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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sinicization, Sinicisation or Sinification, (in Mandarin: 中国化 Zhōngguóhuà or 汉化 Hànhuà) is the linguistic assimilation or cultural assimilation of terms and concepts of the language and culture of China. In linguistics, the term is used narrowly to refer to transliteration, and in this regard "Sinicization" is parallel to Romanization.

In more general contexts, Sinicization refers to the process of "becoming Chinese" or "becoming Han"; the opposite process is becoming "not Chinese" (desinicization). The term has been used in social science primarily to describe the assimilation of non-Han Chinese peoples (such as the Manchus) into the Chinese identity.

More broadly, "Sinicization" also refers to the phenomenon whereby neighbouring cultures to China have been influenced by Chinese culture and language without being assimilated. This is reflected in the histories of Korea, Vietnam and Japan.

Contents

Integration

The integration policy is aimed at strengthening of the Chinese identity among population, to develop shared values, pride in being the country’s citizen, respect and acceptance towards cultural differences among citizens of China.

Taiwan

After the Republic of China relocated its capital to Taipei in 1949, the intention of Chiang Kai-shek was to eventually go back to Mainland China and retake control of it. Chiang believed that to retake the mainland, it would be necessary to "resinicize" Taiwan's inhabitants. Examples of this policy included the renaming of streets, use of mandarin Chinese in schools and punishments for using other languages, and teaching students to revere Confucian ethics, develop Han Chinese nationalism, and believe Taiwan is part of China.[1][2] Other reasons for the policy were to combat the Japanese influences on the culture that had occurred in the previous 50 years, and to help unite the recent immigrants from mainland China that had come to Taiwan with the KMT and among whom there was a tendency to be more loyal to one's city, county or province than to China as a nation.[3]

Tibet

The sinicization of Tibet is the alleged change of Tibetan society to Chinese standards, by means of cultural assimilation, migration, and political (communist) reform. Sinicization on the one hand is the consequence of the presence of a large number of Han Chinese in Tibet and on the other hand an active policy of the central government of the People's Republic of China. The active policy intends to make Tibet an integral part of the Chinese republic and to control Tibetan ambitions of independence.[4][5].

See also

References

  1. ^ Dreyer, June Teufel (July 17, 2003). Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars "Taiwan’s Evolving Identity". Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=events.event_summary&event_id=31149 Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved May 20, 2009. "In order to shore up his government’s legitimacy, Chiang set about turning Taiwan’s inhabitants into Chinese. To use Renan’s terminology, Chiang chose to re-define the concept of shared destiny to include the mainland. Streets were re-named; major thoroughfares in Taipei received names associated with the traditional Confucian virtues. The avenue passing in front of the foreign ministry en route to the presidential palace was named chieh-shou (long life), in Chiang’s honor. Students were required to learn Mandarin and speak it exclusively; those who disobeyed and spoke Taiwanese, Hakka, or aboriginal tongues could be fined, slapped, or subjected to other disciplinary actions."  
  2. ^ "Starting Anew on Taiwan". Hoover Institution. 2008. http://www.hoover.org/publications/digest/17827189.html. Retrieved 2009-06-05. "The new KMT concluded that it must “Sinicize” Taiwan if it were ever to unify mainland China. Textbooks were designed to teach young people the dialect of North China as a national language. Pupils also were taught to revere Confucian ethics, to develop Han Chinese nationalism, and to accept Taiwan as a part of China."  
  3. ^ "Third-Wave Reform". http://taiwanreview.nat.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=102&CtNode=119. "....The government initiated educational reform in the 1950s to achieve a number of high-priority goals. First, it was done to help root out fifty years of Japanese colonial influence on the island's populace--"resinicizing" them, one might say- -and thereby guarantee their loyalty to the Chinese motherland. Second, the million mainlanders or so who had fled to Taiwan themselves had the age-old tendency of being more loyal to city, county, or province than to China as a nation. They identified themselves as Hunanese, Cantonese, or Sichuanese first, and as Chinese second."  
  4. ^ Burbu, Dawa (2001) China's Tibet Policy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700704743, pp 100-124
  5. ^ Samdup, Tseten (1993) Chinese population - Threat to Tibetan identity

External links

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