Sir William Johnson: Wikis


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Sir William Johnson in 1763, based on a lost portrait by Thomas McIlworth[1]

Sir William Johnson, 1st Baronet (c. 1715 – 11 July 1774) was an Irish-born official of the British Empire. As a young man, Johnson came to the Province of New York to manage an estate purchased by his uncle, Admiral Peter Warren, which was located amidst the Mohawks, one of the Six Nations of the Iroquois. Johnson learned the Mohawk language and Iroquois customs, and was appointed New York's agent to the Iroquois. Throughout his career as a British official among the Iroquois, Johnson combined personal business with official diplomacy, acquiring much Native land and becoming very wealthy.

Johnson commanded Iroquois and colonial militia forces during the French and Indian War. His role in the British victory at the Battle of Lake George in 1755 earned him a baronetcy; his capture of Fort Niagara from the French in 1759 brought him additional renown. In 1756, Johnson was commissioned as the superintendent of Indian affairs for the northern colonies. Serving in that role until his death, Johnson worked to keep American Indians attached to the British interest.


Early life and career

William Johnson was born in County Meath, in the Kingdom of Ireland, around 1715.[2] His parents were Christopher Johnson and Anne Warren, members of the Irish Catholic gentry who had, in previous generations, lost much of their status to Protestant English colonists.[3] Christopher Johnson was descended from the O'Neill of the Fews dynasty of County Armagh. William Johnson's paternal grandfather was apparently originally known as William MacShane, but changed his surname to Johnson, the English translation of the Gaelic Mac Seáin.[4] Some early biographers portrayed William Johnson as living in poverty in Ireland, but modern studies reveal that his family lived a comfortable, if modest, lifestyle.[5] Although his family had a history of Jacobitism, William Johnson's uncle Peter Warren was raised as a Protestant to enable him to pursue a career in the British Royal Navy, which proved to be highly successful and lucrative.[6]

Admiral Sir Peter Warren, c. 1751

As a Catholic, William Johnson's opportunities for advancement in the British Empire were limited.[7] Never particularly religious, Johnson converted to Protestantism when offered an opportunity to work for his uncle in British America.[8] Peter Warren had purchased a large tract of undeveloped land along the Mohawk River in the province of New York. Warren convinced Johnson to lead an effort to establish a settlement there, to be known as Warrensburgh, with the implied understanding that Johnson would inherit much of the land.[9] Johnson arrived in about 1738 with twelve Irish Protestant families and began to clear the land.[10] The work was done with the help of African slaves, the first of many slaves that Johnson would acquire.[11]

Warren also intended Johnson to become involved in trading with American Indians, but Johnson soon discovered that the trade routes were on the opposite side of the river from Warrensburgh.[12] Acting on his own initiative, in 1739 Johnson bought—in his own name—a house and small farm on the north side of the river, where he built a store and a sawmill. From this location, which he called "Mount Johnson", Johnson was able to cut into Albany's Indian trade. He supplied traders with goods who were going to Fort Oswego, and he bought furs from them when they returned downriver. He dealt directly with New York City merchants and cut out the previous middlemen at Albany.[13] The Albany merchants were irate, and Warren was not pleased that his nephew was becoming independent.[14]

Johnson became closely associated with the Mohawks, the local Indians who were the easternmost nation of the Six Nations of the Iroquois League. Although the Mohawks had once been formidable, by the time Johnson arrived, their population had collapsed to only 580.[15] The Mohawks saw in Johnson someone who could advocate their interests in the British imperial system. Sometime around 1742, they adopted him as an honorary sachem, or civil chief, and gave him the name Warraghiyagey, which he translated as "A Man who undertakes great Things".[16]

King George's War

In 1744, the War of the Austrian Succession spread to colonial America, where it was known as King George's War. Because of his close relationship with the Mohawks, in 1746 Johnson was appointed as New York's agent to the Iroquois, replacing the Albany-based Indian commissioners.[17] The newly created "Colonel of the Warriors of the Six Nations" was instructed to enlist and equip colonists and Indians for a campaign against the French.[18] Recruiting Iroquois warriors was difficult: ever since the so-called Grand Settlement of 1701, the Iroquois had maintained a policy of neutrality in wars between France and Great Britain.[19] Working with Mohawk leader Hendrick Theyanoguin, Johnson was able to recruit Mohawks to fight on the side of the British.[20]

Fort Johnson was William Johnson's home from 1749 until 1763, and was the location of many conferences between Johnson and the Iroquois.

Johnson organized small raiding parties, which were sent against the settlements of the French and their Indian allies.[21] In accordance with New York's Scalp Act of 1747, Johnson paid bounties for scalps, although he was aware this would result in the scalping of non-combatants of all ages and both sexes.[22] In June 1748, Johnson was made "Colonel of the New York levies", a position that gave him additional responsibility for the colonial militias at Albany.[23] In July 1748, word was received of a peace settlement. The Mohawks had suffered heavy casualties in the war, which lessened Johnson's prestige among them for awhile.[24]

In 1748, Johnson built a new stone house upriver from Mount Johnson, which became known as Fort Johnson.[25] The home was heavily fortified when the next war approached. In 1755, Johnson shifted the primary meeting place for diplomatic councils between the British and the Iroquois from Albany to Fort Johnson.[26] He also bought houses in Albany and Schenectady to stop at on his business trips to New York City.[27]

After King George's War, Johnson was caught in the middle of two rival New York political factions. One faction was led by Governor George Clinton, who had appointed Johnson as New York's Indian agent and, in 1750, appointed him to the Governor's Council.[28] Governor Clinton urged the New York Assembly to repay Johnson's outstanding wartime expenses, which amounted to £2,000.[29] Repayment was blocked by Clinton's political rivals, a faction led by Lieutenant Governor James De Lancey, which was connected to the Albany Indian commissioners whom Johnson had supplanted. De Lancey was also the brother-in-law of Admiral Peter Warren, which added to the strain in the relationship between Johnson and Warren. An exasperated Johnson resigned as New York's Indian commissioner in 1751.[30] When Warren died in July 1752, he left nothing to Johnson in his will. Although Warren died a very wealthy man, in his will he even required that Johnson repay the expenses incurred while settling Warren's land.[31]

French and Indian War

In June 1753, Hendrick and a delegation of Mohawks traveled to New York City where they announced to Governor Clinton that the Covenant Chain—the diplomatic relationship between the British and the Iroquois—was broken.[32] Clinton was ordered by the British government to convene the Albany Congress of 1754 to repair the Covenant Chain.[33] At the Congress, the Mohawks insisted that the alliance would be restored only if Johnson was reinstated as their agent.[34]

This mezzotint of William Johnson was published in London in 1756.[35]

Johnson's reinstatement as Indian agent came the following year, just as the French and Indian War was escalating. In 1755, Major General Edward Braddock, sent to North America to direct the British war effort, appointed Johnson as his agent to the Iroquois.[36] Although Johnson had little military experience, he was also commissioned as a major general and instructed to lead an expedition against the French fort at Crown Point.[37] His troops were provincial soldiers paid for by the colonies, and not regular soldiers of the British Army, which meant that he had to deal with six different colonial governments while organizing the expedition.[38]

Johnson initially had nearly 5,000 colonials at his command, but General William Shirley, the governor of Massachusetts who had been commissioned to lead a simultaneous expedition to Fort Niagara, shifted some of Johnson's men and resources to his own campaign.[39] Tensions escalated as the two generals worked against each other in recruiting Native allies. The dispute was complicated by the unusual command structure: as Braddock's second-in-command, General Shirley was Johnson's superior officer, but when it came to Indian affairs, Johnson was theoretically in charge.[40] In time, Shirley would blame the failure of his expedition on Johnson's refusal to provide him with adequate Indian support. According to Johnson biographer Milton Hamilton, historians usually portrayed Johnson as acting unreasonably in the controversy with Shirley, but Hamilton argued that Johnson was reacting to Shirley's clumsy Indian diplomacy, which harmed the British relationship with the Six Nations.[41]


Crown Point expedition

Marching north into French territory, in August 1755 Johnson renamed Lac du Saint-Sacrement to Lake George in honour of his king.[42] On 8 September 1755, Johnson's forces held their ground in the Battle of Lake George. Johnson was wounded by a ball that was to remain in his hip or thigh for the rest of his life.[43] Hendrick, Johnson's Mohawk ally, was killed in the battle, and Baron Dieskau, the French commander, was captured. Johnson prevented Mohawks from killing the wounded Dieskau, an event that would become famous.[44]

Benjamin West's depiction of Johnson sparing Baron Dieskau's life after the Battle of Lake George

The battle brought an end to the expedition against Crown Point, and so Johnson built Fort William Henry at Lake George.[45] In December, tired of army life, Johnson resigned his commission as major general.[46] General Shirley, who had become the commander in chief upon Braddock's death, sought to have Johnson's commission as Indian agent modified so that Johnson would be placed under his command.[47] But Shirley was soon replaced both as governor and commander in chief, and Johnson's star was on the rise.[48]

Although the Battle of Lake George was hardly a decisive victory, the British needed a military hero in a year of major setbacks, and Johnson became that hero.[49] Claims that Johnson had been disabled by his wound early in the battle, and thus not really responsible for the victory, did not make an impact.[50] As a reward for his services, Parliament voted Johnson £5,000 and King George made him a baronet.[24] "Never was such an insignificant encounter so generously rewarded", wrote historian Julian Gwyn.[51]

In January 1756, the British government made Johnson sole Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the northern colonies. This position gave him great influence and power, since he would report directly to the government in London and would not be controlled by provincial governments.[52] Of all the Indian nations in the northern colonies, Johnson was most knowledgeable about, and most closely connected to, the Iroquois Six Nations, especially the Mohawks. As superintendent, he would make the Iroquois the focus of British diplomacy, promoting and even exaggerating the power of the Iroquois Confederacy. Johnson also began a long process of trying to control Iroquois diplomacy, attempting "nothing less than the refurbishment of the Iroquois confederacy with himself as its centre".[53]

Capture of Fort Niagara

Although Johnson was no longer a British general, he continued to lead Iroquois and frontier militia. In August 1757, after the French began their siege of Fort William Henry, Johnson arrived at Fort Edward with 180 Indians and 1,500 militia.[54] Greatly overestimating the size of the French army, British General Daniel Webb decided against sending a relief force from Fort Edward to Fort William Henry. The British were compelled to surrender Fort William Henry, after which many were killed in an infamous massacre. Stories circulated that Johnson was enraged by Webb's decision not to send help, and that he even stripped naked in front of Webb to express his disgust.[55]

With the war going badly for the British, Johnson found it difficult to enlist the support of the Six Nations, who were not eager to join a losing cause. In July 1758, he managed to raise 450 warriors to take part in a massive expedition led by the new British commander, General James Abercrombie.[56] The campaign ended ingloriously with Abercrombie's disastrous attempt to take Fort Carillon from the French. Johnson and his Indian auxiliaries could do little as British forces stormed the French positions in fruitless frontal assaults.[57]

Johnson, in green, is depicted in Benjamin West's iconic painting The Death of General Wolfe, although Johnson was not actually present at the event.[58]

In 1758, with the capture of Louisbourg, Fort Frontenac, and Fort Duquesne, the war's momentum began to shift in favor of the British.[59] Johnson was finally able to recruit significant Iroquois participation. In the summer of 1759, he led nearly 1,000 Iroquois warriors—practically the entire military strength of the Six Nations—as part of General John Prideaux's expedition to capture Fort Niagara.[60] When Prideaux was killed, Johnson took command. The fort was captured after a French relief force was ambushed and defeated at the Battle of La Belle-Famille. Johnson is usually credited with leading or at least planning this ambush,[61] but historian Francis Jennings argued that Johnson was not present at the battle, and that he exaggerated his role in official dispatches.[24] The conquest of Niagara drove the French line back from the Great Lakes. Once more, Johnson was celebrated as a hero, even though some professional soldiers expressed doubts about his military abilities and the value of the Iroquois role in the victory.[62]

Johnson accompanied General Jeffrey Amherst in the final campaign of the war, the capture of Montreal in 1760. With the fall of New France to the British, Johnson and his deputy George Croghan spent much time negotiating with the former Indian allies of the French. In 1761, Johnson made a 1,000 mile (1,600 km) round trip to Detroit to hold a conference with the local Indians.[63] Johnson confronted the assembled chiefs about the anti-British rumors that were in circulation among the Natives, and managed, for the time being, to forestall outright resistance to the British military occupation of the west.[64]

Postwar land development

After the French and Indian War, Johnson hoped to concentrate on expanding and improving his land holdings.[65] In December 1760, the Mohawks of Canajoharie gave Johnson a tract of about 80,000 acres (320 km2) acres north of the Mohawk River.[66] This grant proved to be controversial, because other land speculators had already obtained licenses to purchase these lands when they became available, but Sir William had not.[67] In 1769, after years of maneuvering and lobbying, Johnson finally gained royal approval for the grant.[68] This was one of several large tracts of land that Johnson acquired from Native Americans using his position as a royal Indian agent. According to historian Julian Gwyn:

In all this he acted no differently from dozens of other speculators in Indian lands. He was distinguished only by the great advantages he possessed through his office and through his long intimacy with the Indians. He was indeed one of their principal exploiters....[51]

By the time of his death, Johnson had accumulated about 170,000 acres (690 km2)[69] and was the second-largest land owner in British America, surpassed only by the Penn family.

In 1762, Johnson founded the city of Johnstown about 25 miles (40 km) west of Schenectady, New York, on the Mohawk River. He named the new settlement, originally called John's Town, after his son John. There he established a free school for both British and Indian children.[70]

Johnson hosting an Indian conference at Johnson Hall (painting by E. L. Henry, 1903)

Outside the town in 1763 he built Johnson Hall, where he lived until his death. He recruited numerous Irish immigrant tenant farmers for his extensive lands, and lived essentially as a feudal landlord. Johnson's businesses, especially his lumber operations, benefited from the use of enslaved workers. As the largest slaveholder in the county and perhaps in the province, Johnson had some sixty slaves working for him.[71]

In 1766, Johnson formed a Freemason lodge at Johnson Hall and acted as the master. Sir William Johnson took the past master’s degree in 1766. Soon after he designated a lodge room at Johnson Hall. St. Patrick's Lodge, No. 4 was granted from the Provincial Grand Master of New York, dated May 23, 1766 with Sir William Johnson as master.[72] In 1771 Johnson built St. John's Episcopal Church but complained that it was "small and very ill built". Within five years, he arranged for a larger church of stone to be erected to accommodate the growing congregation in Johnstown.[73]

Pontiac's War and final years

In 1763, Pontiac's War resulted from Native American discontent with British policy following the French and Indian War. For several years prior to the uprising, Johnson had advised General Amherst against cutting back on the gifts to Native leaders that were so important in maintaining good relations with the Indians. Amherst, who rejected Johnson's advice, was recalled to London and replaced by General Thomas Gage. Amherst's recall strengthened Johnson's position, because a policy of compromise was required with the Indians, and this was Johnson's domain.

From July to August 1764, Johnson negotiated a treaty at Fort Niagara with about 2,000 Indians in attendance, primarily Iroquois. Although most Iroquois had stayed out of the war, Senecas from the Genesee River valley had taken up arms against the British, and Johnson worked to bring them back into the Covenant Chain alliance. Johnson even convinced the Iroquois to send a war party against the Indians involved in the uprising, but otherwise the Iroquois did not contribute to the war effort as much as Johnson had desired.[74]

Johnson was a proponent of the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which called for tighter imperial control of westward colonial expansion. Johnson negotiated the details of the boundary defined in the Fort Stanwix Treaty of 1768. Against instructions from London, Johnson pushed the boundary 400 miles (640 km) to the west, enabling him and other land speculators to acquire much more land than originally authorized by the British government. Johnson was strongly criticized for exceeding his instructions, but many of the land speculators were well-connected in the government, and so the expanded boundary was allowed to stand.

Native American discontent continued to grow in the west in the 1770s. Johnson spent his final years attempting to prevent another uprising like Pontiac's War. Pursuing a policy of divide and rule, he worked to block the emergence of inter-tribal Native American alliances. His final success was his isolation of the Shawnees before Dunmore's War in 1774.

Private life

In his lifetime, Johnson gained a reputation as an unusually promiscuous man who had numerous children with both European and Native American women.[75] One scholar estimated that Johnson had perhaps 100 illegitimate children,[76] but historian Francis Jennings argued that "there is no truth in wild stories that he slept with innumerable Mohawk women".[24] In his will, Johnson acknowledged children by two women—one German and the other Mohawk—and implicitly acknowledged several other children by unnamed mothers.

Sir John Johnson, 2nd Baronet

In 1739, shortly after arriving in America, William began a relationship with Catherine Weisenberg (c.1723–1759), an immigrant of German Palatine descent. She originally came to America as an indentured servant, but had run away, perhaps with the help of friends or relatives.[77] According to tradition, she was working for another family near Warrensburgh when Johnson purchased her contract, perhaps initially to serve as his housekeeper.[78] There is no record that the couple was ever formally married,[79] and so Weisenberg was Johnson's common law wife.[24] The couple had three children; their son John Johnson inherited his father's title and estates.[80]

At the same time Johnson was having children with Catherine Weisenberg, he was also in a relationship with Elizabeth Brant, a Mohawk woman by whom he had three children: Keghneghtago or Brant (born in 1742), Thomas (1744) and Christian (1745); the latter two boys died in infancy.[81] About 1750, Johnson had a son named Tagawirunta, also known as William of Canajoharie, by a Mohawk woman, possibly Elizabeth Brant's younger sister Margaret.[82] Johnson may have also been intimate with the sisters Susannah and Elizabeth Wormwood, and an Irish woman named Mary McGrath, by whom he appeared to have had a daughter named Mary.[83] Mary, Keghneghtago (Brant), and Tagawirunta (William) received inheritances in Johnson's will.[84]

In 1759, Johnson began a common-law relationship with the Molly Brant, a Mohawk woman who moved into Johnson Hall and lived with Johnson for the rest of his life. Molly was the sister of Joseph Brant; she brought Joseph to live with her and Johnson when he was young. Johnson's relationship with Molly gave him additional influence with the Mohawks. The couple had eight children, all of whom received land from Johnson in his will.[85]

Death and legacy

William Johnson died from a stroke at Johnson Hall on 11 July 1774 during an Indian conference. Guy Johnson, William's nephew and son-in-law, reported that Johnson died when he was "seized of a suffocation".[86] His funeral in Johnstown was attended by more than 2,000 people. His pallbearers included Governor William Franklin of New Jersey and the justices of the New York Supreme Court. He was buried beneath the altar in St. John's Anglican church, the church he founded in Johnstown. The next day chiefs of the Six Nations performed the traditional Iroquois condolence ceremony, and recognized Guy Johnson as Sir William's successor.[87]

During the American Revolution, the rebel New York legislature seized all of Johnson's lands and property, as his heirs were Loyalists. In 1960 Johnson Hall was named a National Historic Landmark. It is a designated New York State historic site and open to the public.



  1. ^ Flexner, 292.
  2. ^ O'Toole, 19.
  3. ^ O'Toole, 19–20.
  4. ^ O'Toole, 21.
  5. ^ Hamilton, xi–xii, 5; O'Toole, 37.
  6. ^ O'Toole, 25.
  7. ^ O'Toole, 36.
  8. ^ O'Toole, 38.
  9. ^ O'Toole, 37–38.
  10. ^ O'Toole, 41.
  11. ^ Hamilton, 36; O'Toole, 291.
  12. ^ O'Toole, 41–42.
  13. ^ O'Toole, 68.
  14. ^ O'Toole, 43.
  15. ^ O'Toole, 65.
  16. ^ O'Toole, 69.
  17. ^ O'Toole, 72.
  18. ^ O'Toole, 73; Hamilton, 55.
  19. ^ Shannon, 62.
  20. ^ Shannon, 122.
  21. ^ Hamilton, 56; O'Toole, 79.
  22. ^ O'Toole, 80–81.
  23. ^ O'Toole, 86.
  24. ^ a b c d e Francis Jennings. "Johnson, Sir William". American National Biography Online, February 2000.
  25. ^ Hamilton, 37; O'Toole, 110.
  26. ^ O'Toole, 161.
  27. ^ Hamilton, 41.
  28. ^ Hamilton, 69–70.
  29. ^ O'Toole, 89.
  30. ^ O'Toole, 90–95.
  31. ^ O'Toole, 123.
  32. ^ O'Toole, 96; Shannon, 103–5, 123.
  33. ^ Shannon, 138.
  34. ^ Shannon, 139–40.
  35. ^ Johnson Papers, vol. 2, v–xii, 160. See also Revealing the Light: Mezzotint Engravings at Georgetown University, from the Georgetown University Library.
  36. ^ Shannon, 143; O'Toole, 112.
  37. ^ O'Toole, 112–13.
  38. ^ Hamilton, 120.
  39. ^ Hamilton, 120–21; O'Toole, 129.
  40. ^ Hamilton, 132.
  41. ^ Hamilton, ch. 14, and 328–29.
  42. ^ O'Toole, 135.
  43. ^ Hamilton, 165; Flexner, 124; O'Toole, 142.
  44. ^ O'Toole, 142–43.
  45. ^ O'Toole, 146, 151.
  46. ^ Hamilton, 186; O'Toole, 152.
  47. ^ Hamilton, 190.
  48. ^ Hamilton, 194–95.
  49. ^ O'Toole, 152.
  50. ^ O'Toole, 149, 154–55.
  51. ^ a b Julian Gwyn, "Sir William Johnson", Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. University of Toronto Press, [1979].
  52. ^ O'Toole, 153–54.
  53. ^ O'Toole, 158–65.
  54. ^ Hamilton, 225; O'Toole, 188.
  55. ^ O'Toole, 189–90.
  56. ^ Hamilton, 233.
  57. ^ Hamilton, 236.
  58. ^ O'Toole, 239–40.
  59. ^ Hamilton, 241.
  60. ^ O'Toole, 203.
  61. ^ Flexner, 207; O'Toole, 205–6.
  62. ^ Hamilton, 261–62; Flexner, 215.
  63. ^ O'Toole, 221.
  64. ^ Hamilton, 283–96; O'Toole, 226–28.
  65. ^ Hamilton, 297.
  66. ^ Hamilton, 299, 376n18; O'Toole, 176–77.
  67. ^ Hamilton, 300.
  68. ^ Hamilton, 301.
  69. ^ O'Toole, 281–82.
  70. ^ Decker, 27.
  71. ^ Williams-Myers, 24; 29-30.
  72. ^ F.W. Beers & Co., 197.
  73. ^ Flexner, 301.
  74. ^ For Niagara treaty, see McConnell, A Country Between, 197–99; Dixon, Never Come to Peace, 219–20, 228; Dowd, War under Heaven, 151–53.
  75. ^ O'Toole, 104.
  76. ^ Paul A.W. Wallace, Conrad Weiser, 1696–1760: Friend of Colonist and Mohawk (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1945), 247, quoted in Jennings, Empire of Fortune, 77n13.
  77. ^ Hamilton, 33–34.
  78. ^ O'Toole, 44–46.
  79. ^ Hamilton, 34.
  80. ^ Pound, 48.
  81. ^ O'Toole, 105.
  82. ^ O'Toole, 106.
  83. ^ O'Toole, 106–8.
  84. ^ O'Toole, 106, 108.
  85. ^ O'Toole, 174.
  86. ^ O'Toole, 323.
  87. ^ O'Toole, 324. For more on Johnson's Iroquois funeral, see William N. Fenton, The Great Law and the Longhouse: a political history of the Iroquois Confederacy (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998; ISBN 0806130032), 570–72.


  • Decker, Lewis G. Images of America: Johnstown. Charlestown, SC: Arcadia, 1999. ISBN 0-7385-0174-3.
  • Hamilton, Milton W. Sir William Johnson: Colonial American, 1715–1763. Port Washington, New York: Kennikat Press, 1976. ISBN 0-8046-9134-7. The first of what was intended to be a two-volume biography; Hamilton never completed the second.
  • O'Toole, Fintan. White Savage: William Johnson and the Invention of America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005. ISBN 0-374-28128-9.
  • Williams-Myers, A. J. Long Hammering: Essays on the Forging of an African American Presence in the Hudson River Valley to the Early Twentieth Century. Africa World Press, Inc.; Trenton, NJ. 1994. ISBN 0-86543-303-8.
  • Flexner, James T. Mohawk Baronet: A Biography of Sir William Johnson. Originally published in 1959. Also published in 1979 as Lord of the Mohawks, ISBN 0316286095. Syracuse, New York: University of Syracuse, 1989. ISBN 0-8156-0239-1.
  • Illustrated history of Montgomery and Fulton Counties, N.Y. (1981). New York: F.W. Beers & Co. (Original work published 1878).
  • Jennings, Francis. Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies, and Tribes in the Seven Years War in America. New York: Norton, 1988. ISBN 0393306402.
  • Pound, Arthur. Johnson of the Mohawks. New York: Macmillan, 1930.
  • Shannon, Timothy J. Iroquois Diplomacy on the Early American Frontier. New York: Viking, 2008. ISBN 9780670018970.

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