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Sinusitis
Classification and external resources
.
Left-sided maxillar sinusitis marked by an arrow.^ Either 1 or more sinuses on either the right, left or both sides can be involved.
  • SINUSITIS - inflammation, thickening, and swelling of the normal tissue called mucosa, which lines all the sinuses.New York City, NYU Langone Medical Center 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.josephbjacobs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • SINUSITIS - inflammation, thickening, and swelling of the normal tissue called mucosa, which lines all the sinuses.New York City, NYU Langone Medical Center 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.josephbjacobs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spigella This remedy is best for those who develop sinusitis with a sharp pain that is worse on the left side.
  • Sinusitis, Sinus Infection, Sinus Headache, Allergies, Colds, Flu, Infection at Peaceful Mind-Alternative medicine and therapies for healing mind, body, spirit 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.peacefulmind.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The frontal sinuses are located above the eyebrows in the forehead region, the ethmoid sinuses are located on the left and right of the nose, near the bridge of the nose, and the maxillary sinuses are located under the eyes on the cheeks on either side of the nose.
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC bodyanew.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Note the absence of the air transparency indicating the presence of fluid in contrast to the other side.
ICD-10 J01., J32.
ICD-9 461, 473
DiseasesDB 12136
eMedicine emerg/536
MeSH D012852
.Sinusitis is a condition consisting of inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues.^ The diagnosis and incidence of allergic fungal sinusitis.
  • Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Associated with Trichoderma longibrachiatum 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • NHS Evidence - ENT and audiology - 2008 Annual Evidence Update on Rhinitis: Chronic Rhinosinusitis – The Role of Fungi and of Anti-fungal Therapy 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.library.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Sinusitis is an inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses.

^ Sinus infection can be viral or bacterial.
  • Sinus Infection and Sinusitis Relief 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC sinushealer.com [Source type: General]

.Newer classifications of sinusitis refer to it as rhinosinusitis, taking into account the thought that inflammation of the sinuses cannot occur without some inflammation of the nose as well (rhinitis)[citation needed].^ Sinusitis refers to any kind of inflammation or irritation of the sinuses.
  • Sinus Disease & Problems explained 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ent-consult.com [Source type: General]

^ The newer classifications of sinusitis refer to it as rhinosinusitis.  This takes into account the thought that inflammation of the sinuses can't occur without some inflammation of the nose tool.  This is also called rhinitis.
  • Sinus Infections - Sinus Relief - Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.sinus-solutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newer classifications of sinusitis refer to it as rhinosinusitis, taking into account the thought that inflammation of the sinuses cannot occur without some inflammation of the nose as well (rhinitis).
  • SINUSITIS - Allergy Guide 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.otolaryngology.com [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Classification

By location

.There are several paired paranasal sinuses, including the frontal, ethmoid, maxillary and sphenoid sinuses.^ Frontal sinuses (behind the forehead) Maxillary sinuses (behind the cheekbones) Ethmoid sinuses (between the eyes) Sphenoid sinuses (behind the eyes) Sinusitis .
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis Information at myOptumHealth 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.myoptumhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are four pairs of paranasal sinuses (the sinuses surrounding the nose): .
  • Sinusitis - how long, catch, body, last, contagious, causes, What Causes Sinusitis?, Are There Different Types of Sinusitis? 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.humanillnesses.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sinusitis is inflammation of the mucous membrane and paranasal sinuses; there can be: maxillary sinusitis, frontal sinusitis, ethmoiditis, and sphenoiditis.
  • Sinusitis treatment 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.healthynose.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ethmoid sinuses can also be further broken down into anterior and posterior, the division of which is defined as the basal lamella of the middle turbinate.^ The anterior and posterior ethmoid sinuses are present at birth.
  • sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.drhull.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ethmoid sinuses can also be further broken down into anterior and posterior, the division of which is defined as the basal lamella of the middle turbinate.
  • SINUSITIS - Allergy Guide 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.otolaryngology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The anterior ethmoids arise near the middle meatus and the posterior ethmoids arise near the superior meatus.
  • Acute Sinusitis (Mar.1997) 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.utmb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In addition to the acuity of disease, discussed below, sinusitis can be classified by the sinus cavity which it affects:
.Recent theories of sinusitis indicate that it often occurs as part of a spectrum of diseases that affect the respiratory tract (i.e., the "one airway" theory) and is often linked to asthma.^ Recent theories of the sinusitis indicate that it often occurs as part of a spectrum of diseases that affect the respiratory tract (ie.
  • SINUSITIS - Allergy Guide 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Asthma also has been linked to chronic sinus disease.
  • Sinusitis - ACAAI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.acaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asthma also has been linked to chronic sinusitis.
  • Sonoran Allergy and Asthma Center 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.sonoranallergy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis Information 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.crat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1][2] .All forms of sinusitis may either result in, or be a part of, a generalized inflammation of the airway so other airway symptoms such as cough may be associated with it.^ Other symptoms of sinusitis include: .
  • iVillage Total Health > Health Guide Detail 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com [Source type: General]
  • Sinus Infections (Sinusitis) - a knol by Ralph 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: General]

^ In acute sinusitis the symptoms may include: .
  • BBC - Health - Conditions - Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally, someone with a cold also has inflammation of the sinuses.
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]
  • Sinusitis | Seattle Children's Hospital 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.seattlechildrens.org [Source type: General]
  • Sinusitis - The Children's Hospital-Denver Area, Colorado, Rocky Mountain Region 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.thechildrenshospital.org [Source type: General]
  • KidsHealth - Sinusitis - University of Minnesota Children''s Hospital, Fairview 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.uofmchildrenshospital.org [Source type: General]

By duration

.Sinusitis can be acute (going on less than four weeks), subacute (4–8 weeks) or chronic (going on for 8 weeks or more).^ Sinusitis lasting more than eight weeks is considered chronic.
  • Sonoran Allergy and Asthma Center 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.sonoranallergy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis Information 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.crat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acute sinusitis Most cases of sinusitis are acute infectious sinusitis, which generally lasts less than four weeks.
  • Sinusitis : by Ray Sahelian, M.D. treatment sinusitis symptom 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic Sinusitis : This lasts for 12 weeks or more.
  • Sinusitis and its homeopathic treatment without surgery homeopathy doctor. 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.homeopathictreatment4u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .All three types of sinusitis have similar symptoms, and are thus often difficult to distinguish.^ Symptoms Acute sinusitis symptoms often include: .
  • Acute sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Acute sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC images.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Acute sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC edition1.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ There are three types of sinusitis: .
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.childrenshospital.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.allkids.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.healthsystem.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - New York Presbyterian Hospital 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC childrensnyp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Weill Cornell Department of Surgery 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cornellsurgery.org [Source type: General]
  • Sinusitis | CHOP | The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.chop.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Otolaryngology > Sinusitis (The Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas) 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.methodisthealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms of this condition, like all types of fungal sinusitis, ...
  • Symptoms of a Fungal Sinus Infection | Reference.com 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC ask.reference.com [Source type: General]

.Acute sinusitis is very common.^ The prognosis for acute sinusitis is very good.
  • Acute Sinusitis - Acute Sinusitis Description - Acute Sinusitis Symptoms - Acute Sinusitis Prevention - Acute Sinusitis Treatment 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • InteliHealth: 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC www.intelihealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sinusitis is very common in United ...
  • sinusitis Articles, Posts, Blogs, Videos - Technorati 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC technorati.com [Source type: General]

^ Acute sinusitis is extremely common.
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC drdavidson.ucsd.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Acute Sinusitis - Acute Sinusitis Description - Acute Sinusitis Symptoms - Acute Sinusitis Prevention - Acute Sinusitis Treatment 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • InteliHealth: 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC www.intelihealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Roughly ninety percent of adults have had sinusitis at some point in their life.^ Most people consider respiratory problems like the common cold and sinusitis as normal because people usually encounter any of these diseases at some point in their lives.
  • sinusitis treatment - Icerocket Tag 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC blogs.icerocket.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact, some studies state that up to 80% of adults with chronic sinusitis also had allergic rhinitis.
  • Treating Sinusitis | Bad Taste Sinus Disease - Useful Advice on Bad Taste Sinus Disease 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC treatingsinusitis.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wang PC, Tai CJ, Lin MS, Chu CC, Liang SC. Quality of life in Taiwanese adults with chronic rhino-sinusitis.
  • Rhinosinusitis 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.atsqol.org [Source type: Academic]

[4]

Acute sinusitis

.Acute sinusitis is usually precipitated by an earlier upper respiratory tract infection, generally of viral origin.^ Acute sinusitis; Sinus infection; Sinusitis - acute Causes .
  • Sinusitis Medical Information 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acute sinusitis usually follows a viral infection in the upper respiratory tract, but allergens (allergy-causing substances), or pollutants may also trigger acute sinusitis.
  • Sinus Infection – Causes of Sinus Infection 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most frequent cause of an acute sinusitis is the "common cold" (upper respiratory tract infection) which is due to a viral infection.

.If the infection is of bacterial origin, the most common three causative agents are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis[5] respectively.^ The most common species recovered were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Branhamella catarrhalis.
  • NEJM -- Acute maxillary sinusitis in children 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common cause of sinusitis is a cold or influenza (flu).
  • Patient information leaflet - Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: General]
  • NHS Direct Wales - Encyclopaedia : Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.nhsdirect.wales.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is typically caused by bacterial infections.
  • Sinus Disease & Problems explained 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ent-consult.com [Source type: General]

.Haemophilus influenzae in the past was the most common bacterial agent to cause sinus infections.^ Acute sinusitis; Sinus infection; Sinusitis - acute Causes .
  • Sinusitis Medical Information 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sinus infection can be viral or bacterial.
  • Sinus Infection and Sinusitis Relief 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC sinushealer.com [Source type: General]

^ The most common cause of sinusitis is a cold or influenza (flu).
  • Patient information leaflet - Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: General]

.However since the introduction of Hib vaccine there has been a dramatic decrease in H.Influenza type B infections and usually the non-typable strains of H.influenza are seen now in the clinical setting.^ There are two types of sinus infections.

^ There are two types of sinus infection i.e.
  • Treatment Of Sinusitis | Symptoms And Causes Of Sinusitis - Part Two 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC treatmentofsinusitis.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some immunizations , particularly pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), may help prevent ear and sinus infections.
  • Sinusitis - Symptoms - Yahoo! Health 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Health: Sinusitis; Sinusitis is infection or inflammation of the lining of the sinus ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other bacterial pathogens include other Staphylococcus aureus and other streptococci species, anaerobic bacteria and, less commonly, gram negative bacteria.^ Other bacterial pathogens include other streptococci species, anaerobic bacteria and, less commonly, gram negative bacteria.
  • SINUSITIS - Allergy Guide 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.otolaryngology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other pathogens less frequently documented include other streptococcal species (8 percent of adult cases), Staphylococcus aureus (6 percent of adult cases), Neisseria species, anaerobes and gram-negative rods.
  • Acute Sinusitis: A Cost-Effective Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment - November 15, 1998 - American Academy of Family Physicians 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other possible bacterial culprits include: .
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Sinusitis - Causes 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC health.bwmc.umms.org [Source type: Academic]

.Viral sinusitis typically lasts for 7 to 10 days,[5] whereas bacterial sinusitis is more persistent.^ Also, acute sinusitis typically lasts longer than the 7 to 10 days of a common cold.

^ Cold symptoms lasting more than 10 days.

^ If bothersome symptoms of sinusitis persist for 10 or more days, it is possible that you have bacterial sinusitis.
  • Acute sinusitis (sinus infection) 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.uptodateonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Approximately 0.5% to 2% of viral sinusitis extends into bacterial sinusitis.^ Sinusitis can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

^ Sinusitis, when defined in simple terms is an inflammation of the sinus cavities (the hollow spaces in the bone of the cheek and forehead) due to viral or bacterial infections.
  • What is Sinusitis? 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.sinus-pro.com [Source type: General]

^ Rhinitis or sinusitis may result when an apical tooth root abscess extends into the maxillary recess.
  • Rhinitis and Sinusitis - The Merck Veterinary Manual 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.merckvetmanual.com [Source type: Academic]

.One hypothesis postulates that the bacterial infection begins with nose blowing.^ Acute sinusitis is frequently caused by colds or bacterial and viral infections of the nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract.
  • Sinusitis Natural Treatment - Sinusitis Home Remedy 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.vitawise.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major Causes Common Cold -- Viral infections of the nose and upper respiratory tract usually begin with a thin, clear discharge from the nose.

^ Although sinusitis may begin during or after a viral infection, the condition itself is usually due to a bacterial infection or allergic conditions.
  • Conditions InDepth: Sinusitis ; Seattle Washington WA 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.swedish.org [Source type: General]

[6]
.Acute episodes of sinusitis can also result from fungal invasion.^ Acute or invasive fungal sinusitis.
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Causes 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC health.bwmc.umms.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acute episodes of sinusitis can also result from fungal invasion.
  • SINUSITIS - Allergy Guide 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.otolaryngology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acute sinusitis - This is often the result of an infection.

.These infections are most often seen in patients with diabetes or other immune deficiencies (such as AIDS or transplant patients on anti-rejection medications) and can be life threatening.^ Sinusitis is most often due to an infection within these spaces.
  • Sinusitis - swollen, symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is most common in patients with diabetes mellitus.
  • Invasive Fungal Sinusitis - Diagnosis and Treatment – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.upmc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These patients have normal immune systems.
  • Sinusitis Information 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.crat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In type I diabetes, ketoacidosis causes sinusitis by Mucormycosis.^ Types and causes of sinusitis .
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.nyallergy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medication depends on the type of sinusitis and its cause.
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis Information at myOptumHealth 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.myoptumhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Highlights 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC health.shorehealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In type I diabetes, ketoacidosis causes sinusitis by Mucormycosis.
  • Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.otolaryngology.com [Source type: Academic]

[7]
.Chemical irritation can also trigger sinusitis.^ The symptoms of sinusitis may also be triggered by exposure to strong-smelling chemicals, cigarette smoke, pollution, dust, mold or even strong perfume in susceptible individuals.

^ Control Indoor Allergens - Allergies can irritate or trigger sinusitis symptoms.
  • Chronic Sinusitis - A Widespread Problem 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.natlallergy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Commonly from cigarettes and chlorine fumes..October 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Rarely, it may be caused by a tooth infection.^ An allergist may be needed when allergies are suspected to be causing or contributing to sinus problems.
  • Health: Sinusitis; Sinusitis is infection or inflammation of the lining of the sinus ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bacteria may be living in the sinuses without causing an infection (called colonization) In some patients, infectious organisms play no role at all: .

^ The bacteria that may have been living harmlessly in the nose, throat, or sinus area can multiply and cause an acute sinus infection.
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.dustless.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Preventing Sinusitis - Flanders Heating & Air Conditioning 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.flandershvac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nurse Continuing Education CEU Contact Hours Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC yenoh93.medceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Mason Mechanical - Preventing Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.masonmechanical.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Mike Graham Heating & Air Conditioning - Preventing Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.mgpcomfort.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]

Chronic sinusitis

.Chronic sinusitis is a complicated spectrum of diseases that share chronic inflammation of the sinuses in common.^ Chronic sinusitis is a complicated spectrum of diseases that share chronic inflammation of the sinuses in common.

^ Chronic sinusitis complications include: .
  • Chronic sinusitis - Valley Health System 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Complications Chronic sinusitis complications include: .
  • Chronic sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Chronic sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Chronic sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC edition1.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.It is divided into cases with polyps and cases without, and the former is sometimes called chronic hyperplastic sinusitis.^ Chronic sinusitis is sometimes associated with asthma.
  • [ENT UK - The British Association of Otorhinolaryngologists - Head and Neck Surgeons] 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.entuk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Health experts usually divide sinusitis cases into: .
  • Project Inform: Health information � Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.projectinform.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The causes for such chronic sinusitis cases are sometimes unclear.
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Sinusitis - Causes 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC health.bwmc.umms.org [Source type: Academic]

.The causes are poorly understood[5] and may include allergy, environmental factors such as dust or pollution, bacterial infection, or fungus (either allergic, infective, or reactive).^ It may also be caused by allergy to agents in the environment, such as fungi or pollen.
  • sinusitis (pathology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A fever may also signal a bacterial infection.
  • Is It a Cold or Sinus Infection? How to Tell the Difference - Cold, Flu, and Sinus - Health.com 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC www.health.com [Source type: News]

^ It is often caused by bacterial (germ) infection.
  • Sinusitis - ACAAI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.acaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Non allergic factors such as vasomotor rhinitis can also cause chronic sinus problems.^ Chronic sinus infection; Chronic sinusitis Causes .
  • Sinusitis - chronic Medical Information 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solve the cause of your sinus problem .
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.sinuswars.com [Source type: General]
  • Preventions of sinus and sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.sinuswars.com [Source type: General]

^ Solve the causes of sinus problems ...
  • Home Remedies for Sinus Problems | Reference.com 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC ask.reference.com [Source type: General]

.Abnormally narrow sinus passages (such as a deviated septum), which can impede drainage from the sinus cavities could also be a factor.^ Abnormality of sinus cavity .

^ Abnormally narrow sinus passages, which can impede drainage from the sinus cavities, can also be a factor.
  • Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.otolaryngology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Abnormally narrow sinus passages, which can impede drainage from the sinus cavities could also be a factor.

.A combination of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria are observed, including Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci.^ A combination of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria are observed, including Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci .

^ Other bacterial pathogens include other streptococci species, anaerobic bacteria and, less commonly, gram negative bacteria.
  • Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.otolaryngology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These bacteria are most often cultured from acute sinusitis: Streptococcus pneumoniae Hemophilus pneumoniae Moraxella catarrhalis In chronic sinusitis, other bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, are more often cultured.
  • http://www.american-rhinologic.org/patientinfo.sinusitisqa.phtml 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.american-rhinologic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Typically antibiotics provide only a temporary benefit, although mechanisms involving hyperresponsiveness to bacteria have been proposed for sinusitis with polyps.^ Typically antibiotics provide only a temporary benefit, although mechanisms involving hyperresponsiveness to bacteria have been proposed for sinusitis with polyps.

^ Typically sinusitis is treated with antibiotics.
  • Sinusitis (Health & Wellbeing: Nose Problems) 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.videojug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trapped mucus can then fill the sinuses, causing an uncomfortable sensation of pressure and providing an excellent environment for the growth of infection-causing bacteria.
  • Sinusitis - swollen, symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Symptoms may include any combination of the following: nasal congestion; facial pain; headache; night-time coughing; an increase in previously minor or controlled asthma symptoms; general malaise; thick green or yellow discharge; feeling of facial 'fullness' or 'tightness' which may worsen on bending over; aching teeth, and/or halitosis.^ Symptoms of sinusitis include thick nasal discharge, facial pain or pressure, fever, and reduced sense of smell.
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Highlights 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC health.shorehealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Headache and pain over the affected sinuses may occur, as well as a feeling of pressure that may worsen when the patient bends over.
  • Sinusitis - swollen, symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms may include headache and tenderness.
  • Sinusitis - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each of these symptoms has multiple other causes.^ Sinusitis may be difficult to diagnose because it often causes the same symptoms as a cold or other viral illness, especially in its early stages.
  • Health: Sinusitis; Sinusitis is infection or inflammation of the lining of the sinus ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Treatment Overview - Yahoo! Health 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Any patient with high fever or severe or unusual symptoms should be evaluated urgently for other causes of illness.
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC aidsetc.org [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www.hiv.va.gov/vahiv?page=cm-530_sinusitis&css=2 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.hiv.va.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Such physical symptoms can be used to differentiate sinusitis from other conditions as these symptoms are not a characteristic feature of colds or allergic reactions.
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.herbs2000.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unless complications occur, fever is not a feature of chronic sinusitis.^ There is rarely a fever with chronic sinusitis.
  • Sinusitis - swollen, symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chronic sinusitis complications include: .
  • Chronic sinusitis - Valley Health System 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Pain is not a feature of chronic sinusitis.
  • sinusitis (pathology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.Often chronic sinusitis can lead to Anosmia, a reduction in the ability to smell or detect odors.^ Chronic sinusitis is most often caused by: .
  • What Causes Sinusitis? 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ehealthmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chronic rhinitis will often lead to repeated acute attacks of sinusitis.
  • Rhinosinusitis: Causes and Medical Treatment JW Fairley Consultant ENT Surgeon Kent UK 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.entkent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very rarely, chronic sinusitis can lead to Anosmia, the inability to smell or detect odors.
  • Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.otolaryngology.com [Source type: Academic]

.February 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In a small number of cases, acute or chronic maxillary sinusitis is associated with a dental infection.^ Chronic sinusitis is sometimes associated with asthma.
  • [ENT UK - The British Association of Otorhinolaryngologists - Head and Neck Surgeons] 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.entuk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acute sinusitis; Sinus infection; Sinusitis - acute Causes .
  • Sinusitis Medical Information 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Dental infection is a frequently-overlooked cause of chronic sinusitis).

.Vertigo, lightheadedness, and blurred vision are not typical in chronic sinusitis and other causes should be sought.^ The cause of chronic sinusitis is not well understood.
  • Abington Pediatric Associates-Medical Conditions: Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.abingtonpeds.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic sinusitis is most often caused by: .
  • What Causes Sinusitis? 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ehealthmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chronic sinusitis should be treated for 3 - 4 weeks.
  • Sinusitis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Sinusitis - NY Times Health Information 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Scripps Health - San Diego 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mobile.scripps.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis | LIVESTRONG.COM 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]
  • Sinusitis - Health Diseases & Medical Conditions - South Florida Hospital 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.mhs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Hillcrest Health System 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC hillcrest2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Health Information 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.qualityhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • DC Health - Sinusitis. Sinusitis refers to inflammation of the sinuses that... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.whcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC ssmhealth.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • FloridaHealthFinder.gov | Health Encyclopedia | Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.floridahealthfinder.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Wilmington/Newark - Sinusitis refers to inflammation of the sinuses that occurs... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.christianacare.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Attempts have been made to provide a more consistent nomenclature 6 for subtypes of chronic sinusitis.^ Chronic sinusitis has made me so miserable that...
  • FAQ / Sinusitis:: Roby Institute 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.drroby.com [Source type: General]

^ Chronic sinusitis is more difficult to diagnose.
  • Major Symptoms of Sinus Infection Problems - Associated Content 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Attempts have been made to provide a more consistent nomenclature 6 for subtypes of chronic sinusitis.

.Many patients have demonstrated the presence of eosinophils in the mucous lining of the nose and paranasal sinuses.^ Sinusitis is an inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses.

^ The paranasal sinuses are lined with the same kind of tissue that lines the inside of the nose.
  • Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America - Information About Asthma, Allergies, Food Allergies and More! 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.aafa.org [Source type: General]

^ Sinusitis is inflammation of the linings of the sinuses that surround the nose.
  • Acute sinusitis - information, symptoms and treatments 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: General]

.As such the name Eosinophilic Mucin RhinoSinusitis (EMRS) has come into being.^ The name Eosinophilic Mucin RhinoSinusitis (EMRS) has come into being.
  • Sinus Infections - Sinus Relief - Chronic Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.sinus-solutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As such the name Eosinophilic Mucin RhinoSinusitis (EMRS) has come into being.

^ Chronic inflammation with a predominance of eosinophils and T lymphocytes in the tissues is being recognized as a hallmark of chronic rhinosinusitis, especially in patients with asthma or allergic rhinitis.
  • MEDLINE Abstracts- Sinusitis Treatment 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Cases of EMRS may be related to an allergic response, but allergy is often not documentable, resulting in further subcategorization of allergic and non-allergic EMRS.
.A more recent, and still debated, development in chronic sinusitis is the role that fungus may play.^ Sinusitis may be acute or chronic.
  • Sinusitis Relief | Cure Sinus Infections 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC sinusitisrelief.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sinuses also play a role in voice resonation.
  • Sinusitis - Allergy Care Guide - DrGreene.com 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.drgreene.com [Source type: General]
  • DHMC | Allergy guide | Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.dhmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A more recent, and still debated, development in chronic sinusitis is the role that fungus may play.

.Fungus can be found in the nasal cavities and sinuses of most patients with sinusitis, but can also be found in healthy people as well.^ Fungus can be found in the nasal cavities and sinuses of most patients with sinusitis, but it can also be found in healthy people as well.
  • Sinus Infections - Sinus Relief - Chronic Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.sinus-solutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most people with sinusitis have bad breath.
  • Pediatric Planet - Medical Information About Children Including Health, Illness, Children's Medicine, and Diseases 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pediatricplanet.com [Source type: General]

^ Nasal irrigations: the key to healthier sinuses .
  • Sinus Infections (Sinusitis) - a knol by Ralph 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: General]

.It remains unclear if fungus is a definite factor in the development of chronic sinusitis and if it is, what the difference may be between those who develop the disease and those who do not.^ Symptoms of chronic sinusitis may not be much different than those of acute sinusitis.

^ Sinusitis may be acute or chronic.
  • Sinusitis Relief | Cure Sinus Infections 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC sinusitisrelief.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chronic sinusitis is an entirely different illness.

.Trials of antifungal treatments have had mixed results.^ Results from previous clinical trials have been mixed.
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trials of antifungal treatments have had mixed results.

^ Trials of antifungal treatments however have had mixed results.

[5]

Symptoms

Sinus headache

.Headache/facial pain or pressure of a dull, constant, or aching sort over the affected sinuses can be seen with either acute or chronic stages of sinusitis.^ Facial pressure/pain?
  • Sinusitis: FAMC, Dodge County Nebraska NE 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.famc.org [Source type: General]

^ Headaches or facial pain .
  • Sinusitis - AOL Health 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.aolhealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Sinusitis - AOL Health 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.aolhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Acute sinusitis Chronic sinusitis Sources .
  • Sinusitis in children - information, symptoms and treatments 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: General]

.This pain is typically localized to the involved sinus and may worsen when the affected person bends over or when in the supine position.^ The location of sinus pain depends on which sinus is affected.

^ This pain is typically localized to the involved sinus and may worsen when the affected person bends over or when in the supine position.

^ The location of pain and tenderness may depend on which sinus is affected.
  • Health: Sinusitis; Sinusitis is infection or inflammation of the lining of the sinus ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pain often starts on one side of the head and progresses to both sides.^ When this happen a headache show up or maybe just one side of the head hurt, pressure in the eyes and nose, cheek area, or on your teeth.
  • Sinus Infection and Sinusitis Relief 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC sinushealer.com [Source type: General]

^ FRONTAL SINUSITIS (on one side or both sides of the forehead)* .

^ Usually the pain switches from one side of the head to the other halfway through the episode.

[8]
.Acute and chronic sinusitis may be accompanied by thick purulent nasal discharge (usually green in colour and with or without blood) and localized headache (toothache) are present and it is these symptoms that can differentiate sinus related (or rhinogenic) headache from other headache phenomena such as tension headache and migraine headache.^ Symptoms Acute sinusitis symptoms often include: .
  • Acute sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Acute sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC images.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Acute sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC edition1.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Acute sinusitis; Sinus infection; Sinusitis - acute Causes .
  • Sinusitis Medical Information 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This bacteria may be present but is not usually the infecting agent in acute sinusitis.

.Infection of the eye socket is possible which may result in the loss of sight, accompanied with fever and severe illness.^ Fever, swelling and drooping eyelid, loss of eye movement (possible orbital infection, which is in the eye socket).

^ Fever and severe illness are usually present.
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Spread of infection to the eye can result in blindness.
  • Rhinosinusitis: Causes and Medical Treatment JW Fairley Consultant ENT Surgeon Kent UK 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.entkent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another possible complication is the infection of the bones (osteomyelitis) of the forehead and other facial bones - Pott's puffy tumor.^ Pender ES: Pott's puffy tumor: a complication of frontal sinusitis.
  • Frontal Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Complications of sinusitis (such as an infection of the facial bones called osteomyelitis ) are relatively rare.
  • Health: Sinusitis; Sinusitis is infection or inflammation of the lining of the sinus ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One important complication is infection of the bones (osteomyelitis) of the forehead.

[9]

Migraine misdiagnosis

.Recent studies suggest that up to 90% of "sinus headaches" are actually migraines.^ The following symptoms suggest a migraine rather than a sinus headache: .
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent studies suggest that up to 90% of "sinus headaches" are actually migraines.

^ A study found that patients with "sinus headache" respond to triptan migraine medications, and state dissatisfaction with their treatment when they are treated with decongestants or antibiotics.

[10][11] .The confusion occurs in part because migraine involves activation of the trigeminal nerves which innervate both the sinus region but also the meninges which surround the brain.^ The confusion occurs in part because migraine involves activation of the trigeminal nerves which innervate both the sinus region but also the meninges which surround the brain.

^ In rare circumstances, meningitis or brain abscess and inflamation of the bone or bone marrow can occur.

^ Pain or swelling around the eyes, cheeks, nose or forehead may also occur because of the infections in the sinus cavities.

.As a result, direct determination of the site of pain origination can be confused on a cortical level.^ As a result, direct determination of the site of pain origination can be confused on a cortical level.

.Additionally, nasal congestion is a not uncommon result of migraine headaches, due to the autonomic nervous stimulation that can also result in tearing (lacrimation) and a runny nose (rhinorrhea).^ Nasal congestion refers to a stuffy nose.
  • Sinusitis | LIVESTRONG.COM 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Other symptoms of sinusitis can include Fever Weakness Tiredness A cough that may be more severe at night Runny nose (rhinitis) or nasal congestion In addition, the drainage of mucus from the sphenoids or other sinuses down the back of your throat (postnasal drip) can cause you to have a sore throat.
  • Sinusitis - Southwest Asthma & Allergy Associates 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.swaaa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis are nasal obstruction, nasal congestion (frequently with a more severe nocturnal component), purulent rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, facial or dental pain, headache, hyposmia, and cough.
  • Rhinosinusitis 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.atsqol.org [Source type: Academic]

.A study found that patients with "sinus headache" respond to triptan migraine medications, and state dissatisfaction with their treatment when they are treated with decongestants or antibiotics.^ It responds well to antibiotics and decongestants.

^ Medical treatment consists of analgesics, topical decongestants, and antibiotics.
  • Frontal Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Control and treat naturally the causes of sinus problems, migraines and headaches.

[12]

Sinusitis complications

.Due to the proximity of the brain to the sinuses, the most dangerous complication of sinusitis, particularly frontal and sphenoid sinusitis, is the spread of infection through the bones or by blood vessels by anaerobic bacteria to the brain.^ The most common bacteria that cause sinusitis are: .
  • Sinusitis, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.rwjuh.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.hsc.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Main Line Health - Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.mainlinehealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most dangerous complication of sinusitis, particularly frontal and sphenoid sinusitis, is the spread of infection by anaerobic bacteria to the brain, either through the bones or blood vessels.
  • Sinusitis - Complications 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The location of the frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses .
  • Sinusitis in children - information, symptoms and treatments 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Acute sinusitis - information, symptoms and treatments 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Abscesses, meningitis, and other life-threatening conditions may result.^ Abscesses, meningitis, and other life-threatening conditions may result.
  • Sinusitis - Complications 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Your doctor may decide to treat your child with additional medicines if he/she has allergies or other conditions that make the sinus infection worse.
  • Spokane Valley Ears, Nose and Throat 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.spokanevalleyent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other conditions that have symptoms similar to sinusitis may include allergies, toothaches, and colds or other upper respiratory infections .
  • Exempla Healthcare Online Library 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.exempla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In extreme cases the patient may experience mild personality changes, headache, altered consciousness, visual problems, and, finally, seizures, coma, and possibly death.^ In such cases, the patient may experience mild personality changes, headache, altered consciousness, visual problems, and, finally, seizures, coma, and death.
  • Sinusitis - Complications 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the infection may be "silent" in the frontal lobes with only subtle personality changes until late in the process.
  • Complications of Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mild cases of periorbital cellulitis (eyelid <50% closed) may be treated with appropriate oral antibiotic therapy as an outpatient with daily patient encounters.
  • Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of Sinusitis -- Subcommittee on Management of Sinusitis and Committee on Quality Improvement 108 (3): 798 -- AAP Policy 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[13]

Predisposing factors

.Factors which may predispose to developing sinusitis include: allergies; structural problems such as a deviated septum, small sinus ostia or a concha bullosa; smoking; nasal polyps; carrying the cystic fibrosis gene (research is still tentative); prior bouts of sinusitis as each instance may result in increased inflammation of the nasal or sinus mucosa and potentially further narrow the openings.^ Also, if there is a structural abnormality of the sinus such as nasal polyps, which obstruct sinus drainage, surgery may be needed.

^ Sinusitis means inflammation of the nasal sinuses.

^ Sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinus passages.
  • Sinusitis - [Alternative Medicine] 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.peacehealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Hi-Health Wellness Education Center 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.hihealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Role of biofilms

.Biofilms are complex aggregates of extracellular matrix and inter-dependent microorganisms from multiple species, many of which may be difficult or impossible to isolate using standard clinical laboratory techniques.^ Each antifungal agent was tested on these fungal isolates using the macro broth dilution technique according to the National Committee on Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) protocol.
  • USE OF ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS FOR THE TOPICAL TREATMENT OF FUNGUS-INDUCED MUCOSITIS - Patent EP1024814 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Special types of antibiotics may be used, and treatment may be needed for a longer time.
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many of the clinical findings routinely used to evaluate for sinusitis have limited sensitivity and specificity.

.Bacteria found in biofilms may show increased antibiotic resistance when compared to free-living bacteria of the same species.^ Failure to do so may increase the risk for reinfection and also for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

^ The prevalence of such antibiotic-resistant bacteria has dramatically increased worldwide.

^ This procedure allows your veterinarian to obtain an uncontaminated sample of the pus for bacterial culture and sensitivity to determine which antibiotics will be effective against the bacteria that are found.

.It has been hypothesized that biofilm-type infections may account for many cases of antibiotic-refractory chronic sinusitis.^ Chronic Sinusitis Treatment Chronic sinusitis treatment may be with medications such as antibiotics, or, in some cases, surgery.
  • Sinusitis : by Ray Sahelian, M.D. treatment sinusitis symptom 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungal infections may also cause sinusitis.
  • Health: Sinusitis; Sinusitis is infection or inflammation of the lining of the sinus ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exempla Healthcare Online Library 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.exempla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This may be anatomic or it may be scarring from too many infections.

[14][15][16] .A recent study found that biofilms were present on the mucosa of 3/4 of patients undergoing surgery for chronic sinusitis.^ This report is a brief summary of a patient I recently treated with chronic sinusitis.

^ Surgery may help HIV patients with chronic or recurrent sinusitis.

^ Xolair in Patients With Chronic Sinusitis This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.
  • Xolair in Patients With Chronic Sinusitis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.clinicaltrials.gov [Source type: Academic]

[17]

Diagnosis

Acute sinusitis

.Usually sinusitis is diagnosed by a physician.^ (In such cases, the doctor will usually diagnose chronic or recurrent acute sinusitis and refer the patient to a specialist for more advanced testing.
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (In such cases, the physician will usually diagnose chronic or recurrent acute sinusitis and refer the patient to a specialist for more advanced testing.

^ Usually, your physician can diagnosis sinusitis based on your symptoms and physical examination.

.Bacterial and viral acute sinusitis are difficult to distinguish however, disease duration fewer than 7 days is considered as a viral whereas more than 7 days are considered as a bacterial sinusitis (usually 30% to 50% are bacterial sinusitis).^ Sinusitis lasting more than eight weeks is considered chronic.
  • Sinusitis Information 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.crat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acute Sinusitis: Sinusitis is defined as acute if it is totally resolved in less than 30 days.
  • Sinusitis: Nose, Sinus, and Taste Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the symptoms of acute sinusitis are more severe and painful than the symptoms of chronic sinusitis.
  • What Causes Sinusitis? 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ehealthmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nosocomial acute sinusitis is confirmed with the help of CT scan of the sinuses.^ A CT scan of the sinuses may also be used to help diagnose sinusitis.
  • Sinusitis - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Sinusitis - NY Times Health Information 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Health Diseases & Medical Conditions - South Florida Hospital 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.mhs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • a-z health information 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.advocatehealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Hillcrest Health System 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC hillcrest2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Health Information 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.qualityhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinus Infection Sinusitis Symptoms Of Sinusitis Chronic Sinusitis Treatment Acute Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.getwellnatural.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC ssmhealth.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • FloridaHealthFinder.gov | Health Encyclopedia | Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.floridahealthfinder.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Wilmington/Newark - Sinusitis refers to inflammation of the sinuses that occurs... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.christianacare.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A CT scan of the sinuses is a much better test to help diagnose sinusitis.
  • Health Los Angeles - Sinusitis. Sinusitis refers to inflammation of the... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.uclahealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Professor - Diseases & Conditions - Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.healthprofessor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.drexelmed.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Sinusitis Medical Information 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acute sinusitis: Do over-the-counter treatments help?
  • Acute sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC edition1.cnn.com [Source type: General]

Chronic sinusitis

.For sinusitis lasting more than eight weeks,[18] criteria are lacking.^ Chronic Sinusitis : This lasts for 12 weeks or more.
  • Sinusitis and its homeopathic treatment without surgery homeopathy doctor. 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.homeopathictreatment4u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acute Sinusitis can last four weeks or more.

^ Acute sinusitis often lasts longer than a week.
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.dustless.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A CT scan is recommended, but insufficient to confirm diagnosis.^ A CT scan can confirm the diagnosis.
  • Sinusitis: Nose, Sinus, and Taste Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Confirmation of the diagnosis by x-ray or CT images of the sinuses should be reserved for those patients who appear to have complications of sinusitis or non-typical symptoms.
  • Abington Pediatric Associates-Medical Conditions: Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.abingtonpeds.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sometimes x-rays or CT scans are used to support the diagnosis.
  • Sinusitis ( Sinus Infections) - DrGreene.com 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.drgreene.com [Source type: General]

.Nasal endoscopy, a CT scan, and clinical symptoms are used together.^ Until the availability of endoscopy and CT scans, x-rays were commonly used.
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other diagnostic tests may include a study of the mucus culture, nasal endoscopy (see below), X-rays, allergy testing , CT scan of the sinuses, or blood work.
  • An Overview of Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ The symptoms include nasal blockage, nasal discharge (usually posterior) and/or facial pain and hyposmia, together with either endoscopic signs of abnormality at the middle meatus where the sinuses drain or, characteristic CT changes.
  • NHS Evidence - ENT and audiology - 2008 Annual Evidence Update on Rhinitis: Chronic Rhinosinusitis – The Role of Fungi and of Anti-fungal Therapy 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.library.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

[5] .A tissue sample for histology and cultures can also be used.^ In addition, fungal organisms can be cultured and analyzed from a mucus sample using the techniques described herein as well as those techniques known in the art.
  • USE OF ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS FOR THE TOPICAL TREATMENT OF FUNGUS-INDUCED MUCOSITIS - Patent EP1024814 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is noted, however, that collecting, analyzing, and/or culturing fungal organisms from a nasal-paranasal mucus sample can provide useful diagnostic information.
  • USE OF ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS FOR THE TOPICAL TREATMENT OF FUNGUS-INDUCED MUCOSITIS - Patent EP1024814 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacterial cultures can also be taken from samples removed using endoscopy.
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

.Allergic fungal sinusitis are seen in a person with asthma and nasal polyps.^ The diagnosis and incidence of allergic fungal sinusitis.
  • Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Associated with Trichoderma longibrachiatum 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • NHS Evidence - ENT and audiology - 2008 Annual Evidence Update on Rhinitis: Chronic Rhinosinusitis – The Role of Fungi and of Anti-fungal Therapy 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.library.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Immunotherapy in the treatment of allergic fungal sinusitis.
  • Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Associated with Trichoderma longibrachiatum 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Allergenic fungi in allergic fungal sinusitis.
  • Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Associated with Trichoderma longibrachiatum 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Multiple biopsy is informative to confirm the diagnosis.[19]
.Nasal endoscopy involves inserting a flexible fiber-optic tube with a light and camera at its tip into the nose to examine the nasal passages and sinuses.^ Nasal Endoscopy The procedure involves introducing a flexible fiber-optic tube with a light at its tip into the nose.
  • Sinus Infection or Nasal Cancer 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It involves the insertion of a flexible tube into the nasal passage and the use of a fiberoptic light that enables the physician to see inside the sinuses.

^ Avoiding diving into water, which forces water into the sinuses from the nasal passages.
  • Sinusitis - Medpedia 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.This is generally a completely painless (although uncomfortable) procedure which takes between five to ten minutes to complete.^ Exemplary retainer 14 is generally between about 1" to 3" in diameter and 3" to 6" in height, although various other sizes may be useful.
  • USE OF ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS FOR THE TOPICAL TREATMENT OF FUNGUS-INDUCED MUCOSITIS - Patent EP1024814 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It may take several months for the mucous membranes to completely recover, but between 85% and 90% of patients experience good to excellent symptomatic relief after surgery.

^ It may take several months for the mucous membranes to completely recover, but between 85 - 90% of patients experience good to excellent symptomatic relief after surgery.
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Treatment

Acute sinusitis

Conservative measures

.Over the counter (OTC) medication such as acetaminophen or paracetamol and ibuprofen can relieve some of the symptoms associated with sinusitis, such as headaches and pain.^ Decongestants are usually coupled with a pain reliever, such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or aspirin.
  • Sinusitis: Online References For Health Concerns 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) can decrease the pain and headache associated with sinusitis.
  • Sinusitis - swollen, symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Analgesics , such as aspirin, acetaminophen, or ibuprofen, to relieve pain.
  • Health: Sinusitis; Sinusitis is infection or inflammation of the lining of the sinus ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Treatment Overview - Yahoo! Health 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]

Antibiotics

.The vast majority of cases of sinusitis are due to viral etiology and thus resolve without antibiotics.^ Many cases of acute sinusitis will end without antibiotics.
  • Project Inform: Health information � Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.projectinform.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis | Prime Health Solutions 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC primehealthsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Nose, The Sinuses, and Allergy at UC Irvine Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ent.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cold and Flu Symptoms - Sinus Infection Symptoms - Natural AntiVirals 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC heartspring.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Most cases of bacterial sinusitis improve without antibiotics.
  • Acute sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Acute sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC images.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Acute sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC edition1.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Viral meningitis is generally less severe and resolves without specific treatment, while bacterial meningitis can be quite severe and may result in brain damag...
  • Bacterial spinal meningitis - Healthcare.com 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.healthcare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .However, if the symptoms are prolonged amoxicillin is a reasonable first choice[5] with amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) being indicated for patients who fail amoxicillin alone.^ In fact, one 2000 study found no significant benefit from treating children who suffered from acute sinusitis with amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin) compared to the use of a placebo (an inactive pill).

^ The later-generation antibiotics cefpodoxime, cefdinir, and cefuroxime are good choices for penicillin-allergic patients with mild to moderate sinusitis who have been treated in the previous 4 to 6 weeks.
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This was shown in a study by Wald, in which symptoms resolved in 79% of patients who had clinically and radiographically diagnosed sinusitis and who had been treated with amoxicillin or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid.

.Fluoroquinolones, and some of the newer macrolide antibiotics such as clarithromycin, and doxycycline, are used in patients who are allergic to penicillins.^ Prednisone is also used for patients who have allergic fungal sinusitis.
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Macrolides are often used to treat mild-to-moderate bacterial sinusitis in patients who are allergic to penicillin.
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the correct antibiotic is used, patient may get over this with the antibiotic.
  • Sinusitis for Patients 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ent-consult.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .Antibiotics are usually ineffective and overall may be no more effective than placebos:[21] 60 to 90% of people do not experience resolution of symptoms.^ You may need to try more than one antibiotic.
  • Health: Sinusitis; Sinusitis is infection or inflammation of the lining of the sinus ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exempla Healthcare Online Library 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.exempla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With treatment, the symptoms usually disappear and antibiotics are no longer required.

^ Other symptoms of sinusitis can include fever, weakness, tiredness, a cough that may be more severe at night, and runny nose or nasal congestion.
  • dreddyclinic.com - Chronic sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.dreddyclinic.com [Source type: Academic]

[22] .Antibiotics may not improve the long-term clinical outcome for sinusitis.^ Clinical studies of RS have traditionally assessed outcomes in terms of physiologic measurements, including rhinometry, CT scans, IgE levels, and complication rates.
  • Rhinosinusitis 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.atsqol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Blockage of the drainage pathways, however, creates an environment that favours the overgrowth of bacteria resulting in long-term (chronic) sinusitis.

^ Health care providers often find it difficult to treat chronic sinusitis successfully, realizing that symptoms persist even after taking antibiotics for a long period.
  • Sinusitis | Prime Health Solutions 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC primehealthsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Nose, The Sinuses, and Allergy at UC Irvine Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ent.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .When used a short-course (3–7 days) of antibiotics seems to be sufficient for patients who present without severe disease or any complicating factors.^ If the correct antibiotic is used, patient may get over this with the antibiotic.
  • Sinusitis for Patients 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ent-consult.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antibiotics may be withheld for 10 to 14 days, unless severe symptoms develop, such as fever, facial pain or tenderness, or swelling around the eye.
  • Main Line Health - Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.mainlinehealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antibiotic therapy should be reserved for patients who have had symptoms for more than seven days and who present with two or more clinical criteria for ABRS (purulent nasal discharge, maxillary tooth or facial pain [especially unilateral], unilateral maxillary sinus tenderness, or worsening symptoms after initial improvement), or for those with severe symptoms 3 (Figure 1) .
  • Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis in Adults: Part II. Treatment - November 1, 2004 - American Family Physician 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[24]

Corticosteroids

.For unconfirmed acute sinusitis intranasal corticosteroids have not been found to be better than placebo either alone or in combination with antibiotics.^ Antibiotics for acute maxillary sinusitis.
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Causes 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC health.bwmc.umms.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibiotics for acute maxillary sinusitis .

^ The combination is typically used together with antibiotics for treating acute sinusitis.
  • Hi-Health Wellness Education Center 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.hihealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

[22] .However for cases confirmed by radiology or nasal endoscopy their use either alone or in combination with antibiotics is supported.^ It can, however, be very useful when used in combination with x-rays.

^ Some well known antibiotics used to manage acute bacterial infections include doxycycline, the combination drug trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and amoxicillin.
  • Sinus Infection and Sinusitis Relief 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC sinushealer.com [Source type: General]

^ A single dose of ceftriaxone (at 50 mg/kg/d), given either intravenously or intramuscularly, can be used in children with vomiting that precludes administration of oral antibiotics.
  • Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of Sinusitis -- Subcommittee on Management of Sinusitis and Committee on Quality Improvement 108 (3): 798 -- AAP Policy 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[25]

Anti-microbial nose spray

.A patent (United States Patent 6258372) has been granted for a Xylitol nose spray with the claim: "Nasopharyngeal congestion, irritation, and inflammation and associated upper respiratory infections such a otitis media, sinusitis are adjunctivly treated and prevented by nasal application of xylitol/xylose in a saline solution."^ It is preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection.
  • Sinusitis Treatment; Acute, Chronic Sinusitis Cure; Natural Sinus Infection Remedies, Relief, Herbal Alternative Cures for Sinuses 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ear infections such as otitis media are also associated with sinusitis.
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ H. influenzae (a common bacterium associated with many upper respiratory infections).
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

[26] .This is consistent with research showing that "1 and 5% xylitol reduced markedly the growth of alpha-hemolytic streptococci, in vitro";[27] however Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were not inhibited, which may reduce the usefulness of this approach.^ Streptococcus pneumonia Haemophilus influenzae Moraxella catarrhalis .
  • Sinusitis, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.rwjuh.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Sinusitis, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.rwjuh.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some immunizations , particularly pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), may help prevent ear and sinus infections.
  • Health: Sinusitis; Sinusitis is infection or inflammation of the lining of the sinus ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exempla Healthcare Online Library 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.exempla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common organisms isolated from patients with acute rhinosinusitis include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcal species.
  • Adult Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis and Management - January 1, 2001 - American Family Physician 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

Chronic sinusitis

Conservative measures

.Nasal irrigation may help with symptoms of chronic sinusitis.^ What are the symptoms of chronic sinusitis?
  • Sinusitis (Health & Wellbeing: Nose Problems) 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.videojug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nasal irrigation for the alleviation of sinonasal symptoms.
  • Sinusitis, Sinus Infection, Sinus Headache, Allergies, Colds, Flu, Infection at Peaceful Mind-Alternative medicine and therapies for healing mind, body, spirit 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.peacefulmind.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are the signs and symptoms of chronic sinusitis?

[28][29][30]

Medical approaches

.Based on the recent theories on the role that fungus may play in the development of chronic sinusitis.^ Chronic sinusitis may be caused by bacteria or a fungus.
  • Sinusitis | LIVESTRONG.COM 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]
  • a-z health information 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.advocatehealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Health Information 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.qualityhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.texashealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinus Infection Sinusitis Symptoms Of Sinusitis Chronic Sinusitis Treatment Acute Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.getwellnatural.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Wilmington/Newark - Sinusitis refers to inflammation of the sinuses that occurs... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.christianacare.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This raises the possibility that fungi may play a role in some cases of chronic sinusitis.
  • Sinusitis - Medpedia 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Sinus Infection Sinusitis Symptoms Of Sinusitis Chronic Sinusitis Treatment Acute Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.getwellnatural.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is evidence that IgE antibodies play a role in chronic sinusitis.
  • Xolair in Patients With Chronic Sinusitis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.clinicaltrials.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Trials of antifungal treatments however have had mixed results.^ Results from previous clinical trials have been mixed.
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further research, including clinical trials of antifungal drugs, will help determine whether, and for whom, this new treatment strategy holds promise.
  • Project Inform: Health information � Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.projectinform.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Nose, The Sinuses, and Allergy at UC Irvine Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ent.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NIAID is supporting trials of antifungal drugs to determine whether, and for whom, this new treatment strategy holds promise.
  • Sinus Infection Sinusitis Symptoms Of Sinusitis Chronic Sinusitis Treatment Acute Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.getwellnatural.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]

Surgical treatment

.For chronic or recurring sinusitis, referral to an otolaryngologist may be indicated for more specialist assessment and treatment, which may include nasal surgery.^ What treatments are available for chronic sinusitis?
  • Sinusitis (Health & Wellbeing: Nose Problems) 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.videojug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Laboratory tests to diagnose chronic sinusitis may include .
  • Sinusitis - Nose, The Sinuses, and Allergy at UC Irvine Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ent.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chronic sinusitis complications include: .
  • Chronic sinusitis - Valley Health System 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: General]

.However, for most patients the surgical approach is not superior to appropriate medical treatment.^ Read this book: learn about the most effective treatments available and breakthrough medications that can end your sinus problems, and make sinusitis a problem of your past.
  • All about Sinusitis : The Sinus Cure 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.enotalone.com [Source type: General]

^ The ENT may recommend medical or surgical treatment of the sinuses.
  • Spokane Valley Ears, Nose and Throat 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.spokanevalleyent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, none of this work has been extended to patients with sinusitis and there is no definite scientific evidence that it is truly helpful in the treatment of acute sinusitis.

.Surgery should only be considered for those patients who do not experience sufficient relief from optimal medication.^ Surgery should be considered only after failure of medical treatment.
  • Project Inform: Health information � Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.projectinform.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Nose, The Sinuses, and Allergy at UC Irvine Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ent.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patients who experience a decrease in visual acuity, worsening extraocular muscle function or failure to improve in 48-72 hours should undergo surgical sinus drainage.
  • Complications of Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In patients who have not responded to the initial choice of antibiotic therapy, those with extrasinus spread of infection and those with chronic rhinosinusitis, an endoscopically directed microswab culture of the hiatus semilunaris should be obtained.
  • Adult Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis and Management - January 1, 2001 - American Family Physician 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[31][32]
.A relatively recent advance in the treatment of sinusitis is a type of surgery called functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), whereby normal clearance from the sinuses is restored by removing the anatomical and pathological obstructive variations that predispose to sinusitis.^ In the past few years there has been a major advance in the surgical treatment with a minimally invasive technique called functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS).
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clearance of this obstruction is the aim of endoscopic surgery.

^ Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is recommended for certain types of sinus disease.

.This replaces prior open techniques requiring facial or oral incisions and refocuses the technique to the natural openings of the sinuses instead of promoting drainage by gravity, the idea upon which the Caldwell-Luc surgery was based.^ Surgery is resorted to facilitate drainage of the sinuses.

^ The most common surgery done today is functional endoscopic sinus surgery, in which the natural openings from the sinuses are enlarged to allow drainage.
  • Project Inform: Health information � Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.projectinform.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Nose, The Sinuses, and Allergy at UC Irvine Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ent.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Symptoms and Treatment | Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.masseyeandear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cold and Flu Symptoms - Sinus Infection Symptoms - Natural AntiVirals 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC heartspring.net [Source type: Academic]

^ This helps in enlarging a narrow sinus opening, which helps promote adequate drainage.
  • Sinusitis Treatment; Acute, Chronic Sinusitis Cure; Natural Sinus Infection Remedies, Relief, Herbal Alternative Cures for Sinuses 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33]
.Another recently developed treatment is balloon sinuplasty.^ Your risk of developing sinusitis increases if you have recently had a cold, another viral or bacterial infection , or an upper respiratory tract infection .
  • Health: Sinusitis; Sinusitis is infection or inflammation of the lining of the sinus ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exempla Healthcare Online Library 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.exempla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Balloon sinuplasty is a new less invasive procedure for the treatment of chronic sinusitis.
  • Sinusitis - Nose, The Sinuses, and Allergy at UC Irvine Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ent.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This method, similar to balloon angioplasty used to "unclog" arteries of the heart, utilizes balloons in an attempt to expand the openings of the sinuses in a less invasive manner.^ As the balloon is gently opened, the sinus passages expand and drainage occurs.
  • Sinusitis: the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis. Nasal ... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Less than half of patients reporting symptoms of sinusitis need aggressive treatment and can be cured using home remedies and decongestants alone.

^ As the balloon is gently opened, the sinus passages expand, allowing drainage to occur.
  • Sinusitis - MMCI 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its final role in the treatment of sinus disease is still under debate but appears promising.^ Your sinus treatment worked for me and in under a week my sinus and congestion was cleared.

^ Although these have helped with initial improvement, we still see a high rate of recurrence of sinus disease.

^ Wawrose SF, Tami TA, Amoils CP. The role of guaifenesin in the treatment of sinonasal disease in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • SINUSITIS 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.brucerosemanmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis in Adults: Part II. Treatment - November 1, 2004 - American Family Physician 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.A number of surgical approaches can be used to access the sinuses and these have generally shifted from external/extranasal approaches to intranasal endoscopic ones.^ This is one of the useful home remedies for sinusitis .
  • Home Remedies for Sinusitis, Sinusitis Symptoms, Treatment 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ayushveda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the useful home remedies for sinusitis .
  • Home Remedies for Sinusitis, Sinusitis Symptoms, Treatment 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ayushveda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sinusitis can occur from one of these conditions: .
  • Sinusitis - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis | LIVESTRONG.COM 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]
  • a-z health information 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.advocatehealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Los Angeles - Sinusitis. Sinusitis refers to inflammation of the... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.uclahealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Health Information 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.qualityhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinus Infection Sinusitis Symptoms Of Sinusitis Chronic Sinusitis Treatment Acute Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.getwellnatural.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Wilmington/Newark - Sinusitis refers to inflammation of the sinuses that occurs... 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.christianacare.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The benefit of the Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery FESS is its ability to allow for a more targeted approach to the affected sinuses, reducing tissue disruption, and minimizing post-operative complications.^ The most common sinus procedure is called functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), in which the natural openings from the sinuses are enlarged to allow more drainage.

^ Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is recommended for certain types of sinus disease.

^ Perko D: Endoscopic surgery of the frontal sinus without external approach.
  • Frontal Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bcm.edu [Source type: Academic]

[34]
.For persistent symptoms and disease in patients who have failed medical and the functional endoscopic approach, older techniques can be used to address the maxillary sinus such as the Caldwell-Luc radical antrostomy (e.g.^ Depression can result if certain medications are used to help with sinus symptoms.
  • All about Sinusitis : The Sinus Cure 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.enotalone.com [Source type: General]

^ The relative indications for surgery that constitute the reasons for a preponderance of sinus operations include: (1) recurrent acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in which a persisting area of obstruction to sinus aeration or of recurring disease has been identified by nasal endoscopy and/or CT; or (2) chronic rhinosinusitis that has failed to resolve after an appropriate course of medical therapy as documented by the patient's symptoms or findings on nasal endoscopy and/or CT scan.
  • Adult Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis and Management - January 1, 2001 - American Family Physician 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other treatments for lingering symptoms include sinus irrigation, which requires the placement of an instrument in the maxillary sinus to flush out that cavity with salt water.
  • Sinusitis - St. Luke's Episcopal Health System 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.sleh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

incision in the upper .gum, opening in the anterior wall of the antrum, removal of the entire diseased maxillary sinus mucosa and drainage is allowed into inferior or middle meatus by creating a large window in the lateral nasal wall.^ Each maxillary sinus is located in the maxilla and opens into the middle meatus.
  • USE OF ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS FOR THE TOPICAL TREATMENT OF FUNGUS-INDUCED MUCOSITIS - Patent EP1024814 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The middle and inferior turbinates project into the nasal cavity.
  • Rhinosinusitis: Causes and Medical Treatment JW Fairley Consultant ENT Surgeon Kent UK 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.entkent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ostia of the frontal, maxillary and anterior ethmoid sinuses open into the osteomeatal complex, which lies in the middle meatus lateral to the middle turbinate.
  • Acute Sinusitis: A Cost-Effective Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment - November 15, 1998 - American Academy of Family Physicians 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

)[35]

References

  1. ^ Grossman J (1997). "One airway, one disease". Chest 111 (2 Suppl): 11S–16S. doi:10.1378/chest.111.2_Supplement.11S. PMID 9042022. 
  2. ^ Cruz AA (2005). "The 'united airways' require an holistic approach to management". Allergy 60 (7): 871–874. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2005.00858.x. PMID 15932375. 
  3. ^ http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/allergy/rhino-sinusitis/
  4. ^ Pearlman, AN.; Conley, DB. (Jun 2008). "Review of current guidelines related to the diagnosis and treatment of rhinosinusitis.". Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 16 (3): 226–30. doi:10.1097/MOO.0b013e3282fdcc9a. PMID 18475076. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Leung, R.S.; Katial, R. (2008). "The Diagnosis and Management of Acute and Chronic Sinusitis". Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice 35 (1): 11–24. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2007.09.002. http://cimed.ucr.ac.cr/archivos/Articulos%20Interes/2008/marzo/Diagnostico%20y%20Manejo%20de%20la%20Sinusitis%20Aguda.pdf. 
  6. ^ Gwaltney, Jr., J. M. (2000). "Nose Blowing Propels Nasal Fluid into the Paranasal Sinuses". Clinical Infectious Diseases 30: 387. doi:10.1086/313661
  7. ^ http://www.austinent.com/info/wiki/sinusitis.php
  8. ^ University of Maryland - Sinusitus Complications
  9. ^ University of Maryland - Sinusitus Complications
  10. ^ Schreiber C, Hutchinson S, Webster C, Ames M, Richardson M, Powers C (2004). "Prevalence of migraine in patients with a history of self-reported or physician-diagnosed "sinus" headache". Arch. Intern. Med. 164 (16): 1769–72. doi:10.1001/archinte.164.16.1769. PMID 15364670. 
  11. ^ Mehle ME, Schreiber CP (2005). "Sinus headache, migraine, and the otolaryngologist". Otolaryngology—head and neck surgery: official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery 133 (4): 489–96. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2005.05.659. PMID 16213917. 
  12. ^ Ishkanian, G (January 2007). "Efficacy of sumatriptan tablets in migraineurs self-described or physician-diagnosed as having sinus headache: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study". Clin Ther 29 (1): 99–109. doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2007.01.012. PMID 17379050. 
  13. ^ University of Maryland - Sinusitus Complications
  14. ^ Palmer JN (2005). "Bacterial biofilms: do they play a role in chronic sinusitis?". Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 38 (6): 1193–201, viii. doi:10.1016/j.otc.2005.07.004. PMID 16326178. 
  15. ^ Ramadan H, Sanclement J, Thomas J (2005). "Chronic rhinosinusitis and biofilms". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 132 (3): 414–7. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2004.11.011. PMID 15746854. 
  16. ^ Bendouah Z, Barbeau J, Hamad W, Desrosiers M (2006). "Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with an unfavorable evolution after surgery for chronic sinusitis and nasal polyposis". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 134 (6): 991–6. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2006.03.001. PMID 16730544. 
  17. ^ Sanclement J, Webster P, Thomas J, Ramadan H (2005). "Bacterial biofilms in surgical specimens of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis". Laryngoscope 115 (4): 578–82. doi:10.1097/01.mlg.0000161346.30752.18 (inactive 2009-11-03). PMID 15805862. 
  18. ^ http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/allergy/rhino-sinusitis/
  19. ^ Harrison's Manual of Medicine 16/e
  20. ^ Karageorgopoulos DE, Giannopoulou KP, Grammatikos AP, Dimopoulos G, Falagas ME. Fluoroquinolones compared with beta-lactam antibiotics for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. CMAJ. 2008; 178(7):845-54.PMID:18362380
  21. ^ van Buchem, F. L. (8 March 1997). "Primary-care-based randomised placebo-controlled trial of antibiotic treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis". The Lancet 349 (9053): 683–687. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)07585-X. 
  22. ^ a b Ian G. Williamson et al. (2007). "Antibiotics and Topical Nasal Steroid for Treatment of Acute Maxillary Sinusitis". JAMA 298 (21): 2487–2496. doi:10.1001/jama.298.21.2487. PMID 18056902. 
  23. ^ van Buchem, F. L.; Knottnerus, J. A., Schrijnemaekers, V. J. J., Peeters, M. F. (8 March 1997). "Primary-care-based randomised placebo-controlled trial of antibiotic treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis". The Lancet 349 (9053): 683–687. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)07585-X. 
  24. ^ Falagas ME, Karageorgopoulos DE, Grammatikos AP, Matthaiou DK. Effectiveness and safety of short vs. long duration of antibiotic therapy for acute bacterial sinusitis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009; 67(2):161-71.PMID 19154447
  25. ^ Zalmanovici A, Yaphe J (2009). "Intranasal steroids for acute sinusitis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD005149. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005149.pub3. PMID 19821340. 
  26. ^ "Xylitol nose spray, United States Patent 6258372". http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6258372.html. Retrieved 2010/01/15. 
  27. ^ Kontiokari, T; Uhari M; Koskela M (1995). "Effect of xylitol on growth of nasopharyngeal bacteria in vitro.". pp. 1820-3. http://www.biomedexperts.com/Experts/Abstract.aspx?pid=7486925. Retrieved 2010/01/15.  (Requires free registration)
  28. ^ Rabago D, Zgierska A, Mundt M, Barrett B, Bobula J, Maberry R (2002). "Efficacy of daily hypertonic saline nasal irrigation among patients with sinusitis: a randomized controlled trial". J Fam Pract 51 (12): 1049–55. PMID 12540331. 
  29. ^ Rabago D, Pasic T, Zgierska A, Mundt M, Barrett B, Maberry R (2005). "The efficacy of hypertonic saline nasal irrigation for chronic sinonasal symptoms". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 133 (1): 3–8. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2005.03.002. PMID 16025044. 
  30. ^ Tomooka L, Murphy C, Davidson T (2000). "Clinical study and literature review of nasal irrigation". Laryngoscope 110 (7): 1189–93. doi:10.1097/00005537-200007000-00023. PMID 10892694. 
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  32. ^ Tichenor, Wellington S. (2007-04-22). "FAQ - Sinusitis - WS Tichenor M.D.". http://www.sinuses.com/faq.htm#surgery. Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
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  34. ^ Stammberger H. Endoscopic endonasal surgery - Concepts in treatment of recurring rhinosinusitis. Part I. Anatomic and pathophysiologic considerations. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1986;94:143.
  35. ^ Bailey and Love

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

German

Noun

Sinusitis m.
  1. sinusitis (inflammation)
.This German entry was created from the translations listed at sinusitis.^ Create your own "sinusitis": List .
  • Amazon.com: sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ No one has created a list or guide tagged "sinusitis" yet.
  • Amazon.com: sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.It may be less reliable than other entries, and may be missing parts of speech or additional senses.^ Your doctor may decide to treat your child with additional medicines if he/she has allergies or other conditions that make the sinus infection worse.
  • Spokane Valley Ears, Nose and Throat 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.spokanevalleyent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pediatric Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.entnet.org [Source type: General]
  • Ear, Nose & Throat Center: Pediatric Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.entcenterslc.com [Source type: General]
  • Plastic Surgery in South Carolina Plastic Surgeons Columbia Facial Plastic Surgery South Carolina Facial Plastic Surgery Columbia 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.southcarolinaent.com [Source type: General]
  • Pediatric Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.entlink.net [Source type: General]

^ In addition, the collection solution can contain other agents that may be useful for the collection of mucus such as a mucolytic agent.
  • USE OF ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS FOR THE TOPICAL TREATMENT OF FUNGUS-INDUCED MUCOSITIS - Patent EP1024814 9 October 2009 20:38 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In some people, a sinus infection may be caused by a fungus or a bacterium other than those normally associated with sinusitis.
  • Exempla Healthcare Online Library 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.exempla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis 11 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.healthlinkbc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sinusitis - Treatment Overview - Yahoo! Health 19 September 2009 5:47 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

Please also see
Sinusitis in the German Wiktionary. This notice will be removed when the entry is checked. (more information) August 2009

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Sinusitis, which are similar to those in the above article.








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