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.Six Sigma is a business management strategy originally developed by Motorola, USA in 1981.[1] As of 2010, it enjoys widespread application in many sectors of industry, although its application is not without controversy.^ Six Sigma techniques for IT service management .
  • Six Sigma Techniques for IT Management - IT Management from eWeek 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.eweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Without this six sigma or lean will not be sustainable.
  • Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When practiced as a management system, Six Sigma is a high performance system for executing business strategy.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes.^ It seems clear that if software development is a manufacturing process and a business process, then we may be able to apply Six Sigma to improve quality.
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma (Quality control standard) .
  • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma is a toolkit of methods to reduce waste in business processes.
  • Six Sigma Training, Black Belt Course, Green Belt Course 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.saiglobal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .It uses a set of quality management methods, including statistical methods, and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization ("Black Belts", "Green Belts", etc.^ It is deployed throughout an organization using an army of champions and experts called "black belts," a title borrowed from their martial arts counterparts.
  • Six Sigma: Good Concept, Poor Metric 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.schneiderman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma is a quality improvement method that was developed in the 1980s that is used to help identify and reduce errors in all business processes.
  • Six Sigma Certification Remains Strong Throughout Recession | Search Journal 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC search.sys-con.com [Source type: General]

^ It is now very common to have Master Black Belts conducting and providing daily management for the program, with both Black Belts and Green Belts managing projects in their existing area of responsibility, and reporting to their existing managers.
  • Six Sigma - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) who are experts in these methods.[2] .Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of steps and has quantified targets.^ Six Sigma project definition .
  • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma is an organizational philosophy.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Committing resources to Six Sigma projects.
  • Six Sigma in a Globlal Sales Organization | SalesPerformance.com 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.salesperformance.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These targets can be financial (cost reduction or profit increase) or whatever is critical to the customer of that process (cycle time, safety, delivery, etc.^ It can be applied to the financial services industry very effectively," says Doug Sutton, president of Fidelity Wide Processing, where the methodology is delivering cost reductions and quality improvements in the range of 20 percent to 50 percent across the board.
  • Six Sigma for Better IT Operations and Customer Satisfaction - CIO.com - Business Technology Leadership 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.cio.com [Source type: General]

^ At the top level these are the main processes that enable the organization to add value to goods and services and supply them to customers.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This position will focus on business performance improvements that yield zero accidents, defect free products, on demand and on time delivery, at the lowest cost.
  • Lean Jobs - Six Sigma Jobs
    Executive Recruiters for Lean and Six Sigma
    28 January 2010 1:51 UTC leansixsigmajobs.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

).[2]

Contents

Historical overview

.Six Sigma originated as a set of practices designed to improve manufacturing processes and eliminate defects, but its application was subsequently extended to other types of business processes as well.^ Six Sigma is a toolkit of methods to reduce waste in business processes.
  • Six Sigma Training, Black Belt Course, Green Belt Course 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.saiglobal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It does not apply as well to other sorts of business processes.
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma projects can be defined as the process through which companies are able to reduce defects and improve the quality of business processes.
  • Six Sigma Blogs 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC sixsigmablogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .In Six Sigma, a defect is defined as any process output that does not meet customer specifications, or that could lead to creating an output that does not meet customer specifications.^ But its definitely not a Six Sigma-specific problem.
  • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

^ "I am looking for the Six Sigma implementation process."
  • Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main focus of SIX sigma is on reducing defects and variations in the processes.

[2]
.Bill Smith first formulated the particulars of the methodology at Motorola in 1986.[4] Six Sigma was heavily inspired by six preceding decades of quality improvement methodologies such as quality control, TQM, and Zero Defects,[5][6] based on the work of pioneers such as Shewhart, Deming, Juran, Ishikawa, Taguchi and others.^ Six Sigma was pioneered by Bill Smith at Motorola in 1986 [1] .
  • Six Sigma - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First and simply, Six Sigma is a quality improvement methodology.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma is a business improvement methodology that focuses an organization on: .
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Like its predecessors, Six Sigma doctrine asserts that:
  • Continuous efforts to achieve stable and predictable process results (i.e., reduce process variation) are of vital importance to business success.
  • Manufacturing and business processes have characteristics that can be measured, analyzed, improved and controlled.
  • Achieving sustained quality improvement requires commitment from the entire organization, particularly from top-level management.
Features that set Six Sigma apart from previous quality improvement initiatives include:
.
  • A clear focus on achieving measurable and quantifiable financial returns from any Six Sigma project.^ Six Sigma project definition .
    • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ To model a Six Sigma Project organization .

    ^ Six Sigma initiatives and projects have a direct, measurable financial focus and impact.
    • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [2]
  • An increased emphasis on strong and passionate management leadership and support.[2]
  • .
  • A special infrastructure of "Champions," "Master Black Belts," "Black Belts," "Yellow Belts", etc.^ The Master Black Belt is mentor, trainer and coach in the Six Sigma organization.
    • Six Sigma@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A black belt , I should add, generally means you've mastered the basics of an art and are ready to move on to deeper understanding.
    • Six Sigma@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ DFSS595: DFSS Master Black Belt Certification .
    • LSS Lean Six Sigma Training & Certification - Industrial 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sigmapro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    to lead and implement the .Six Sigma approach.^ Six Sigma™, as a business-level strategy, is a “re-labeling” of the approach used by Motorola, Inc.
    • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Six Sigma Academy , a Motorola spin-off, provides consulting service to many of the leading practitioners of this approach.
    • Six Sigma: Good Concept, Poor Metric 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.schneiderman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I learned that what had disappeared was not the Lean Six Sigma approach.
    • Lean Six Sigma Training and Certification « Pyzdek Institute 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmatraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [2]
  • .
  • A clear commitment to making decisions on the basis of verifiable data, rather than assumptions and guesswork.^ What makes Six Sigma powerful in business turnaround situations is its drive to make decisions based on data.

    ^ Let's modify the flowchart a bit to make it clear that we are considering ideas for business process improvement as candidates for Six Sigma, rather than just any and all project ideas: .
    • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It may mean nothing more than we "know" we have to apply another decision-making approach to the problem.
    • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [2]
.The term "Six Sigma" comes from a field of statistics known as process capability studies.^ Where does the name Six Sigma come from?
  • Six Sigma@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Measure Phase - How to measure process capability on Six Sigma scale .

^ Six sigma terms & definitions .
  • learnsigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC learnsigma.com [Source type: General]

.Originally, it referred to the ability of manufacturing processes to produce a very high proportion of output within specification.^ Question – I can understand how this relates to Manufacturing, but not IT. For example, I can appreciate what a Defect is in the manufacturing process, but what could a Defect be in IT? Answer – This is a very important point.
  • Six Sigma & ITIL® - E-Quant - IT Service Management and Consultancy 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.e-quant.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Key within this phase is the need to carefully measure the output from the process to ensure that the defined CTQs of the process are (Critical to Quality elements) being captured, measured and achieved.
  • Six Sigma & ITIL® - E-Quant - IT Service Management and Consultancy 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.e-quant.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When it occurs at all, process capture is likely to be very procedural in focus and contained within a particular department.
  • An article by JLTalley 15 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.jltalley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Processes that operate with "six sigma quality" over the short term are assumed to produce long-term defect levels below 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO).^ Six Sigma (Quality control standard) .
  • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma levels .
  • Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then there's the defect-per-million opportunity (DPMO), which managers can use to apply Six Sigma thinking to any business process.

[7][8] .Six Sigma's implicit goal is to improve all processes to that level of quality or better.^ Six Sigma (Quality control standard) .
  • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma levels .
  • Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Is it possible to use Six Sigma to improve the quality of R&D processes?
  • Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Six Sigma is a registered service mark and trademark of Motorola Inc.^ Six Sigma is a trademark of Motorola Inc.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma™ is a re-labeling of the approach used by Motorola Inc.
  • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, Motorola continues to implement Six Sigma throughout its own enterprise, and extends the benefit of its Six Sigma expertise to other organizations worldwide through Motorola University.
  • About Motorola University: The Inventors of Six Sigma 15 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.motorola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .As of 2006 Motorola reported over US$17 billion in savings[10] from Six Sigma.^ Six Sigma is a trademark of Motorola Inc.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Motorola , the place where Six Sigma began, saved $2.2 billion in a fouryear time frame.
  • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, Motorola continues to implement Six Sigma throughout its own enterprise, and extends the benefit of its Six Sigma expertise to other organizations worldwide through Motorola University.
  • About Motorola University: The Inventors of Six Sigma 15 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.motorola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other early adopters of Six Sigma who achieved well-publicized success include Honeywell (previously known as AlliedSignal) and General Electric, where Jack Welch introduced the method.^ Six Sigma and other programs typically show early progress.
  • Why Six Sigma Projects Often Fail - WSJ.com 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ Others are used in a general 'quality management' context and also in Six Sigma.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We say a process has achieved six sigma if the quality is 3.4 DPMO (Defect per Million opportunities).

[11] .By the late 1990s, about two-thirds of the Fortune 500 organizations had begun Six Sigma initiatives with the aim of reducing costs and improving quality.^ Six Sigma (Quality control standard) .
  • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma is an organizational philosophy.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By applying the concepts of Six Sigma, compliance can be improved and operating costs reduced.
  • Six Sigma | Resource Library 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.In recent years, some practitioners have combined Six Sigma ideas with lean manufacturing to yield a methodology named Lean Six Sigma.^ Without this six sigma or lean will not be sustainable.
  • Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lean and Six Sigma are now balanced?
  • learnsigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC learnsigma.com [Source type: General]

^ Six Sigma's value is not limited to manufacturers.
  • 'Six Sigma' Web Marketing - ClickZ 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.clickz.com [Source type: General]

Methods

.Six Sigma projects follow two project methodologies inspired by Deming's Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle.^ Six Sigma project definition .
  • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It provides an overview of the Six Sigma methodology, then builds on these concepts with further detail relating to Management, Training, Projects and Metrics.
  • Amazon.com: Six Sigma Deployment : A Guide for Implementing Six Sigma in Your Organization (9780930011840): Paul A. Keller: Books 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Whatever, the idea is a sound one, in that A is a multiplier and should along with Q should be assessed in simple terms at the early phase of a Six Sigma project.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These methodologies, comprising five phases each, bear the acronyms DMAIC and DMADV.[12]
.
  • DMAIC is used for projects aimed at improving an existing business process.^ Generally DMAIC is used for existing processes and DFSS for new ones."
    • Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Compare the way an Agile software development project typically runs with the way Six Sigma approaches the problem of improving an existing business process.
    • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Improving business processes is not about automating every process, it’s about identifying and improving the ones that are critical to the success of the organization: a philosophy that will be familiar to Six Sigma and other quality advocates.
    • Column 2 : Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.column2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [12]
  • .
  • DMADV is used for projects aimed at creating new product or process designs.^ This is the focal point of using Six Sigma to improve performance: the design, characterization, optimization, and validation of processes.
    • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Juran "...stressed the importance of systems thinking that begins with product designs, prototype testing, proper equipment operations, and accurate process feedback.
    • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ DMADV The most popular Six Sigma framework used within DFSS projects.
    • Motorola University Six Sigma Dictionary 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.motorola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Motorola University Six Sigma Dictionary 15 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.motorola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [12]

DMAIC

The DMAIC project methodology has five phases:
.
  • Define the problem, the voice of the customer, and the project goals, specifically.
  • Measure key aspects of the current process and collect relevant data.
  • Analyze the data to investigate and verify cause-and-effect relationships.^ Understanding and managing customer requirements Aligning key business processes to achieve those requirements Utilizing rigorous data analysis to minimize variation in those processes Driving rapid and sustainable improvement to business processes At the heart of the methodology is the DMAIC model for process improvement.
    • Motorola University What is Six Sigma? 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.motorola.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ In a limited domain such as a manufacturing process, it makes perfect sense to gain a thorough understanding of cause and effect.
    • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rob presented an outstanding discussion on deploying Voice of the Customer (VOC) analytics to drive business performance and enhance the process of Six Sigma project selection.
    • Visual Six Sigma - JMP® Blog 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC blogs.sas.com [Source type: General]

    Determine what the relationships are, and attempt to ensure that all factors have been considered. .Seek out root cause of the defect under investigation.
  • Improve or optimize the current process based upon data analysis using techniques such as design of experiments, poka yoke or mistake proofing, and standard work to create a new, future state process.^ Design of Experiments with Optimization This model demonstrates the use of RISKOptimizer in experimental design.
    • Industry Models: @RISK and RISKOptimizer for Six Sigma in Various Industries - Palisade 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.palisade.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Team members collected data on their current working environment and, with the help of the Six Sigma expert, identified the changes they most needed to make to achieve their stated goal—say, a reduction in the rate of defects in manufactured parts or fewer mistakes in order writing and billing.
    • Why Six Sigma Projects Often Fail - WSJ.com 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Many companies have embraced Six Sigma, a quality-control system designed to tackle problems such as production defects, and lean manufacturing, which aims to remove all processes that don't add value to the final product.
    • Why Six Sigma Projects Often Fail - WSJ.com 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

    .Set up pilot runs to establish process capability.
  • Control the future state process to ensure that any deviations from target are corrected before they result in defects.^ In fact, once they are set up, they save loads of time: Salespeople become immediately more productive because they can focus on the right prospects.

    ^ The design of the product is finalized before the production line is set up for the simple reason that the widgets are real objects.
    • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ View PDF If your current process capability runs at 1 Sigma, then that effectively means you have two defects (unusable products) out of every 3 parts.
    • » Improve Process Control with Six Sigma Tools 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.bizmanualz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Control systems are implemented such as statistical process control, production boards, and visual workplaces and the process is continuously monitored.

DMADV

The DMADV project methodology, also known as DFSS ("Design For Six Sigma"),[12] features five phases:
.
  • Define design goals that are consistent with customer demands and the enterprise strategy.
  • Measure and identify CTQs (characteristics that are Critical To Quality), product capabilities, production process capability, and risks.
  • Analyze to develop and design alternatives, create a high-level design and evaluate design capability to select the best design.
  • Design details, optimize the design, and plan for design verification.^ The processes are not designed for high volume.
    • An article by JLTalley 15 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.jltalley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Critical characteristics in the product, process or service are identified using CTx notation: Critical-to-quality characteristics are designated CTQ; critical-to-cost, CTC; and critical-to-schedule, CTS. This classification scheme, combined with the TOC, can help focus Six Sigma projects by defining project deliverables in terms of their impact on one or more CTx characteristics.
    • Lean Six Sigma Training and Certification « Pyzdek Institute 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmatraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Process (re)design is required when an organization does not have the existing capabilities to meet customer needs in developing new products or services.
    • Six Sigma Business Performance Improvement 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC statsixsigma.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This phase may require simulations.
  • Verify the design, set up pilot runs, implement the production process and hand it over to the process owner(s).

Quality management tools and methods used in Six Sigma

.Within the individual phases of a DMAIC or DMADV project, Six Sigma utilizes many established quality-management tools that are also used outside of Six Sigma.^ DMADV The most popular Six Sigma framework used within DFSS projects.
  • Motorola University Six Sigma Dictionary 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.motorola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Motorola University Six Sigma Dictionary 15 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.motorola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any analytical tool can be included within Six Sigma implementation.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use the right tool for the job, and Six Sigma is not always going to be the right tool.
  • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

.The following table shows an overview of the main methods used.^ Table 1 shows how this information can be used.
  • Lean Six Sigma Training and Certification « Pyzdek Institute 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmatraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further analysis using nonparametric methods indicated that there are three distinct groups in these data (see Table 3).
  • Lean Six Sigma Training and Certification « Pyzdek Institute 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmatraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Implementation roles

.One key innovation of Six Sigma involves the "professionalizing" of quality management functions.^ Six Sigma (Quality control standard) .
  • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lean and Six Sigma are integrated into the quality management process.
  • Six Sigma Business Performance Improvement 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC statsixsigma.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others are used in a general 'quality management' context and also in Six Sigma.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prior to Six Sigma, quality management in practice was largely relegated to the production floor and to statisticians in a separate quality department.^ Lean and Six Sigma are integrated into the quality management process.
  • Six Sigma Business Performance Improvement 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC statsixsigma.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others are used in a general 'quality management' context and also in Six Sigma.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many companies have embraced Six Sigma, a quality-control system designed to tackle problems such as production defects, and lean manufacturing, which aims to remove all processes that don't add value to the final product.
  • Why Six Sigma Projects Often Fail - WSJ.com 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.Formal Six Sigma programs borrow martial arts ranking terminology to define a hierarchy (and career path) that cuts across all business functions.^ Why use Six Sigma at all?
  • Six Sigma & ITIL® - E-Quant - IT Service Management and Consultancy 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.e-quant.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma is not an end-all, be-all solution.
  • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

^ That's why investing in Six Sigma programs is increasingly considered a mission-critical best practice, even among mid-sized and smaller firms.
  • About Motorola University: The Inventors of Six Sigma 15 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.motorola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Six Sigma identifies several key roles for its successful implementation.^ "I am looking for the Six Sigma implementation process."
  • Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Toyota, GM, and Ford are experts in state of the art assembly technology and in implementing Lean and Six Sigma process improvement methods and so on.
  • Six Sigma | Lean Six Sigma Academy 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC lssacademy.com [Source type: General]

^ If you're ready to make sense of key Six Sigma terminology and acronyms, look no further than this Six Sigma Dictionary.
  • Motorola University Six Sigma Dictionary 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.motorola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Motorola University Six Sigma Dictionary 15 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.motorola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.
  • Executive Leadership includes the CEO and other members of top management.^ Noble has over 20 years of executive leadership experience in manufacturing, supply chain management, distribution, and executive search.
    • Lean Jobs - Six Sigma Jobs
      Executive Recruiters for Lean and Six Sigma
      28 January 2010 1:51 UTC leansixsigmajobs.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Typical participants include Executives, Directors, Senior Managers, Operations Managers, Senior Technologists, Design and Process Engineers, Master Black Belts, Black Belts and Green Belts from industrial organizations.
    • LSS Lean Six Sigma Training & Certification - Industrial 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sigmapro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Because top executives were paying close attention to the project at this stage, managers made clear to employees that the improvement initiative was their top priority.
    • Why Six Sigma Projects Often Fail - WSJ.com 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

    .They are responsible for setting up a vision for Six Sigma implementation.^ So what the heck is up with Six Sigma?
    • Six Sigma@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Six Sigma Implementation model .
    • Six Sigma – Quality Associates International – QAI 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.quality-one.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They then say they were successful in implementing Six Sigma.

    .They also empower the other role holders with the freedom and resources to explore new ideas for breakthrough improvements.
  • Champions take responsibility for Six Sigma implementation across the organization in an integrated manner.^ Six Sigma is a business improvement methodology that focuses an organization on: .
    • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Supporting organizations implementing Six Sigma and Lean Sigma.
    • The Sixth Sigma - Lean Six Sigma Supply Chain Management 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.sixthsigma.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Six Sigma Articles & News [46] .
    • Six Sigma Companies.com - The Six Sigma Scoop on the Fortune 500 and Global 500 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmacompanies.com [Source type: General]
    • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

    .The Executive Leadership draws them from upper management.^ Noble has over 20 years of executive leadership experience in manufacturing, supply chain management, distribution, and executive search.
    • Lean Jobs - Six Sigma Jobs
      Executive Recruiters for Lean and Six Sigma
      28 January 2010 1:51 UTC leansixsigmajobs.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Champions also act as mentors to Black Belts.
  • Master Black Belts, identified by champions, act as in-house coaches on Six Sigma.^ Responsible for coaching/mentoring/training Black Belts and for helping the Six Sigma leader and Champions keep the initiative on track.
    • Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The main role of Master Black belt is to train, mentor and guide.

    ^ Six Sigma Master Black Belt Certification preferred / Black Belt Certification required at a minimum.
    • Lean Jobs - Six Sigma Jobs
      Executive Recruiters for Lean and Six Sigma
      28 January 2010 1:51 UTC leansixsigmajobs.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma.^ They devote 100% of their time to the method.
    • Six Sigma: Evaluating your options (DMAIC, DMADV) 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma.
    • Six Sigma - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It's no secret that service environments, such as financial organizations, healthcare providers, retail companies, and hospitality organizations have a harder time applying Six Sigma principles.
    • Six Sigma 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Why Six Sigma Will Work in Service Environments 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC ezinearticles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They assist champions and guide Black Belts and Green Belts.^ They regularly meet with black belt and green belt training and mentor them.
    • Six Sigma Tutorials, Six Sigma Certification - Green Belt, Black Belt and Master Black Belt help. 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmahelp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Champions also act as mentor to Black Belts.
    • Six Sigma - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The students do not have to take the yellow belt but they do have to take the Green Belt before the Black Belt.
    • Wichita Area Technical College in Kansas [Business & Industry - Six Sigma Training] 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.watc.edu [Source type: News]

    .Apart from statistical tasks, they spend their time on ensuring consistent application of Six Sigma across various functions and departments.
  • Black Belts operate under Master Black Belts to apply Six Sigma methodology to specific projects.^ Will they engage in Six Sigma projects on a full-time or part-time basis?
    • Six Sigma | Resource Library 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But its definitely not a Six Sigma-specific problem.
    • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Lean Six Sigma is not gaining "black belt" certification ...
    • The Sixth Sigma - Lean Six Sigma Supply Chain Management 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.sixthsigma.com [Source type: Academic]

    .They devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma.^ They devote 100% of their time to the method.
    • Six Sigma: Evaluating your options (DMAIC, DMADV) 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma.
    • Six Sigma - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It's no secret that service environments, such as financial organizations, healthcare providers, retail companies, and hospitality organizations have a harder time applying Six Sigma principles.
    • Six Sigma 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Why Six Sigma Will Work in Service Environments 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC ezinearticles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    They primarily focus on Six Sigma project execution, whereas Champions and Master Black Belts focus on identifying projects/functions for Six Sigma.
  • Green Belts, the employees who take up Six Sigma implementation along with their other job responsibilities, operate under the guidance of Black Belts.
  • Yellow Belts, trained in the basic application of Six Sigma management tools, work with the Black Belt throughout the project stages and are often the closest to the work.

Certification

In the United States. .Six Sigma certification for both green and black belts is offered by the Institute of Industrial Engineers[14] and by the American Society for Quality.^ Tags: black belt , black belts , certification , green belts , master black belt , Projects , quality engineers , quality profession , sigma black belt , Six Sigma Tools , six-sigma , statistical methods Posted in Introduction to Six Sigma .
  • Lean Six Sigma Training and Certification « Pyzdek Institute 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmatraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma Master Black Belt Certification preferred / Black Belt Certification required at a minimum.
  • Lean Jobs - Six Sigma Jobs
    Executive Recruiters for Lean and Six Sigma
    28 January 2010 1:51 UTC leansixsigmajobs.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lean Six Sigma is not gaining "black belt" certification ...
  • The Sixth Sigma - Lean Six Sigma Supply Chain Management 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.sixthsigma.com [Source type: Academic]

[15]

Origin and meaning of the term "six sigma process"

.Graph of the normal distribution, which underlies the statistical assumptions of the Six Sigma model.^ The Wikipedia entry about Six Sigma offers the following explanation of the scientific statistical basis of the method: .
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on painstaking data collection, elaborate mathematical formulas, and arcane statistical methods, Six Sigma certainly has the look and smell.
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next, we will compare the purpose, benefits, contents, and methods of Six Sigma™ and Kaizen at the event (or project) level and Six Sigma™ and Lean at the business model level.
  • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Greek letter σ (sigma) marks the distance on the horizontal axis between the mean, µ, and the curve's inflection point, in this case σ=1. The distance is equally distributed horizontally to both sides of the mean µ as: [µ - σ/2, µ + σ/2].^ Sigma is Greek for the letter 'S', and the term 'sigma' has been used for many years by statisticians, mathematicians and engineers, as a measurement unit of statistical variation.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sounds like the English word six was chosen to alliterate with the word sigma and because the Arabic numeral 6 looks pretty next to the Greek letter σ.
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To me, a poor Six Sigma deployment (which I think is what you were both alluding to) does not mean that Six Sigma is a bad program.
  • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

The greater this distance, the greater is the spread of values encountered. For the curve shown above, µ = 0 and σ = 1. .The upper and lower specification limits (USL, LSL) are at a distance of 6σ from the mean.^ Upper and lower statistical control limits that define the constraints of common cause variations.
  • Lean Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In practice, the principle of six standard deviations of quality between the upper and lower specification limits is often not applied with mathematical rigor.
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of the properties of the normal distribution, values lying that far away from the mean are extremely unlikely.^ I add that +/- 3 standard deviations from the mean equates to approximately 99.6% of the population within the normal distribution."
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High volume environments can get away with some things you can't, because your products are far too valuable to discard as defects.
  • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

^ It has been around in principle for several centuries, e.g., Abraham de Moivre (1773) when he identified the normal distribution of factors around the mean.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even if the mean were to move right or left by 1.5σ at some point in the future (1.5 sigma shift), there is still a good safety cushion.^ Even this cursory summary of the essential tenets of 6-Sigma reveals some useful clues about why it might stumble.
  • An article by JLTalley 15 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.jltalley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would like to say at this point that there are thousands of people out there who know a great deal about Six Sigma.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some said, if you weren't going to do it right - meaning, in strict emulation of the Toyota Production System or Motorola, then you shouldn't bother to do it at all.
  • Six Sigma Blogs at the iSixSigma Blogosphere 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

This is why Six Sigma aims to have processes where the mean is at least 6σ away from the nearest specification limit.
.The term "six sigma process" comes from the notion that if one has six standard deviations between the process mean and the nearest specification limit, as shown in the graph, practically no items will fail to meet specifications.^ Interface between OD and Six Sigma .
  • Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma (Quality control standard) .
  • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overall interdependencies in processes - The standard Six Sigma toolbox has no way of showing the interdependencies between one area of the process and another.
  • Lean Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .This is based on the calculation method employed in process capability studies.^ Instead I started developing graphic methods based on historical layer process metrics and yield and speed results.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on the preceding discussion, any process that is both a business process and a manufacturing process may benefit from the Six Sigma method of quality control.
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "According to many, Six Sigma is based on Statistical Process Control (SPC), a method of visually monitoring production processes.
  • Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Capability studies measure the number of standard deviations between the process mean and the nearest specification limit in sigma units.^ Six sigma is not six standard deviations from the mean.
  • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its objective is to reduce output variability through process improvement, and/or to increase customer specification limits through design for producibility (DfP), so that these specification limits lie at more than "six" standard deviations, or sigma's, from the process mean (I'll explain the quotation marks later).
  • Six Sigma | Resource Library 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is often a cultural conflict between adaptive/Agile software groups and process improvement groups in organizations that are trying to implement a method such as Six Sigma.
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As process standard deviation goes up, or the mean of the process moves away from the center of the tolerance, fewer standard deviations will fit between the mean and the nearest specification limit, decreasing the sigma number and increasing the likelihood of items outside specification.^ Six sigma is not six standard deviations from the mean.
  • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its objective is to reduce output variability through process improvement, and/or to increase customer specification limits through design for producibility (DfP), so that these specification limits lie at more than "six" standard deviations, or sigma's, from the process mean (I'll explain the quotation marks later).
  • Six Sigma | Resource Library 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma™ refers both to a comprehensive strategy for implementing the Quality Model and to the limited activity of improving a business process.
  • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]

Role of the 1.5 sigma shift

.Experience has shown that in the long term, processes usually do not perform as well as they do in the short.^ Anyone considering adopting some version of process improvement would do well to include these basics even if they adapt the application or the tool kit.
  • An article by JLTalley 15 September 2009 4:29 UTC www.jltalley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Process Management infrastructure is a closed-loop, continuous process that can’t be accidentally discontinued if temporarily side-lined by short-term business priorities.
  • Six Sigma Business Performance Improvement 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC statsixsigma.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, if we measure 3451 defects in a billion opportunities, only one of them was caused by short-term process variability.
  • Six Sigma | Resource Library 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .As a result, the number of sigmas that will fit between the process mean and the nearest specification limit may well drop over time, compared to an initial short-term study.^ It seems clear that if software development is a manufacturing process and a business process, then we may be able to apply Six Sigma to improve quality.
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When an organization decides to implement Six Sigma, first the executive team has to decide the strategy - which might typically be termed an improvement initiative , and this base strategy should focus on the essential processes necessary to meet customer expectations .
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Process Management infrastructure is a closed-loop, continuous process that can’t be accidentally discontinued if temporarily side-lined by short-term business priorities.
  • Six Sigma Business Performance Improvement 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC statsixsigma.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .To account for this real-life increase in process variation over time, an empirically-based 1.5 sigma shift is introduced into the calculation.^ Sigma is a statistical measure of variation in a process.

^ A seismometer to calculate the true sigma shift (what?
  • Six Sigma Blogs at the iSixSigma Blogosphere 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

^ The nature of Lean Six Sigma’s change agent infrastructure is such that the personnel involved in the program full time are routinely cycled back into the organization.
  • Lean Six Sigma Training and Certification « Pyzdek Institute 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmatraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8][16] .According to this idea, a process that fits six sigmas between the process mean and the nearest specification limit in a short-term study will in the long term only fit 4.5 sigmas – either because the process mean will move over time, or because the long-term standard deviation of the process will be greater than that observed in the short term, or both.^ Interface between OD and Six Sigma .
  • Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figure 2: Does Six Sigma fit a business process improvement idea?
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But its definitely not a Six Sigma-specific problem.
  • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

[8]
.Hence the widely accepted definition of a six sigma process as one that produces 3.4 defective parts per million opportunities (DPMO).^ Then there's the defect-per-million opportunity (DPMO), which managers can use to apply Six Sigma thinking to any business process.

^ In this way, defect levels should be below 3.4 "defects per million opportunities" for a defect, or "dpmo" for short.
  • Six Sigma | Resource Library 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But its definitely not a Six Sigma-specific problem.
  • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

.This is based on the fact that a process that is normally distributed will have 3.4 parts per million beyond a point that is 4.5 standard deviations above or below the mean (one-sided capability study).^ Below is the formula for Standard deviation.

^ Six sigma is not six standard deviations from the mean.
  • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, when we hear that a six sigma process will produce 3.4 parts-per-million (PPM) failures, we find that this PPM corresponds to the area in the tail beyond 4.5 standard deviations above the mean for a normal distribution.
  • Lean Six Sigma Training and Certification « Pyzdek Institute 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmatraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .So the 3.4 DPMO of a "Six Sigma" process in fact corresponds to 4.5 sigmas, namely 6 sigmas minus the 1.5 sigma shift introduced to account for long-term variation.^ Shift happens: Long-term variation .
  • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I am looking for the Six Sigma implementation process."
  • Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Toyota, GM, and Ford are experts in state of the art assembly technology and in implementing Lean and Six Sigma process improvement methods and so on.
  • Six Sigma | Lean Six Sigma Academy 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC lssacademy.com [Source type: General]

[8] . .The theory behind this is that over a longer period of time there are likely to be special causes that do not accurately reflect the behaviour of the process/business.^ Over two-thirds of Fortune 500 companies employ Six Sigma professionals to help them identify and repair the cause of defects in business and manufacturing processes.
  • Six Sigma Online Certification Programs – Six Sigma, Green Belt, Black Belt & Lean Six Sigma Training – Villanova University Online 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.usnewsuniversitydirectory.com [Source type: News]

^ In addition to the core business processes that serve the customer, there are internal enabling processes that can affect overall performance.
  • Six Sigma | Resource Library 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts are uncertain, values are in dispute, stakes are high, decisions are urgent, and there is simply no time to follow a time-consuming, rigorous, "heavyweight" process.
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These special causes are likely to have an effect of deteriorating process performance This is designed to prevent underestimation of the defect levels likely to be encountered in real-life operation.^ This is the focal point of using Six Sigma to improve performance: the design, characterization, optimization, and validation of processes.
  • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Juran "...stressed the importance of systems thinking that begins with product designs, prototype testing, proper equipment operations, and accurate process feedback.
  • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a limited domain such as a manufacturing process, it makes perfect sense to gain a thorough understanding of cause and effect.
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]

Sigma levels

.
A control chart depicting a process that experienced a 1.5 sigma drift in the process mean toward the upper specification limit starting at midnight.
^ If a marketing process is broken, incapable or out of control, then use one of the traditional Six Sigma approaches to improve or re-design it.
  • Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma™ refers both to a comprehensive strategy for implementing the Quality Model and to the limited activity of improving a business process.
  • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Motorola discovered that its processes weren’t in statistical control–estimates based on field failure data indicated that Motorola’s processes apparently drifted by an average of 1.5 standard deviations.
  • Lean Six Sigma Training and Certification « Pyzdek Institute 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmatraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Control charts are used to maintain 6 sigma quality by signaling when quality professionals should investigate a process to find and eliminate special-cause variation.
.The table[17][18] below gives long-term DPMO values corresponding to various short-term sigma levels.^ It's trivial to determine the dpmo value, but what is the corresponding sigma value?
  • Six Sigma | Resource Library 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Short-term variation .
  • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shift happens: Long-term variation .
  • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Note that these figures assume that the process mean will shift by 1.5 sigma toward the side with the critical specification limit.^ The central idea behind Six Sigma is that if you can measure how many 'defects' you have in a process, you can systematically figure out how to eliminate them and get as close to 'zero defects' as possible.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figure 2: Does Six Sigma fit a business process improvement idea?
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma™ refers both to a comprehensive strategy for implementing the Quality Model and to the limited activity of improving a business process.
  • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In other words, they assume that after the initial study determining the short-term sigma level, the long-term Cpk value will turn out to be 0.5 less than the short-term Cpk value.^ If they do, the chef assumes that the patrons like the taste of the peas better with the new recipe than with the old recipe.
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, if we measure 3451 defects in a billion opportunities, only one of them was caused by short-term process variability.
  • Six Sigma | Resource Library 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Craig Kent Gygi began studying and applying the elements of Six Sigma well before they were formalized into today’s renowned breakthrough methodology.
  • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So, for example, the DPMO figure given for 1 sigma assumes that the long-term process mean will be 0.5 sigma beyond the specification limit (Cpk = –0.17), rather than 1 sigma within it, as it was in the short-term study (Cpk = 0.33).^ We are told that there is a typical 1.5 sigma long-term drift in most process means.
  • Six Sigma | Resource Library 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The central idea behind Six Sigma is that if you can measure how many 'defects' you have in a process, you can systematically figure out how to eliminate them and get as close to 'zero defects' as possible.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With Six Sigma methodology, however, if the process drifts by 1.5 standard deviations, the level of quality will remain within 3.4 DPMO. .
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Note that the defect percentages only indicate defects exceeding the specification limit to which the process mean is nearest.^ In other words, if we measure 3451 defects in a billion opportunities, only one of them was caused by short-term process variability.
  • Six Sigma | Resource Library 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acceptable Quality Level (ACL) means the same basically, in more formal Six Sigma-speak, and which will frequently be expressed in terms of percentage defects.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is based on the gap between current performance and zero defects rather than the process's limiting value.
  • Six Sigma | Resource Library 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Defects beyond the far specification limit are not included in the percentages.^ If a response time is beyond the limit, then it is a defect.
  • Six Sigma 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sigma level DPMO Percent defective Percentage yield Short-term Cpk Long-term Cpk
1 691,462 69% 31% 0.33 –0.17
2 308,538 31% 69% 0.67 0.17
3 66,807 6.7% 93.3% 1.00 0.5
4 6,210 0.62% 99.38% 1.33 0.83
5 233 0.023% 99.977% 1.67 1.17
6 3.4 0.00034% 99.99966% 2.00 1.5
7 0.019 0.0000019% 99.9999981% 2.33 1.83

Software used for Six Sigma

List of Six Sigma companies

Criticism

Lack of originality

.Noted quality expert Joseph M. Juran has described Six Sigma as "a basic version of quality improvement", stating that "[t]here is nothing new there.^ First and simply, Six Sigma is a quality improvement methodology.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six Sigma Articles & News [46] .
  • Six Sigma Blogs at the iSixSigma Blogosphere 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]
  • Six Sigma Companies.com - The Six Sigma Scoop on the Fortune 500 and Global 500 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmacompanies.com [Source type: General]
  • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

^ Toyota, GM, and Ford are experts in state of the art assembly technology and in implementing Lean and Six Sigma process improvement methods and so on.
  • Six Sigma | Lean Six Sigma Academy 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC lssacademy.com [Source type: General]

It includes what we used to call facilitators. They've adopted more flamboyant terms, like belts with different colors. I think that concept has merit to set apart, to create specialists who can be very helpful. Again, that's not a new idea. The American Society for Quality long ago established certificates, such as for reliability engineers."[19]

Role of consultants

.The use of "Black Belts" as itinerant change agents has (controversially) fostered a cottage industry of training and certification.^ Formal Lean Six Sigma Green Belt certification is granted upon completion of the training course, completion of a Lean Six Sigma project, and review of the project results by the SigmaPro instructor.
  • LSS Lean Six Sigma Training & Certification - Industrial 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sigmapro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An optional Lean Six Sigma Industrial Black Belt examination may be given at the close of the training.
  • LSS Lean Six Sigma Training & Certification - Industrial 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sigmapro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because master black belts train black belts, they must know everything the black belts know, as well as understand the mathematical theory on which the statistical methods are based.
  • Lean Six Sigma Training and Certification « Pyzdek Institute 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmatraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Critics argue there is overselling of Six Sigma by too great a number of consulting firms, many of which claim expertise in Six Sigma when they only have a rudimentary understanding of the tools and techniques involved.^ Why is there a need to argue the 'nuts and bolts' of six sigma?
  • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

^ While Six Sigma implementation continues apace in many of the world's largest corporations, many organizations and suppliers in the consulting and training communities have also seized on the Six Sigma concept, to package and provide all sorts of Six Sigma 'branded' training products and consultancy and services.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are a lot of bad tailors out there, just like there are a lot of terrible Six Sigma courses.
  • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

[2]

Potential negative effects

A Fortune article stated that "of 58 large companies that have announced Six Sigma programs, 91 percent have trailed the S&P 500 since". The statement is attributed to "an analysis by Charles Holland of consulting firm Qualpro (which espouses a competing quality-improvement process)."[20] The summary of the article is that Six Sigma is effective at what it is intended to do, but that it is "narrowly designed to fix an existing process" and does not help in "coming up with new products or disruptive technologies." .Advocates of Six Sigma have argued that many of these claims are in error or ill-informed.^ Many of these terms are very specifically related to Six Sigma.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are some the large US corporations referenced by Motorola Inc that have used Six Sigma.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The central idea behind Six Sigma is that if you can measure how many 'defects' you have in a process, you can systematically figure out how to eliminate them and get as close to 'zero defects' as possible.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21][22]
.A BusinessWeek article says that James McNerney's introduction of Six Sigma at 3M may have had the effect of stifling creativity.^ Six Sigma Articles & News [46] .
  • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

^ We say a process has achieved six sigma if the quality is 3.4 DPMO (Defect per Million opportunities).

^ It seems clear that if software development is a manufacturing process and a business process, then we may be able to apply Six Sigma to improve quality.
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It cites two Wharton School professors who say that Six Sigma leads to incremental innovation at the expense of blue-sky work.^ We say a process has achieved six sigma if the quality is 3.4 DPMO (Defect per Million opportunities).

^ Kaizen aims at continuous, incremental improvement, while (according to Gitlow and Levine), Six Sigma "demands breakthrough improvement" (page 22).
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Key to success in this position is the ability to work within the organization at all levels utilizing a very “hands on” approach to creating value and buy-in as the lead change facilitator for the division’s Lean Six Sigma transformation.
  • Lean Jobs - Six Sigma Jobs
    Executive Recruiters for Lean and Six Sigma
    28 January 2010 1:51 UTC leansixsigmajobs.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .This phenomenon is further explored in the book, Going Lean, which provides data to show that Ford's "6 Sigma" program did little to change its fortunes.^ The nature of Lean Six Sigma’s change agent infrastructure is such that the personnel involved in the program full time are routinely cycled back into the organization.
  • Lean Six Sigma Training and Certification « Pyzdek Institute 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmatraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This position will provide leadership / mentoring / training to all levels of the organization on the use and practice of Lean Six Sigma methodology and tools.
  • Lean Jobs - Six Sigma Jobs
    Executive Recruiters for Lean and Six Sigma
    28 January 2010 1:51 UTC leansixsigmajobs.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The personnel devoted to coaching senior leaders, providing Lean Six Sigma courses for training, etc.
  • Lean Six Sigma Training and Certification « Pyzdek Institute 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmatraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]

Based on arbitrary standards

.While 3.4 defects per million opportunities might work well for certain products/processes, it might not operate optimally or cost effectively for others.^ We say a process has achieved six sigma if the quality is 3.4 DPMO (Defect per Million opportunities).

^ Although process control and quality control bring better products at lower costs, these control systems also inhibit experimentation and innovation.
  • Lean Six Sigma Training and Certification « Pyzdek Institute 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmatraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Commonly defined as 3.4 defects per million opportunities, Six Sigma can be defined and understood at three distinct levels: metric, methodology and philosophy..."
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A pacemaker process might need higher standards, for example, whereas a direct mail advertising campaign might need lower standards. .The basis and justification for choosing 6 (as opposed to 5 or 7, for example) as the number of standard deviations is not clearly explained.^ Figure: - Mode for calculating variations (A) Can you explain the concept of standard deviation?

^ Figure: - Step 2 Standard deviation In the third step we divide the same with the number of observations as shown the figure.

.In addition, the Six Sigma model assumes that the process data always conform to the normal distribution.^ We say a process has achieved six sigma if the quality is 3.4 DPMO (Defect per Million opportunities).

^ The central idea behind Six Sigma is that if you can measure how many 'defects' you have in a process, you can systematically figure out how to eliminate them and get as close to 'zero defects' as possible.
  • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It seems clear that if software development is a manufacturing process and a business process, then we may be able to apply Six Sigma to improve quality.
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The calculation of defect rates for situations where the normal distribution model does not apply is not properly addressed in the current Six Sigma literature.^ Does Six Sigma also apply to service operations?
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Question 2: How does Six Sigma apply to service operations?
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We say a process has achieved six sigma if the quality is 3.4 DPMO (Defect per Million opportunities).

[2]

Criticism of the 1.5 sigma shift

.The statistician Donald J. Wheeler has dismissed the 1.5 sigma shift as "goofy" because of its arbitrary nature.^ Donald J. Wheeler, a respected quality professional, labels it "goofy", arguing that it is misapplied in practice and that it is probably inaccurate anyway.
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other common objection is that the choice of a shift of 1.5 sigmas is too arbitrary and probably inaccurate.
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] Its universal applicability is seen as doubtful.[2]
.The 1.5 sigma shift has also become contentious because it results in stated "sigma levels" that reflect short-term rather than long-term performance: a process that has long-term defect levels corresponding to 4.5 sigma performance is, by Six Sigma convention, described as a "6 sigma process."^ The main focus of SIX sigma is on reducing defects and variations in the processes.

^ Thus, achieving 3.4 DPMO using short term data reflects a three sigma process, not six sigma, when used to reflect the long-term failure rate.
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We say a process has achieved six sigma if the quality is 3.4 DPMO (Defect per Million opportunities).

[8][26] .The accepted Six Sigma scoring system thus cannot be equated to actual normal distribution probabilities for the stated number of standard deviations, and this has been a key bone of contention about how Six Sigma measures are defined.^ Six Sigma (Quality control standard) .
  • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six sigma is not six standard deviations from the mean.
  • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wikipedia entry about Six Sigma states: .
  • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .The fact that it is rarely explained that a "6 sigma" process will have long-term defect rates corresponding to 4.5 sigma performance rather than actual 6 sigma performance has led several commentators to express the opinion that Six Sigma is a confidence trick.^ The main focus of SIX sigma is on reducing defects and variations in the processes.

^ Six Sigma performance is the statistical term for a process that produces fewer than 3.4 defects (or errors) per million opportunities for defects.
  • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We say a process has achieved six sigma if the quality is 3.4 DPMO (Defect per Million opportunities).

[8]

See also

Six Sigma in Popular Culture

.Six Sigma methodology is referred to extensively in "Retreat to Move Forward," an episode of the hit NBC comedy TV show 30 Rock.^ Six Sigma Selling blog has moved!

^ Black-Belt : - Black belt leads a team on a selected project which has to be show cased for SIX sigma.

^ The Balanced Scorecard is a powerful communication tool that can show Six Sigma leaders where to focus their attention.
  • Six Sigma | Resource Library 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In this episode Alec Baldwin as Jack Donaghy points out the "Six pillars of the Six Sigma business philosophy - Teamwork, Insight, Brutality, Male-Enhancement, Handshakefulness and Play-Hard."

References

  1. ^ Tennant, Geoff (2001). SIX SIGMA: SPC and TQM in Manufacturing and Services. Gower Publishing, Ltd.. p. 6. ISBN 0566083744. http://books.google.com/books?id=O6276jidG3IC&printsec=frontcover#PPA6,M1. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Antony, Jiju. "Pros and cons of Six Sigma: an academic perspective". http://www.onesixsigma.com/node/7630. Retrieved May 1, 2008. 
  3. ^ "Motorola University - What is Six Sigma?". http://www.motorola.com/content/0,,3088,00.html. Retrieved 2009-09-14. "[...] Six Sigma started as a defect reduction effort in manufacturing and was then applied to other business processes for the same purpose." 
  4. ^ "The Inventors of Six Sigma". http://www.motorola.com/content/0,,3079,00.html. Retrieved January 29, 2006. 
  5. ^ Stamatis, D. H. (2004), Six Sigma Fundamentals: A Complete Guide to the System, Methods, and Tools, New York, New York: Productivity Press, p. 1, ISBN 9781563272929, OCLC 52775178, "The practitioner of the six sigma methodology in any organization should expect to see the use of old and established tools and approaches in the pursuit of continual improvement and customer satisfaction. So much so that even TQM (total quality management) is revisited as a foundation of some of the approaches. In fact, one may define six sigma as "TQM on steroids."" 
  6. ^ Montgomery, Douglas C. (2009), Statistical Quality Control: A Modern Introduction (6 ed.), Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, p. 23, ISBN 9780470233979, OCLC 244727396, "During the 1950s and 1960s programs such as Zero Defects and Value Engineering abounded, but they had little impact on quality and productivity improvement. During the heyday of TQM in the 1980s, another popular program was the Quality Is Free initiative, in which management worked on identifying the cost of quality..." 
  7. ^ "Motorola University Six Sigma Dictionary". http://www.motorola.com/content/0,,3074-5804,00.html#ss. Retrieved January 29, 2006. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Tennant, Geoff (2001). SIX SIGMA: SPC and TQM in Manufacturing and Services. Gower Publishing, Ltd.. pp. 25. ISBN 0566083744. http://books.google.com/books?id=O6276jidG3IC&printsec=frontcover#PPA25,M1. 
  9. ^ "Motorola Inc. - Motorola University". http://www.motorola.com/motorolauniversity. Retrieved January 29, 2006. 
  10. ^ "About Motorola University". http://www.motorola.com/content/0,,3071-5801,00.html. Retrieved January 29, 2006. 
  11. ^ "Six Sigma: Where is it now?". http://scm.ncsu.edu/public/facts/facs030624.html. Retrieved May 22, 2008. 
  12. ^ a b c d e De Feo, Joseph A.; Barnard, William (2005). JURAN Institute's Six Sigma Breakthrough and Beyond - Quality Performance Breakthrough Methods. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. ISBN 0-07-059881-9. 
  13. ^ Harry, Mikel; Schroeder, Richard (2000). Six Sigma. Random House, Inc. ISBN 0-385-49437-8. 
  14. ^ "Institute of Industrial Engineers Six Sigma certifications". Norcross, Georgia: Institute of Industrial Engineers. http://www.iienet2.org/Seminars/SeminarGroup.aspx?id=12936&seminar=6SC&grp=ICP. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  15. ^ "Certification - ASQ". Milwaukee, Wisconsin: American Society for Quality. http://www.asq.org/certification/index.html. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  16. ^ Harry, Mikel J. (1988). The Nature of six sigma quality. Rolling Meadows, Illinois: Motorola University Press. p. 25. ISBN 9781569460092. 
  17. ^ Gygi, Craig; DeCarlo, Neil; Williams, Bruce (2005). Six Sigma for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.. pp. Front inside cover, 23. ISBN 0-7645-6798-5. 
  18. ^ El-Haik, Basem; Suh, Nam P.. Axiomatic Quality. John Wiley and Sons. p. 10. ISBN 9780471682738. 
  19. ^ Paton, Scott M. (August 2002). Juran: A Lifetime of Quality. 22. pp. 19–23. http://www.qualitydigest.com/aug02/articles/01_article.shtml. Retrieved 2009-04-01. 
  20. ^ Morris, Betsy (2006-07-11). "Tearing up the Jack Welch playbook". Fortune. http://money.cnn.com/2006/07/10/magazines/fortune/rule4.fortune/index.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-26. 
  21. ^ Richardson, Karen (2007-01-07). "The 'Six Sigma' Factor for Home Depot". Wall Street Journal Online. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB116787666577566679.html. Retrieved October 15, 2007. 
  22. ^ Ficalora, Joe; Costello, Joe. "Wall Street Journal SBTI Rebuttal" (PDF). Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc.. http://www.sbtionline.com/files/Wall_Street_Journal_SBTI_Rebuttal.pdf. Retrieved October 15, 2007. 
  23. ^ Hindo, Brian (6 June 2007). "At 3M, a struggle between efficiency and creativity". Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/07_24/b4038406.htm?chan=top+news_top+news+index_best+of+bw. Retrieved June 6, 2007. 
  24. ^ Ruffa, Stephen A. (2008). Going Lean: How the Best Companies Apply Lean Manufacturing Principles to Shatter Uncertainty, Drive Innovation, and Maximize Profits. AMACOM (a division of American Management Association). ISBN 0-8144-1057-X. http://books.google.com/books?id=_Q7OGDd61hkC. 
  25. ^ Wheeler, Donald J. (2004). The Six Sigma Practitioner's Guide to Data Analysis. SPC Press. p. 307. ISBN 9780945320623. 
  26. ^ a b *Pande, Peter S.; Neuman, Robert P.; Cavanagh, Roland R. (2001). The Six Sigma Way: How GE, Motorola, and Other Top Companies are Honing Their Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 229. ISBN 0071358064. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ybOuvzvcqTAC&pg=PA229&lpg=PA229&dq=%22key+bones+of+contention+amongst+the+statistical+experts+about+how+Six+Sigma+measures+are+defined%22&source=web&ots=jRU19KJVwd&sig=M7jGXg3KoWD7CjUs-ZTNyAjSZls&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result. 

Further reading

  • Adams, Cary W.; Gupta, Praveen (2003). .Six Sigma Deployment.^ Blended Learning Solutions Drive Six Sigma Deployments Farther, Faster .
    • iKNOW Search Results 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.isssp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A Six Sigma deployment is the prescriptive rollout of the Six Sigma methodology across an organization,with assigned practices, roles, and procedures according to generally accepted standards.
    • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Before you begin pursuit of a Six Sigma deployment fix the simple things first!
    • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

    Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0750675233. http://books.google.com/books?id=0lY_bhMBzLwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Adams+Gupta&sig=1KnCHjJxuJyILxW3X3oih3hqg1I.
     
  • Breyfogle, Forrest W. III (1999). .Implementing Six Sigma: Smarter Solutions Using Statistical Methods.^ These are some the large US corporations referenced by Motorola Inc that have used Six Sigma.
    • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Six Sigma™, as a business-level strategy, is a “re-labeling” of the approach used by Motorola, Inc.
    • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ During the mid to late 1980's Motorola developed its Six Sigma ideas, which extended to and embraced many existing quality improvement methods and tools.
    • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.^ (Revised and Updated) New York, NY: Free Press.
    • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.
    • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0471265721. .http://books.google.com/books?id=leQvoUXM9L0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Breyfogle+Implementing&sig=1pi8SXcu_AhGdGibrTgIIGy67OM. 
  • De Feo, Joseph A.; Barnard, William (2005).^ Available on line at: http://www.isixsigma.com/library/content/c020815a.asp, viewed February 10, 2005.
    • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .JURAN Institute's Six Sigma Breakthrough and Beyond - Quality Performance Breakthrough Methods.^ White Paper Part of Executing Six Sigma within Existing Quality Initiatives .
    • iKNOW Search Results 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.isssp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although originally introduced by Motorola in 1986 as a quality performance measurement, 6 sigma has evolved into a statistically oriented approach to process improvement.
    • Six Sigma | Resource Library 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ About the Author: Henry Killackey, a certified Six Sigma Green Belt, is the educational services manager and a founding member of the Global Institute for Management, an educational services provider that hosts events and trainings covering issues in performance management.
    • Six Sigma | Resource Library 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0071422277. .http://books.google.com/books?id=0VHaTb6LJ4QC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22six+sigma%22&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0. 
  • Hahn, G. J., Hill, W. J., Hoerl, R. W. and Zinkgraf, S. A. (1999) The Impact of Six Sigma Improvement-A Glimpse into the Future of Statistics, The American Statistician, Vol.^ During the mid to late 1980's Motorola developed its Six Sigma ideas, which extended to and embraced many existing quality improvement methods and tools.
    • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sure, math and statistics get tortured and misused all the time in the name of Six Sigma.
    • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The nature of Lean Six Sigma’s change agent infrastructure is such that the personnel involved in the program full time are routinely cycled back into the organization.
    • Lean Six Sigma Training and Certification « Pyzdek Institute 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmatraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    53, No. 3, pp. 208-215.
  • Harry, Mikel J.; Schroeder, Richard (1999). .Six Sigma: The Breakthrough Management Strategy Revolutionizing the World’s Top Corporations.^ While Six Sigma implementation continues apace in many of the world's largest corporations, many organizations and suppliers in the consulting and training communities have also seized on the Six Sigma concept, to package and provide all sorts of Six Sigma 'branded' training products and consultancy and services.
    • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Management system orientation Six Sigma is so appealing to managers because it delivers management results.
    • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These are some the large US corporations referenced by Motorola Inc that have used Six Sigma.
    • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York, NY: Doubleday.^ (Revised and Updated) New York, NY: Free Press.
    • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.
    • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0385494378. http://books.google.com/books?id=FOHKAQAACAAJ&dq=Harry+Schroeder+Sigma.
     
  • Keller, Paul A. (2001). .Six Sigma Deployment: A Guide for Implementing Six Sigma in Your Organization.^ While Six Sigma implementation continues apace in many of the world's largest corporations, many organizations and suppliers in the consulting and training communities have also seized on the Six Sigma concept, to package and provide all sorts of Six Sigma 'branded' training products and consultancy and services.
    • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When an organization decides to implement Six Sigma, first the executive team has to decide the strategy - which might typically be termed an improvement initiative , and this base strategy should focus on the essential processes necessary to meet customer expectations .
    • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Any analytical tool can be included within Six Sigma implementation.
    • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Tucson, AZ: Quality Publishing. ISBN 0930011848. .http://books.google.com/books?id=izjUAAAACAAJ&dq=Keller+Six+Sigma. 
  • Pande, Peter S.; Neuman, Robert P. (2001).^ Six Sigma has also spawned manay and various business books on the subject.
    • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For example, consider the following hypothetical situation from the Gitlow and Levine book, intended to illustrate how Six Sigma can apply to a nonmanufacturing industry: .
    • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This simple, friendly book makes Six Sigma make sense.
    • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Six Sigma Way: How GE, Motorola, and Other Top Companies are Honing Their Performance.^ These are some the large US corporations referenced by Motorola Inc that have used Six Sigma.
    • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The central idea behind Six Sigma is that if you can measure how many 'defects' you have in a process, you can systematically figure out how to eliminate them and get as close to 'zero defects' as possible.
    • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Six Sigma™, as a business-level strategy, is a “re-labeling” of the approach used by Motorola, Inc.
    • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0071358064. .http://books.google.com/books?id=ybOuvzvcqTAC&pg=PP1&dq=Pande+Six+Sigma+Way&sig=v4iM9qs3FrI-DT5fwtLzk5rmSi4. 
  • Pyzdek, Thomas and Paul A. Keller (2009).^ The six sigma way.
    • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As a group, I contend that Six Sigma folks are generally very much open to the shortcomings of the program, and very interested in ways to adress them and improve.
    • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Kamal Hassan, Global VP of Business Development, BMG “If more books on the subject were as concise and fun to read as 'Sales and Marketing the Six Sigma Way,' the business world would be a better place.

    .The Six Sigma Handbook, Third Edition.^ Most Popular Most Recent Top Rated Six Sigma Handbook Third Edition Giveaway What is Six Sigma?
    • Lean Six Sigma Training and Certification « Pyzdek Institute 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmatraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Applying the TOC strategy described in another post , we know that Six Sigma projects that affect step C should be given priority, those affecting steps D and E second priority, and those affecting A and B third priority.
    • Lean Six Sigma Training and Certification « Pyzdek Institute 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmatraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ By Thomas Pyzdek, Author of The Six Sigma Handbook .
    • Lean Six Sigma Training and Certification « Pyzdek Institute 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sixsigmatraining.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.^ New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
    • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York, McGraw-Hill.
    • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Revised and Updated) New York, NY: Free Press.
    • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0071623388. .http://books.google.com/books?id=5CCcw4j2gkgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Pyzdek+Six+Sigma&ei=EDfvStGcGIeENJji-OQL#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  • Snee, Ronald D.; Hoerl, Roger W. (2002).^ Six Sigma has also spawned manay and various business books on the subject.
    • six sigma definitions, history and training summary of six sigma teams process and methods 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.businessballs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For example, consider the following hypothetical situation from the Gitlow and Levine book, intended to illustrate how Six Sigma can apply to a nonmanufacturing industry: .
    • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This simple, friendly book makes Six Sigma make sense.
    • Six Sigma For Dummies, For Dummies Series, Craig Gygi, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Leading Six Sigma: A Step-by-Step Guide Based on Experience with GE and Other Six Sigma Companies.^ As Six Sigma becomes insitutionalized at our company, we must determine whether it should be applied to our software development process.
    • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Black-Belt : - Black belt leads a team on a selected project which has to be show cased for SIX sigma.

    ^ In my opinion and experience, the best Six Sigma programs today no longer focus on simple defect reduction.
    • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

    Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press. ISBN 0130084573. http://books.google.com/books?id=_BRYIS31iwUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Snee+Hoerl&sig=LFCYGBWi0dxoUdsh8uP5sE6pG7g. 
  • Taylor, Gerald (2008). .Lean Six Sigma Service Excellence: A Guide to Green Belt Certification and Bottom Line Improvement.^ Six Sigma Master Black Belt / Black Belt Certification and/or Lean Sensei Formal Lean training and experience with Value Stream Management tools, kaizen methods and other key Lean tools and methodologies.
    • Lean Jobs - Six Sigma Jobs
      Executive Recruiters for Lean and Six Sigma
      28 January 2010 1:51 UTC leansixsigmajobs.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ That kind of thinking and the "improper" use of six sigma as a "get rich quick" methodolgy, not as a improvement methodology leads to the mass exodus of black belts in disgust, disgrace or worse disbanding (which I've seen all three).
    • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

    ^ LEAN301: LSS Green Belt Certification .
    • SigmaPro Lean Six Sigma Training & Design for Six Sigma Training 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC sigmapro.com [Source type: Reference]
    • LSS Lean Six Sigma Training & Certification - Industrial 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sigmapro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York, NY: J. Ross Publishing.^ New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
    • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Revised and Updated) New York, NY: Free Press.
    • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.
    • Six Sigma and Kaizen Compared - Part 1 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.vitalentusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 978-1604270068. .http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=1VdYNwAACAAJ&dq. 
  • Tennant, Geoff (2001).^ John Corr [ http://www.closequarter.co.uk ] .
    • Six Sigma Blogs: Six Sigma Sucks 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC blogs.isixsigma.com [Source type: General]

    .SIX SIGMA: SPC and TQM in Manufacturing and Services.^ It seems clear that if software development is a manufacturing process and a business process, then we may be able to apply Six Sigma to improve quality.
    • Six Sigma and Agile Software Development 2 February 2010 18:16 UTC www.davenicolette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lean Six Sigma Service Green Belt Training & Certification .
    • SigmaPro Lean Six Sigma Training & Design for Six Sigma Training 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC sigmapro.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Lean Six Sigma (Service) .
    • SigmaPro Lean Six Sigma Training & Design for Six Sigma Training 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC sigmapro.com [Source type: Reference]
    • LSS Lean Six Sigma Training & Certification - Industrial 28 January 2010 1:51 UTC www.sigmapro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Aldershot, UK: Gower Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0566083744. http://books.google.com/books?id=O6276jidG3IC&printsec=frontcover#PPP1,M1. 

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 02, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Six Sigma, which are similar to those in the above article.








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