Singapore". Freedom House. http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&country=7269&year=2007. Retrieved 3 August 2007. 
  21. ^ "Singapore". bartleby.com. http://www.bartleby.com/61/46/S0424600.html. Retrieved 14 April 2006. 
  22. ^ "Puram". dsal.uchicago.edu. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/search3advanced?dbname=tamillex&query=%E0%AE%AA%E0%AF%81%E0%AE%B0%E0%AE%AE%E0%AF%8D&matchtype=exact&display=utf8. 
  23. ^ "Singam". dsal.uchicago.edu. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/search3advanced?dbname=tamillex&query=%E0%AE%9A%E0%AE%BF%E0%AE%99%E0%AF%8D%E0%AE%95%E0%AE%AE%E0%AF%8D&matchtype=exact&display=utf8. 
  24. ^ "Studying In Singapore". Search Singapore Pte Ltd. http://www.schools.com.sg/articles/aboutSingapore.asp. Retrieved 14 April 2006. 
  25. ^ "Sang Nila Utama" (PDF). 24hr Art. http://www.24hrart.org.au/pdf's/Utama_Every.pdf. Retrieved 14 April 2006. 
  26. ^ "Country Studies". U.S. Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/singapore/3.htm. Retrieved 1 May 2007. 
  27. ^ "Singapore - Precolonial Era". U.S. Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/singapore/3.htm. Retrieved 18 June 2006. 
  28. ^ "Founding of Modern Singapore". Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts, Singapore. http://www.sg/explore/history_founding.htm. Retrieved 14 April 2006. 
  29. ^ "BBC On This Day - 15 February 1942: Singapore forced to surrender". BBC. 15 February 1942. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/15/newsid_3529000/3529447.stm. Retrieved 1 May 2007. 
  30. ^ Blackburn, Kevin (December 2000). "The Collective Memory of the Sook Ching Massacre and the Creation of the Civilian War Memorial of Singapore". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 73, 2, 71-90.
  31. ^ Taylor, Ron. "Fall of Malaya and Singapore". http://www.britain-at-war.org.uk/WW2/Malaya_and_Singapore/index.htm. Retrieved 10 July 2007. 
  32. ^ "Headliners; Retiring, Semi". The New York Times. 2 December 1990. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE4DD123DF931A35751C1A966958260. Retrieved 27 December 2008. 
  33. ^ McCarthy, Terry (23 August 1999). "Lee Kuan Yew". Time Asia (Hong Kong). http://www.time.com/time/asia/asia/magazine/1999/990823/lee1.html. 
  34. ^ Suryadinata, Leo (2000). Nationalism and Globalization: East and West. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 79. ISBN 9789812300782. 
  35. ^ "Country profile: Singapore". BBC News. 15 July 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1143240.stm. Retrieved 14 April 2006. 
  36. ^ Smale, Will (23 August 2004). "Singapore signs up to global casino club". BBC News Online (London). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3590184.stm. 
  37. ^ [1]
  38. ^ Parliamentary Elections Act (Cap. 218, 2001 Rev. Ed.)
  39. ^ a b [2]
  40. ^ Worthington (2002); Mauzy and Milne (2002).
  41. ^ "Economist Intelligence Unit democracy index 2006" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. http://www.economist.com/media/pdf/DEMOCRACY_TABLE_2007_v3.pdf. Retrieved 13 September 2007. 
  42. ^ "Country Report: Singapore". Freedom House. http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2006&country=7055. 
  43. ^ Seow, F. (1994). To Catch a Tartar: A Dissident in Lee Kuan Yew's Prison, Yale University SEA press.
  44. ^ "Transparency International - Corruption Perceptions Index 2006". http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi. Retrieved 3 February 2007. 
  45. ^ Ministry of Home Affairs, Singapore (30 January 2004). "The Singapore Government's Response To Amnesty International's Report "Singapore - The Death Penalty: A Hidden Toll Of Executions"". Press release. http://www.mha.gov.sg/basic_content.aspx?pageid=74. 
  46. ^ "Heritage Trails: Bukit Timah Hill". Heritage trails. 
  47. ^ "Towards Environmental Sustainability, State of the Environment 2005 Report (PDF)". Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources, Singapore. http://app.nea.gov.sg/counter/nea_soecover.asp. Retrieved 14 April 2006. 
  48. ^ "Climate of Singapore". National Environment Agency, Singapore. http://app.nea.gov.sg/cms/htdocs/article.asp?pid=1088. Retrieved 14 April 2006. 
  49. ^ "Singapore National Environment Agency Weather Statistics". http://app2.nea.gov.sg/weather_statistics.aspx. 
  50. ^ "Earthtrends country profile" (PDF). http://earthtrends.wri.org/pdf_library/country_profiles/for_cou_702.pdf. 
  51. ^ "Gross Domestic Product by Industry" (PDF). Singapore Department of Statistics. 2007. http://www.singstat.gov.sg/stats/themes/economy/ess/essa11.pdf. Retrieved 13 September 2007. 
  52. ^ Xilinx (14 September 2007). "Xilinx Underscores Commitment To Asia Pacific Market At Official Opening Of New Regional Headquarters Building In Singapore". Press release. http://digital50.com/news/items/PR/2007/09/14/AQF005/xilinx-underscores-commitment-to-asia-pacific-market-at-official-opening-of-new-regio/. Retrieved 21 November 2007. 
  53. ^ "MAS Annual Report 2005/2006". Monetary Authority of Singapore. http://www.mas.gov.sg/about_us/annual_reports/annual20052006/index.htm. 
  54. ^ Wong Choon Mei (6 September 2006). "Singapore the most business-friendly economy in the world: World Bank". Channel NewsAsia (Singapore). http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporebusinessnews/view/228852/1/.html. "According to a World Bank-IFC report, Singapore beats previous winner New Zealand for the top spot in the 2005/2006 rankings while the United States came in third." 
  55. ^ "Singapore top paradise for business: World Bank". AsiaOne. AFP (Singapore). 26 September 2007. http://business.asiaone.com/Business/News/SME%2BCentral/Story/A1Story20070926-27084.html. Retrieved 31 January 2008. "For the second year running, Singapore tops the aggregate rankings on the ease of doing business in 2006 to 2007, the World Bank said in releasing its 'Doing Business 2008' report." 
  56. ^ "Performance of the Singapore Economy in 2005, Ministry of Trade and Industry" (PDF). Archived from the original on 23 August 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060823185543/http://app.mti.gov.sg/data/article/1962/doc/ESS_2005Ann_+PR.pdf. Retrieved 14 April 2006. 
  57. ^ Loh, Dominique (31 December 2006). "Singapore's economy grows by 7.7% in 2006". Channel NewsAsia (Singapore). http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/250028/1/.html. 
  58. ^ "Per Capita GDP at Current Market Prices". Singapore Department of Statistics. 16 February 2006. http://www.singstat.gov.sg/stats/themes/economy/hist/gdp.html. 
  59. ^ a b Manpower Research and Statistics Department. "Employment Situation In Third Quarter 2007: Unemployment rate dropped to pre-Asian crisis level amid continued strong employment creation" (PDF). Singapore Ministry of Manpower. http://www.mom.gov.sg/publish/etc/medialib/mom_library/mrsd/glm.Par.82616.File.tmp/mrsd_Q32007empsit.pdf. Retrieved 30 December 2007. 
  60. ^ Ramesh, S. (31 December 2007). "Singapore's economy grows 7.5% in 2007: PM Lee". Channel NewsAsia (Singapore). http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/320021/1/.html. 
  61. ^ "FY 1996 Budget, Revenue And Tax Changes". Ministry of Finance. http://www.mof.gov.sg/budget_1996/revenue.html. Retrieved 1 May 2006. 
  62. ^ "GST rate to rise to 7% from 1 July". Channel NewsAsia. 15 February 2007. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/specialreport/news/258757_26/1/.html. 
  63. ^ "Singapore's economy grew by 1.1% in 2008". Press release. 26 February 2009. http://www.singstat.gov.sg/news/news/gdp4q2008.pdf. Retrieved 26 February 2009. 
  64. ^ "Welcome to Singapore FTA Network". Government of Singapore. http://www.fta.gov.sg/sg_fta.asp. Retrieved 23 October 2009. 
  65. ^ "Record Year As Tourism Exceeds 2006 Targets With S$12.4 Billion Tourism Receipts And 9.7 Million Visitor Arrivals". Singapore Tourism Board. http://app.stb.com.sg/asp/new/new03a.asp?id=6243. Retrieved 21 April 2007. 
  66. ^ a b Year Book of Statistics, Singapore. Singapore Tourism Board.
  67. ^ Ministry of Trade and Industry (Singapore). "Proposal to develop Integrated Resorts - Ministerial Statement by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong on 18 April 2005" (PDF). Press release. http://app.mti.gov.sg/data/pages/606/doc/Ministerial%20Statement%20-%20PM%2018apr05.pdf. 
  68. ^ "URA News Releases: Let Bright Ideas Light Up Singapore". Urban Renewal Authority. http://www.ura.gov.sg/pr/text/forum06_09.html. Retrieved 29 December 2007. 
  69. ^ Dogra, Sapna. "Medical tourism boom takes Singapore by storm". India: Express Healthcare Management. http://www.expresshealthcaremgmt.com/20050731/medicaltourism01.shtml. Retrieved 29 December 2007. 
  70. ^ Fonti, A. (18 April 2009). "The secret and unique side of Singapore revealed". Launceston Examiner.
  71. ^ Low Siang Kok, Director (Quality), Board of Commissioners of Currency, Singapore. "Chapter 6: Singapore Electronic Legal Tender (SELT) – A Proposed Concept" (PDF). The Future of Money / Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. France: OECD Publications. pp. 147. ISBN 92-64-19672-2. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/40/31/35391062.pdf. Retrieved 28 December 2007. "The Board of Commissioners of Currency, Singapore (BCCS) was established on 7 April 1967 by the enactment of the Currency Act (Chapter 69). It has the sole right to issue currency notes and coins as legal tender in Singapore." 
  72. ^ a b c Monetary Authority of Singapore (9 April 2007). "The Currency History of Singapore". Press release. http://www.mas.gov.sg/currency/currency_info/Heritage_Collection.html. Retrieved 28 December 2007. "On 12 June 1967, the currency union which had been operating for 29 years came to an end, and the three participating countries, Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei each issued its own currency." 
  73. ^ a b Monetary Authority of Singapore (27 June 2007). "Commemorating the 40th Anniversary the Currency Interchangeability Agreement". Press release. http://www.mas.gov.sg/news_room/press_releases/2007/Joint_Press_Release_by_the_MOF_Brunei_Darussalam_and_MAS.html. Retrieved 28 December 2007. "Brunei Darussalam and Singapore today celebrate the 40th Anniversary of the Currency Interchangeability Agreement." 
  74. ^ "Singapore Missions Worldwide". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Singapore. 31 March 2007. Archived from the original on 21 August 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070821210744/http://notesapp.internet.gov.sg/mfa/dipcon/dipcon.nsf/SMAgent. 
  75. ^ "Singapore: Transnational Issues". The World Factbook. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. 1 May 2008. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sn.html#Issues. 
  76. ^ "No sign of deal in Malaysia-Singapore water talks". Singapore Window. Reuters. 16 October 2002. http://www.singapore-window.org/sw02/021016re.htm. 
  77. ^ "About Us: Defence Pllicy". Ministry of Defence. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/about_us/defence_policy.html. Retrieved 1 May 2006. 
  78. ^ "MINDEF - The 3rd Generation SAF". MINDEF. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/mindef_websites/topics/3g/home.html. Retrieved 25 February 2008. 
  79. ^ Huxley, Tim (2001). Defending the Lion City. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-118-3. 
  80. ^ "Singapore PUBLIC ORDER AND INTERNAL SECURITY - Flags, Maps, Economy, History, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System". http://www.photius.com/countries/singapore/national_security/singapore_national_security_public_order_and_int~1587.html. 
  81. ^ "Good job, police". The Straits Times (Singapore). 24 January 2000. 
  82. ^ "Singapore is so safe some don't even lock up: survey". The Straits Times (Singapore). 26 February 2008. 
  83. ^ a b "Singapore Statistic". Singapore Statistic. http://www.singstat.gov.sg/pubn/popn/population2009.pdf. Retrieved 28 September 2009. 
  84. ^ http://www.singstat.gov.sg/pubn/popn/population2009.pdf
  85. ^ "Baby Bonus". Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports. http://www.babybonus.gov.sg. Retrieved 1 November 2006. 
  86. ^ "CIA - Singapore". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2127rank.html. 
  87. ^ Ng, Julia (7 February 2007). "Singapore's birth trend outlook remains dismal". Channel NewsAsia. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/257208/1/.html. 
  88. ^ "Census of Population 2000 by religion, ethnic group, and gender" (PDF). Statistics Singapore. Singapore Department of Statistics. Archived from the original on 28 June 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070628062428/http://www.singstat.gov.sg/keystats/c2000/religion.pdf. Retrieved 12 March 2007. 
  89. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2002: Singapore". http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2002/13909.htm. 
  90. ^ "Singapore: CONCODOC 1998 report". http://www.wri-irg.org/co/rtba/singapore.htm. 
  91. ^ "Education System: Secondary". Ministry of Education. Archived from the original on 11 November 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061111160921/http://www.moe.gov.sg/corporate/secondary_02.htm. Retrieved 1 May 2006. 
  92. ^ Hoe Yeen Nie (18 December 2007). "More tertiary options in 2008 and beyond". Channel News Asia. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/318031/1/.html. 
  93. ^ Post-Secondary Education in Singapore. Ministry of Education.
  94. ^ Singapore Economic Development Board (1 February 2006). "Singapore: The Global Schoolhouse". http://www.edb.gov.sg/edb/sg/en_uk/index/industry_sectors/education/global_schoolhouse.html. Retrieved 14 December 2007. 
  95. ^ Burton, John (20 October 2005). "Warwick's decision disrupts Singapore's plans". Financial Times (London). http://www.yawningbread.org/apdx_2005/imp-226.htm. Retrieved 14 December 2007. 
  96. ^ Paulo, Derrick A. (24 May 2007). "Shock closure of UNSW in Singapore". ChannelNewsAsia. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporebusinessnews/view/278073/1/.html. Retrieved 14 December 2007. 
  97. ^ "Programme For Rebuilding and Improving Existing schools (PRIME)". MOE-PRIME, Ministry of Education. Archived from the original on 23 August 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070823024237/http://www.moe.gov.sg/prime/prime.htm. Retrieved 15 May 2007. 
  98. ^ "Eight More Schools to Benefit from Upgrading". Ministry of Education Press Releases. http://www.moe.gov.sg/press/2007/pr20070214.htm. Retrieved 15 May 2007. 
  99. ^ Singapore Arms and Flag and National Anthem Act (Cap. 296, 1985 Rev. Ed.).
  100. ^ Speak Mandarin Campaign
  101. ^ "Renaissance City Report: Culture and the Arts in Renaissance Singapore (Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts)" (PDF). http://www.mica.gov.sg/renaissance/FinalRen.pdf. Retrieved 1 May 2006. 
  102. ^ "Virtual Tourist: Reviews of Esplanade (Theatres by the Bay)". http://www.virtualtourist.com/travel/Asia/Singapore/Singapore-1495679/Things_To_Do-Singapore-Esplanade_Theatres_by_the_Bay-BR-1.html. Retrieved 28 March 2006. 
  103. ^ Chee, Frankie. "Stand-up is back", The Straits Times, 12 July 2009.
  104. ^ http://www.rad.org.uk/Press_GeneeInternationalBalletCompetition2009.htm
  105. ^ "Media Overview". Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts. http://www.mica.gov.sg/mica_business/b_media.html. Retrieved 17 September 2006. 
  106. ^ "Media 21: Transforming Singapore into a Global Media City" (PDF). Media Development Authority Singapore. http://www.mda.gov.sg/wms.ftp://media21.pdf. Retrieved 17 September 2006. 
  107. ^ Online version of My Paper.
  108. ^ Online version of Today.
  109. ^ AsiaOne - A Singapore Press Holdings Portal.
  110. ^ SPH Magazines.
  111. ^ Formula1.com. "News - Singapore confirms 2008 night race". Press release. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070613015932/http://www.formula1.com/news/6063.html. Retrieved 18 May 2007. 
  112. ^ Formula1.com (16 November 2007). "SingTel to sponsor first Singapore Grand Prix". Press release. http://www.formula1.com/news/headlines/2007/11/7101.html. Retrieved 10 December 2007. 
  113. ^ "Youth Olympic Games 2010 (Singapore)". Press release. http://www.olympic.org/uk/news/media_centre/press_release_uk.asp?release=2492. Retrieved 15 March 2008. 
  114. ^ "Singapore won bid to host the inaugural 2010 Summer Youth Olympics". Press release. http://www.singapore2010.sg/. 
  115. ^ "Building Height Restriction Map". Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore. http://www.caas.gov.sg/caas/en/e-Services/ANO_Hazard_C/view_building_height_res_map.html. 
  116. ^ "Liechtenstein - Singapore: a comparison" (PDF). http://www.liechtenstein.li/en/pdf-fl-multimedia-information-bilateral-singapur.pdf. 
  117. ^ "Marina Barrage". PUB. 23 September 2007. http://www.pub.gov.sg/Marina/about.htm. 
  118. ^ a b "Clean Water". Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources, Singapore. http://app.mewr.gov.sg/web/Contents/Contents.aspx?Id=83. Retrieved 14 April 2006. 
  119. ^ "Singapore remains world's busiest port". China View. Xinhuanet. 12 January 2006. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-01/12/content_4045562.htm. 
  120. ^ "2006 Airport of the Year result". Archived from the original on 31 December 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061231160516/http://www.worldairportawards.com/Awards-2006/AirportYear-2006.htm. Retrieved 1 June 2006. 
  121. ^ a b "2007 Average Daily Ridership" (PDF). http://www.lta.gov.sg/corp_info/doc/Average_Daily_Public_Transport_Ridership.pdf. Retrieved 1 March 2008. 

Bibliography

External links

This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.
Government
General information
Travel

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : Southeast Asia : Singapore
noframe
Location
Image:LocationSingapore.png
Flag
Image:sn-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Singapore
Government Parliamentary republic
Currency Singapore dollar (SGD)
Area 710.2 sq km
Population 4,987,600 (2009 mid-year est.)
Language English (official), Mandarin Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil (official)
Religion Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Sikhism, Taoism, Confucianism
Electricity 230V/50Hz (British plug)
Calling Code +65
Internet TLD .sg
Time Zone UTC +8
.Singapore [1] is a city-state in Southeast Asia.^ Find a hotel in Singapore, Malaysia or anywhere in Southeast Asia...
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Quick links : Fares How to buy tickets Map of train routes in Southeast Asia Weekly luxury train Singapore-Bangkok Hotel accommodation .
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Data Map > All Regions / Continents > All Countries > Region: Southeast Asia > Country: Singapore .
  • Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Founded as a British trading colony in 1819, since independence it has become one of the world's most prosperous countries and sports the world's busiest port.^ Only one radio station, the BBC World Service, was completely independent of the government.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Combining the skyscrapers and subways of a modern, affluent city with a medley of Chinese, Indian and Malay influences and a tropical climate, with tasty food, good shopping and a vibrant nightlife scene, this Garden City makes a great stopover or springboard into the region.^ However, ethnic Malays have not yet reached the educational or socioeconomic levels achieved by the ethnic Chinese majority, the ethnic Indian minority, or the Eurasian community.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Map of Singapore, with MRT lines and key attractions
Map of Singapore, with MRT lines and key attractions
.Singapore is a small country on a small island, but with over four-and-a-half million people it is a fairly crowded city and in fact second only to Monaco as the world's most densely populated country.^ Hostelbookers has online booking of cheap private rooms or dorm beds in backpacker hostels in Singapore and most other world cities at rock-bottom prices.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.The center of the city — consisting roughly of Orchard Road, the Riverside and a chunk of Chinatown — is known in acronym-loving Singapore as the CBD (Central Business District).^ Orchard Road Singapore , Singapore, 238879 Offering cosmopolitan elegance and comfort on the world famous Orchard Road, The Orchard Hotel Singapore features 653 elegantly designed rooms to suit business and leisure needs.
  • Orchard Singapore Singapore 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Orchard Hotel Singapore is also located close to the Central Business District, banks, embassies and just 25 minutes away from Singapore’s Changi Airport.
  • Orchard Singapore Singapore 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just minutes away from Singapore's central business and main shopping districts, Sentosa I...
  • Singapore Hotels and Resorts with Discounted rate, Last Minute Booking, Instant Confirmation, Free N Easy Travel Singapore, Guaranteed Lowest Rates, Singapore Travel and Visa Information – www.fnetravel.com 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fnetravel.com [Source type: General]

.
  • Riverside (Civic District) — Singapore's colonial core, with museums, statues and theaters, not to mention restaurants, bars and clubs.
  • Orchard Road — Miles and miles of shopping malls.
  • Bugis and Kampong Glam — Bugis and Kampong Glam are Singapore's old Malay district, now largely taken over by shopping
  • Chinatown — The area originally designated for Chinese settlement by Raffles, now a Cantonese enclave in predominantly Hokkien Singapore.
  • Little India — A piece of India to the north of the city core.
  • Balestier, Newton, Novena and Toa Payoh — Budget accommodations and Burmese temples within striking distance of the center.
  • North and West — The northern and western parts of the island, also known as Woodlands and Jurong respectively, form Singapore's residential and industrial hinterlands.
  • East Coast — The largely residential eastern part of the island contains Changi Airport, miles and miles of beach, and many famous eateries.^ Orchard Road, shopping and entertainment paradise of Singapore.
    • Singapore Hotels and Resorts with Discounted rate, Last Minute Booking, Instant Confirmation, Free N Easy Travel Singapore, Guaranteed Lowest Rates, Singapore Travel and Visa Information – www.fnetravel.com 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fnetravel.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Orchard Road Singapore , Singapore, 238879 Offering cosmopolitan elegance and comfort on the world famous Orchard Road, The Orchard Hotel Singapore features 653 elegantly designed rooms to suit business and leisure needs.
    • Orchard Singapore Singapore 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When the Straits Settlements, comprising the three predominantly Chinese-populated port cities of Singapore, Melaka (Malacca) and Penang (George Town), was formed as a British colony in 1826, the criminal law of England applied.
    • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

    Also covers Geylang Serai, the true home of Singapore's Malays.
  • Sentosa — A separate island developed into a resort, Sentosa is the closest that Singapore gets to Disneyland.

Addresses

.In the centre Singapore's addressing system is fairly normal ("17 Orchard Rd" etc), but the new housing developments on the outskirts may appear more intimidating: a typical address might be "Blk 505 Jurong West St 51 #01-186". Here "Blk 505" is the housing block number, "Jurong West St 51" is the street name, and "#01-186" means floor 1, unit, stall or shop 186. The first digit of both housing block and street number is the neighborhood's number (in this case 5), making it easier to narrow down the right location.^ In both cases, Singaporean students came out number 1 in math.
  • Singapore Math : Sonlight Curriculum 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.sonlight.com [Source type: General]

^ Here it is just possible to discern the raw and bleeding flesh of the lower buttock area, particularly the right buttock, with some blood trickling down the thigh.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To these severe canings for serious offences have been added, in recent years, in both Malaysia and Singapore, a very large number of much less severe canings of illegal immigrants.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are also 6-digit postal codes, which - considering the small size of the island - generally correspond to exactly one building.^ Although the MDA ordered ISPs to block 100 specific Web sites that the government considered pornographic, in general the government actually focused on blocking only a small number of sites.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

For example, "Blk 9 Bedok South Ave 2" is "Singapore 460009". Finally, you will also encounter Malay terms in addresses: the most common are Jalan (Jln) for "Road", Lorong (Lor) for "Lane", Bukit (Bt) for "Hill" and Kampong (Kg) for "Village".
Useful tools for hunting down addresses include StreetDirectory.com [2] and GoThere.sg [3].
Bored proboscis monkey, Singapore Zoo
Bored proboscis monkey, Singapore Zoo
.Singapore is a microcosm of Asia, populated by Chinese, Malays, Indians and a large group of workers and expatriates from all across the globe.^ However, ethnic Malays have not yet reached the educational or socioeconomic levels achieved by the ethnic Chinese majority, the ethnic Indian minority, or the Eurasian community.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Two companies, Singapore Press Holdings Limited (SPH) and MediaCorp, own all general circulation newspapers in the four official languages--English, Chinese, Malay, and Tamil.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Singapore has a partly deserved reputation for sterile predictability that has earned it descriptions like William Gibson's "Disneyland with the death penalty" or the "world's only shopping mall with a seat in the United Nations". Nevertheless, the Switzerland of Asia is for many a welcome respite from the poverty, chaos, and crime of much of the Asian mainland, and if you scratch below the squeaky clean surface and get away from the tourist trail you'll soon find more than meets the eye.^ "Whipping convicts is much more difficult (than administering a Syriah caning) because you have to do it with a lot of 'power'.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There's no ATM at Singapore station, the nearest one is a 15-minute walk away, so get cash out beforehand if you need it.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ I find that lying along the length of the carriage in this type of berth much more conducive to a sound night's sleep that lying across the width of it, as is often the case in sleepers.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Singaporean food is legendary, with bustling hawker centres and 24-hour coffee shops offering cheap food from all parts of Asia, and shoppers can bust their baggage allowances in shopping meccas like Orchard Road and Suntec City.^ While staying at Grand Central Hotel Singapore a visitor can enjoy great shopping experience at Orchard Road.
  • Grand Central Singapore Singapore 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: General]

^ After 4 or 5 hours, when you just start to think that you might have seen all the wonders the Malaysian jungle has to offer, the train enters the mountains.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ The food offered by the "Bogie Restaurant" (orders taken after crossing the border; dinner is served after Hat Yai and breakfast at whatever reasonable hour people are getting up) is generally very good if you like Thai food.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.In recent years some societal restrictions have also loosened up, and now you can bungee jump and dance on bartops all night long, although alcohol is very pricey and chewing gum can only be bought from a pharmacy.^ You only get one pillow per berth, so fold up some soft clothing if you like your head higher.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ While the ISA has not been invoked in recent years against political opponents of the government, political opposition and criticism remained restricted by the government's authority to define these powers broadly.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A major Singapore landmark and a tourist attraction in its own right, all rooms are suites and will set you back around 298 per night.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Gambling casinos will be opening up by 2010 as part of Singapore's new Fun and Entertainment drive, the aim being to double the number of tourists visiting and increasing the length of time they stay.^ He was in pain, and when he sat down, he sat down very gingerly" ("Caned Youth Gets Visit In Singapore", New York Times , 7 May 1994).
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the 1974 news conference, one Singapore paper took up the issue of scarring in an editorial , suggesting that "[...
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some parents with multiple students find Singapore Math requires more of their time than they'd prefer.
  • Singapore Math : Sonlight Curriculum 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.sonlight.com [Source type: General]

Watch out for more loosening up in the future.

History

The first records of Singapore date back to the 2nd-3rd centuries where a vague reference to its location was found in Greek and Chinese texts, under the names of Sabana and Pu Luo Chung respectively. According to legend, Srivijayan prince Sang Nila Utama landed on the island in the 13th century and, catching sight of a strange creature that he thought was a lion, decided to found a new city he called Singapura, Sanskrit for Lion City. Alas, there have never been any lions anywhere near Singapore or elsewhere on Malaya, so the mysterious beast was more probably a tiger.
More historical records indicate that the island was settled at least two centuries earlier and was known as Temasek, Javanese for "Sea Town", and an important port for the Sumatran Srivijaya kingdom. However, Srivijaya fell around 1400 and Temasek, battered by the feuding kingdoms of Siam and the Javanese Majapahit, fell into obscurity. As Singapura, it then briefly regained importance as a trading centre for the Melaka Sultanate and later, the Johor Sultanate. However, Portuguese raiders then destroyed the settlement and Singapura faded into obscurity once more.
.The story of Singapore as we know it today thus began in 1819, when Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles made a deal with a claimant to the throne of the Sultanate of Johor: the British would support his claim in exchange for the right to set up a trading post on the island.^ A major Singapore landmark and a tourist attraction in its own right, all rooms are suites and will set you back around 298 per night.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Well-placed at the entrance to the Straits of Malacca, straddling the trade routes between China, India, Europe, and Australia, Raffles' masterstroke was to declare Singapore a free port, with no duties charged on trade.^ When the Straits Settlements, comprising the three predominantly Chinese-populated port cities of Singapore, Melaka (Malacca) and Penang (George Town), was formed as a British colony in 1826, the criminal law of England applied.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's no longer available on the Singapore-KL overnight train, but still available between KL & Butterworth, KL & Tumpat.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.As traders flocked to escape onerous Dutch taxes, the trading post soon grew into one of Asia's busiest, drawing people from far and wide.^ One respect in which the artist of the above drawing seems to have got it significantly wrong is in showing the offender's feet spread wide apart, with the ankles strapped to the side legs of the frame.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Along with Penang and Malacca, Singapore became one of the Straits Settlements and a jewel in the British colonial crown.^ The old Straits Settlements colony was not revived.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Straits Settlements, comprising the three predominantly Chinese-populated port cities of Singapore, Melaka (Malacca) and Penang (George Town), was formed as a British colony in 1826, the criminal law of England applied.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, Singapore was made a separate colony, while a new Federation of Malaya based in KL comprised all the rest of the peninsula -- the former FMS and the former UMS plus Malacca and Penang.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

Its economic fortunes received a further boost when palm oil and rubber from neighbouring Malaya were processed and shipped out via Singapore. .In 1867, Singapore was formally split off from British India and made into a directly ruled Crown Colony.^ The penal legislation in what used to be "British Malaya" -- the peninsular part of present-day Malaysia, plus Singapore -- has its historical roots in the criminal laws of England and India.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

.When World War II broke out, Fortress Singapore was seen as a formidable British base, with massive naval fortifications guarding against assault by sea.^ Well, we just witnessed one of the biggest tantrums I have ever seen out of my 4-year old, because I refused to do any more of her Singapore Math workbook with her while we had company over.
  • Singapore Math : Sonlight Curriculum 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.sonlight.com [Source type: General]

^ However, at least from the First World War onwards, the whole peninsula was in political terms regarded as "British Malaya" and for practical purposes was run as an entity, overseen by a Governor based in Singapore who reported to the Colonial Office in London.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

However, not only did the fortress lack a fleet as all ships were tied up defending Britain from the Germans, but the Japanese wisely chose to cross Malaya by bicycle instead. Despite hastily turning the guns around, this was something the British had not prepared for at all, and on February 15, 1942, with supplies critically low after less than a week of fighting, Singapore ignominiously surrendered and the colony's erstwhile rulers were packed off to Changi Prison. .Tens of thousands perished in the subsequent brutal occupation, and the return of the British in 1945 was less than triumphal — it was clear that their time was up.^ Less than 2% of these were caught taking drugs again, and these few were then jailed for up to a further 13 years, with up to 12 further strokes of the cane.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Granted self-rule in 1955, Singapore briefly joined Malaysia in 1963 when the British left, but was expelled because the Chinese-majority city was seen as a threat to Malay dominance, and the island became independent on 9 August 1965, thus becoming the only country to gain independence against its own will in the history of the modern world.^ When the Straits Settlements, comprising the three predominantly Chinese-populated port cities of Singapore, Melaka (Malacca) and Penang (George Town), was formed as a British colony in 1826, the criminal law of England applied.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A third Malay sultanate on Borneo, the small oil-rich state of Brunei, has, like Singapore, chosen to become independent rather than be part of the new post-1963 Malaysia.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, ethnic Malays have not yet reached the educational or socioeconomic levels achieved by the ethnic Chinese majority, the ethnic Indian minority, or the Eurasian community.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The subsequent forty years of iron-fisted rule by Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew saw Singapore's economy boom, with the country rapidly becoming one of the wealthiest and most developed in Asia, earning it a place as one of the four East Asian Tigers.^ The country has a parliamentary system in which the majority party in Parliament has the authority to constitute the government, which is headed by a prime minister.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ On August 22, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong and Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew sued FEER for defamation over an article that questioned whether the government's "squeaky-clean" reputation was deserved.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In May Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong and Minister Mentor Lee Kwan Yew sued the Singapore Democratic Party (SDP) executive committee and the publisher of its newsletter for allegedly defamatory comments about the government's handling of a 2005 corruption and mismanagement scandal affecting the National Kidney Foundation.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Now led by Lee's son Lee Hsien Loong, the ruling People's Action Party (PAP) continues to dominate the political scene, with 82 out of 84 seats in Parliament (over half won unopposed) and opposition politicians regularly bankrupted by defamation suits.^ The PAP maintained its political dominance in part by developing voter support through effective administration and its record in bringing economic prosperity to the country, and in part by manipulating the electoral framework, intimidating organized political opposition, and circumscribing the bounds of legitimate political discourse and action.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ During the last decade, ruling party leaders have sued opposition politicians for defamation of individual government leaders on several occasions.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The prohibition affected the PAP less because of its long domination of the government and its overwhelming parliamentary majority; the PAP traditionally was able to use nonpolitical organizations such as residential committees and neighborhood groups for political purposes far more extensively than opposition political parties were.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Societal restrictions have been loosened up in recent years though, with the government trying to shake off its staid image, and it remains to be seen how the delicate balancing act between political control and social freedom will play out.^ Under the scheme, 4,500 addicts were jailed for up to seven years and given six strokes of the cane between 1998 and 2006.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Singapore trestle seen in a recent government anti-crime video, "Prison Me No Way", is specially made and painted blue.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

People

.Singapore prides itself on being a multi-racial country, and has a diverse culture despite its small size.^ Mindful of the country's history of intercommunal tension, the government took measures to ensure racial, ethnic, religious, and cultural nondiscrimination.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

The largest group are the Chinese, who form about 75% of the population. Amongst the Chinese, Hokkien speakers form the majority, while Teochew and Cantonese speakers round out the top three. Other notable "dialect" groups among the Chinese include the Hakkas, Hainanese and Foochows. .The Malays, who are comprised of Singapore's original inhabitants as well as migrants from present day Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei, form about 14% of the population, while Indians form about 9% of the population.^ When the Straits Settlements, comprising the three predominantly Chinese-populated port cities of Singapore, Melaka (Malacca) and Penang (George Town), was formed as a British colony in 1826, the criminal law of England applied.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is from this long-held policy stance that modern Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei have so radically departed.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The usual sentence in such cases is 3 or 4 strokes in Singapore and Brunei, but often only one stroke in Malaysia.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

Among the Indians, Tamils form the largest group by far, though there are also a significant numbers of speakers of other Indian languages such as Hindi, Malayalam and Punjabi. .The remainder are a mix of many other cultures, most notably the Eurasians who are of mixed European and Asian descent, and also a handful of Burmese, Japanese, Thais and many others.^ Most foreign workers were unskilled laborers and household servants from other Asian countries.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Climate

Located a mere 1.5 degrees north of the Equator, the weather is usually sunny with no distinct seasons. .Rain falls almost daily throughout the year, usually in sudden, heavy showers that rarely last longer than an hour.^ An annual multi-trip policy is usually cheaper than several single-trip policies even for just 2 or 3 trips a year (I have an annual policy myself).
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

However, most rainfall occurs during the northeast monsoon (November to January), occasionally featuring lengthy spells of continuous rain. .Spectacular thunderstorms can occur throughout the year, normally in the afternoons, so it's wise to carry an umbrella at all times, both as a shade from the sun or cover from the rain.^ First of all, the Internasional Ekspress (Butterworth-Penang) is late both leaving and arriving around 20% of the time.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Between May and October, forest fires in neighboring Sumatra can also cause dense haze, although this is unpredictable and comes and goes rapidly: check the National Environment Agency's site [4] for current data.
The temperature averages around:
  • 28°C (79°F) daytime, 24°C (76°F) at night in December and January.
  • 32°C (90°F) daytime, 26°C (80°F) at night for the rest of the year.
The high temperature and humidity, combined with the lack of wind and the fact that temperatures stay high during the night, can take its toll on visitors from colder parts of the world. .Bear in mind that spending more than about one hour outdoors can be very exhausting, especially if combined with moderate exercise.^ When booking 2nd class sleepers, lower berths are wider than upper ones, which is why they're a fraction more expensive.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Convicted traffickers could be found guilty of violating more than one law.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The same kind of thing has happened more recently in Malaysia, as in this 2004 case in which about 160 offenders were sentenced, all on one day, to be caned and deported.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

Singaporeans themselves shun the heat, and for a good reason. .Many live in air-conditioned flats, work in air-conditioned offices, take the air-conditioned metro to air-conditioned shopping malls connected to each other by underground tunnels where they shop, eat, and exercise in air-conditioned fitness clubs.^ The labor market generally offered good working conditions and relatively high wages, which provided a decent standard of living for a worker and family.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ So stage 1 is to take a train from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur, choose between two modern air-conditioned daytime trains or an overnight sleeper train.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Follow their example if you want to avoid discomfort.^ Finally, follow the advice on each seat61 page to buy tickets for each train journey that you want to pre-book.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Gong xi fa cai Singapore style
.There are a few twists to the Singapore way of celebrating Chinese New Year, particularly the food, which bears little resemblance to the steamy hotpots of frigid northern China.^ "Singapore introduces new concepts in a way that is logical, sequential, and makes it easy for the student to understand," JB continued.
  • Singapore Math : Sonlight Curriculum 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.sonlight.com [Source type: General]

The top dish is bak kwa (肉干), sweet barbecued pork, followed closely by yu sheng (魚生), a salad of shredded vegetables and raw fish enthusiastically tossed into the air by all present. Favorite desserts are crumbly sweet pineapple tarts and gooey steamed nian gao (年糕) cakes. .Red packets of money (ang pow) are still handed out generously, but unlike in China, in Singapore you only need to start paying up once married.^ This way, it counts as a return journey starting in Malaysia, so you will be charged in Malaysia Ringgits, which in this case will save money compared with paying twice the price for a one-way deluxe sleeper starting in Singapore, even allowing for the cost of the unused seat ticket from KL to Singapore.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Even in Singapore dollars a train ticket to KL is a mere 15/$24, so you're saving only 8/$9 by doing this, and it's a shame to miss out on a classic departure from the historic art-deco 1931-built Singapore station .
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Now book your train(s), you pay by credit card and print the ticket out on your own PC printer, or you can collect the tickets from any KTM railway station, including Singapore.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

New Year decorations, Chinatown
New Year decorations, Chinatown
.Singapore is a secular city state but thanks to its multicultural population, Singapore celebrates Chinese, Muslim, Indian, and Christian holidays.^ When the Straits Settlements, comprising the three predominantly Chinese-populated port cities of Singapore, Melaka (Malacca) and Penang (George Town), was formed as a British colony in 1826, the criminal law of England applied.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

.The year kicks off with a bang on January 1st and New Year, celebrated in Singapore just as in the West with a fireworks show and parties at every nightspot in town.^ Well, we just witnessed one of the biggest tantrums I have ever seen out of my 4-year old, because I refused to do any more of her Singapore Math workbook with her while we had company over.
  • Singapore Math : Sonlight Curriculum 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.sonlight.com [Source type: General]

.Particularly famous are the wet and wild foam parties on the beaches of resort island Sentosa — at least those years when the authorities deign to permit such relative debauchery.^ In July 2005 the police had denied a permit for the fourth annual gay and lesbian beach festival, after having approved the festival in prior years.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Amara Sanctuary Resort, Sentosa Island 5 Star .
  • Singapore Hotels and Resorts with Discounted rate, Last Minute Booking, Instant Confirmation, Free N Easy Travel Singapore, Guaranteed Lowest Rates, Singapore Travel and Visa Information – www.fnetravel.com 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.fnetravel.com [Source type: General]

Due to the influence of the Chinese majority, the largest event by far is Chinese New Year (农历新年) or, more politically correctly, Lunar New Year, usually held in February. .The whole festival stretches out for no less than 42 days, but the frenzied buildup to the peak occurs just before the night of the new moon, with exhortations of gong xi fa cai (恭喜发财 "congratulations and prosper"), red tinsel, mandarin oranges and the year's zodiac animal emblazoned everywhere and crowds of shoppers queuing in Chinatown, where there are also extensive street decorations to add spice to the festive mood.^ Less than 2% of these were caught taking drugs again, and these few were then jailed for up to a further 13 years, with up to 12 further strokes of the cane.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There's no cash-point (ATM) in the station or nearby, so take out cash before going to the station.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ There aren't any travel agencies who can arrange the whole trip, so you will need to plan it out and arrange each stage of the journey yourself.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

The two following days are spent with family and most of the island comes to a standstill, and then life returns to normal... except for the final burst of Chingay, a colorful parade down Orchard Road held ten days later.
On the fifth day of the fifth month of the Chinese calendar, the Dragon Boat Festival (端午节) is celebrated to commemorate a Chinese folk hero. As part of the celebrations, rice dumplings, which in Singapore are sometimes wrapped in pandan leaves instead of the original bamboo leaves, are usually eaten. In addition, dragon boat races are often held at the Singapore River on this day. The seventh month of the Chinese lunar calendar — usually August — starts off with a puff of smoke, as "hell money" is burned and food offerings are made to please the spirits of ancestors who are said to return to earth at this time. The climax on the 15th day of the lunar calendar is the Hungry Ghost Festival (中元节), when the living get together to stuff themselves and watch plays and Chinese opera performances. Following soon afterwards, the Mid-Autumn Festival (中秋节) on the 15th day of the 8th lunar month (Sep/Oct) is also a major event, with elaborate lantern decorations — particularly in Jurong's Chinese Garden — and moon cakes filled with red bean paste, nuts, and more consumed merrily.
The Hindu festival of lights, Diwali, known locally as Deepavali, is celebrated around October or November and Little India is brightly decorated for the occasion. At around January-February, one may witness the celebration of Thaipusam, a Tamil Hindu festival in which male devotees would carry a kavadi, an elaborate structure which pierces through various parts of his body, and join a procession from the Sri Srinivasa Perumal Temple in Little India to the Sri Thandayuthapani Temple in Tank Road. Female devotees usually join the procession carrying pots of milk instead. .About one week before Deepavali is Thimithi, the fire-walking festival where one can see male devotees walking on burning coals at the Sri Mariamman Temple in Chinatown.^ This latter amounts to about one per week.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Islamic month of Ramadan and Eid-ul-Fitr or Hari Raya Puasa as it is called here, is a major occasion in Malay parts of town, particularly Geylang Serai on the East Coast, which is lighted up with extensive decorations during the period.^ But there's alternative route up the east coast, through amazing jungle scenery to Khota Bahru.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Another festival celebrated by the Malays is Eid-ul-Adha, known locally as Hari Raya Haji, which is the period when Muslims make the trip to Mecca to perform in Hajj. In local mosques, lambs contributed by the faithful are sacrificed and their meat is used to feed the poor.
The Buddhist Vesak Day, celebrating the birthday of the Buddha Sakyamuni, plus the Christian holidays of Christmas Day, for which Orchard road is extensively decorated, and Good Friday round out the list of holidays.
A more secular manifestation of community spirit occurs on August 9th, National Day, when fluttering flags fill Singapore and elaborate parades are held.
The Singapore Ministry of Manpower maintains the official list of public holidays. [5]
  • Singapore Guide, [6]. The official guide from the Singapore Tourism Board.  edit
  • Singapore Infomap, [7]. From the Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts.  edit
Banned in Singapore
There's more to the list than just porn and drugs:
- Overhead wires
- Satellite dishes
- Standing water
- Freestanding billboards
- Feeding pigeons or monkeys
- Malaysian newspapers
- Homosexual activity
.Most nationalities can enter Singapore without a visa.^ Men who enter Singapore illegally or who overstay their visas by more than 90 days automatically receive a minimum of 3 strokes of the cane.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Refer to the Immigration and Checkpoints Authority [8] for current guidelines, including a list of the 30+ nationalities that are required to obtain a visa in advance.^ The authorities notified embassies of the arrest of nationals, including for prostitution-related offenses, and allowed consular access.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Entry permit duration (in most cases either 14 or 30 days, with 90 days for British and US Citizens) depends on nationality and entry point.^ Close Most Recent Past 7 days Past 90 days .
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Singapore has very strict drug laws, and drug trafficking carries a mandatory death penalty — which is also applied to foreigners.^ These include rape, robbery, possession of offensive weapons, vandalism, and the sale or import of fireworks; and also for any drug-trafficking cases where for one reason or another the death penalty is not applied.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The same law also stipulates that, if the amount of the narcotic is above set low limits, it is the defendant's burden to prove he did not have the drug for the purpose of trafficking.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The law prescribes mandatory caning and a minimum imprisonment of two years for conviction on any charge of "outraging modesty" that caused the victim fear of death or injury.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Even if you technically haven't entered Singapore and are merely transiting (i.e. changing flights without the need to clear passport control and customs) while in possession of drugs, you would still be subject to capital punishment. The paranoid might also like to note that in Singapore, it is an offence even to have any drug metabolites in your system, even if they were consumed outside Singapore. .In addition, bringing in explosives and firearms without a permit is also a capital offence in Singapore.^ These offences are similar to the aggravated prison offences under the Prisons Act, but include in addition bringing any drug, money, intoxicating substance or cigarette into a Centre without permission, or concealing any of these substances in the Centre, and possessing or consuming any drug while on leave from the Centre.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

Bring prescriptions for any medicines you may have with you, and obtain prior permission from the Health Sciences Authority [9] before bringing in any sedatives (eg. Valium/diazepam) or strong painkillers (eg. codeine). Hippie types may expect a little extra attention from Customs, but getting a shave and a haircut is no longer a condition for entry.
.As part of measures against money laundering, anybody bringing in more than $30,000 or equivalent in foreign currency is required to make a declaration to customs on arrival.^ In 2004, 35 of the more than 5,239 foreign women arrested for prostitution were believed to be under the age of 18.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Most associations, societies, clubs, religious groups, and other organizations with more than 10 members are required to register with the government under the Societies Act.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of a domestic labor shortage, approximately 600,000 foreign workers were employed legally, constituting approximately 30 percent of the total work force.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.However, there are no restrictions on the amount of money that can be brought into Singapore, and you will be allowed to take all your money with you after the declaration.^ You can buy all the tickets you need for a Singapore to Bangkok journey at Singapore station.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ There are no laws or regulations on minimum wages or unemployment compensation; however, the NWC monitored the economy and made annual recommendations to the government concerning wage guidelines.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ However, there is no sign that the present government shares this view.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Duty free allowances for alcohol are 1 L of spirits, 1 L of wine and 1 L of beer per person unless you are entering from Malaysia, from which there is no duty free allowance.^ There were no reports of any official involvement in trafficking in persons.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ There's no ATM at Singapore station, the nearest one is a 15-minute walk away, so get cash out beforehand if you need it.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ There are no 1st class sleepers on this train, other than the one that is attached between Hat Yai & Bangkok, which cannot be reserved from Malaysia.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Alcohol may not be brought in by persons under the age of 18. There is no duty free allowance for cigarettes: all cigarettes legally sold in Singapore are stamped "SDPC", and smokers caught with unmarked cigarettes may be fined $500 per pack.^ There were no reports of any official involvement in trafficking in persons.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Under Singapore's Prisons Act, a prison Superintendent may impose a caning of up to twelve strokes for aggravated prison offences ( see table ).
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2004, 35 of the more than 5,239 foreign women arrested for prostitution were believed to be under the age of 18.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

(In practice, though, bringing in one opened pack is usually tolerated.) .If you declare your cigarettes or excess booze at Customs, you can opt to pay the tax or let the customs officers keep the cigarettes until your departure.^ If you know the flight number and the departure or arrival city for your flight, please complete the form below, then select 'Go'.

^ Singapore station : When leaving Singapore, you should arrive at least 30 minutes before your train leaves, to allow for clearance of Malaysian customs.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Paying for a guidebook may seem an unnecessary expense, but it's a tiny fraction of what you're spending on your whole trip.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Bringing in chewing gum is also illegal, though customs officers would usually not bother with a few sticks for personal consumption as long as you are discreet about it.
.Pornography, pirated goods and publications by the Jehovah's Witnesses and the Unification Church may not be imported to Singapore, and baggage is scanned at land and sea entry points.^ In 2004 the authorities briefly detained 11 persons for attempting to bring Jehovah's Witnesses' publications into the country.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the Societies Act, the government deregistered and banned meetings of Jehovah's Witnesses in 1972 and in 1982 dissolved the Unification Church.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Missionaries, with the exception of members of Jehovah's Witnesses and representatives of the Unification Church, were permitted to work, publish, and distribute religious texts.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In theory, all entertainment media including movies and video games must be sent to the Board of Censors for approval before they can be brought into Singapore, but in practice this is rarely if ever enforced for original (non-pirated) goods.^ The Media Development Authority (MDA), a statutory board under the Ministry of Information, Communications, and the Arts (MICA), continued to censor broadcast media, Internet sites, and all other media, including movies, video materials, computer games, and music.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ministry of Manpower sets the minimum age for maids at 23 and requires all maids to show that they had eight years of formal education before allowing them to enter.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Cable subscribers had access to seven foreign television news channels and many entertainment channels, including some with news programs; these were not censored.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

By plane

.Singapore is one of Southeast Asia's largest aviation hubs, so unless you're coming from Peninsular Malaysia or Batam/Bintan in Indonesia, the easiest way to enter Singapore is by air.^ Find a hotel in Singapore, Malaysia or anywhere in Southeast Asia...
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Hotel search for Singapore & Malaysia Backpacker hostels in SE Asia Tripadvisor Singapore hotels Tripadvisor Malaysia hotels .
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ This way, it counts as a return journey starting in Malaysia, so you will be charged in Malaysia Ringgits, which in this case will save money compared with paying twice the price for a one-way deluxe sleeper starting in Singapore, even allowing for the cost of the unused seat ticket from KL to Singapore.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.In addition to flagship carrier Singapore Airlines [10] and its regional subsidiary SilkAir [11], Singapore is also home to Tiger Airways [12], and Jetstar Asia [13].^ Recommended for ages: 10-14 10 11 12 13 14 $6.90 You could save $0.69 .
  • Singapore Math : Sonlight Curriculum 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.sonlight.com [Source type: General]

^ Channel News Asia reported that 11,790 arrests were made in Singapore for immigration offences in 2004 ("Nearly 11,800 immigration offenders arrested in 2004", 17 February 2005).
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Recommended for ages: 11-13 11 12 13 $33.49 You could save $3.35 .
  • Singapore Math : Sonlight Curriculum 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.sonlight.com [Source type: General]

In addition to the locals, every carrier of any size in Asia offers flights to Singapore, with pan-Asian discount carrier AirAsia [14] and Malaysian regional operator Firefly [15] operating dense networks from Singapore. .There are also direct services to Europe, the Middle East, Australia, New Zealand, North America, and even South Africa.^ I f you're resident in Australia, New Zealand, Ireland or the EU, try Columbus Direct Australia .
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Australia - New South Wales - Sydney .
  • The World Clock – Time Zone Converter 16 September 2009 12:30 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: News]

.Singapore is particularly popular on the "Kangaroo Route" between Australia and Europe, with airlines like Qantas [16] and British Airways [17] using Singapore as the main stopover point.^ A smaller cane, the "light rattan", is used for boys under 16, in both Singapore and Malaysia.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At this point the Singapore Penal Code retained its provisions for whipping, but they were not particularly frequently used.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The penal legislation in what used to be "British Malaya" -- the peninsular part of present-day Malaysia, plus Singapore -- has its historical roots in the criminal laws of England and India.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

Changi Airport

The price of cheap flights
.No transfer facilities are available at the Budget Terminal, so if one or more of your connecting flights arrives or departs here, you have to go through arrival immigration and customs, check in your luggage again and go through departure immigration.^ Here, you need to leave the train (but can leave your luggage on board), enter this building, pass quickly through the Singaporean passport/immigration/customs control, then re-board the train.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ The confusingly-named "Label/slot" field on the booking form allows you to pick your coach (for example, coach 'J1') then when you click 'view' it will show you the available seats or berths in that coach, allowing you to pick one (for example, 5A, 5B, etc).
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ You only get one pillow per berth, so fold up some soft clothing if you like your head higher.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.If required for your nationality, you will need a valid Singapore visa for this, and it's best to allow at least 2-3 hours to complete the process.^ You can buy all the tickets you need for a Singapore to Bangkok journey at Singapore station.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ If you have not used Singapore Math before please go to Singapore Math Overview for a complete description, samples, placement guide, and a placement test.
  • Singapore Math : Sonlight Curriculum 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.sonlight.com [Source type: General]

^ There's no ATM at Singapore station, the nearest one is a 15-minute walk away, so get cash out beforehand if you need it.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Transfers between the main terminals do not require this rigmarole.
As befits the country's main airport and major regional hub status, Changi Airport (IATA: SIN; ICAO: WSSS) [18] is big, pleasant, and well organized, and immigration and baggage distribution is remarkably fast. The airport is split into three main terminals (T1, T2 and T3) plus a dedicated Budget Terminal for low-cost airlines (currently only Tiger Airways, Cebu Pacific and Firefly).
.Figuring out which terminal your flight arrives in or departs from can be complicated: for example, Singapore Airlines uses both T2 and T3, and only announces the arrival terminal two hours before landing.^ "It starts with a concrete example (usually using an appropriate diagram), then moves on to more work on the concept, eventually ending with two- and three-step problem solving.
  • Singapore Math : Sonlight Curriculum 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.sonlight.com [Source type: General]

^ A smaller cane, the "light rattan", is used for boys under 16, in both Singapore and Malaysia.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then sketch out your itinerary using a simple spreadsheet like this , deciding where and for how long you want to stop off.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Fortunately transfers are quite easy, as the three main terminals are connected with the free Skytrain service, which can be used without passing through immigration. The Budget Terminal, on the other hand, can only be reached by a shuttle bus from the basement of T2.
.If you have over five hours to spare there are free city tours six times a day, check in at the Singapore Visitor Centre in any terminal.^ Singapore city tours Malaysia day tours & experiences .
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Please check times before you travel at www.ktmb.com.my , as they change from time to time.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ If you have the time (and we're talking a minimum of 3 weeks one-way), you can travel from London to Singapore overland.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Even if stuck in the airport, there are plenty of ways to kill time, as each terminal has a unique design and the airside areas of T1, T2, and T3 are attractions in themselves.^ In Gemas, there's a fair hotel just outside the station, and there will be plenty of hotels with rooms to spare in Khota Bahru, even late at night when the train arrives at Wakaf Bahru.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

T2, arguably the most interesting, has an indoor garden, a music listening area with couches and mood lighting, a computer gaming room, a small movie theater, paid massage services, and of course plenty of duty-free shops. T3, the newest, has a butterfly garden and plenty of natural light, but fewer entertainment options. T1 has a swimming pool and jacuzzi. The Budget Terminal, on the other hand, is strictly functional.
.In all terminals, internet access is provided free of charge, both wirelessly and via some 200 terminals and kiosks, there are some X-Boxes set up to keep gamers entertained, and there's live lounge music at times.^ There are no laws that specifically provide for public access to government information; however, significant amounts of information were available on government Web sites.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who face criminal charges are allowed counsel; however, there was no access to counsel during an initial arrest and investigation before charges were filed.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Although residents generally have unrestricted access to the Internet, the government subjected all Internet content to the same rules and standards as traditional media.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

There are also SingTel and Starhub payphones that offer unlimited free local calls. ATMs abound and money changers offer reasonable rates as well, although you pay a small premium compared to the city. .Food options are varied and generally reasonably priced, with some choice picks including the Peranakan-themed Soup Restaurant (T2 landside), which serves much more than just soup, and Sakae Sushi (T2 airside).^ "Whipping convicts is much more difficult (than administering a Syriah caning) because you have to do it with a lot of 'power'.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The parliamentary term is for no more than five years after the first sitting of Parliament following a general election.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ But here are some tips to avoid paying more than you have to: .
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.If you're up for a little adventure, seek out the staff canteen at level 3M of the carpark next to T1, it's open to the public and serves cheap local food.^ You'll find everything laid out for you: concepts you'll cover in each unit, pages you'll reference, and, best of all, numerous exercises to reinforce the concepts you're teaching.
  • Singapore Math : Sonlight Curriculum 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.sonlight.com [Source type: General]

^ You'll find everything laid out for you: concepts you'll cover in each unit, pages you'll reference, and best of all, numerous exercises to reinforce the concepts you're teaching.
  • Singapore Math : Sonlight Curriculum 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.sonlight.com [Source type: General]

^ The food offered by the "Bogie Restaurant" (orders taken after crossing the border; dinner is served after Hat Yai and breakfast at whatever reasonable hour people are getting up) is generally very good if you like Thai food.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Terminals T1, T2 and T3 all have airside (i.e., accessible without passing through immigration) transit hotels - tel. +65-65419106 or book online via the Ambassador Transit Hotel [19] website. A six-hour "block" for a single/double/triple costs $73.56/82.39/110.35, budget singles (shared bathroom) $51.50, extensions $17.65 per hour. .You can rent a shower (without a room) to freshen up for $8.40. The Plaza Premier Lounges [20] also offer a basic but functional gym with shower for $8.40 with a Singapore Airlines boarding pass.^ The Singapore-Kuala Lumpur overnight train has a deluxe sleeping-car, with 1- or 2-bed private rooms with en suite toilet & shower.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

From the airport there are a number of ways to get into the city:
  • Taxi (cab) is easiest - simply follow the signs after clearing customs. Meters are always used in Singapore and prices are reasonable. A trip to the city during the day will be between $20 and $30 including $3-5 airport surcharge. .An additional 50% surcharge applies between midnight and 6 AM.
  • Limousines charge a flat $35 to anywhere in the city and are a pretty good deal after midnight, as you can skip the queue and avoid the surcharge.^ A good guidebook like the Lonely Planet or Rough Guides will point you at some good hotels in each town or city when you get there.
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    .The same pricing applies to chartering van-sized MaxiCabs, which are good for large families or if you have lots of baggage.
  • Shuttle - Shared six-seater MaxiCab shuttle service to designated areas/hotels costs $7.00 and can be booked in advance or in the arrivals hall.^ Then book the Butterworth-KL & KL-Singapore trains either at the station when you get to Butterworth or online in advance using www.ktmb.com.my .
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A good guidebook like the Lonely Planet or Rough Guides will point you at some good hotels in each town or city when you get there.
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You can still book the KL to Butterworth and Butterworth to Bangkok trains in advance, using internet or email as shown in the section below.
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    .6AM to 2AM, every 15 to 30 minutes.
  • Subway - MRT trains run from a station between T2 and T3, but you'll need to change trains at Tanah Merah to a city-bound train: just exit through the left hand side door and cross the platform.^ You can buy tickets for any train, between any two stations.
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Home Instructor's Guide bridges the gaps between the textbook and workbooks in the Primary Math 5B program, walking you through them in a logical, step-by-step fashion.
    • Singapore Math : Sonlight Curriculum 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.sonlight.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Home Instructor's Guide bridges the gaps between the textbook and workbooks in the Primary Math 2A program, walking you through them in a logical, step-by-step fashion.
    • Singapore Math : Sonlight Curriculum 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.sonlight.com [Source type: General]

    .The 30-minute ride to City Hall station costs $1.40 plus a refundable $1 deposit, and trains run from 5:31 AM to 11:18 PM.
  • Bus - Bus terminals can be found in the basements of T1, T2 and T3. 6 AM to midnight only.^ If you forget, you can get food at the bus station just a short distance from the train station, or if you are coming from Georgetown, at the stalls at the jetty there.
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Woodlands train checkpoint : About 20-30 minutes after leaving Singapore station, the train stops at the Woodlands train checkpoint just before the causeway across to Malaysia.
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Alternatively, take a train from Singapore to Tampin station ( see the train timetable above ), then take a bus or taxi from there (38 km).
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    Fares are sub-$2.00, exact fare required (no change given).

Seletar Airport

.Seletar Airport (IATA: XSP; ICAO: WSSL), completed in 1928 and first used for civil aviation in 1930, is Singapore's first airport.^ If you have not used Singapore Math before please go to Singapore Math Overview for a complete description, samples, placement guide, and a placement test.
  • Singapore Math : Sonlight Curriculum 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.sonlight.com [Source type: General]

^ Passengers with 1st class tickets (seat or sleeper) can use the VIP First Class Lounge at Singapore station and Kuala Lumpur station.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

While later airports like Kallang and Paya Lebar have been closed and turned into a military airbase respectively, Seletar is still in use to this day.
Berjaya Air [21] flights to the Malaysian islands of Redang and Tioman use Seletar, not Changi. The only practical means of access to Seletar is taxi; trips from the airport incur a $3 surcharge. .Allow at least 30 min - 1 hour traveling time to make transfers between Seletar and Changi.^ Sailing time is 1 hour 30 mins, the fare is Ringgit 23 each way.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Singapore station : When leaving Singapore, you should arrive at least 30 minutes before your train leaves, to allow for clearance of Malaysian customs.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Kuala Perlis to Langkawi about every 30 minutes between 07:00 & 19:00, sailing time 1 hour 15 mins, fare Ringgit 18 each way, no advance reservation necessary.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Seletar is also Singapore's general aviation airport so if you own a private aircraft, you will most likely land here.^ Hide Note Show Note Home » Subjects » Math » Singapore Math Would you like a free Sonlight 2009 Catalog?
  • Singapore Math : Sonlight Curriculum 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.sonlight.com [Source type: General]

^ A major Singapore landmark and a tourist attraction in its own right, all rooms are suites and will set you back around 298 per night.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ NOTE: Singapore Math is generally a year "ahead" of math programs in the U.S., and most children need to begin Singapore Math with the "B" book of the year before!
  • Singapore Math : Sonlight Curriculum 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.sonlight.com [Source type: General]

By road

Singapore is linked by two land crossings to Peninsular Malaysia:
.The Causeway is a very popular and thus terminally congested entry point connecting Woodlands in the north of Singapore directly into the heart of Johor Bahru.^ Woodlands train checkpoint : About 20-30 minutes after leaving Singapore station, the train stops at the Woodlands train checkpoint just before the causeway across to Malaysia.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Some people go to out of their way to avoid paying in Singapore dollars, taking local transport to Johor Bahru (the first station in Malaysia, just North of the causeway from Singapore Island) so they can take the train from there.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ The railway was extended across the causeway from Johor Bahru onto Singapore Island in 1924, initially to a temporary station until the present station was opened to passengers in 1932.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

While congestion isn't as bad as it once was, the Causeway is still jam-packed on Friday evenings (towards Malaysia) and Sunday evenings (towards Singapore). .The Causeway can be crossed by bus, train, taxi or car, but it is no longer feasible to cross on foot after Malaysia shifted their customs and immigration complex 2 km inland.^ Woodlands train checkpoint : About 20-30 minutes after leaving Singapore station, the train stops at the Woodlands train checkpoint just before the causeway across to Malaysia.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Alternatively, take a train from Singapore to Tampin station ( see the train timetable above ), then take a bus or taxi from there (38 km).
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ There are no 1st class sleepers on this train, other than the one that is attached between Hat Yai & Bangkok, which cannot be reserved from Malaysia.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.A second crossing between Malaysia and Singapore, known as the Second Link, has been built between Tuas in western Singapore and Tanjung Kupang in the western part of Johor state.^ The letters 'F M S R' on the front of the building stand for "Federated Malay States Railway", the railway's original name when Singapore & Malaysia were both part of British Malaya.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ The penal legislation in what used to be "British Malaya" -- the peninsular part of present-day Malaysia, plus Singapore -- has its historical roots in the criminal laws of England and India.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A third Malay sultanate on Borneo, the small oil-rich state of Brunei, has, like Singapore, chosen to become independent rather than be part of the new post-1963 Malaysia.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Much faster and less congested than the Causeway, it is used by some of the luxury bus services to Kuala Lumpur and is strongly recommended if you have your own car.^ Take an express train from Singapore, Kuala Lumpur or Penang (Butterworth) to Ipoh; Take a bus from Ipoh to Tanah Rata in the Cameron Highlands.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ But, here again, it is the smaller rotan that is used, and it is applied with much less force, the aim being a symbolic act of shame rather than serious physical pain.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You change trains at Kuala Lumpur and Butterworth (Penang), and of course you can stop off to see Kuala Lumpur or Penang as long as you like, or catch the ferry to Ko Samui or the bus to Phuket or Krabi.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.There is only one infrequent bus across the Second Link, and only Malaysian "limousine" taxis are allowed to cross it (and charge RM150 and up for the privilege).^ Those who face criminal charges are allowed counsel; however, there was no access to counsel during an initial arrest and investigation before charges were filed.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ You only get one pillow per berth, so fold up some soft clothing if you like your head higher.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ There are no trains to the Cameron Highlands, only buses & taxis, but the nearest stations are either Tapah Road or Ipoh.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Walking across is also not allowed, not that there would be any practical means to continue the journey from either end if you did.^ A southbound journey from Bangkok to Malaysia must either be booked at Bangkok station when you get there, or booked by email with the State Railways of Thailand or several recommended Thai travel agencies such as Traveller2000, as shown on the Thailand page .
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ There aren't any travel agencies who can arrange the whole trip, so you will need to plan it out and arrange each stage of the journey yourself.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ There's no ATM at Singapore station, the nearest one is a 15-minute walk away, so get cash out beforehand if you need it.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Driving into Singapore with a foreign-registered car is rather complicated and expensive; see the Land Transport Authority's Driving Into & Out of Singapore [22] guide for the administrative details. Peninsular Malaysia-registered cars need to show that they have valid road tax and Malaysian insurance coverage. Other foreign cars need a Vehicle Registration Certificate, Customs Document (Carnet), Vehicle Insurance purchased from a Singapore-based insurance company and an International Circulation Permit. .All foreign registered cars and motorcycles can be driven in Singapore for a maximum of 10 days in each calendar year without paying Vehicle Entry Permit (VEP) fees, but after the 10 free days have been utilised, you will need to pay a VEP fee of up to $20/day.^ If you collect all the tickets in Singapore, you'll have to pay for all of them in Singapore dollars.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ You can buy all the tickets you need for a Singapore to Bangkok journey at Singapore station.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Traffickers could be prosecuted under provisions governing kidnapping, abduction, slavery, and forced labor, which carry maximum punishments of 10 years' imprisonment and a fine.
  • Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Go through immigration first and get your passport stamped.^ Here, you need to leave the train (but can leave your luggage on board), enter this building, pass quickly through the Singaporean passport/immigration/customs control, then re-board the train.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Then follow the Red Lane to buy the AutoPass ($10) from the LTA office. .At the parking area, an LTA officer will verify your car, road tax and insurance cover note and issue you a small chit of paper which you take to the LTA counter to buy your AutoPass and rent an In-vehicle Unit (IU) for road pricing charges (or opt to pay a flat $5/day fee instead).^ Taking your car: Motorail .
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Please note that if one of the participants are in the United Kingdom, you should select a city there (e.g.
  • The World Clock Meeting Planner 16 September 2009 12:30 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: News]

^ Seat61 gets a small commission if you buy after clicking these links.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Once that is done, proceed to customs where you will have to open the boot for inspection. After that, you are free to go anywhere in Singapore. .Any VEP fees, road pricing charges and tolls will be deducted from your AutoPass when you exit Singapore.^ If you booked it as a return, both legs of a return ticket starting in Singapore would be charged in Singapore dollars.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Singapore station : When leaving Singapore, you should arrive at least 30 minutes before your train leaves, to allow for clearance of Malaysian customs.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Malaysian Railways will reply with a reference number which you can quote when you pick up and pay for your tickets in Malaysia or Singapore.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

This is done by slotting the AutoPass into the reader at the immigration counter while you get your passport stamped.
.Driving into Malaysia from Singapore is relatively uncomplicated, although small tolls are charged for both crossing and (for the Second Link) the adjoining expressway.^ A smaller cane, the "light rattan", is used for boys under 16, in both Singapore and Malaysia.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In both Singapore and Malaysia, canings are inflicted so frequently that there are regular sessions at which groups of men are dealt with together.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To these severe canings for serious offences have been added, in recent years, in both Malaysia and Singapore, a very large number of much less severe canings of illegal immigrants.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, Singapore-registered vehicles are required to have their fuel tanks at least 3/4 full before leaving Singapore.^ Woodlands train checkpoint : About 20-30 minutes after leaving Singapore station, the train stops at the Woodlands train checkpoint just before the causeway across to Malaysia.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Singapore station : When leaving Singapore, you should arrive at least 30 minutes before your train leaves, to allow for clearance of Malaysian customs.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Do be sure to change some ringgit before crossing, as Singapore dollars are accepted only at the unfavorable rate of 1:1.
In both directions, note that rental cars will frequently ban or charge extra for crossing the border.

By bus

Direct to/from Malaysian destinations There are buses to/from Kuala Lumpur (KL) and many other destinations in Malaysia through the Woodlands Checkpoint and the Second Link at Tuas. Unfortunately, there is no central bus terminal and different companies leave from all over the city. Major operators include:
  • Aeroline, +603-62588800, [23]. Luxury buses with meal on-board, power sockets, lounge area etc, to KL and Petaling Jaya. .Departures from HarbourFront Centre. From $47 one-way.^ Daily departures, 2 nights, from about 160 one-way with sleeper.
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

     edit
  • First Coach, +65-68222111, [24]. No frills, but the buses have good legroom and use the Second Link. .Another selling point is convenient public transport: buses depart from Novena Square (Novena MRT) in Singapore and arrive right next to Bangsar LRT in Kuala Lumpur. $33/55 single/return.^ Take an express train from Singapore, Kuala Lumpur or Penang (Butterworth) to Ipoh; Take a bus from Ipoh to Tanah Rata in the Cameron Highlands.
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There are overnight sleeper trains between Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur and Butterworth (for Penang), Singapore and Tumpat (Khota Bharu), and Kuala Lumpur and Tumpat (Khota Bahru).
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Singapore-Kuala Lumpur takes 6 hours on one of two modern daytime trains or 8 hours on a time-effective overnight sleeper train, from just $9 or 5 one-way.
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

     edit
  • NiCE, +65-62565755, [25]. .Over 20 daily departures from Kuala Lumpur's old railway station.^ Kuala Lumpur (old historic station) .
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Singapore-Kuala Lumpur-Butterworth (Penang) express, runs daily.
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Right : A northbound express calls at Kuala Lumpur's historic colonial railway station, before the opening of the new KL Sentral station.
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    .Double-decker NiCE 2 buses (27 seats) RM80, luxury NiCE++ buses (18 seats) RM88. Departures from Copthorne Orchid Hotel on Dunearn Rd.  edit
  • Transnasional, +602-62947034 (Malaysia), [26].^ Train 26 & 27 Lambaian Timur : 2nd & 3rd class seats, air-conditioned.
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Copthorne Orchid Hotel Penang .
    • Singapore Hotels | Official Site Millennium and Copthorne Hotels 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.millenniumhotels.com.sg [Source type: News]

    ^ Copthorne Orchid Hotel Singapore .
    • Singapore Hotels | Official Site Millennium and Copthorne Hotels 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.millenniumhotels.com.sg [Source type: News]

    .Malaysia's largest bus operator, offers direct buses from Singapore through the peninsula.^ The buses don't necessarily connect well with the trains, for example the last bus from Ipoh is 6pm, and the Rakyat Express from Singapore & KL might be late.
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    Departures from Lavender St.
    Executive/economy buses RM80/35.  edit
  • Transtar, +65-62999009, [27]. .Transtar's sleeper-equipped Solitaire ($63) and leather-seated First Class ($49) coaches are currently the best around with frills like massaging chairs, onboard attendants, video on demand and even wifi.^ Only one 2nd class sleeper & seats car runs to/from Hat Yai.
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    ^ These overnight trains have sleepers as well as 2nd class and Economy class seats.
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Passengers with 1st class tickets (seat or sleeper) can use the VIP First Class Lounge at Singapore station and Kuala Lumpur station.
    • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    More plebeian SuperVIP/Executive buses are $25/39, direct service to Malacca and Genting also available. Departures from Golden Mile Complex, Beach Rd (near Lavender MRT).
     edit
Most other operators have banded together in two shared booking portals. Many, but by no means all, use the Golden Mile Complex shopping mall near Bugis as their Singapore terminal.
  • Easibook, +65-64440745, [28]. Six bus companies including major budget operator Konsortium.  edit
  • Bus Online Ticket, [29]. Another six companies, including Hasry Express and AirAsia-affiliated StarMart.  edit
.In general, the more you pay, the faster and more comfortable your trip.^ Paying for a guidebook may seem an unnecessary expense, but it's a tiny fraction of what you're spending on your whole trip.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Malaysian Railways will reply with a reference number which you can quote when you pick up and pay for your tickets in Malaysia or Singapore.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ But here are some tips to avoid paying more than you have to: .
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.More expensive buses leave on time, use the Second Link, and don't stop along the way; while the cheapest buses leave late if at all, use the perpetually jammed Causeway and make more stops.^ Can I stop off along the way?
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Ipoh is the better railhead to use, as Tapah Road station is 9km from Tapah town and the Rakyat Ekspress is non-stop (but all trains call at Ipoh).
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Woodlands train checkpoint : About 20-30 minutes after leaving Singapore station, the train stops at the Woodlands train checkpoint just before the causeway across to Malaysia.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Book early for popular departure times like Friday and Sunday evening, Chinese New Year, etc, and factor in some extra time for congestion at the border.
.An alternative to taking a direct "international bus" is to make the short hop to Johor Bahru to catch domestic Malaysian long-distance express buses to various Malaysian destinations from the Larkin Bus Terminal.^ Take an express train from Singapore, Kuala Lumpur or Penang (Butterworth) to Ipoh; Take a bus from Ipoh to Tanah Rata in the Cameron Highlands.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ If you forget, you can get food at the bus station just a short distance from the train station, or if you are coming from Georgetown, at the stalls at the jetty there.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ It's worth making the effort to take the daytime 3rd class slow train from Gemas to Khota Bahru (Wakaf Bahru), as the scenery is superb, and the direct trains from Singapore and KL travel at night.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Besides having more options, fares may also be lower because you will be paying in Malaysian ringgit rather than Singaporean dollars.^ But here are some tips to avoid paying more than you have to: .
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ "Whipping convicts is much more difficult (than administering a Syriah caning) because you have to do it with a lot of 'power'.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tip number 2, if you book your trains by email or phone with Malaysian Railways , collect the Singapore-KL ticket in Singapore (biting the bullet and paying in Singapore dollars), but wait till you get to KL to collect your KL-Penang & Penang-Bangkok tickets so you can pay for them in Ringgits at the Ringgit amount.
  • How to travel by train Singapore - Kuala Lumpur - Penang - Bangkok 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

The downside is the time-consuming hassle of first getting to Johor Bahru and then getting to Larkin terminal on the outskirts of town.
To/from Johor Bahru
Buses between Johor Bahru and Singapore
Line Stops in Singapore Stops in JB Price
Causeway Link CW-1 Kranji MRT only Larkin via Kotaraya $1.30, RM1.30
Causeway Link CW-2 Queen St only Larkin only $3.20
Causeway Link CW-3 Jurong East MRT Bukit Indah via 2nd Link $4.00
SBS 170 (red plate) Queen St via Kranji Larkin only $1.70
SBS 170 (blue plate) Kranji MRT Kotaraya only $1.10
SBS 160 Jurong East MRT via Kranji Kotaraya only $1.60
SMRT 950 Woodlands MRT via Marsiling Kotaraya only $1.30
Singapore-Johor Express Queen St only Larkin only $2.40
The most popular options to get to/from Johor Bahru are the buses listed in the table. There's a pattern to the madness: Singaporean-operated buses (SBS, SMRT, SJE) can only stop at one destination in Malaysia, while the Malaysian-operated Causeway Link [30] buses can only stop at one destination in Singapore. Terminals aside, all buses make two stops at Singapore immigration and at Malaysian immigration. At both immigration points, you must disembark with all your luggage and pass through passport control and customs, then board the next bus by showing your ticket. Figure on one hour for the whole rigmarole from end to end, more during rush hour.

By train

Singapore is the southern terminus of Malaysia's Keretapi Tanah Melayu (Malayan Railway or KTMB) [31] network. There are two day trains (the Ekspres Sinaran Pagi and Ekspres Rakyat) and a sleeper service (Ekspres Senandung Malam) daily from Kuala Lumpur, and also a day train (the Lambaian Timur departing Singapore at 6AM) and sleeper (Ekspres Timuran departing at 6:15PM) daily along the "Jungle Railway" between Singapore and Tumpat, near Kota Bharu in the East Coast of Malaysia. Trains are clean and fairly efficient, but slower than buses. See Malaysia#By train for details about fares and travel classes.
Trains arrive at the small colonial-era railway station in Tanjong Pagar at the southern edge of the CBD, a bit of a hike from Tanjong Pagar MRT station. There's no ATM in the immediate vicinity, but there is a money changer, a simple restaurant and a taxi stand just outside to the right. Alternatively, you can also get off in Woodlands right after immigration and continue into Singapore by bus or taxi.
KTMB tickets in Singapore will be charged in dollars, while those bought in Malaysia will be charged in ringgit at a 1:1 rate. A ticket which costs RM10 in Malaysia will thus cost $10 if bought in Singapore! There are three ways to avoid paying double:
  1. Book your tickets as return tickets from Malaysia. For example, KL-Singapore-KL will be charged at the ringgit rate.
  2. Cross the border by road and then board the train at Johor Bahru. Note that making a reservation is highly advisable; the easiest way is to book online.
  3. Buy the cheapest ticket you can from Singapore to JB, then your 'real' ticket from JB onward. Change to your 'real' seat after crossing the border.
You will not get a Malaysian entry stamp in your passport if you enter the country by train, so don't panic. Passports are checked (but not stamped) by Malaysian immigration before you enter the platform to board the train in Tanjong Pagar but you will only get a Singapore exit stamp at Woodlands station, about half-an-hour's journey away. Coming in from Malaysia, the situation is much more conventional - Malaysia stamps you out in Johor Bahru (you don't even need to get out of the train) and Singapore stamps you in at Woodlands (you will have to disembark and walk through immigration, though).

By taxi

Singapore is one of the few countries that you can enter or leave by taxi. While normal Singaporean taxis are not allowed to cross into Malaysia and vice versa, specially licensed Singaporean taxis permitted to go to the Kotaraya shopping mall (only) can be booked from Johor Taxi Service (tel. +65-62967054, $45 one way), while Malaysian taxis, which can go anywhere in Malaysia, can be taken from Rochor Rd ($32 to charter, or $8/person if you share with others). In the reverse direction towards Singapore, you can take taxis from Kotaraya to any point in central Singapore ($30) or Changi Airport ($40). The main advantage here is that you don't need to lug your stuff (or yourself) through Customs at both ends; you can just sit in the car.
A combination ride from anywhere in Singapore to anywhere in Malaysia can also be arranged, but you'll need to swap cabs halfway through: this will cost S$50 and up, paid to the Singaporean driver. The most expensive option is to take a limousine taxi specially licensed to take passengers from any point to any destination, but only a few are available and they charge a steep RM150 per trip. Advance booking is highly recommended, tel. +60-7599-1622.

By boat

Ferries link Singapore with neighbouring Indonesian province of Riau Islands, and the Malaysian state of Johor. Singapore has four ferry terminals which handle international ferries: HarbourFront (formerly World Trade Centre) near the southern part of the Central Business District, Tanah Merah Ferry Terminal on the East Coast, as well as Changi Ferry Terminal and Changi Point Ferry Terminal, at the eastern extremity of the island.
Getting to/away from the ferry terminals:
  • HarbourFront FT: Located next to HarbourFront MRT station.
  • Tanah Merah FT: Get off at Bedok MRT station and catch bus No. 35 to ferry terminal.
  • Changi FT: No bus stop nearby, take a taxi from Changi Village or Tanah Merah MRT.
  • Changi Point FT: Take bus No. 2, 29 or 59 to Changi Village Bus Terminal and walk to the ferry terminal.

To/from Indonesia

To/from Batam: Ferries to/from Batam Centre, Batu Ampar (Harbour Bay), Sekupang and Waterfront City (Teluk Senimba) use HarbourFront FT, while ferries to/from Nongsapura use Tanah Merah FT. Operators at Harbourfront include:
  • Penguin, tel. +65-62714866 in HarbourFront; +62-778-467574 in Batam Centre; +62-778-321636 in Sekupang; +62-778-381280 in Waterfront City [32]. Virtually hourly ferries to/from Batam Centre and Sekupang, fewer ferries to/from Waterfront City. $16/20 one-way/return before taxes and fuel surcharge.
  • Indo Falcon, tel. +65-62783167, [33]. Hourly ferries to Batam Centre, fewer to Waterfront City. This company does not operate to/from Sekupang. Similar fares.
  • Berlian/Wave Master, tel. +65-65468830. Operates 16 trips to/from Batu Ampar. Fares are similar to the other companies.
  • Dino/Batam Fast, tel. +65-62700311 in Harbourfront; +62-778-467793/470344 in Batam Centre; +62-778-325085/6 in Sekupang; +62-778-381150 in Waterfront City, [34]. Also hourly ferries to/from Batam Centre, fewer ferries to/from Sekupang and Waterfront City. $14/20 one-way/return before taxes and surcharges.
At Tanah Merah:
  • Dino/Batam Fast, tel. +65-62700311 in Singapore; Tel: +62-778-761071 in Nongsa, [35]. Around 8 ferries daily to/from Nongsa, the resort area on the northeastern tip of Batam. $16/22 one-way/return before taxes and surcharges.
To/from Bintan: All ferries for Bintan use Tanah Merah Ferry Terminal. For Tanjung Pinang, there are total of 6 ferries a day, increasing to 9 during weekends. $25/35 one-way/return before taxes and surcharges. Operators include:
  • Dino/Batam Fast, tel. +65-65426310 in Tanah Merah, [36].
  • Penguin, tel. +65-65427105 in Tanah Merah; +62-771-315143 in Tanjung Pinang; +62-770-696120 in Lobam, [37].
  • Indo Falcon, tel. +65-65426786 in Tanah Merah, [38]
  • Berlian/Wave Master, tel. +65-65468830 in Tanah Merah.
For Bintan Resorts (Bandar Bentan Telani), Bintan Resort Ferries, tel. +65-65424369, [39] operates five ferries from Tanah Merah FT on weekdays, increasing to 7 during weekends. $34.60/50.20 one-way/return peak period, $26.60/39.20 one-way/return off-peak including taxes and fuel surcharge.
To/from Karimun: Tanjung Balai is served by Penguin and IndoFalcon from Harbourfront, with six ferries total on weekdays, increasing to 8 during weekends. $24/33 one-way/return including taxes and fuel surcharge.

To/From Malaysia

Ferries shuttle from Singapore to southeastern Johor and are handy for access to the beach resort of Desaru. Scheduled ferry service to Tioman was discontinued in 2003.
  • Pengerang: Bumboats shuttle between Changi Point Ferry Terminal at Changi Village, 51 Lorong Bekukong, tel: 65-65452305/1616, and Pengerang, a village at the southeastern tip of Johor. Boats ($9 per person, $2 per bicycle one-way) operate between 7 AM and 7 PM and leave when they reach the 12-passenger quota.
  • Sebana Cove Resort, Desaru: Ferries to/from Tanah Merah Ferry Terminal operated by Indo Falcon, tel. +65-65426786 in Tanah Merah, [40]. Three ferries daily except Tue. $48/38 including taxes and fuel surcharge.
  • Tanjung Belungkor, Desaru: Cruise Ferries (tel. +65-65468518, 65468675) operates passenger ferries from Changi Ferry Terminal three times daily, departures at 10AM, 5PM and 8PM, $22 return. The previous car ferry service has been suspended.

Cruises

Star Cruises [41] offers multi-day cruises from Singapore to points throughout Southeast Asia, departing from HarbourFront FT. Itineraries vary widely and change from year to year, but common destinations include Malacca, Klang (Kuala Lumpur), Penang, Langkawi, Redang and Tioman in Malaysia, as well as Phuket, Krabi, Ko Samui and Bangkok in Thailand. There are also several cruises every year to Borneo (Malaysia), Sihanoukville (Cambodia), Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam) and even some ten-night long hauls to Hong Kong. An all-inclusive two-night cruise may cost as little as $400 per person in the cheapest cabin class if you book early, but beware the numerous surcharges and note that non-residents may be charged significantly higher rates.
Singapore is also a popular stop for round-the-world cruises, including those originating from as far as Europe or North America. Check with your respective cruise companies for details.
MRT system map
MRT system map
Getting around Singapore is effortless: the public transportation system is among the best in the world and taxis are reasonably priced. Very few visitors rent cars. Gothere.sg [42] does a pretty good job of figuring out the fastest route by MRT and bus and even estimating taxi fares between any two points.
If you are staying in Singapore for some time, the ez-link [43] farecard might be a worthwhile purchase. You can store value on it and use it on the MRT trains as well as all city buses at a 15% discount, and you get a $0.50 discount on transfers too. The card costs $15, including $10 stored value, and the card can be "topped up" in increments of at least $10 at the farecard vending machines or 7-Eleven stores. The card technology was changed in 2009, but if you have any old cards lying around, they can be exchanged for free with value intact at TransitLink offices in all MRT stations.
Alternatively, the Singapore Tourist Pass [44] available at selected major MRT stations (including Changi Airport and Orchard) also includes ez-link card functionality and a variety of discounts for attractions. Prices start at $8 a day for unlimited travel on MRT and buses.
Single tickets can be purchased for both MRT and buses, but it's a hassle, and in the case of buses it delays everyone else because the driver has to count fare stages to tell you how much you need to pay.

By rail

The MRT (Mass Rapid Transit) and LRT (Light Rail Transit) are trains that are the main trunk of Singapore's transit system. They are a cheap and very reliable mode of transportation, and the network covers most points of interest for the visitor. Single-trip tickets cost from $0.80 to $2.00 plus a $1.00 refundable deposit (just insert your used ticket into machine to get your dollar back). EZ-link cards (described above) are the easiest and most popular way to use the MRT. All lines are integrated, so you do not need to buy a new ticket to transfer.
The MRT stations are clean and usually equipped with free toilets. Underground stations have platform doors between the train and the platform so there is no risk of falling onto the tracks. The North-East line is fully automated, so it's worth walking up to the front of the train to look out a tiny window and realize that there is no driver!

By bus

Buses connect various corners of Singapore, but are slower and harder to use than the MRT, and not too many visitors venture aboard. You can pay cash (coins) in buses, but the fare stage system is quite complex (it's easiest to ask the driver for the price to your destination), you are charged marginally more and there is no provision for getting change. Payment with ez-link card is thus the easiest method: tap your card against the reader at the front entrance of the bus when boarding, and a maximum fare is deducted from the card. When you alight, tap your card again at the exit, and the difference is refunded. Make sure you tap out, or you'll be charged the maximum fare! Inspectors occasionally prowl buses to check that everybody has paid.
After midnight on Fri, Sat and before public holidays only, the NightRider [45] services are a fairly convenient way of getting around, with seven lines running every 20 minutes. All services drive past the major nightlife districts of Boat Quay, Clarke Quay, Mohamed Sultan and Orchard before splintering off. Flat fare $3.50, EZ-link accepted.

By taxi

Taxicabs use meters and are reasonably priced and honest, although the fare structure is remarkably convoluted. Outside weekday peak hours, trips within the city center should not cost you more than $10 and even a trip right across the island from Changi to Jurong will not break the $35 mark. If you are in a group of 3 or 4, it's sometimes cheaper and faster to take a taxi than the MRT.
Taxi pricing is largely identical across all companies at $2.80 flagfall, which lasts you 1 km before increments of 20 cents per 385 m. (The sole exception is SMRT's giant black Chryslers, which charge $5.00 and $0.30/385m.) Watch out for surprises though: there are a myriad of peak hour (35%), late night (50%), central business district ($3), phone booking ($2.50 and up), public holiday ($1) and Electronic Road Pricing surcharges, which may add a substantial amount to your taxi fare. All such charges are shown on the bottom right-hard corner of the meter, recorded in the printed receipt and explained in tedious detail in a sticker on the window; if you suspect the cabbie is trying to pull a fast one, call the company and ask for an explanation. Note that there is no surcharge for trips to the airport. Credit cards are accepted by most but not all cabs, so ask when getting in, and a 17% surcharge applies for this too. During rush hour in the city center, or late at night on the weekends, it's wise to call for a taxi from the unified booking system at 6342 5222 (6-DIAL-CAB).
In the Central Business District, taxis may only pick up passengers at taxi stands (found outside any shopping mall) or buildings with their own driveways (including virtually all hotels). Outside the city center, you're free to hail taxis on the street or call one to your doorstep. At touristy nightspots featuring long queues, such as Clarke Quay, you may on occasion be approached by touts offering a quick flat fare to your destination. This is illegal and expensive, but reasonably safe for you. (The driver, on the other hand, will probably lose his job if caught.)
Some Singapore taxi drivers have very poor geographical knowledge and may expect you to know where they should go, so it may be helpful to bring a map of your destination area or directions on finding where you wish to go.

By trishaw

Trishaws, three-wheeled bicycle taxis, haunt the area around the Singapore River and Chinatown. Geared purely for tourists, they aren't really recommended for serious travel and locals do not use them. There is little room for bargaining: short rides will cost $10-20 and an hour's sightseeing charter about $50 per person.
Bumboat sailing on the Singapore River past the Esplanade Theatres
Bumboat sailing on the Singapore River past the Esplanade Theatres
Tourist-oriented bumboats cruise the Singapore River, offering point-to-point rides starting from $3 and cruises with nice views of the CBD skyscraper skyline starting from $13. You can also take a ferry ($15 round-trip) to Singapore's largely uninhabited Southern Islands for a picnic and lagoon swimming, but do remember to bring along food and drinks as there are no shops on the islands.
Bumboats also shuttle passengers from Changi Village to Pulau Ubin ($2.50 one-way), a small island off Singapore's northeast coast which is about as close as Singapore gets to unhurried rural living.

By car

Car rental is not a popular option in Singapore. You will usually be looking at upwards for $100 per day for the smallest vehicle from the major rental companies, although local ones can be cheaper and there are sometimes good weekend prices available. This does not include gas at around $1.80/litre or electronic road pricing (ERP) fees, and you'll usually need to pay extra to drive to Malaysia. If planning on touring Malaysia by car, it makes much more sense to head across the border to Johor Bahru, where both rentals and petrol are half price, and you have the option of dropping your car off elsewhere in the country. This also avoids the unwelcome extra attention that Singapore plates tend to get from thieves and greedy cops.
Roads in Singapore are in excellent condition and driving habits are generally good with most people following the traffic rules due to stringent enforcement, though road courtesy tends to be a little lacking. Compared to other major cities around the world like Sydney, Tokyo or Hong Kong, parking spaces are comparatively easier to find in the city centre of Singapore. Foreign licenses are valid in Singapore for up to a year from your date of entry, after which you will have to convert your foreign license to a Singapore one. If your foreign license is not in English, it must be accompanied by an International Driving Permit (IDP) or an official English translation (usually available from your embassy) for it to be valid.
Singaporeans drive on the left (UK style) and the driving age is 18. The speed limit is only 90 km/h on expressways and 60 km/h on other roads. ERP payments require a stored-value CashCard, which is usually arranged by the rental agency, but it's your responsibility to ensure it has enough value. All passengers must wear seatbelts and using a phone while driving is banned. Drink-driving is not tolerated: the maximum blood alcohol content is 0.08%, with roadblocks set up at night to catch offenders, who are heavily fined and possibly jailed. Even if your blood alcohol level does not exceed the legal limit, you can still be charged with drink driving if the police are convinced that your ability to control the vehicle has been compromised by the presence of alcohol. You will not see many police on the road, but speed cameras are omnipresent and tickets will be sent by mail to you or your rental agency, who will pass on the cost with a surcharge. If stopped for a traffic offense, don't even think about trying to bribe your way out.

By thumb

Hitchhiking is almost unheard of in Singapore, and with the country's tiny size and cheap, efficient public transport, there really isn't any reason to even try.

On foot

Singapore is almost certainly the most pedestrian-friendly city in southeast Asia. Sidewalks and pedestrian crossings are in good shape and plentiful, roads are well signposted and, by Asian standards, drivers are usually very careful — by law, any accident between a pedestrian and a vehicle is presumed to be the driver's fault. Jaywalking, however, is illegal and punished quite harshly with fines of $300 and up to 3 months in jail. Classic walks in Singapore include walking down the river from the Merlion through the Quays, trekking along the Southern Ridges Walk or just strolling around Chinatown, Little India or Bugis.
An unavoidable downside, though, is the tropical heat and humidity, which leaves many visitors sweaty and exhausted, so bring along a handkerchief and a bottle of water. It's best to get an early start, pop into air-conditioned shops, cafes, and museums to cool off, and plan on heading back to the shopping mall or hotel pool before noon. Alternatively, after sundown, evenings can also be comparatively cool.
Who are the people in your neighborhood?
The Big 3 — Chinese, Malays and Indians — get all the press, but there are plenty of other communities with their own little neighborhoods (or shopping malls) in Singapore:
Arabs: Arab Street, of course
Burmese: Peninsula Plaza, on North Bridge Rd
Filipinos: Lucky Plaza, on Orchard Rd
Indonesians: City Plaza, near Paya Lebar MRT
Japanese: Robertson Quay and Clarke Quay, especially the Liang Court shopping mall, plus Cuppage Plaza, opposite the Somerset MRT and Takashimaya along Orchard Road
Koreans: Tanjong Pagar Rd
Thais: Golden Mile Complex, on Beach Rd
Malay may be enshrined in the Constitution as the 'national' language, but in practice the most common language is English, spoken by almost every Singaporean under the age of 50 with varying degrees of fluency. In addition, all official signs and documents are written in English, usually using British spelling. However, the distinctive local patois Singlish may be hard to understand at times, as it incorporates slang words and phrases from other languages, including various Chinese dialects, Malay and Tamil as well as English words whose pronunciation or meaning have been corrupted, and has an odd way of structuring sentences, due to the original speakers being mostly Chinese. Complex consonant clusters are simplified, articles and plurals disappear, verb tenses are replaced by adverbs, questions are altered to fit the Chinese syntax and semirandom particles (especially the infamous "lah") appear:
Singlish: You wan beer or not? -- Dunwan leh, drink five botol oreddi.
English: Do you want a beer? -- No, thanks; I've already had five bottles.
Thanks to nationwide language education campaigns, most younger Singaporeans are, however, capable of speaking so-called "Good English" when necessary. To avoid unintentional offense, it's best to start off with standard English and only shift to simplified pidgin if it becomes evident that the other person cannot follow you. Try to resist the temptation to sprinkle your speech with unnecessary Singlishisms: you'll get a laugh if you do it right, but it sounds grating and patronizing if you do it wrong. The Coxford Singlish Dictionary (ISBN 9813056509), also available online, is a great resource for decoding Singlish. Wikipedia's Singlish [46] article goes into obsessive and occasionally impenetrable grammatical detail, but the sections on vocabulary [47] and abbreviations [48] are handy.
Singapore's other official languages are Mandarin Chinese and Tamil. Mandarin is spoken by most younger Singaporean Chinese while Tamil is spoken by most Indians. Like English, the Mandarin spoken in Singapore has also evolved into a distinctive creole and often incorporates words from other Chinese dialects, Malay and English, though all Singaporean Chinese are taught standard Mandarin in school. Various Chinese dialects (mostly Hokkien, though significant numbers also speak Teochew and Cantonese) are also spoken between ethnic Chinese of the same dialect group, though their use has been declining in the younger generation since the 1980s due to government policies discouraging the use of dialects in favour of Mandarin. Other Indian languages, such as Punjabi among the Sikhs, are also spoken.
The official Chinese script used in Singapore is the simplified script used in mainland China. As such, all official publications (including local newspapers) and signs are in simplified Chinese and all ethnic Chinese are taught to write the simplified script in school. However, many shop signs and restaurant menus are still in traditional Chinese. This, in addition to the popularity of Hong Kong and Taiwanese pop culture and television serials, means that most Singaporean Chinese are also able to read traditional Chinese even if they cannot write it.
Map of central Singapore, with outlines of detailed region maps
Map of central Singapore, with outlines of detailed region maps
Sights in Singapore are covered in more detail under the various districts. Broadly speaking:
  • Beaches and tourist traps: Head to one of the three beaches on Sentosa or its southern islands. Other beaches can be found on the East Coast.
  • Culture and cuisine: See Chinatown for Chinese treats, Little India for Indian flavors, Kampong Glam (Arab St) for a Malay/Arab experience or the East Coast for delicious seafood, including the famous chilli and black pepper crab.
  • History and museums: The Bras Basah area east of Orchard and north of the Singapore River is Singapore's colonial core, with historical buildings and museums.
  • Nature and wildlife: Popular tourist attractions Singapore Zoo, Night Safari, Jurong Bird Park and the Botanical Gardens are all in the North and West. Finding "real" nature is a little harder, but the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve in the same area is Singapore's largest. Pulau Ubin, an island off the Changi Village in the east, is a flashback to the rural Singapore of yesteryear. City parks full of locals jogging or doing tai chi can be found everywhere.
  • Skyscrapers and shopping: The heaviest shopping mall concentration is in Orchard Road, while skyscrapers are clustered around the Singapore River, but also check out Bugis to see where Singaporeans shop.
  • Places of worship: Don't miss this aspect of Singapore, where Buddhism, Taoism, Hinduism, Christianity and Islam all exist in sizeable numbers. Religious sites can be easily visited and welcome non-followers outside of service times. Particularly worth visiting include: the vast Kong Meng San Phor Kark See Monastery near Ang Mo Kio, the colorful Sri Mariamman Hindu temple in Chinatown, the psychedelic Burmese Buddhist Temple in Balestier and the stately Masjid Sultan in Arab Street.
  • Three days in Singapore — A three-day sampler set of food, culture and shopping in Singapore, easily divisible into bite-size chunks.
  • Southern Ridges Walk — An easy nine-kilometer stroll through the jungles of southern Singapore.

Do

While you can find a place to practice nearly any sport in Singapore — golfing, surfing, scuba diving, even ice skating — due to the country's small size your options are rather limited and prices are relatively high. For watersports in particular, the busy shipping lanes and sheer population pressure mean that the sea around Singapore is murky, and most locals head up to Tioman (Malaysia) or Bintan (Indonesia) instead. See also Habitatnews [49] and WildSingapore [50] for news and updates about free tours and events.
Esplanade theatre by the bay
Esplanade theatre by the bay
On the cultural side of things, Singapore has been trying to shake off its boring, buttoned-down reputation and attract more artists and performances, with mixed success. The star in Singapore's cultural sky is the Esplanade theatre by the Riverside, a world-class facility for performing arts and a frequent stage for the Singapore Symphony Orchestra [51]. Pop culture options are more limited and Singapore's home-grown arts scene remains rather moribund, although local starlets Stefanie Sun and JJ Lin have had some success in the Chinese pop scene. On the upside, any bands and DJs touring Asia are pretty much guaranteed to perform in Singapore.
Going to the movies is a popular Singaporean pastime, but look for "R21" ratings (21 and up only) if you like your movies with fewer cuts. The big three theatre chains are Cathay [52], Golden Village [53] and Shaw Brothers [54]. Censorship continues to throttle the local film scene, but Jack Neo's popular comedies showcase the foibles of Singaporean life.
In summer, don't miss the yearly Singapore Arts Festival [55]. Advance tickets for almost any cultural event can be purchased from SISTIC [56], either online or from any of their numerous ticketing outlets, including the Singapore Visitor Centre on Orchard Rd.

Golf

Despite its small size, Singapore has a surprisingly large number of golf courses, but most of the best ones are run by private clubs and open to members and their guests only. The main exceptions are the Sentosa Golf Club [57], the famously challenging home of the Barclays Singapore Open, and the Marina Bay Golf Course [58], the only 18-hole public course. See the Singapore Golf Association [59] for the full list; alternatively, head to the nearby Indonesian islands of Batam or Bintan or up north to the Malaysian town of Malacca for cheaper rounds.
F1 Singapore Grand Prix
F1 Singapore Grand Prix
The inaugural F1 Singapore Grand Prix [60] was held in September 2008, and will be a fixture on the local calendar until at least 2012. Held on a street circuit in the heart of Singapore and raced at night, all but race fans will probably wish to avoid this time, as hotel prices are through the roof. Tickets start from $150.
The Singapore Turf Club[61] in Kranji hosts horse races most Fridays, including a number of international cups, and is popular with local gamblers. The Singapore Polo Club[62] near Balestier is also open to the public on competition days.

Spas

Singapore has recently been experiencing a spa boom, and there is now plenty of choice for everything from holistic Ayurveda to green tea hydrotherapy. However, prices aren't as rock-bottom as in neighbors Indonesia and Thailand, and you'll generally be looking at upwards of $70 even for a plain one-hour massage. Good spas can be found in most five-star hotels and on Orchard, and Sentosa's Spa Botanica also has a good reputation. There are also numerous shops offering traditional Chinese massage, which are mostly legit, and "health centres", which are mostly not. Spas can also be found in the sub-urban areas, like Clementi Central where you can enjoy a relaxing spa of hydrotherapy, massage and sauna for below a hundred Singapore dollars.

Swimming

Forget your tiny hotel pool if you are into competitional or recreational swimming: Singapore is paradise for swimmers with arguably the highest density of public pools in the world. They are all open-air 50 meter-pools (some facilities even feature up to three 50 meter pools), accessible for an almost ridiculous entrance fee of $1.00-1.50. Actually, this is so cheap that half of the visitors don't swim at all. They just come from nearby housing complexes for a few hours to chill out, read and relax in the sun. Most are open daily from 8 AM to 9 PM, and all feature a small cafe. Just imagine swimming your lanes in the tropical night with lit up palm trees surrounding the pool.
The Singapore Sports Council [63] maintains a list of pools, most of which are part of a larger sports complex with gym, tennis courts etc, and are located near the MRT station they're named after. Perhaps the best is in Katong (111 Wilkinson Road, on the East Coast): after the swim, stroll through the villa neighbourhood directly in front of the pool entrance and have at look at the luxurious, original architecture of the houses that really rich Singaporeans live in.
All coins and a $2 note.
All coins and a $2 note.
The Singaporean currency is the Singapore dollar, abbreviated SGD, S$ or just $ (as used throughout this guide), divided into 100 cents. There are coins of $0.05 (gold), $0.10 (silver), $0.20 (silver), $0.50 (silver) and $1 (gold), plus bills of $2 (purple), $5 (green), $10 (red), $50 (blue), $100 (orange), $1000 (purple) and $10000 (gold). The Brunei dollar is pegged at par with the Singapore dollar and the two currencies can be used interchangeably in both countries, so don't be too surprised if you get a Brunei note as change. As of January 2010, one US dollar is worth about $1.40 and one euro is worth about $2.01.
Restaurants often display prices like $19.99++, which means that service charge (10%) and sales tax (7%) are not included and will be added to your bill. Tipping is generally not practised in Singapore, and is officially frowned upon by the government, although bellhops still expect $2 or so per bag. Taxis will usually return your change to the last cent, or round in your favor if they can't be bothered to dig for change.
ATMs are ubiquitous in Singapore and credit cards are widely accepted (although shops often levy a 3% surcharge, and taxis a whopping 15%). Travelers checks are generally not accepted by retailers, but can be cashed at most exchange booths.
Currency exchange booths can be found in every shopping mall and usually offer better rates, better opening hours and much faster service than banks. The huge 24-hour operation at Mustafa in Little India accepts almost any currency at very good rates, as do the fiercely competitive small shops at the aptly named Change Alley next to Raffles Place MRT. For large amounts, ask for a quote, as it will often get you a better rate than displayed on the board. Rates at the airport are not as good as in the city, and while many department stores accept major foreign currencies, their rates are often terrible.

Costs

Singapore is expensive by Asian standards but cheap for visitors from most industrialized countries: $50 is a perfectly serviceable daily backpacker budget if you are willing to cut some corners, though you would probably wish to double that for comfort. Food in particular is a steal, with excellent hawker food available for under $5 for a generous serving. Accommodation is a little pricier, but a bed in a hostel can cost less than $20, an average 3-4 star hotel in the city centre would typically cost anywhere from $100-$300 per night for a basic room, and the most luxurious hotels on the island (except maybe the Raffles) can be yours for $300 with the right discounts during the off-peak season.
Budget travellers should note that Singapore is much more expensive than the rest of Southeast Asia and should budget accordingly if planning to spend time in Singapore. In general, prices in Singapore are about twice as high as in Malaysia and Thailand and 3-5 times as high as in Indonesia.
Cheated?
Ripped off by a shop? Give the Singapore Tourism Board's free hotline at 1800-7362000 a call. The Small Claims Tribunal at 1 Havelock Sq also has a special expedited process for tourists that can solve simple cases within 24 hours.
Sim Lim Square, Singapore's computing and electronics mecca
Sim Lim Square, Singapore's computing and electronics mecca
Shopping is second only to eating as a national pastime, which means that Singapore has an abundance of shopping malls, and low taxes and tariffs on imports coupled with huge volume mean that prices are usually very competitive. While you won't find any bazaars with dirt-cheap local handicrafts (in fact, virtually everything sold in Singapore is made elsewhere), goods are generally of reasonably good quality and shopkeepers are generally quite honest due to strong consumer protection laws. Most stores are open 7 days a week from 10AM until 10PM, although smaller operations (particularly those outside shopping malls) close earlier — 7PM is common — and perhaps on Sundays as well. Mustafa in Little India is open 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Keep an eye out for the Great Singapore Sale [64], usually held in June-July, when shopping centres pull out all stops to attract punters. Many stores along the shopping belt of Orchard Road and Scotts Road now offer late night shopping on the last Friday of every month with over 250 retailers staying open till midnight.
  • Antiques: The second floor of the Tanglin Shopping Centre on Orchard and the shops on South Bridge Rd in Chinatown are good options if looking for the real thing (or high-quality reproductions).
  • Books: Borders at Wheelock Place and Kinokuniya at Ngee Ann City, both on Orchard, are the largest bookstores in Singapore. Many second-hand bookstores are located in Far East Plaza and Bras Basah Complex, where you may attempt to bargain if you are buying a lot. For university textbooks, the bookshops at the National University of Singapore has the best prices on the island, up to 80% off compared to prices in the West.
  • Cameras: Peninsula Plaza near City Hall has Singapore's best selection of camera shops. However, there are no great bargains to be had, and many camera stores in Singapore (particularly those in Lucky Plaza and Sim Lim Square) have a reputation for fleecing unwary tourists. The best way is to know what you are looking for and then when you arrive, drop by the shops at the airport's transit area and take a look at the price and check with them whether they have any promotions. Then go to the downtown shops and compare prices/ packages to see which shop will give you value for money.
  • Clothes, high-street: Ion, Ngee Ann City (Takashimaya) and Paragon on Orchard have the heaviest concentration of branded boutiques.
  • Clothes, tailored: Virtually all hotels have a tailor shop attached, and touting tailors are a bit of a nuisance in Chinatown. As elsewhere, you'll get what you pay for and will get poor quality if you don't have the time for multiple fittings or the skill to check what you're getting. Prices vary widely: a local shop using cheap fabrics can do a shirt for $40, while Singapore's best-known tailor, CYC the Custom Shop [65] at the Raffles Hotel, will charge at least $120.
  • Clothes, youth: Most of Bugis is dedicated to the young, hip and cost-conscious. Some spots of Orchard, notably Far East Plaza and the top floor of the Heeren, also target the same market but prices are generally higher. The basements of both Wisma Atria and Ngee Ann City also have loads of options for the young.
  • Computers: Sim Lim Square (near Little India) is great for the hardcore geek who really knows what he's after, but lesser mortals run a risk of getting ripped off and are better off shopping at Funan IT Mall. Challenger [66] is a local chain that provides a great one-stop option for computer and other electronic (but mostly computer) products, with eight locations across the island, the largest and most central being on the 6th floor of Funan. If you plan on buying a lot, the $30 membership card may pay off.
  • Consumer electronics: Very competitively priced in Singapore. Funan IT Mall (Orchard), Sim Lim Square and Mustafa (Little India) are good choices. Avoid the tourist-oriented shops on Orchard Road, particularly the notorious Lucky Plaza, or risk getting ripped off. Australian retailer Harvey Norman also has many stores scattered throughout Singapore. Check out the massive Harvey Norman Mega Superstore at Millenia Walk. For any purchases, remember that Singapore uses 230V voltage with a British-style three-pin plug.
  • Electronic components: For do-it-yourself people and engineers, a wide variety of electronic components and associated tools can be found at Sim Lim Tower (opposite Sim Lim Square), near Little India. You can find most common electronic components (such as breadboards, transistors, various IC's, etc.) and bargain for larger quantities as well.
  • Ethnic knick-knacks: Chinatown has Singapore's heaviest concentration of glow-in-the-dark Merlion soap dispensers and ethnic gewgaws, mostly but not entirely Chinese and nearly all imported from somewhere else. For Malay and Indian stuff, the best places to shop are Geylang Serai and Little India respectively.
  • Fakes: Unlike most South-East Asian countries, pirated goods are not openly on sale and importing them to the city-state carries heavy fines. Fake goods are nevertheless not difficult to find in Little India, Bugis, or even in the underpasses of Orchard Road.
  • Food: Local supermarkets Cold Storage and NTUC Fairprice are ubiquitous, but for specialties, Jason's Marketplace in the basement of Raffles City and Tanglin Market Place at Tanglin Mall (both on Orchard) are some of Singapore's best-stocked gourmet supermarkets, with a vast array of imported products. Takashimaya's basement (Orchard) has lots of small quirky shops and makes for a more interesting browse. For a more Singaporean (and much cheaper) shopping experience, seek out any neighborhood wet market, like Little India's Tekka Market.
  • Games: Video and PC games are widely available in Singapore, and prices are usually cheaper than in the West. You can find games from Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and even the United States in many game stores. Games sold for the local market are usually in English, and sometimes in Chinese. However, note that for video games, Singapore's region code is NTSC-J; same as Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and the rest of Southeast Asia, but not compatible with consoles in North America, Europe, Australia, India or mainland China.
  • Hi-fi stereos: The Adelphi (Riverside) has Singapore's best selection of audiophile shops.
  • Marine sports: Many of the shophouses opposite The Concourse on Beach Rd in Bugis sell fishing and scuba diving gear.
  • Mobile phones: Very competitively priced in Singapore due to high consumer volume, available throughout the country both used and new. Phones are never SIM locked, so they can be used anywhere, and many shops will allow you to "trade in" an older phone to offset the cost of a new one.
  • Music: The three-story HMV in the Heeren on Orchard is Singapore's largest music store, with a second, smaller outlet in the CityLink mall linking Raffles City and Suntec City Mall. Gramophone, however, provides much better prices on CDs and has an interesting selection. Numerous branches are scattered across the CBD and Orchard Road. Better Gramophone locations are at Capitol Centre at street level on North Bridge Road (across from St. Andrews Cathedral) and at Ngee Ann City in B2.
Pretty in pink: Peranakan tea set with dragon-phoenix motif
Pretty in pink: Peranakan tea set with dragon-phoenix motif
  • Peranakan goods: The Peranakan, or Malay-Chinese, may be fading but their colorful clothing and artwork, especially the distinctive pastel-colored ceramics, are still widely available. Antiques are expensive, but modern replicas are quite affordable. The largest selection and best prices can be found in Katong on the East Coast.
  • Sports goods: Queensway Shopping Centre, off Alexandra Rd and rather off the beaten track (take a cab), seems to consist of nothing but sports goods shops. You can also find foreigner-sized sporty clothing and shoes here. Do bargain! Expect to get 40-50% off the price from the shops in Orchard for the same items. Velocity in Novena is also devoted to sports goods, but is rather more upmarket. Martial arts equipment is surprisingly hard to find, although most of the clothing shops around Pagoda Street in Chinatown sell basic silk taiji/wushu uniforms. Note that if you plan to buy weapons such as swords, you have to apply for a permit from the local police (around $10) to get your weaponry out of the country.
  • Tea: Chinatown's Yue Hwa (2nd floor) is unbeatable for both price and variety, but Time for Tea in Lucky Plaza (Orchard) is also a good option. English tea is also widely available around Orchard Road, most notably at Marks and Spencer in Centrepoint.
  • Watches: High-end watches are very competitively priced. Ngee Ann City (Orchard) has dedicated stores from the likes of Piaget and Cartier, while Millenia Walk (Riverside) features the Cortina Watch Espace retailing 30 brands from Audemars Piguet to Patek Philippe, as well as several other standalone shops.
For purchases of over $100 per day per participating shop, you may be able to get a refund of your 7% GST at Changi Airport or Seletar Airport, but the process is a bit of a bureaucratic hassle. See Singapore Customs [67] for the full scoop.
This guide uses the following price ranges for a typical meal for one, including soft drink:
Budget Under $10
Mid-range $10-30
Splurge Over $30
Singapore is a melting pot of cuisines from around the world, and many Singaporeans are obsessive gourmands who love to makan ("eat" in Malay). You will find quality Chinese, Malay, Indian, Japanese, Thai, Italian, French, American and other food in this city-state.
Eating habits run the gamut, but most foods are eaten by fork and spoon: push and cut with the fork in the left hand, and eat with the spoon in the right. Noodles and Chinese dishes typically come with chopsticks, while Malay and Indian food can be eaten by hand, but nobody will blink an eye if you ask for a fork and spoon instead. If eating by hand, always use your right hand to pick your food, as Malays and Indians traditionally use their left hand to handle dirty things. Take note of the usual traditional Chinese etiquette when using chopsticks, and most importantly, do not stick your chopsticks vertically into a bowl of rice. If eating in a group, serving dishes are always shared, but you'll get your own bowl of rice and soup. It's common to use your own chopsticks to pick up food from communal plates, but serving spoons can be provided on request.
Keep an eye out for the Singapore Food Festival [68], held every year in July. During the last three festivals, all visitors to Singapore smart enough to ask for them at any tourist information desk received coupons for free chilli crab, no strings attached!

Local delicacies

Singapore is justly famous for its food, a unique mix of Malay, Chinese, Indian and Western elements. The following is only a brief sampler of the most popular dishes.

Peranakan/Nonya cuisine

Culinary borrowings
Many regional terms and the odd euphemism tend to crop up in notionally English menus. A few of the more common ones:
assam 
tamarind (Malay)
bee hoon 
thin rice noodles (Hokkien 米粉)
garoupa 
grouper, a type of fish (Portuguese)
gonggong 
a type of conch (Chinese)
hor fun 
very wide, flat rice noodles (Cantonese 河粉)
kangkung 
water spinach, an aquatic vegetable (Malay)
kway teow 
flat rice noodles (Hokkien 粿条)
lengkuas 
blue ginger (Malay)
mee 
thick egg noodles (Hokkien 麺)
serai 
lemon grass (Malay)
sotong 
squid/cuttlefish (Malay)
spare parts 
offal such as liver, heart, gizzard
tang hoon 
thin, transparent starch noodles (Hokkien 冬粉)
The most identifiable cuisine in the region is Peranakan or Nonya cuisine, born from the mixed Malay and Chinese communities of what were once the British colonies of the Straits Settlements (modern-day Singapore, Penang and Malacca).
  • Chilli crab is a whole crab ladled with oodles of sticky, tangy chilli sauce. It's spicy at first, but the more you eat, the better it gets. Notoriously difficult to eat, so don't wear a white shirt: just dig in with your hands and ignore the mess. The seafood restaurants of the East Coast are famous for this. For a less messy but equally tasty alternative, ask for black pepper crab.
  • Kaya is a jam-like spread made from egg and coconut, an odd-sounding but tasty combination. Served on toast for breakfast, canonically accompanied by runny eggs and strong, sweet coffee (kopi). Exists in two distinctive styles; the greenish Nonya version, colored with pandan leaf, and the brownish Hainanese version.
  • Laksa, in particular the Katong or lemak style, is probably the best known Singaporean dish: a fragrant soup of noodles in a coconut-based curry broth, topped with cockles or shrimp. Singapore laksa is very different from Penang laksa which is made with a tamarind-infused broth instead of coconut, and has a spicy sourish taste.
  • Mee siam is rice flour noodles served with sour gravy made from tamarind, dried shrimp and fermented beans. Usually served with tau pok (bean curd) cubes and hard boiled eggs. Though the Chinese, Malays and Indians all have their own versions, it is the Peranakan version that is most popular with Singaporeans.
  • Popiah or spring rolls come fresh or fried. They consist of boiled turnips, fried tofu, fried shallots and garlic, chopped omelette, chopped stir fried long beans and (optional) chilli sauce, wrapped in a thin rice skin covering and eaten like a fajita.
  • Rojak means a mixture of everything in Malay, and there are two very different types. Chinese rojak is a salad of pineapple, white turnip, cucumber, tau pok (fried bean curd) with thin tiny slices of bunga kantan (torch ginger flower buds), tossed in shrimp paste sauce and sugar, then sprinkled with crushed peanuts. Indian rojak consists of mainly fried fritters made from flour and various pulses with cucumber and tofu, with sweet & spicy sauces.
  • Satay bee hoon is rice vermicelli (bee hoon) served with the same peanut and chilli sauce used for satay, hence the name. Usually see hum (cockles), dried squid and pork slices are added in.
  • Ice cream is just as it is in Western countries. However, in Singapore, there are various local flavours such as durian and red bean which are not available outside the region and are certainly worth a try. To impress the locals, try asking for ice cream in roti (bread).
Besides these dishes, the Peranakans are also known or their kueh or snacks which are somewhat different from the Malay versions due to stronger Chinese influences.

Malay cuisine

Nasi lemak with sambal ikan bilis (curried dry anchovies), cucumber, chicken curry, pork floss and an egg
Nasi lemak with sambal ikan bilis (curried dry anchovies), cucumber, chicken curry, pork floss and an egg
The Malays were Singapore's original inhabitants and despite now being outnumbered by the Chinese, their distinctive cuisine is popular to this day. Characterized by heavy use of spices, most Malay dishes are curries, stews or dips of one kind or another and nasi padang restaurants, offering a wide variety of these to ladle onto your rice, are very popular.
  • Mee rebus is a sweet, spicy soup with egg noodles, a slice of hard boiled egg and lime.
  • Mee soto (or soto ayam) is Malay-style chicken soup, with clear broth, shredded chicken breast and egg noodles.
  • Nasi lemak (lit. "fat rice") is the definitive Malay breakfast, consisting at its simplest of rice cooked in light coconut milk, some ikan bilis (anchovies), peanuts, a slice of cucumber and a dab of chilli on the side. A larger fried fish or chicken wing are common accompaniments. More often than not, also combined with a variety of curries and/or sambal (see below).
  • Otah/Otak is a type of fish cake made of minced fish (usually mackerel), coconut milk, chilli and various other spices, and grilled in a banana or coconut leaf, usually served to accompany other dishes like nasi lemak.
  • Rendang, occasionally dubbed "dry curry", is meat stewed for hours on end in a spicy (but rarely fiery) curry paste until almost all water is absorbed. Beef rendang is the most common, although chicken and mutton are spotted sometimes.
  • Sambal is the generic term for chilli sauces of many kinds. Sambal belacan is a common condiment made by mixing chilli with the shrimp paste belacan, while the popular dish sambal sotong consists of squid (sotong) cooked in red chilli sauce.
  • Satay are barbecued skewers of meat, typically chicken, mutton or beef. What separates satay from your ordinary kebab is the spices used to season the meat and the slightly spicy peanut-based dipping sauce. The Satay Club at Lau Pa Sat near Raffles Place is one popular location for this delicacy.
Malay desserts, especially the sweet pastries and jellies (kuih or kueh) made largely from coconut and palm sugar (gula melaka), bear a distinct resemblance to those of Thailand. But in the sweltering tropical heat, try one of many concoctions made with ice instead:
  • Bubur cha-cha consists of cubed yam, sweet potato and sago added into coconut milk soup. This can be served warm or cold.
  • Chendol is made with green pea noodles, kidney beans, palm sugar and coconut milk.
  • Durian is not exactly a dish, but a local fruit with distinctive odor you can smell a mile away and a sharp thorny husk. Both smell and taste defy description, but eating garlic ice cream next to an open sewer comes to mind. If you are game enough you should try it, but be warned beforehand — you will either love it or hate it. The rich creamy yellow flesh is often sold in places like Geylang and Bugis and elsewhere conveniently in pre-packaged packs, for anywhere from $1 for a small fruit all the way up to $24/kg depending on the season and type of durian. This 'king of fruits' is also made into ice cream, cakes, sweets, puddings and other decadent desserts. Note: You're not allowed to carry durians on the MRT and buses and they're banned from many hotels.
  • Ice kachang literally means "ice bean" in Malay, a good clue to the two major ingredients: shaved ice and sweet red beans. However, more often than not you'll also get gula melaka (palm sugar), grass jelly, sweet corn, attap palm seeds and anything else on hand thrown in, and the whole thing is then drizzled with canned condensed milk or coconut cream and colored syrups. The end result tastes very interesting — and refreshing.
  • Kuih (or kueh) refer to a plethora of steamed cake-like, mostly made with coconut milk, grated coconut flesh, glutinous rice or tapioca. They are often very colorful and cut into fanciful shapes, but despite their wildly varying appearance tend to taste rather similar.
  • Pisang goreng is a batter-dipped and deep-fried banana.

Chinese cuisine

Chinese food as eaten in Singapore commonly originates from southern China, particularly Fujian and Guangdong. While "authentic" fare is certainly available, especially in fancier restaurants, the daily fare served in hawker centres has absorbed a number of tropical touches, most notably the fairly heavy use of chilli and the Malay fermented shrimp paste belacan as condiments. Noodles can also be served not just in soup (湯 tang), but also "dry" (干 kan), meaning that your noodles will be served tossed with chilli and spices in one bowl, and the soup will come in a separate bowl.
  • Bak chor mee(肉脞麵)is essentially noodles with minced pork, tossed in a chilli-based sauce with lard, ikan bilis (fried anchovies), vegetables and mushrooms.
  • Bak kut teh (肉骨茶), lit. "pork bone tea", is a simple-sounding soup of pork ribs simmered for hours in broth until they're ready to fall off the bone. Singaporeans prefer the light and peppery Teochew style, but a few shops offer the original dark and aromatic Fujian kind. Bak kut teh is typically eaten with white rice, mui choy (pickled vegetables) and a pot of strong Chinese tea, hence the name — the broth itself doesn't contain any tea. To impress the locals, order some you tiao fritters from a nearby stall and cut them up into bite-sized chunks to dip into your soup.
  • Char kway teow (炒粿条) is the quintessential Singapore-style fried noodle dish, consisting of several types of noodles in thick brown sauce with strips of fishcake, Chinese sausage, a token veggie or two and either cockles and shrimp. It's cheap ($2-3/serve), filling and has nothing to do with the dish known as "Singapore fried noodles" elsewhere! (And which actually doesn't exist in Singapore.)
  • Chee cheong fun (豬腸粉) is a favorite breakfast consisting of lasagna-type rice noodles rolled up and various types of fried meats including fishballs and fried tofu. The dish is usually topped with a generous amount of sauce.
  • Chwee kway (水粿) is a dish consisting of rice cakes topped with chai po (salted fermented turnips), usually served with some chilli sauce.
  • Fish ball noodles (魚丸麵) come in many forms, but the type most often seen is mee pok, which consists of flat egg noodles tossed in chilli sauce, with the fishballs floating in a separate bowl of soup on the side.
  • Hainanese chicken rice (海南鸡饭) is steamed ("white") or roasted ("red") chicken flavoured with soy sauce and sesame oil served on a bed of fragrant rice that has been cooked in chicken broth and flavoured with ginger and garlic. Often accompanied by chilli sauce made from crushed fresh chillis, ginger, garlic and thick dark soy sauce as well as some cucumber and a small bowl of chicken broth.
  • Hokkien mee (福建麵) is a style of soupy fried noodles in light, fragrant stock with prawns and other seafood. Oddly, it bears little resemblance to the Kuala Lumpur dish of the same name, which uses thick noodles in dark soy, or even the Penang version, which is served in very spicy soup.
  • Kway chap (粿汁) is essentially sheets made of rice flour served in some brownish soup, accompanied by a plate of braised pork and pig organs (usually intestines).
  • Prawn noodles (虾麵, hei mee in Hokkien) is a prawn-based dark brown soup served with noodles and a giant tiger prawn or two on top. Some stalls will serve it with boiled pork ribs as well.
  • Steamboat (火鍋), also known as hot pot, is do-it-yourself soup Chinese style. You get a pot of broth bubbling on a tabletop burner, pick meat, fish and veggies to your liking from a menu or buffet table, then cook it to your liking. When finished, add in noodles or ask for rice to fill you up. This usually requires a minimum of two people, and the more the merrier.
  • Wantan mee (雲吞麵) is thin noodles topped with wantan dumplings of seasoned minced pork. Unlike the soupy Hong Kong version, it is usually served dry.
  • Yong tau foo (酿豆腐) literally means "boiled tofu", but it's more exciting than it sounds. The diner selects their favorites from a vast assortment of tofu, fish paste, seafood and vegetables and they are then sliced into bite-size pieces, cooked briefly in boiling water and then served either in broth as soup or "dry" with the broth in a separate bowl. The dish can be eaten by itself or with any choice of noodles. Essential accompaniments are spicy chili sauce and a distinctive brown sweet sauce for dipping.

Indian cuisine

Roti prata (left) and roti telur (center) with a side order of chicken curry
Roti prata (left) and roti telur (center) with a side order of chicken curry
The smallest of the area's minorities, the Indians have had proportionally the smallest impact on the local culinary scene, but there is no shortage of Indian food even at many hawker centres. Delicious and authentic Indian food can be had at Little India, including south Indian typical meals such as dosa (thosai) crepes, idli lentil-rice cakes and sambar soup, as well as north Indian meals including various curries, naan bread, tandoori chicken and more. In addition, however, a number of Indian dishes have been "Singaporeanized" and adopted by the entire population, including:
  • Fish head curry is, true to the name, a gigantic curried fish head cooked whole until it's ready to fall apart. The head itself is not eaten, as there's plenty of meat to be found inside and all around. Singapore's Little India is the place to sample this. Note that there are two distinct styles, the fiery Indian and the milder Chinese kind.
  • Nasi briyani is rice cooked in turmeric, giving it an orange colour. Unlike the Hyderabadi original, it's usually rather bland, although specialist shops do turn out more flavorful versions. It is usually served with curry chicken and some Indian crackers.
  • Roti prata is the local version of paratha, flat bread tossed in the air like pizza, rapidly cooked in oil, and eaten dipped in curry. Modern-day variations can incorporate unorthodox ingredients like cheese, chocolate and even ice cream, but some canonical versions include roti kosong (plain), roti telur (with egg) and murtabak (layered with chicken, mutton or fish). Strict vegetarians beware: unlike Indian roti, roti prata batter is usually made with eggs.
  • Putu mayam is a sweet dessert composed of vermicelli-like noodles topped with shredded coconut and orange sugar.
Social welfare Singapore style
One thing notably absent from Singaporean cheap eateries is any form of napkins or tissues. The solution to the mystery is in Singapore's lack of government welfare: instead, every hawker centre has a resident invalid or two, who make a living by selling tissues ($1 for a few packets).
Typical hawker centre, Bugis
Typical hawker centre, Bugis
The cheapest and most popular places to eat in Singapore are hawker centres, essentially former pushcart vendors directed into giant complexes by government fiat. Prices are low ($2-5 for most dishes), hygiene standards are high (every stall is required to prominently display a health certificate grading it from A to D) and the food can be excellent — if you see a queue, join it! Ambience tends to be a little lacking though and there is no air-conditioning either, but a visit to a hawker centre is a must when in Singapore. However, be leery of overzealous pushers-cum-salesmen, especially at the Satay Club in Lau Pa Sat and Newton Food Centre at Newton Circus: the tastiest stalls don't need high-pressure tactics to find customers. Touting for business is illegal, and occasionally a reminder of this can result in people backing off a bit.
To order, first chope (reserve) a table by parking a friend by the table, note the table's number, then place your order at your stall of choice. They'll deliver to your table, and you pay when you get the food. Note that some stalls (particularly very popular ones) have signs stating "self-service", meaning that you're expected to get your food yourself — but if it's quiet or you're sitting nearby they'll usually deliver anyway. At almost every stall you can also opt to take away (called "packet" or ta pao (打包) in Cantonese), in which case they'll pack up your order in a plastic box/bag and even throw in disposable utensils. Once finished, just get up and go, as tables are cleared by hired cleaners.
Every district in Singapore has its own hawker centres and prices decrease as you move out into the boonies. For tourists, centrally located Newton Circus (Newton MRT), Gluttons Bay and Lau Pa Sat (near the River), are the most popular options — but this does not make them the cheapest or the tastiest, and the demanding gourmand would do well to head to Chinatown or the heartlands instead. Many of the best food stalls are located in residential districts away from the tourist trail and do not advertise in the media, so the best way to find them is to ask locals for their recommendations. And if you miss western food, Botak Jones [69] in several hawker centers offer reasonably authentic and generously sized American-restaurant style meals at hawker prices.
Coffee, see, and tea, oh!
Coffee and tea in hawker centres and kopitiam goes for under a dollar a cup, a steep discount on Starbucks prices, but you'll need to learn the lingo to get what you want. If you order just kopi (the Malay word for "coffee") or teh (Hokkien for "tea") in Singapore, it will definitely be served with a heaped spoonful of sugar, and more often than not with a squirt of sweet condensed milk. Kopi-C or teh-C substitutes unsweetened evaporated milk, while kopi-O or teh-O makes sure it's served with no milk. To get rid of the sugar, you need to ask for it kosong ("plain"), but if you want a plain black cup of joe, you need to ask for kopi-O kosong! If you want your drink cold, just add a peng to the end of the drink name, eg. kopi-O-peng, teh-peng, teh-C-peng, Milo-peng etc. and it will be served with ice. Also, if you only want a little sugar in your drink, add a siewtai to the end of the drink name, eg. kopi-o siewtai(black coffee, less sugar)
Despite the name, coffee shops or kopitiam sell much more than coffee — they are effectively mini-hawker centres with perhaps only half a dozen stalls (one of which will, however, sell coffee and other drinks). The Singaporean equivalent of pubs, this is where folks come for the canonical Singaporean breakfast of kopi (strong, sugary coffee), some kaya (egg-coconut jam) toast and runny eggs, and this is also where they come to down a beer or two and chat away in the evenings. English proficiency can somtimes be limited, but most stall owners know enough to communicate the basics, and even if they don't, nearby locals will usually help you out if you ask. Many coffee shops offer zi char/cze cha (煮炒) for dinner, meaning a menu of local dishes, mostly Chinese-style seafood, served at your table at mid-range prices.
The usual Starbucks and other local cafe chains such as Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf can be found in any shopping mall but an iced coffee or tea can put you back $5 and up, whereas a teh tarik ("pulled" milky tea) or kopi coffee runs closer to $1 at any hawker centre.
Retro style at the Food Republic food court, Orchard
Retro style at the Food Republic food court, Orchard
Found in the basement or top floor of nearly every shopping mall, food courts are the gentrified, air-conditioned version of hawker centres. The variety of food on offer is almost identical, but prices are on average $2-3 higher and the quality is usually lower.

Fast food

International fast food chains like McDonald's, Carl's Jr., Burger King, KFC, MOS Burger, Dairy Queen, Orange Julius, Subway etc are commonly found in various shopping malls. Prices range from $2 for a basic burger and $5 upwards for a set meal. All restaurants are self-service and clearing your table after your meal is optional. In addition to the usual suspects, look out for these uniquely Singaporean brands:
  • Bengawan Solo, [70]. Singapore version of Indonesian cakes, Chinese pastries and everything in between. The name is taken from the name of a famous river in Java.  edit
  • BreadTalk, [71]. This self-proclaimed "designer bread" chain has taken not just Singapore but much of South-East Asia by storm. Everything is jazzily shaped, funkily named (eg. Crouching Tiger, Hidden Bacon) and baked on premises. Just note that, to the Western palate, almost everything is rather sweet.  edit
  • Jollibean, [72]. Fresh soy drinks, beancurd and tasty mee chiang kueh Chinese pancakes.  edit
  • Killiney Kopitiam, [73]. Serves kaya toast, kopi and ginger tea (with ice or without); waiters at the original Somerset location shout your order towards the back with gusto.  edit
  • Old Chang Kee, [74]. Famous for their curry puffs, but their range now covers anything and everything deep-fried. Take-away only.  edit
  • Ya Kun Kaya Toast, [75]. Serves the classic Singaporean breakfast all day long: kaya toast, runny eggs and strong, sweet coffee (plus some other drinks). Arguably one of the more successful chains with branches in as far as South Korea and Japan.  edit
Kee-ping up with the Lims
Ever wonder why every other Chinese hawker stall and restaurant in Singapore has a name that ends in Kee? The answer is simple: the character kee (记) is Chinese for "brand" or "mark", and is used much like the trademark symbol in the West. A name like Yan Kee thus means "run by the Yan family", and should not be taken as a political statement!
Singapore offers a wide variety of full-service restaurants as well, catering to every taste and budget.
As the majority of Singapore's population is ethnic Chinese, there is an abundance of Chinese restaurants in Singapore, mainly serving southern Chinese (mostly Hokkien, Teochew or Cantonese) cuisines, though with the large number of expatriates and foreign workers from China these days, cuisine originating from Shanghai and further north is also not hard to find. As with Chinese restaurants anywhere, food is eaten with chopsticks and served with Chinese tea. While Chinese restaurant food is certainly closer to authentic Chinese fare than hawker food is, it too has not managed to escape local influences and you can find many dishes little seen in China. Depending on where you go and what you order, prices can vary greatly. In ordinary restaurants, prices usually start from $20-30 per person, while in top end restaurants in five-star hotels, prices can go as high as more than $300 per person if you order delicacies such as abalone, suckling pig and lobster.
Being a maritime city, one common specialty is seafood restaurants, offering Chinese-influenced Singaporean classics like chilli crabs. These are much more fun to go to in a group, but be careful what you order: gourmet items like Sri Lankan giant crab or shark's fin can easily push your bill up to hundreds of dollars. Menus typically say "Market price", and if you ask they'll quote you the price per 100g, but a big crab can easily top 2 kilos. The best-known seafood spots are clustered on the East Coast, but for ambience the riverside restaurants at Boat Quay and Clarke Quay can't be beat.
Singapore also has its share of good Western restaurants, with British and American influenced food being a clear favourite among locals. Most of the more affordable chains are concentrated around Orchard Road and prices start from around $10-20 per person for the main course. French, Italian, Japanese and Korean food is also readily available, though prices tend to be on the expensive side, while Thai and Indonesian restaurants tend to be more affordable.
One British import much beloved by Singaporeans is high tea. In the classical form, as served up by finer hotels across the island, this is a light afternoon meal consisting of tea and a wide array of British-style savoury snacks and sweet pastries like finger sandwiches and scones. However, the term is increasingly used for afternoon buffets of any kind, and Chinese dim sum and various Singaporean dishes are common additions. Prices vary, but you'll usually be looking at $20-30 per head. Note that many restaurants only serve high tea on weekends, and hours may be very limited: the famous spread at the Raffles Hotel's Tiffin Room, for example, is only available between 3:30PM and 5PM.
Singaporeans are big on buffets, especially international buffets offering a wide variety of dishes including Western, Chinese and Japanese as well as some local dishes at a fixed price. Popular chains include Sakura [76], Pariss [77] and Vienna [78].
Most hotels also offer lunch and dinner buffets. Champagne brunches on Sundays are particularly popular, but you can expect to pay over $100 per head and popular spots, like Mezza9 at the Hyatt on Orchard, will require reservations.

Dietary restrictions

Singapore is an easy place to eat for almost everybody. Many Indians and not a few Chinese Buddhists are strictly vegetarian, so every Indian stall will have a number of veggie options and most hawker centres will have a Chinese vegetarian stall or two, often serving up amazing meat imitations made from gluten. Chinese vegetarian food traditionally does not use eggs or dairy products and is thus almost always vegan; Indian vegetarian food, however, often employs cheese and other milk products. Be on your guard in ordinary Chinese restaurants though, as even dishes that appear vegetarian on the menu may contain seafood products like oyster sauce or salted fish — check with the waiter if in doubt.
Muslims should look out for halal certificates issued by MUIS, the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore. This is found at practically every Malay stall and many Indian Muslim operations too, but more rarely on outlets run by the Chinese, few of whom are Muslims. That said, the popular Banquet [79] chain of food courts is entirely halal and an excellent choice for safely sampling halal Chinese food. Many, if not all, of the Western fast-food chains in Singapore use halal meat: look for a certificate around the ordering area, or ask a manager if in doubt. A few restaurants skimp on the formal certification and simply put up "no pork, no lard" signs; it's your call if this is good enough for you.
Jews, on the other hand, will have a harder time as kosher food is nearly unknown in Singapore. Nevertheless, kosher food is still available near Singapore's two synagogues at Oxley Rise and Waterloo Street in the Central Business District; check with the Jewish Welfare Board [80] for details.
Clarke Quay by night
Clarke Quay by night
Singapore's nightlife isn't quite a match for Patpong, but it's no slouch either! Some clubs have 24-hour licenses and few places close before 3 AM. Any artist touring Asia are pretty much guaranteed to stop in Singapore, with superclub Zouk in particular regularly clocking high on lists of the world's best nightclubs. Singapore's nightlife is largely concentrated along the three Quays — Boat, Clarke and Robertson — of the Riverside, with the clubs of Sentosa and nearby St James Power Station giving party animals even more reason to dance the night away. Gay bars are mostly found around Chinatown. Drinking age is 18, and while this is surprisingly loosely enforced, some clubs have higher age limits.
Friday is generally the biggest night of the week for going out, with Saturday a close second. Sunday is gay night in many bars and clubs, while Wednesday or Thursday is ladies' night, often meaning not just free entrance but free drinks for women. Most clubs are closed on Monday and Tuesday, while bars generally stay open but tend to be very quiet.
For a night out Singapore style, gather a group of friends and head for the nearest karaoke box — major chains include K-Box [81] and Party World. Room rental ranges from $30/hour and up. Beware that the non-chain, glitzy (or dodgy) looking, neon-covered KTV lounges may charge much higher rates and the short-skirted hostesses may offer more services than just pouring your drinks. In Singapore, the pronunciation of karaoke follows the Japanese "karah-oh-kay" instead of the Western "carry-oh-key".
The original Singapore Sling at the Raffles
The original Singapore Sling at the Raffles
Alcohol is widely available but very expensive due to Singapore's heavy sin taxes. Tax-free at Changi Airport, on the other hand, has some of the best prices in the world; you can bring in up to one litre each of liquor, wine and beer if you arrive from countries other than Malaysia. Careful shopping at major supermarkets will also throw up common basic Australian wine labels for under $20.
Prices when eating out vary. You can enjoy a large bottle of beer of your choice at a coffee shop or hawker center for less than $6 (and the local colour comes thrown in for free). On the other hand, drinks in any bar, club or fancy restaurant remain extortionate, with a basic drink clocking in at $10-15 while fancy cocktails would usually be in the $15-25 range. On the upside, happy hours and two-for-one promotions are common, and the entry price for clubs usually includes several drink tickets. Almost all restaurants in Singapore allow bringing your own (BYO) wine and cheaper restaurants without a wine menu usually don't even charge corkage, although in these places you'll need to bring your own bottle opener and glasses. Fancier places charge $20-50, although many offer free corkage days on Monday or Tuesday.
Tourists flock to the Long Bar in the Raffles Hotel to sample the original Singapore Sling, a sickly sweet pink mix of pineapple juice, gin and more, but locals (almost) never touch the stuff. The tipple of choice in Singapore is the local beer, Tiger, a rather ordinary lager, but there's been a recent microbrewery boom with Archipelago (Boat Quay), Brewerkz (Riverside Point), Paulaner Brauhaus (Millenia Walk) and Pump Room (Clarke Quay) all offering interesting alternatives.

Tobacco

Tobacco is heavily taxed, and you are not allowed to bring more than one opened pack (not carton, but a single pack!) of cigarettes into the country. This is particularly strictly enforced on the land borders with Malaysia. Many public places including hawker centres have restrictions on smoking, and it is prohibited in public transport as well. There is a total ban on smoking in all air-conditioned places (including pubs and discos), and strict limitations on where you can smoke outside as well (eg. bus stops and all except the designated sections of hawker centres are off limits). The designated zone should be marked with a yellow outline, and may have a sign reading "smoking zone".

Prostitution

Prostitution is tolerated in six designated districts, most notably Geylang, which — not coincidentally — also offers some of the cheapest lodging and best food in the city. The industry maintains a low profile (no go-go bars here) and is not a tourist attraction by any stretch of the word. Legally practising commercial sex workers are required to register with the authorities and attend special clinics for regular sexually transmitted disease screening. However, please be prudent and practice safe sex--although most sex workers will insist on it anyway.
Orchard Towers, on Orchard Road, has been famously summarized as "four floors of whores" and, despite occasional crackdowns by the authorities, continues to live up to its name. Beware that the prostitutes working here are usually not registered, so the risk of theft and STDs is significantly higher, and not a few of the "women" are actually transsexuals.
This guide uses the following price ranges for a standard double room:
Budget Under $100
Mid-range $100-300
Splurge Over $300
Accommodation in Singapore is expensive by South-East Asian standards. Particularly in the higher price brackets, demand has been outstripping supply recently and during big events like the F1 race or some of the larger conventions it's not uncommon for pretty much everything to sell out. Lower-end hotels and hostels, though, remain affordable and available throughout the year.

Budget

Backpackers' hostels can be found primarily in Little India, Bugis and East Coast. Around $30 for a dorm bed.
Cheap hotels are clustered in the Geylang, Balestier and Little India districts, where they service mostly the type of customer who rents rooms by the hour. Rooms are generally small and not fancy, but are still clean and provide basic facilities like a bathroom and television. Prices start as low as $15 for a "transit" of a few hours and $40 for a full night's stay. A few budget hotel chains of note include:
  • Fragrance Hotel, +65-63456116, [82]. Chain of 13 affordable hotels and one backpackers' hostel. Rooms from $58, discounts on weekends and for ISIC holders.  edit
  • Hotel 81, +65-67678181, [83]. A chain of 18 cheap, functional hotels that are not a bad option for backpackers willing to pay a small premium for privacy, with rates starting at $49 for two.  edit

Mid-range

Much of Singapore's mid-range accommodation is in rather featureless but functional older hotels, with a notable cluster near the western end of the Singapore River. There has, however, been a recent surge of "boutique" hotels in renovated shophouses here and in Chinatown and these can be pretty good value, with rates starting from $100/night.
Raffles Hotel
Raffles Hotel
Singapore has a wide selection of luxury accommodation, including the famed Raffles Hotel. You will generally be looking at upwards of $300 for a room in a five-star hotel, which is still a pretty good deal by most standards. Hotel rates fluctuate quite a bit: a large conference can double prices, while on weekends in the off-peak season heavy discounts are often available. The largest hotel clusters can be found by the riverside (good for sightseeing) and around Orchard Road (good for shopping).

Long-term

Housing in Singapore is expensive, as the sheer scarcity of land drives land prices and consequently, real estate prices through the roof. As a result, you would generally be looking at rentals on par with the likes of New York and London.
Apartment hotels in Singapore include Ascott [84], which also operates under the Somerset brand. Prices are competitive with hotels but quite expensive compared to apartments.
Renting an apartment in Singapore will generally require a working visa. While over 80% of Singaporeans live in government-subsidized Housing Development Board (HDB) flats, their availability to visitors is limited, although JTC's SHiFT [85] scheme makes some available with monthly rents in the $700-1000 range.
Most expats, however, turn to private housing blocks known as condos, where an average three-bedroom apartment will cost you anything from $2,000 per month for an older apartment in the suburbs to $20,000 for a top-of-the-line deluxe one on Orchard Road. Most condos have facilities like pools, gyms, tennis court, carpark and 24-hour security. As the supply of studio and one-bedroom apartments is very limited, most people on a budget share an apartment with friends or colleagues, or just sublet a single room. Landed houses, known as bungalows, are incredibly expensive in the centre (rents are regularly measured in tens of thousands) but can drop if you're willing to head out into the woods — and remember that you can drive across the country in 30 minutes.
One or two-month security deposits are standard practice and for monthly rents of under $2500 you need to pay the agent a commission of 2 weeks per year of lease. Leases are usually for two years, with a "diplomatic clause" that allows you to terminate after one year. Singapore Expats [86] is the largest real estate agency geared for expats and their free classifieds are a popular choice for hunting for rooms or apartment-mates. You might also want to check the classified ads in the local newspapers.

Learn

Singapore's universities are generally well-regarded and draw exchange students from near and far.
  • National University of Singapore (NUS), [87]. Singapore's oldest university, strong in liberal arts, law, computing and science. One of the premier universities in Asia.  edit
  • Nanyang Technological University (NTU), [88]. The second university in this island state, more geared towards engineering, media and business studies. Host for the Youth Olympics 2010  edit
  • Singapore Management University (SMU), [89]. The third, newest, and the only publicly-funded private university in Singapore. Geared towards finance and business.  edit
  • Singapore Institute of Management University (UniSIM), [90]. The fourth 'second-chance, but not second-rate' private university. The school offers a wide range of first degrees, from the arts to business to technology studies.   edit
A number of foreign universities, business schools and specialized institutes have also setup their Asian campuses in Singapore.
  • SP Jain Center Of Management (SPJCM), [91]. International campus of the business school in Mumbai.  edit
  • INSEAD, [92]. The Asian campus of European business school, INSEAD.  edit
  • University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, [93]. The Asian campus of the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, offering one of the most expensive MBA in the world.   edit
  • DigiPen Institute of Technology, [94]. The Asian campus of the DigiPen Institute of Technology, Redmond, Seattle, Washington.  edit
  • ESSEC, [95]. International campus of the business school in Paris.  edit
  • at-Sunrice, Fort Canning Park, +65-63363307, [96]. A professional cooking academy that also does day classes for the public. The crowd-pleaser is the "Spice Garden Walk" ($40) at Fort Canning, where a chef introduces you to local herbs and spices and their uses in cuisine and medicine, and then guides you in the fine art of making your own curry paste. Reservations essential.  edit
  • Cookery Magic, 179 Haig Road, +65-63489667 (), [97]. Cooking classes in an old colonial black-and-white home, with themes varying by day and cuisines from all over the continent. 8 students maximum. From $65.  edit
  • Palate Sensations, 1 Westbourne Road #03-05, +65-64799025 (), [98]. Hands-on cooking classes in both European and Asian styles, held in a colonial black and white bungalow in rural western Singapore. 12 students maximum. From $100.  edit

Work

Casual work is nearly impossible to come by, as you must have a work permit (WP) or employment pass (EP) to work in Singapore. In practice, receiving either requires that you have a firm job offer and the sponsoring company applies on your behalf; however, highly skilled people can apply for an Employment Pass Eligibility Certificate (EPEC), which allows you to stay in Singapore for a maximum of one year while you look for a job. There is also a Working Holiday Programme [99] for recent university grads who want to live in Singapore for up to 6 months.
Work permits are mostly intended for menial, low-skilled laborers. To be eligible for an employment pass, you would generally need to have a minimum salary of more than $2500 per month and hold at least a bachelor degree from a reasonably reputable university. There is also an intermediate known as the S pass, which is usually granted to mid-skilled workers who have been promoted to positions of junior leadership such as worksite supervisor, and would require you to have a minimum salary of more than $1800 per month as well as your employer's recommendation. Employment pass holders as well as S pass holders with a monthly salary of more than $2500 are allowed to bring in their family members on a dependent pass.
When the employment is terminated, you will get a social visit pass (a visitors visa with no employment rights) which allows you to stay for no longer than 14 days. You can look for another job during this time, but don't overstay your visa, and do not think about working without the right papers, this will result in a short stay in the local prison, with added fines, possibly caning and certain deportation. For more information, contact the Ministry of Manpower [100].
Once you have been working in Singapore for a year or so with an employment pass or S pass, applying for permanent residence (PR) is fairly straightforward. If granted — and the rule of thumb is, the higher your salary, the more likely you are to get it — you can stay in Singapore indefinitely (as long as you can show some income every 5-10 years) and can change jobs freely.
Fine-tuning the MRT
Fine-tuning the MRT
Singapore is one of the safest major cities in the world by virtually any measure. Most people, including single female travellers, will not face any problems walking along the streets alone at night. But as the local police say, "low crime does not mean no crime" — beware of pickpockets in crowded areas and don't forget your common sense entirely.
Singapore's squeaky cleanliness is achieved in part by strict rules against activities that are tolerated in other countries. For example, jay-walking, spitting, littering, and drinking and eating on public transport are prohibited (even forgetting to flush the toilet will subject you to a great fine). Locals joke about Singapore being a fine city because heavy fines are levied if one is caught committing an offence. Look around for sign boards detailing the Don'ts and the fines associated with these offenses, and heed them. Avoid littering, as offenders are not only subject to fines, but also to a "Corrective Work Order", in which offenders are made to wear a bright yellow jacket and pick up rubbish in public places. Enforcement is however sporadic at best, and it is not uncommon to see people openly litter, spit, smoke in non-smoking zones, etc. Chewing gum, famously long banned, is now available at pharmacies for medical purposes (e.g. nicotine gum) if you ask for it directly, show your ID and sign the register. (Importing it is, theoretically, still an offense though.)
Travel Warning
WARNING: Singapore treats drug offences extremely severely. The death penalty is mandatory for those convicted of trafficking, manufacturing, importing or exporting more than 15 g of heroin, 30 g of morphine, 30 g of cocaine, 500 g of cannabis, 200 g of cannabis resin and 1.2 kg of opium, and possession of these quantities is all that is needed for you to be convicted. For unauthorised consumption, there is a maximum of 10 years' jail or fine of $20,000, or both. You can be charged for unauthorised consumption as long as traces of illicit drugs are found in your system, even if you can prove that they were consumed outside the country, and you can be charged for trafficking as long as drugs are found in bags that are in your possession or in your room, even if they aren't yours and regardless of whether you're aware of them.
For some crimes, most notably illegal entry and overstaying your visa for over 90 days, Singapore imposes caning as a punishment. Other offenses which have caning as a punishment include vandalism (just ask Michael P. Fay), robbery, molestation and rape. Do note that having sex with a girl under the age of 16 is considered to be rape under Singapore law, regardless of whether the girl consents to it and would land you a few strokes of the cane. This is no slap on the wrist: strokes from the thick rattan cane are excruciatingly painful, take weeks to heal and scar for life. Corruption is also punishable by caning so under no circumstances should you try to offer a bribe or gratuity to a police officer. Crimes such as murder, kidnapping, unauthorised possession of firearms and drug trafficking are punished with death.
Oral and anal sex, long banned under colonial-era sodomy statutes, was legalized for heterosexuals in October 2007. Homosexual contact, however, remains illegal, with a theoretical punishment of life in prison and/or caning. Though this law is rarely enforced and there is a fairly vibrant gay community, gays should still expect legalized discrimination and unaccepting attitudes from locals and government officials.
Begging is illegal in Singapore, but you'll occasionally see beggars on the streets. Most are not Singaporean — even the "monks" dressed in robes, who occasionally pester tourists for donations, are usually bogus.
Singapore is virtually immune to natural disasters: there are no fault lines nearby, although Indonesia's earthquakes can sometimes be barely felt, and other landmasses shield it from typhoons, tornados and tsunamis. Flooding in the Nov-Jan monsoon season is an occasional hazard, especially in low-lying parts of the East Coast, but any water usually drains off within a day and life continues as normal.
  • Ambulance: 995
  • Fire: 995
  • Police: 999
  • Singapore General Hospital: 6222 3322
  • Drug & Poison Information Centre: 6423 9119

Stay healthy

Tap water is safe for drinking and sanitation standards are very high. As a tropical country, Singapore is hot and humid so drink a lot of water. The lowest temperature ever recorded in Singapore was way back in 1934, when it hit a low of 19.4 degrees Celsius (66.9 degrees Fahrenheit.)
Malaria is not an issue, but dengue fever is endemic to the region. Singapore maintains strict mosquito control (leaving standing water around will get you fined), but the government's reach does not extend into the island's nature reserves, so if you're planning on hiking bring along mosquito repellent.

Medical care

The standard of medical care in Singapore is uniformly excellent and Singapore is a popular destination for medical tourism (and medical evacuations) in the region. Despite the lower prices, standards are often as good as those in the West at both public and private clinics, making this a good place to get your jabs and tabs if heading off into the jungle elsewhere. You'll still want to make sure your insurance is in order before a prolonged hospitalization and/or major surgery.
For minor ailments, head down to the nearest suburban shopping mall or HDB shopping district and look for a general practitioner (GP). They usually receive patients without appointment and can prescribe drugs on the spot, and the total cost of a consultation, medicine included, rarely exceeds $30. For larger problems, head to a hospital:
  • Mount Elizabeth Hospital, Mount Elizabeth (off Orchard Rd), +65-67372666, [101]. Singapore's largest private hospital and a popular destination for medical tourists. Consultations with specialists start from $100.  edit
  • Singapore General Hospital, College Road, 1st-3rd Hospital Avenue (Right next to MRT Outram Park), [102]. Singapore's oldest and largest public hospital. Outram Polyclinic [103] offers doctor's consultations for $20.30 and can refer patients to specialists at the hospital, although waiting times can be long; afternoons are better than mornings. Open Mon-Fri 8 AM to 4:30 PM.  edit
  • Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng (MRT Novena), +65-62656011, [104]. One of Singapore's largest public hospitals, fully equipped to handle most anything. Specialist departments here include a one-stop Travellers' Health & Vaccination Centre for immunizations, malaria prophylaxis, pre-trip and post-trip evaluations and general advice. Flat $80 fee for doctor's consultation, vaccines for $10 plus cost (consultation unnecessary), tel. +65-63572222, open 8AM-1PM and 2PM-5PM weekdays, 8AM-noon Sa, no appointment needed.  edit
Alternatively, practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are widespread in Singapore. Eu Yan Sang [105] runs a chain of over 20 clinics, while the Singapore Chinese Physicians' Association [106] offers a directory of TCM physicians.

Restrooms/toilets

Nearly all shopping centers, hotels, MRT stations, bus interchanges, and hawker centers are likely to have public restrooms/toilet facilities available. Being clean, McDonald's restrooms are popular too, and the staff do not make a fuss. Public facilities may charge 10 to 20 cents per entry, and a packet of tissue may come in handy if the toilet paper has run out. Most toilets have bowls, but there is usually one squatting cubicle in every public toilet.
What's in a name?
- Chinese place their family name first, so Phua Chu Kang is Mr. Phua for business and Chu Kang (or just CK) to his friends. Many have Western names, so he may also be known as Terry Phua.
- Malay names are given name + bin or binti (son/daughter) + father's name. Mohammed bin Abdullah would usually be called Mr. Mohammed. Sometimes, the person's given name appears after the Mohammed eg. Mohammed Faizal bin Mohammed Nasser so in such a case, he would usually be addressed as Mr Faizal.
- Indian names are complex, but the south Indian (Tamil) names usually found in Singapore have two patterns: either given name + s/o or d/o (son of/daughter of) + father's name, or father's initial + given name. Given names are often long and may be abbreviated, so Ramanathan s/o Sellapan uses the name S.R. Nathan and would addressed as Mr. Nathan. The foolproof method is to ask the person how they'd like to be addressed.
Singaporeans don't go much for formal politeness and what would be decent behavior at home, wherever home might be, is unlikely to offend anyone in Singapore either. In Singapore, unlike much of southeast Asia, women wearing revealing clothing or men wearing shorts and slippers are perfectly acceptable. That said, upmarket bars and restaurants may enforce dress codes and toplessness for women is not acceptable anywhere, even on the beach.
Casual conversation — for example, chatting with a shopkeeper — isn't really done in Singapore, and you may get strange looks if you try. No offense is intended, Singaporeans are just protective of their personal space and showing courtesy by trying not to impose on others. Furthermore, the local dialect with its heavy Chinese influences may appear brusque or even rude, but "You want beer or not?" is in fact more polite in Chinese -- after all, the person asking you the question is offering you a choice, not making a demand!
If invited to somebody's house, always remove your shoes before you enter as most Singaporeans do not wear their shoes at home. Socks are perfectly acceptable though, as long as they are not excessively soiled. Many places of worship also require you to remove your shoes before you enter.
At rush hour, be prepared for a lot of pushing on the MRT (even just to get off) and everyone racing for the empty seat, though in a somewhat orderly manner. This is normal, despite signs asking people to be a little more courteous. Just go with the flow.
Beware of taboos if bringing gifts. Any products (food or otherwise) involving animals may cause offence and are best avoided, as are white flowers (usually reserved for funerals). Knives and clocks are also symbols of cutting ties and death, respectively, and some Chinese are superstitious about the number four. Many Singaporean Muslims and some Hindus abstain from alcohol.
Take dietary restrictions into account when inviting Singaporean friends for a meal. Many Indians (and a few Chinese) are vegetarian. Most Malays eat only halal food, while most Indians, being Hindu, abstain from beef.

Business

Singaporeans are punctual, so show up on time. The standard greeting is a firm handshake. However, conservative Muslims avoid touching the opposite sex, so a man meeting a Malay woman should let her offer her hand first and a woman meeting a Malay man should wait for him to offer his hand. If they opt to place their hand on the heart and bow slightly instead, just follow suit. Singaporeans generally do not hug, especially if it is someone they have just met, and doing so would probably make your host feel awkward, though it is unlikely to cause any offence.
For men, standard business attire is a long-sleeved shirt and a tie, although it's common to skip the tie and open the shirt's collar button instead. Jackets are rarely worn, because it's simply too hot most of the time. Women usually wear Western business attire, although a few prefer Malay-style kebaya and sarong.
Business cards are always exchanged when meeting for the first time: hold yours with both hands by the top corners, so the text faces the recipient, while simultaneously receiving theirs. (This sounds more complicated than it is!) Study the cards you receive and feel free to ask questions; when finished, place them on the table in front of you, not in a shirt pocket or wallet, and do not write on them or otherwise show disrespect.
Business gifts are generally frowned on as they whiff of bribery. Smalltalk and beating around the bush is neither necessary nor expected, and most meetings get straight down to business.

Contact

By phone

The international telephone country code for Singapore is 65. There are three main telecommunication providers in Singapore: SingTel [107], StarHub [108] and MobileOne (M1) [109].
Mobile phones are carried by almost everyone in Singapore, including many young children, and coverage is generally excellent throughout the country. All 3 service providers have both GSM 900/1800 and 3G (W-CDMA) networks, and international roaming onto them may be possible; check with your operator before you leave to be sure. Prepaid SIM cards are sold in 7-Eleven convenience stores and phone shops, just bring your own GSM/3G phone or buy a cheap used handset in Singapore. You will need to show an international passport or Singapore ID to sign up. A local phone call costs between 5-25 cents per minute, whereas each local text message (SMS) costs about 5 cents, with international SMS about 15-25 cents. You may also be charged for incoming calls.
Public phones are an increasingly endangered species, but you can find them in most MRT stations. They are either coin-operated pay phones (10 cents for a three-minute local call), card phones operated by phone cards in denominations of $3, $5, $10, $20 and $50, or credit card phones. Phone cards are available at all post offices and from phonecard agents. Most coin-operated pay phones are for local calls only, there are some which accept coins of larger denominations and can be used for overseas calls. Credit card phones are usually found at the airport or in some major hotels.
To make an international call from Singapore, dial the access code 001 (for SingTel), 002 (for M1), and 008 (for StarHub), followed by the country code, area code and party's number. Recently the providers have started offering cheaper rates for calls using Internet telephony routes. The access codes for this cheaper service are 019 and 013 for SingTel and 018 for StarHub.
Calling cards are also available for specific international destinations and are usually cheaper. Hello Card from Singtel offers a very cheap rate to 8 countries (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand).

By net

Internet cafes charging around $2/hour are scattered about the island, but are not particularly common since almost all locals have Internet access at home, work, and/or school. Head to Chinatown or Little India if you need get online. Alternatively, all public libraries [110] offer cheap Internet access ($0.03/min or $1.80/hr), but you need to jump through registration hoops to get access.
The first phase of the nationwide free Wireless@SG system is now operating and visitors are free to use the system, although you must register and receive a password via e-mail or a mobile phone first. See the Infocomm Development Authority website [111] for a current list of hotspots. Commercial alternatives include McDonalds, which offers free wifi at most outlets; StarHub, a member of the Wireless Broadband Alliance with hotspots at Coffee Bean cafes; and SingTel, which has hotspots at most Starbucks cafes. Roaming or prepaid rates are on the order of $0.10/minute.
There are several options for prepaid 3G/HSPA internet. Starhub MaxMobile [112] has different plans from S$2/hour to S$25 for 5 days unlimited 7.2mbps internet. SIM costs S$12. M1 Prepaid Broadband offers unlimited Internet access for three days/five days at S$18/S$30 [113].

By mail

SingPost [114] has offices throughout the island, generally open 8:30AM-5PM weekdays, 8:30AM-1PM Saturdays, closed Sundays. The Changi Airport T2 (transit side) office is open 6 AM-midnight daily, while the 1 Killeney Rd branch is open until 9 PM weekdays and 10AM-4PM Sundays. Service is fast and reliable. A postcard to anywhere in the world costs 50 cents, and postage labels can also be purchased from the self-service SAM machines found in many MRT stations.
Small packets up to 2 kg cost $3.50/100g for airmail, or $1/100g for surface mail. For larger packages, DHL [115] may offer competitive rates.

Cope

Electricity

Singapore uses the British three-pin rectangular socket (230V/50Hz). Plug adaptors are available at any hardware store.

Embassies, high commissions and consulates

Singapore is a good place to collect visas for the region. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs [116] maintains a complete searchable database of diplomatic institutions.
  • Australia High Commission, 25 Napier Road, +65-67379311, [117].  edit
  • Austrian Embassy, 600 North Bridge Road #24-04 / 05 Parkview Square, +65-63966350, [118].  edit
  • Bangladesh High Commission, 91, Bencoolen Street,# 06-01, Sunshine Plaza, +65-62550075, [119].  edit
  • Brunei Darussalam High Comission, 325 Tanglin Road, +65-67339055,+65-67330664,+65-67332457.  edit
  • Cambodia Embassy, 400 Orchard Road, #10-03/04 Orchard Towers, +65-63419785, [120].  edit
  • Canada High Commission, One George Street, #11-01, +65-68545900, [121].  edit
  • People's Republic of China Embassy, 150 Tanglin Road, +65-64180328, [122]. Also handles Hong Kong/Macau visas.  edit
  • Denmark Embassy, 101 Thomson Road, #13-01 United Square, +65-62503383, [123].  edit
  • Finland Embassy, 101 Thomson Road, #21-03 United Square, +65-62544042, [124].  edit
  • France Embassy, 101-103 Cluny Park Road, +65-68807800, [125].  edit
  • German Embassy, 50 Raffles Place, #12-00 Singapore Land Tower, +65 98170414, [126].  edit
  • India High Commission, 31 Grange Road, +65-67376777, [127]. Warning: Only issues visas to residents of Singapore, and all visa applications are handled by Serangoon Travel in Tekka Mall, Little India.  edit
  • Indonesia Embassy, 7 Chatsworth Road, +65-67377422, [128].  edit
  • Republic of Ireland Embassy, 541 Orchard Road, #08-00 Liat Towers, +65-67323430, [129].  edit
  • Israel Embassy, 24 Stevens Close, +65-68349200, +65-68349212 (24 hrs), [130].  edit
  • Italian Embassy, 101 Thomson Road, #27-02/03 United Square, +65-62506022,+65-6253-8429/4340 (consular), [131].  edit
  • Japan Embassy, 16 Nassim Road, +65-62358855, [132].  edit
  • DPR Korea (North Korea) Embassy, 7500 Beach Road, #09-320 The Plaza, +65-64403498.  edit
  • Republic of Korea (South Korea) Embassy, 47 Scotts Road, #08-00 Goldbell Towers (chancery), #05-01 Goldbell Towers (consular), +65-62561188 (chancery), +65-62561188 (consular), [133].  edit
  • Laos Embassy, 101 Thomson Road, #10-01 United Square, +65-62506044, +65-62506741.  edit
  • Malaysia High Commission, 301 Jervois Road, +65-62350111.  edit
  • Myanmar Embassy, 15 St Martin's Drive, +65-67350209, [134].  edit
  • Nepalese Consulate, 1 North Bridge Road, #18-5 High Street Road, +65-63399967.  edit
  • New Zealand High Commission, 391A Orchard Road, Ngee Ann City Tower A, #15-06/10, +65-62359966, [135].  edit
  • Norway Embassy, 16 Raffles Quay, #44-01 Hong Leong Building, +65-62207122, [136].  edit
  • Philippines Embassy, 20 Nassim Road, +65-67373977, [137].  edit
  • Republic of Poland Embassy, 435 Orchard Road #17-02/03, Wisma Atria, (65) 6235 9478, [138].  edit
  • Royal Netherlands Embassy, 541 Orchard Road, #13-01 Liat Towers, +65-67371155, [139].  edit
  • South Africa High Commission, 15th Floor Odeon Towers, 331 North Bridge Road, +65-65401177.  edit
  • Sri Lankan High Commission, #13-07/12 Goldhill Plaza, 51 Newton Road, Singapore 308900, +65-62544595-7.  edit
  • Sweden Embassy, 111 Somerset Road, #05-01 Singapore Power Building, +65-6415 9720, [140].  edit
  • Swiss Embassy, 1 Swiss Club Link, +65-64685788, [141].  edit
  • Royal Thai Embassy, 370 Orchard Road, +65-6737-2475/6 (main), +65-6737-2158/2644 (consular), [142].  edit
  • Taipei Representative Office, 460 Alexandra Road, #23-00 PSA Building, +65-62786511, [143].  edit
  • Image:Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates Embassy, 600 North Bridge Road, #09-01 Parkview Square, +65-62388206, [144].  edit
  • United Kingdom High Commission, 100 Tanglin Road, +65-64739333, [145].  edit
  • United States of America Embassy, 27 Napier Road, +65-63380251, [146].  edit
  • Vietnam Embassy, 10 Leedon Park, +65-64625938, +65-64625994 (consular), [147].  edit

Hair cuts

Singaporeans are particular about their hair and there is no shortage of fancy hair salons charging from $20 up for the latest Chinese popstar look. If you are willing to splurge, there is Passion Hair Salon at Palais Renaissance with celebrity hairstylist David Gan (hairstylist of Zhang Ziyi and other famous celebrities) doing the haircut. Le Salon at Ngee Ann City offers haircuts up to $2000. The middle range hair salons located in town or in the heartlands, offer haircuts with hair wash as well as other frills. Chains include Supercuts and Toni and Guy salons located all over Singapore. For a more backpacker-friendly price, almost every shopping mall in Singapore has a branch of EC House [148] or one of its many imitators, offering fuss-free 10-minute haircuts for $10, although the hairdressers are mostly happy to spend as long as necessary on your hair, within reasonable limits. Most HDB estates have barbershops which charge $8 to $10 for adults and less for students and children.

Laundry

Laundromats are few and far between in Singapore, but full-service laundry and dry cleaning shops can be found in every shopping mall. Unfortunately turnaround times are usually upwards of three days unless you opt for express service. Hotels can provide one-day laundry (at a price), whereas hostels often have communal self-service washing machines.
  • Laundry Day, 5 Koek Road #01-18 (Cuppage Plaza, behind Centrepoint Orchard), +65-67345286, [149]. Mon-Fri 10:00 AM-7:00 PM, Sat 10:00 AM-6:00 PM. Washing, drying and folding of clothes including undergarments. Three-hour service $10 per 3kg.  edit
  • Mount Elizabeth Dry Cleaning & Laundry, 8 Nutmeg Road, +65-67359638. Mon-Fri 9:30 AM-6:30 PM. Full-service and self-service laundry, tucked away behind Orchard Rd. One-hour emergency service available.  edit
  • Systematic Laundromat, +65-67540277, [150]. 11AM-late. Laundry service with 16 outlets around Singapore. $6 for 4 kg of laundry, either self-service or returned the next day depending on the outlet. Central branches include Centrepoint Orchard (MRT Somerset) and Robertson Walk (near Gallery Hotel).  edit

Photo processing

Practically every shopping mall has a photo shop that will process film, print digital pictures and take passport photos. Many pharmacies and supermarkets also have self-service kiosks which print digital photos from CD, SD-card, USB drive, etc.

Sports

The Singapore Sports Council [151] runs a chain of affordable sports facilities, often featuring fantastic outdoor 50 meter pools (see Swimming for a list). Facilities are somewhat sparse but the prices are unbeatable, with eg. swimming pools charging $1 for entry and access to ClubFITT gyms only $2.50. The main downside is the inconvenient location of most facilities out in the suburbs, although most are located close to an MRT station and can be reached within 10 or 20 minutes from downtown. The gyms also have a total ban on bringing in any reading material (aimed at students but enforced blindly), although MP3 players are OK.
Major private gym chains include California Fitness [152], Fitness First [153] and True Fitness [154]. Facilities are better and locations more central, but the prices are also much higher as non-members have to fork out steep day pass fees (around $40).
Some of the parks [155] offer rental of bicycles and inline skates ($3-6/hour, open till 8pm). Especially rewarding for skaters and cyclists is the 10 km long stretch along East Coast Park with a paved track and lots of rental shops, bars and cafes around the McDonalds. There are toilets and showers along the track. Furthermore every park has a couple of fitness stations.

Get out

Singapore makes a good base for exploring South-East Asia, with nearly all of the region's countries and their main tourist destinations — Bangkok, Phuket, Angkor Wat, Ho Chi Minh City and Bali, just to name a few — under two hours away by plane.
For day or weekend trips from Singapore, the following are popular:
  • Batam — The nearest Indonesian island to Singapore, just a short ferry trip away. Mainly industrial and infamous for its vice trade, but has some resorts.
  • Bintan — Indonesian island just 90 minutes away by ferry, offering both high-end resorts and the "real Indonesia" experience.
  • Johor Bahru — Malaysian city just across the Causeway, popular for cheap eats and shopping.
  • Kuala Lumpur — Malaysia's vibrant capital. 35 minutes by plane, 4-5 hours by bus or overnight by train.
  • Malacca — Once one of the three Straits Settlements, now a sleepy colonial town. 3-4 hours by bus.
  • Tioman — The nearest of Malaysia's East Coast paradise islands, reachable by bus & ferry or plane.
For those who can afford more time to travel, here are several destinations popular among Singaporeans:
  • Bali — One of Indonesia's biggest tourist draws with its nice beaches and good food. About 2 1/2 hours away by plane.
  • Bangkok — Thailand's capital and considered a food and shopping paradise by many Singaporeans. It is about a 2 hours flight away, or 2 nights by train, assuming you don't stop off in Kuala Lumpur or Butterworth (for Penang).
  • Ipoh — The capital of the Malaysian state of Perak, it is famous among Singaporeans for its food. 7-8 hours away by coach, or 1 hour by turboprop flight.
  • Langkawi — An island in the Malaysian state of Kedah, just south of the Thai border, famed for endless beaches. Just over an hour by plane.
  • Penang — One of the Straits Settlements, with a rich history and fabulous food. About 12 hours away by coach, or 1 hour if you choose to fly.
Image:star-icon.png This is a star article. It is a high-quality article complete with maps, photos, and great information about the country. If you know of something that has changed, please plunge forward and help it grow!
Star article
   

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.SINGAPORE (Malay, Singapura, i.e. "The City of the Lion"), a town and island situated at the S. extremity of the Malay Peninsula in 1° 20' N., 103°.^ Singapore is a small republic at the s tip of the Malay Peninsula .
  • Singapore Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The construction of a railroad through the Malay Peninsula to Bangkok swelled Singapore's trade, and the building of airports made it more than ever a communication center.
  • Singapore Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The capital city, also called Singapore, covers about a third of the area of the main island.
  • India to Singapore Tours, Singapore Tour,Singapore Tour Packages,Singapore Tour Operator,Singapore Tours and Excursions 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.worldtravel4indians.com [Source type: News]

.50' E. Singapore is the Settlements, which consists with it of Penang, Province Wellesley and the Dindings, and Malacca.^ Thereafter Singapore was a dependency of Bengal until 1826, when it was amalgamated with Malacca and Penang to constitute the Presidency of the Straits Settlements.
  • MAS: Heritage Collection 16 September 2009 12:30 UTC www.mas.gov.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Singapore Isles consists of 50 Isles.
  • Sightseeing in Singapore, Singapore Travel Information, Singapore Island Tour 17 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the Straits Settlements, comprising the three predominantly Chinese-populated port cities of Singapore, Melaka (Malacca) and Penang (George Town), was formed as a British colony in 1826, the criminal law of England applied.
  • WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCH: JUDICIAL CANING IN SINGAPORE, MALAYSIA AND BRUNEI 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.corpun.com [Source type: Original source]

.The port is one of the most valuable of the minor possessions of Great Britain, as it lies midway between India and China, and thus forms the most important halting-place on the great trading-route to the Far East.^ But Britain maintained a presence in the Straits of Malacca (Singapore, Penang, Malacca) as `trading posts' of the East India Company, and expanded from there into all of Malaya, and parts of Borneo.
  • Tamils - a Nation without a State- Singapore - சிங்கப்பூர் 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Founding of Modern Singapore The British, who were extending their dominion in India, and whose trade with China in the second half of the 18th century was expanding, saw the need for a port of call in this region to refit, revitalise and protect their merchant fleet, as well as to forestall any advance by the Dutch in the East Indies.
  • http://asnic.utexas.edu/asnic/countries/singapore/Singapore-History.html 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Singapore_City hotel reviews pages and one of the most exciting cities in the South East Asian region.
  • Singapore_City Hotel Reviews - Travelers Singapore_City Hotel Reviews 16 September 2009 12:30 UTC www.excelloz.com [Source type: General]

.It is strongly fortified by forts and guns of modern type upon which large sums have been expended by the imperial government, aided by a heavy annual military contribution payable by the colony and fixed at 20% of its gross revenue.^ In 1867, the Straits Settlements was transferred from the Indian Government to the Imperial Government and became a Crown Colony.
  • MAS: Heritage Collection 16 September 2009 12:30 UTC www.mas.gov.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its geographical position gives it strategic value as a naval base; and as a commercial centre it is without a rival in this part of Asia.^ Development of the former British naval base at Sembawang on the Johore Strait as a commercial shipyard helped to enhance Singapore's status as a major center for shipbuilding and repairs.
  • Singapore Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Singapore 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]