The Full Wiki

Singaporean: Wikis

  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Singaporean

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Demographics of Singapore article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Singapore, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Nuvola Singaporean flag.svg
Life in Singapore
Culture
Dance
Demographics
Driving
Economy
Education
Film
Holidays
Languages
Literature
Music
Politics
Religion
Singlish
Sports
Transport
edit box

Singapore's demographics describe a population of 4.48 million, as estimated by the last census in 2005 and is the second most densely populated independent country in the world. Singapore is a multiracial country with a majority population of Chinese immigrants, with substantial Malay and Indian minorities. Mahayana Buddhism is the first religion in Singapore though not representing a majority, with significant numbers following Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Sikhism or no religion at all. The annual population growth rate for the year 2000 was 2.8%. The country has four official languages, while English is the working language.

Contents

Ethnic groups

Singapore became numerically dominated by immigrant ethnic groups soon after Sir Stamford Raffles established a trading post on the island in 1819. It is estimated that in January 1819, Singapore had about 880 Malays and aboriginal tribes and about 20 to 30 Chinese. In 1821, it was estimated that there were nearly 3,000 Malays and more than 1,000 Chinese.

While the Singapore Department of Statistics reports overall population figures for Singapore (4.48 million in 2006), as a matter of policy, it only provides more detailed demographic breakdown analyses for the approximately 80% of the population who are Singapore citizens and Permanent Residents (collectively termed 'residents'). Of this group of about 3.6 million people, Chinese form 75.2%, Malays form 13.6%, Indians form 8.8%, while Eurasians and other groups form 2.4%.

Official figures show that the number of foreigners on short-term permits (termed 'non-residents') has grown from 30,900 in 1970 to 797,900 in 2005, which translate roughly to a 24-fold increase in 35 years, or from 1% of the population in 1970 to 18.3% in 2005. Despite this huge increase, no further breakdown is given by Singstat.

Some studies have attempted to cast light on the demographic profile of Singapore's non-resident population. According to 'The Encyclopedia of the Indian Diaspora' (published in 2006), "independent surveys approximate the number of South Asians on work permits to be between 30-35 per cent of the total 'Indian' population in Singapore, or approximately 90,000-100,000." Based on this, we can estimate that, as of June 2006, the Indian population formed 12.5% of the non-resident population, and therefore numbered between 415,000 and 430,000, or about 9.5% of the total population of about 4.5 million. It is likely the population of 'others' is similarly greater than suggested by the figures for the 'resident' population. Conversely, it is likely that the Chinese form significantly less than 75% of the total population of 4.5 million.

Following figures show that the ethnic composition of the resident population has been stable over the last 30 years, while non-resident population has boomed.

Ethnic composition (%) of resident population
Ethnic 1970 1980 1990 2000 2009
Chinese 77.0 78.3 77.7 76.8 74.2
Malays 14.8 14.4 14.1 13.9 13.4
Indians 7.0 6.3 7.1 7.9 9.2
Others 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.4 3.2

Note: No breakdown by ethnicity is released for the non-resident population.

Part of non-residents in total population
1970 1980 1990 2000 2009
Non-residents (Residents = Citizens + PRs) 2.9% 5.5% 10.2% 18.7% 25.3%

Source: Singapore Department of Statistics. [1]

Languages

Quadrilingual warning sign written in Singapore's four official languages; English, Chinese, Tamil and Malay.

There are four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin and Tamil.

Malay is the national language of the country, although English is mainly used. English serves as the link between the different ethnic groups and is the language of the educational system and the administration. The colloquial English used in everyday lives is often referred to as Singlish.

The government of Singapore has been promoting the use of Mandarin, the official form of Chinese in Singapore as well as mainland China and Taiwan, with its Speak Mandarin Campaign among the Chinese population. The use of other Chinese dialects, like Hokkien, Teochew, Cantonese, Hainanese and Hakka, has been declining over the last two decades, although they are still being used especially by the older generations of the Chinese population.

About 60% of Singapore's Indian population speaks Tamil as their native language. Other Indian languages widely spoken are Malayalam and Hindi.

Around 5000 Peranakans, the early Chinese population of the region, still use the Hokkien-influenced Malay dialect called Baba Malay.

Language most frequently spoken at home (%)
Language 1990 2000
English 18.8 23.0
Mandarin 23.7 35.0
(non-Mandarin) Chinese Dialects 39.6 23.8
Malay 14.3 14.1
Tamil 2.9 3.2

Religion

Singapore generally allows religious freedom, although some religious sects are restricted or banned, such as Jehovah's Witness, due to its opposition of National Service. The majority of Malays are Muslim. A major portion of Chinese practise syncretic Chinese folk traditions. Buddhism and Christianity is growing among the Chinese, with many converting. Indians are mostly Hindus though many others are Muslims, Sikhs, Buddhists and Christians.

Resident population aged 15 years and over by religion
Religion Population Percentage
Total 2,494,630 100.0%
Buddhism 1,060,662 42.5%
Islam 371,660 14.9%
No religion 370,094 14.8%
Christianity 364,087 14.6%
Taoism/Chinese traditional beliefs 212,344 8.5%
Hinduism 99,904 4.0%
Sikhism 9,733 0.39%
Other religions 6,146 0.25%

Religions of the main ethnic groups:

Singapore religion by ethnic group.png

Source: Census 2000. [2]

Population

Demographics of Singapore, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

4,483,900 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure
Age percentage male female
0-14 years 15.6% 362,329 337,964
15-64 years 76.1% 1,666,709 1,750,736
65 years and over 8.3% 165,823 208,589

(2006 est.)

Population by residential status
Residential Status Number Percentage
Total Population 4,017,733 100.0%
Citizens 2,973,091 74.0%
Permanent Residents 290,118 7.2%
Non-resident Population 754,524 18.8%

(2000 est.)

Population growth rate 1.42% (2006)
Birth rate 9.34 births/1,000 population
Death rate 4.28 deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate 9.12 migrants/1,000 population

(2006 est.)

Sex ratio
Age males/female
at birth 1.08
under 15 years 1.07
15-64 years 0.95
65 years and over 0.80
total population 0.96

(2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate

2.29 deaths/1,000 live births (222 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81 years
male: 79 years
female: 83 years

Fertility rate

Singapore's fertility rate is 1.29 children born per woman (in 2007), which is one of the lowest in the world. Chinese had a ferlility of 1.07 in 2004 (1.65 in 1990), while Malays had a TFR of 2.10 (2.69 in 1990). Both figures declined further in 2006. TFR for Indians was 1.30 in 2004 and 1.89 in 1990. 1 2 While the Singapore government has launched several highly publicized attempts to raise the fertility rate and increase awareness of the negative effects of an aging population, the elderly (65+) still constitute only 8.3% of its population; this proportion is significantly lower than that of many other developed nations, such as the United States (12%) and Japan (21.2%).

Marriages and divorces

Marriages and divorces
2007
Number of marriages (excluding previously married) 23,996
Number of resident marriage (excluding previously married) 23,088
Number of divorces and annulments 7,226
Mean age of first marriage (years)
…Grooms 29.8
…Brides 27.2
General marriage rate
…Males (per 1,000 unmarried resident males) 43.8
…Females (per 1,000 unmarried resident females) 42.6
General divorce rate
…Males (per 1,000 unmarried resident males) 8.1
…Females (per 1,000 unmarried resident females) 8.3
Crude marriage rate (per 1,000 resident population) 6.69
Crude rate of marital dissolution (per 1,000 resident population) 2.02

Source: Singapore Department of Statistics. [3]

The divorce rate has doubled over the last decade, and as of 2003, for every ten marriages registered in Singapore, almost three ended in divorce. The Women's Charter protects the women's financial interests during a divorce, often requiring the husband to contribute to his divorced wife and their children.

Literacy

Aged 15 years & above

Year 2000 1990
Total 92.5% 89.1%
Male 96.6% 95.1%
Female 88.6% 83.0%

Source: Census 2000.

Education

Highest qualification attained Population Percent
Total 2,277,401 100.0%
No qualification 445,444 19.6%
Primary 276,542 12.1%
Lower secondary 248,598 10.9%
Secondary 560,570 24.6%
Upper secondary 226,275 9.9%
Polytechnic 140,970 6.2%
Other Diploma 112,371 4.9%
University 266,631 11.7%

Source: Census 2000. [4] Note: Based on resident non-students aged 15 years and over by highest qualification attained.

Employment

In 2005, the unemployment rate is 2.5%, the lowest in the last four years, with a labour force of 2.3 million people.

[1] [2]

Employment
Year Labour Force Unemployment
rate
Labour force participation rate CPF contributors
in labour force
Union members
among employed
Total Males Females
Thousand Percent
1994 1,693.1 1.9 64.9 79.6 50.9 67.3 14.1
1999 1,976.0 3.6 64.7 77.8 52.7 62.0 15.4
2000 2,192.2 3.5 68.6 81.1 55.5 58.1 15.0
2001 2,119.7 2.7 65.4 77.8 54.3 59.9 16.5
2002 2,128.5 4.2 64.7 77.2 53.4 60.3 19.3
2003 2,150.1 4.4 64.2 75.8 53.9 59.7 20.5
2004 2,183.3 4.3 64.2 75.6 54.2 60.7 21.5
2005 2,317.4 2.5  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?

Unemployment rates were seasonally adjusted. Source: Singapore Department of Statistics. [5]

Note: Based on persons aged 15 years and over.

Household income

Average household monthly income

The average household monthly income is SGD$4,943 in 2000, which is an increase from SGD$3,080 in 1990 at an average annual rate of 4.9%. The average household income experienced a drop of 2.7% in 1999 due to economic slowdown.

Household income from work
Year Average income (SGD$) Median income (SGD$)
1990 3,076 2,296
1995 4,107 3,135
1997 4,745 3,617
1998 4,822 3,692
1999 4,691 3,500
2000 4,943 3,607

Source: Singapore Department of Statistics. [6]

Measured in 1990 dollars, the average household monthly income rose from SGD$3,080 in 1990 to SGD$4,170 in 2000 at an average annual rate of 2.8%. [7]

Households income from work by ethnic group of head
Ethnic group Average household
income (SGD$)
Median household
income (SGD$)
1990 2000 1990 2000
Total 3,076 4,943 2,296 3,607
Chinese 3,213 5,219 2,400 3,848
Malays 2,246 3,148 1,880 2,708
Indians 2,859 4,556 2,174 3,387
Others 3,885 7,250 2,782 4,775

Source: Singapore Department of Statistics. [8]

Household income distribution

Resident households by income from work
Monthly household
income (SGD$)
Number ('000) Percent
1990 2000 1990 2000
Total 661.7 923.3 100.0 100.0
Below 1,000 105.7 116.3 16.0 12.6
1,000-1,999 179.3 128.9 27.1 14.0
2,000-2,999 133.3 136.1 20.1 14.7
3,000-3,999 86.1 121.3 13.0 13.1
4,000-4,999 54.0 95.2 8.2 10.3
5,000-5,999 33.5 75.4 5.1 8.2
6,000-6,999 21.7 57.5 3.3 6.2
7,000-7,999 13.8 42.2 2.1 4.6
8,000-8,999 9.5 32.4 1.4 3.5
9,000-9,999 6.5 23.4 1.0 2.5
10,000 & over 18.3 94.6 2.8 10.3

Source: Singapore Department of Statistics. [9]

Growth in household income by decile

With the recovery from the 1998 economic slowdown, household income growth had resumed for the majority of households in 2000. However, for the lowest two deciles, the average household income in 2000 had declined compared with 1999. This was mainly due to the increase in the proportion of households with no income earner from 75% in 1999 to 87% in 2000 for the lowest 10%. Households with no income earner include those with retired elderly persons as well as unemployed members. [10]

Average household income from work by decile
among all resident households
Decile Average household income (SGD$) Annual Change (%)
1990 1997 1998 1999 2000 1998 1999 2000
Total 3,076 4,745 4,822 4,691 4,943 1.6 -2.7 5.4
Lowest 10% 370 327 258 133 61 -21.1 -48.4 -54.1
Lowest 10%, excluding households
with no income earner
620 716 681 531 459 -4.9 -22.0 -13.6
Next 10% 934 1,352 1,332 1,172 1,145 -1.5 -12.0 -2.3
Next 10% 1,321 2,002 2,005 1,853 1,862 0.1 -7.6 0.5
Next 10% 1,686 2,613 2,647 2,470 2,535 1.3 -6.7 2.6
Next 10% 2,076 3,254 3,305 3,137 3,237 1.6 -5.1 3.2
Next 10% 2,541 4,019 4,097 3,900 4,036 1.9 -4.8 3.5
Next 10% 3,116 4,938 5,034 4,828 5,017 1.9 -4.1 3.9
Next 10% 3,897 6,093 6,271 6,023 6,316 2.9 -4.0 4.9
Next 10% 5,152 7,965 8,221 7,937 8,419 3.2 -3.5 6.1
Top 10% 9,671 14,890 15,053 15,451 16,804 1.1 2.6 8.8

Source: Singapore Department of Statistics. [11]

Household income disparity

The disparity in household income had widened in 2000, reflecting the faster income growth for the higher-income households. The Gini coefficient, a measure of income inequality, rose from 0.446 in 1998 to 0.481 in 2000. Other measures of income inequality also indicated similar trend of increasing disparity in household income. [12]

Measures of household income disparity
Measure 1990 1995 1997 1998 1999 2000
Gini coefficient 0.436 0.443 0.444 0.446 0.467 0.481
Excluding households with no income earner 0.410 0.409 0.412 0.410 0.424 0.432
Ratio of Average Income
—Top 20% to Lowest 20% 11.4 13.8 13.6 14.6 17.9 20.9
—9th decile to 2nd decile 5.5 6.1 5.9 6.2 6.8 7.4

Source: Singapore Department of Statistics. [13]

In the United Nations Development Programme Report 2004, (page 50-53), Singapore's Gini coefficient based on income is 0.425 in 1998, which is ranked 78 among 127 countries in income equality (see list of countries by income equality).

References

  1. ^ "Latest Data (1 Feb 2006) - Singapore Department of Statistics. URL accessed on 2 February 2006.
  2. ^ "Singapore's employment hits all-time high of 2.3 m in 2005". Channel NewsAsia. 2006-02-01. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporebusinessnews/view/191175/1/.html.   By May Wong.

See also

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Adjective

Singaporean (not comparable)

Positive
Singaporean

Comparative
not comparable

Superlative
none (absolute)

  1. Of, from, or pertaining to Singapore, the Singaporean people or the Singaporean language.

Translations

Noun

Singular
Singaporean

Plural
Singaporeans

Singaporean (plural Singaporeans)

  1. A person from Singapore or of Singaporean descent.

Translations








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message