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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Alphaproteobacteria
Order: Rhizobiales
Family: Rhizobiaceae
Genus: Sinorhizobium/Ensifer
Chen et al. 1988/Casida 1982
Type species
Ensifer adhaerens

Ensifer adhaerens[1]
Sinorhizobium americanum[2]
Sinorhizobium arboris[3]
Sinorhizobium chiapanecum[4]
Sinorhizobium fredii[5]
Ensifer garamanticus[6]
Sinorhizobium kostiense[3]
Sinorhizobium kummerowiae[7]
Sinorhizobium medicae[8]
Sinorhizobium meliloti[9]
Ensifer mexicanus[10]
Ensifer numidicus[6]
Sinorhizobium saheli[9]
Sinorhizobium terangae[9]

Sinorhizobium/Ensifer is a genus of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), two of which (Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae) have been sequenced.



Sinorhizobium is a combination of Medieval Latin sino, -a (which means "China"), Greek rhizo, -a (which means "root"), and New Latin bios (which means "life"). Thus the full name means "a bacterium living in a root in China".[11][14]

Ensifer is from the New Latin term ensifer, which means "sword-bearing" or "sword-bearer".[15]

Proper Name

The name Ensifer was published in 1982 and the name Sinorhizobium was published in 1988. By the rules of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision) of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP), the older name (Ensifer) has priority.[16] In response to a request that the single extant species of Ensifer (Ensifer adhaerens) be moved to Sinorhizobium, a special ICSP subcommittee was formed to evaluate the request. It was ultimately ruled that Ensifer retained priority and that all Sinorhizobium species be transferred to the genus Ensifer.[17][18] However, both terms continue to be used in published scientific literature, with Sinorhizobium being the more common.

Deprecated Species

Two species have been described which have since been reclassified into existing species: Sinorhizobium morelense (now Ensifer adhaerens)[19][16] and Sinorhizobium xinjiangense (now Sinorhizobium fredii[20][21]—though there is some dissent[22]).


  1. ^ L. E. Casida, Jr. (1982). "Ensifer adhaerens gen. nov., sp. nov.: A Bacterial Predator of Bacteria in Soil". Int J Syst Bacteriol 32: 339–345. doi:10.1099/00207713-32-3-339.  
  2. ^ Toledo, I., Lloret, L., and Martínez-Romero, E. (2003). "Sinorhizobium americanus sp. nov., a new Sinorhizobium species nodulating native Acacia spp. in Mexico". Syst Appl Microbiol 26 (1): 54–64. doi:10.1078/072320203322337317. PMID 12747410.  
  3. ^ a b Nick, G., de Lajudie, P., Eardly, B. D., Suomalainen, S., Paulin, L., Zhang, X., Gillis, M., and Lindström, K (1999). "Sinorhizobium arboris sp. nov. and Sinorhizobium kostiense sp. nov., isolated from leguminous trees in Sudan and Kenya". Int J Syst Bacteriol 49 (Pt. 4): 1359–1368. doi:10.1099/00207713-49-4-1359. PMID 10555313.  
  4. ^ Reiner Rincón-Rosales, Lourdes Lloret, Edith Ponce, and Esperanza Martínez-Romero (2009). "Rhizobia with different symbiotic efficiencies nodulate Acaciella angustissima in Mexico, including Sinorhizobium chiapanecum sp. nov. which has common symbiotic genes with Sinorhizobium mexicanum". Syst Appl Microbiol 67 (1): 103–117. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2008.00590.x. PMID 19120461.  
  5. ^ Chen, W. X., Yan, G. H., and Li, J. L. (1988). "Numerical taxonomic study of fast-growing soybean rhizobia and a proposal that Rhizobium fredii be assigned to Sinorhizobium gen. nov.". Int J Syst Bacteriol 38: 392–397. doi:10.1099/00207713-38-4-392.  
  6. ^ a b C. Merabet, M. Martens, M. Mahdhi, F. Zakhia, A. Sy, C. Le Roux, O. Domergue, R. Coopman, A. Bekki, M. Mars, A. Willems and P. de Lajudie (2009). "Multi Locus Sequence Analysis of root nodule isolates from Lotus arabicus (Senegal), Lotus creticus, Argyrolobium uniflorum and Medicago sativa (Tunisia) and description of Ensifer numidicus sp. nov. and Ensifer garamanticus sp. nov.". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol (Epub ahead of print): 1–33. PMID 19656922.  
  7. ^ Wei, G. H., Wang, E. T., Tan, Z. Y., Zhu, M. E, and Chen, W. X. (2002). "Rhizobium indigoferae sp. nov. and Sinorhizobium kummerowiae sp. nov., respectively isolated from Indigofera spp. and Kummerowia stipulacea". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52 (Pt. 6): 2231–2239. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02030-0. PMID 12508892.  
  8. ^ Rome, S., Fernandez, M. P., Brunel, B., Normand, P., Cleyet-Marel, J. C. (1996). "Sinorhizobium medicae sp. nov., isolated from annual Medicago spp.". Int J Syst Bacteriol 46 (4): 972–980. doi:10.1099/00207713-46-4-972. PMID 8863426.  
  9. ^ a b c Philippe de Lajudie, Anne Willems, Bruno Pot, Dirk Dewettinck, Gloria Maestrojuan, Marc Neyra, Matthew David Collins, Bernard Dreyfus, Karel Kersters, and Monique Gillis (1994). "Polyphasic Taxonomy of Rhizobia: Emendation of the Genus Sinorhizobium and Description of Sinorhizobium meliloti comb. nov., Sinorhizobium saheli sp. nov., and Sinorhizobium teranga sp. nov.". Int J Syst Bacteriol 44: 715–733. doi:10.1099/00207713-44-4-715.  
  10. ^ Lloret, L., Ormeño-Orrillo, E., Rincón, R., Martínez-Romero, J., Rogel-Hernández, M. A., and Martínez-Romero, E. (2007). "Ensifer mexicanus sp. nov. a new species nodulating Acacia angustissima (Mill.) Kuntze in Mexico". FEMS Microbiology Ecology 30 (4): 280–290. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2006.12.002. PMID 17293074.  
  11. ^ a b List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature—Genus Sinorhizobium
  12. ^ List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature—Genus Ensifer
  13. ^ Garrity, George M.; Brenner, Don J.; Krieg, Noel R.; Staley, James T. (eds.) (2005). Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume Two: The Proteobacteria, Part C: The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsionproteobacteria. New York, New York: Springer. pp. 354–361. ISBN 978-0-387-24145-6.  
  14. ^ Chen, W. X., Yan, G. H., and Li, J. L. (1988). "Numerical taxonomic study of fast-growing soybean rhizobia and a proposal that Rhizobium fredii be assigned to Sinorhizobium gen. nov.". Int J Syst Bacteriol 38: 392–397. doi:10.1099/00207713-38-4-392.  
  15. ^ Casida, Jr., L. E. (1982). "Ensifer adhaerens gen. nov., sp. nov.: a bacterial predator of bacteria in soil". Int J Syst Bacteriol 32: 339–345. doi:10.1099/00207713-32-3-339.  
  16. ^ a b Young, J. M. (2003). "The genus name Ensifer Casida 1982 takes priority over Sinorhizobium Chen et al. 1988, and Sinorhizobium morelense Wang et al. 2002 is a later synonym of Ensifer adhaerens Casida 1982. Is the combination ‘Sinorhizobium adhaerens’ (Casida 1982) Willems et al. 2003 legitimate? Request for an Opinion". Int J Syst Bacteriol 53: 2107–2110. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02665-0.  
  17. ^ Lindström, K., and Martinez-Romero, M. E. (2002). "International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Agrobacterium and Rhizobium. Minutes of the meeting, 4 July 2001, Hamilton, Canada.". Int J Syst Bacteriol 52: 2337.  
  18. ^ Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (2008). "The genus name Sinorhizobium Chen et al. 1988 is a later synonym of Ensifer Casida 1982 and is not conserved over the latter genus name, and the species name ‘Sinorhizobium adhaerens’ is not validly published. Opinion 84.". Int J Syst Bacteriol 58: 1973. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.2008/005991-0.  
  19. ^ Wang, E. T., Tan, Z. Y., Willems, A., Fernández-López, M., Reinhold-Hurek, B., and Martínez-Romero, E. (2002). "Sinorhizobium morelense sp. nov., a Leucaena leucocephala-associated bacterium that is highly resistant to multiple antibiotics". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52 (Pt. 5): 1687–1693. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.01954-0. PMID 12361275.  
  20. ^ Peng, G. X., Tan, Z. Y., Wang, E. T., Reinhold-Hurek, B., Chen, W. F., and Chen, W. X. (2002). "Identification of isolates from soybean nodules in Xinjiang Region as Sinorhizobium xinjiangense and genetic differentiation of S. xinjiangense from Sinorhizobium fredii". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52 (Pt. 2): 457–462. doi:DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.01921-0. PMID 11931157.  
  21. ^ Martens, M., Dawyndt, P., Coopman, R., Gillis, M., de Vos, P., and Willems, A. (2008). "Advantages of multilocus sequence analysis for taxonomic studies: a case study using 10 housekeeping genes in the genus Ensifer (including former Sinorhizobium)". Int J Syst Bacteriol 58: 200–214. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.65392-0.  
  22. ^ Miet Martens, Manuel Delaere, Renata Coopman, Paul De Vos, Monique Gillis, and Anne Willems (2007). "Multilocus sequence analysis of Ensifer and related taxa". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57: 489–503. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.64344-0. PMID 17329774.  


Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies


Main Page
Superregnum: Bacteria
Regnum: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Classis: Alpha Proteobacteria
Ordo: Rhizobiales
Familia: Rhizobiaceae
Genus: Sinorhizobium
Species: Sinorhizobium meliloti - Sinorhizobium medicae


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