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Scania (Skåne)
Map
The provinces of Sweden with Scania highlighted
Coat of Arms
Land Götaland
Main corresponding county Skåne County
Indigenous dialect(s) Scanian
Area 10,939 km²
Flower Oxeye daisy
Animal Red Deer
The Flag of Skåne. Introduced 1902; used by Skåne Regional Council since 1999[1]

Scania (About this sound Skåne in Swedish) is the southernmost[2] of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces (landskap) of Sweden, constituting a peninsula on the southern tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, and some adjacent islands. The modern administrative subdivision (län) Skåne County[3] is almost, but not totally, congruent with the province. The largest city is Malmö, which is also the third largest in Sweden and the administrative centre of Skåne County.

To the north, Scania borders the provinces of Halland and Småland to the north-east Blekinge, to the east and south the Baltic Sea, and to the west the Oresund strait. Since 2000 a road and railway bridge, the Oresund Bridge[4] constitutes a fixed link to the Danish island of Zealand. It is part of the transnational Oresund Region.[5]

Around 130 km long from north to south, Scania covers less than 3% of Sweden's total area, but the population of approximately 1,200,000[6] represents 13% of Sweden's total population. About 16% of the total population of the province are foreign-born.[7] With 111 inh/km² Scania is the second most densely populated province of Sweden, next only to Södermanland.

The province was up until the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658 part of the kingdom of Denmark.[8] The transition to Sweden was later cofirmed by the Treaty of Copenhagen 1660, the Peace of Lund 1679, the Peace of Travendal 1700. The last serious Danish attempt to retake the province failed in 1710, after the Battle of Helsingborg.[9] Scania is since the beginning of the 18th century fully integrated in the Swedish nation.

Scania's historical connection to Denmark, the vast fertile plains, the deciduous forests and the relatively mild climate make the province culturally and physically distinct from the emblematic Swedish cultural landscape of forests and small hamlets.[10]

Contents

Name

Endonym and exonyms

The endonym used in Swedish and other Scandinavian languages is Skåne, formerly in Danish and Norwegian spelt Skaane. The latinized form Scania is widely used in English as an exonym. However, there are also examples of the endonym Skåne used in English texts,[11] sometimes as Skane with the diacritic omitted.[12][13] Scania is the only Swedish province for which exonyms are still used in many languages, e.g. French Scanie, German Schonen, Polish Skania, Spanish Escania &c.

Etymology

The names Scania and Scandinavia are considered to have the same etymology[14][15][16][17] and the southernmost tip of what is today Sweden was called Scania by the Romans.[18] The name is possibly derived from the Germanic root *Skaðin-awjo, which appears in Old Norse as Skáney.[19] According to some scholars, the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as *Skaðan- meaning "danger" or "damage" (English scathing, German Schaden).[20] Skanör in Scania, with its long Falsterbo reef, has the same stem (skan) combined with -ör, which means "sandbanks".

In the Alfredian translation of Orosius and Wulfstan's travel accounts, the Old English form Sconeg appears.[21][22] Frankish sources mention a place called Sconaowe; Aethelweard, an Anglo-Saxon historian, wrote about Scani;[23] and in Beowulf's fictional account, the names Scedenige and Scedeland appear as names for what appears to be a Danish land.[21] Scodanus in old maps may add to the name of the place "from where the Danes came, from Scandinavia", also derived from it.

Administration

Like the other provinces of Sweden, the province of Scania serves no administrative or political purposes, but is an exclusively historical and cultural entity.

The medieval hundreds of Scania.

An earlier administrative and political function of the province was to serve as a core area for one of the three provincial things that together elected the king of Denmark. The first Danish administrative sub-divisioning of Scania occurred as part of the centralization process, when the province became divided into administrative units called hundreds (herreder in Danish). The hundreds were possibly based on older, already existing units,[24] but the establishment of the new form of hundreds was prompted by an increase in royal power during the High Middle Ages. These differed from the provincial thing areas in that they were not local communities joined under a governing assembly but top-down regional divisions established to ensure royal authority. These medieval Danish hundreds were used to implement military obligations and to expedite the collection of renders due to the king in the provinces. They were first established in Jutland, were they replaced previous administrative units called syssel. According to some scholars, they were introduced in Scania possible as early as the 11th century.[25]

In the 13th century, a new fiscal system was introduced and the hundreds were gradually included into larger administrative units called len, with a castle serving as the administrative center. This new administrative development was a result of the increased power of the aristocracy. In each len, a noble man was put in charge, with the title lensmand.[26]

Under Swedish administration, several different administrative divisions have been in effect in the province. For most of the period between 1658 and 1719, Scania was part of the Scania dominion (Swedish: Skånska Generalguvernementet) in Swedish. During the era of the dominion, Scania was subdivided into several different versions of early counties, which were subordinated a Governor-General for most of the period. In 1719, the Scanian dominion was suspended and the province was divided into two administrative counties, Kristianstad County and Malmöhus County, which had the same function and organization as other Swedish counties. With the exception of a short period 1801–1809 when the dominion was reintroduced, this county division was in effect until 1997, at which point a larger administrative unit, Skåne County, was created. The new county covers all of the province, with the addition of a small former parish in Båstad Municipality, Östra Karup (43.57 km² and 2,000 inhabitants), which is part of the adjacent province Halland.

Modern regional and administrative bodies

The present County Administrative Board (länsstyrelsen), is a government agency, and the Skåne Governor's (landshövdingen) seat of residence is the town of Malmö. Within the county, there are currently 33 municipalities[27] (Swedish: kommuner), the largest being Malmö Municipality (290,000 inhabitants), Helsingborg Municipality (128,000), Lund Municipality (109,000 inhabitants) and Kristianstad Municipality (78,000 inhabitants). The municipalities have municipal governments, similar to city commissions, and are further divided into parishes. The parishes of Scania, once a part of the core area for the ancient Archdiocese of Lund, were later units used by the Church of Denmark, and they are today used by the Church of Sweden, but they also serve as a divisioning measure for the Swedish population registration.

In 1999, a region was implemented on a trial basis in Scania, with a regional council, Region Skåne, responsible for the overall political organization and the development of the region. The regional assembly is currently the highest political body in the region and its members are elected by the Scanians themselves,[28] as opposed to the county administrative council that guards the interest of the state in the region under the chairmanship of the county governor (Swedish: landshövding).

Heraldry

Letter from Eric of Pomerania dated 1437, with a description of the arms granted the City of Malmö.
The coat of arms of Scania in an engraving from 1712 in Erik Dahlbergh's Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna

The coat of arms for the province is based on the Danish era arms for the city of Malmö. The Malmö coat of arms was granted in 1437 during the Kalmar Union by Eric of Pomerania and contains a Pomeranian griffin. The province coat of arms was created and granted for the funeral of Charles X Gustav of Sweden in 1660.[29] It is represented with a ducal coronet, and the formal description (blazon) is: "Or, a Griffin's head erased Gules, crowned Azure and armed Azure, when it should be armed."

Coat of arms:

City of Malmö (1437)
City of Malmö (1437)
Malmö Municipality(revised 1974)
Malmö Municipality
(revised 1974)
Scania(1660, revised 1939)
Scania
(1660, revised 1939)
Kristianstad County(revised 1939)
Kristianstad County
(revised 1939)
Malmöhus County(revised 1939)
Malmöhus County
(revised 1939)
Skåne County(1997)
Skåne County
(1997)

The coat of arms for the present county is based on the province arms, but with reversed tinctures.. The Skåne County coat of arms have the red and yellow colours of the province arms reversed and a crown, beak and tongue in yellow instead of blue. When the county arms is shown with a Swedish royal crown, it represents the County Administrative Board, which is the regional presence of (royal) government authority. The griffin's head of the provincial coat of arms is also the region's arms, but with a different tinctures, a golden griffin's head on a blue shield.[30] The 33 municipalities within the county also have coat of arms.

History

The oldest known manuscript with the Scanian Law, dating to the 13th century.

Scania was first mentioned in written texts in the 9th century. The province came under Danish king Harald Bluetooth in the middle of the 10th century. The Scanian law, the oldest of the Medieval Scandinavian laws, came into force in the beginning of the 13th century.

Historically the province of Scania was a part of the Eastern Province of Denmark, referred to as Terra Scania in medieval texts, as Skåneland or "Skånelandskapen" in later Swedish texts[31] and as Skånelandene in Danish.[32]). Together with Jutland and Zealand, the other two Lands of Denmark, this land formed a Danish state in the 9th century. Common for the provinces of Skåneland were the Scanian Law and the Scanian Thing (assembly).

1658–1680

Following the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, Scania together with all Danish lands east of Oresund became a possession of the Swedish Crown. King Charles X Gustav of Sweden landed in Helsingborg on the 5th of March 1658 to take possession of the newly acquired provinces. The king was received by a delegation led by the bishop of the Diocese of Lund, Peder Winstrup.[33] The Copenhagen-born bishop quickly shifted his allegiance to the new ruler and later became nobilized. Hay stayed in office until his death in 1679.

Scania, together with the other so called Scanian provinces, was placed under a Governor-General taking up residence in the city of Malmö. The first Governor-General was Gustaf Otto Stenbock. This type of government was used in territories which were not fully integrated and were regarded more exposed to enemy attacks.[34] The Governor-General held the highest military command in his area and had four county governors responding to him. Already in 1669 the general governorate was dismantled, but after the outbreak of the Scanian War in 1676 it was reinstituted.

In 1666 the University of Lund or Regia Academia Carolina, after a proposal from Bishop Peder Winstrup, was established as a means of further integration of the newly acquired provinces. However, there had long been plans to establish a university in Götaland and with the new borders Lund and Scania was chosen. The university was closed during the Scanian War, but reopened in 1682.

The 1676–1679 war between Denmark and Sweden over Scania was devastating for the people of Scania. It ended in a draw, after much destruction of property and suffering for the civilian population. Scania, with the exception of Malmö, was soon under Danish administration. The turning point was the Swedish victories in the Battle of Lund in December 1676 and the Battle of Landskrona in July 1677. In the Treaty of Lund (1679) the provinces were returned to Swedish administration.[34]

1680–1690

Charles XI at the Battle of Lund, 1676. Painting by Johan Philip Lemke, 1684
1690 portrait of Charles XI with a lion—a symbol for military prowess, fidelity, royal dignity and power.

Section 9 of the Roskilde peace treaty had initially ensured cultural autonomy in Scania and in an additional agreement, signed at the Malmö Recess in 1662, Sweden guaranteed that the old laws and privileges of Scania would continue to apply in the region. The Malmö Recess agreement further ensured that Scanian noblemen, priests and peasants would be allowed to send representatives to the Swedish parliament.[35]

However, in 1680 Sweden’s first era of absolute monarchy was ushered in as the Swedish king Charles XI managed to convince the Diet, (the Riksdag of the Estates, an early form of Swedish Parliament) to declare the king "a Christian ruler with absolute power to rule his kingdom at his discretion".[36] In 1682, the Diet downgraded the Council of State to a King's Council and gave the king unlimited powers to legislate without the need for confirmation from the Diet.[36] A decision not to honor the agreement of the Malmö Recess soon followed and a tougher Swedification program was implemented in Scania, aiming to create uniformity within the Swedish kingdom.[37] Scania was allowed to retain its old laws and customs until 1683, at which point the Swedish administration persuaded the Scanian aristocracy to waive the Scanian laws and privileges in favor of the new Swedish law and church ordinance, as a condition for allowing Scanians to have representation in the Swedish parliament.[34]

An entire staff of Swedish politicians, artists, poets and scholars were engaged in creating an image of the king as an instrument of God and a personification of the apocalyptic "Lion of the North", a form of symbolic imagery first introduced for Gustav II Adolf. The propaganda was not only aimed at convincing the Swedish population of the king's divinely ordained power, but was also part of a campaign to present Sweden to the world as an imperial power of considerable wealth and military glory.[38] The conquest and domination of Scania was an important theme in the art commissioned by the court to glorify the king. Many works of art from the era show Charles XI as a victorious warrior in Scania and on the central panel of Jacques Foucquet’s monumental ceiling painting in the Stockholm Royal Palace, Charles XI is depicted with "the goddess of Scania" at his feet.[39]

After 1690

1710 map of Skåneland titled "Nova Tabula Scaniae" (New Map of Scania). The map depicts three provinces: "Provincias Scaniam, Hallandiam, et Blekingiam" (Scania, Halland and Blekinge).
Helsingborg City Hall, with Oresund Strait and the Danish shoreline in the background

Halland and Blekinge were successively removed from the Skåneland dominion and became fully integrated into the Swedish Kingdom, while the counties of Scania were joined into one county. By 1693, only Scania County was left a dominion, with a special, not fully integrated, status. It retained its autonomy with a parliament known as the Lantdag.

Scania's status was changed on May 9, 1719, when it was divided into two counties, Malmöhus County and Kristianstad County, and became fully integrated, with two county governors and an administration identical to the other Swedish counties. However, the hostilities between Denmark and Sweden during the Napoleonic Wars caused Sweden to revert Scania's status again and a General-Governor was reintroduced. Between 1801 and 1809, Johan Christopher Toll was appointed General-Governor of Scania, with the county governors of Kristianstad County and Malmöhus County answering to him.[34] On January 1, 1997, the two Scanian counties were joined into the present Skåne County and in 1999, a regional pilot project was introduced.

Swedish–Danish rivalry

Scania's geographical location on the southern end of the Scandinavian peninsula has promoted strong political and economical ties with Denmark throughout the major portion of the provinces's history. The strait separating the towns Helsingborg and Helsingør is only 4 km wide, while the forrested terrain to the north through Småland was hard to traverse and acted as a natural barrier before the establishment of railways and other modern infrastructure. Since the end of the Kalmar Union, Scania has been the focal point of conflict and rivalry between Denmark and Sweden. By possessing both sides of the Øresund Strait, Denmark had effective control over the entrance to the Baltic Sea and was able to monopolize trade through the sound. From the 15th century, Denmark started to collect a Sound Toll, a transitory due from all foreign ships passing through the strait, whether en route to or from Denmark or not. The Sound Toll constituted a substantial source of income for the Danish crown, up until the 19th century[40] and was resented by the Swedish Crown.

In the Second Treaty of Brömsebro (1645), Sweden's representatives stipulated toll freedom in Oresund for the country, and after this point, Sweden was exempted from paying the Danish Sound Toll.[41] However, this arrangement came to an end in 1720, when the Treaty of Frederiksborg officially ended Sweden's toll free status. Denmark continued to collect Sound Toll until 1857.[41]

The status of Scania and the influence Scania has on the relationship between Denmark and Sweden are still contentious issues in the nationalistic discourse in the two countries. One of the state nationalist parties, the Sweden Democrats, is active in Scania and has launched frequent campaigns in the province under the slogan "Keep Sweden Swedish", a slogan which party spokesmen pronounced was their "most important message" during the 2006 election campaign.[42] A member of the nationalist Danish People's Party created another stir in December 2007 by announcing that he would like to see Scania, Halland and Blekinge reunited with Denmark, if they expressed such a desire through a referendum.[43][44][45]

Regional politics

There are no independence movements organized for electoral contests in Scania,[46] although some of the small, populist parties with seats in various municipalities have from time to time placed secession in combination with anti-immigration measures on their party platforms. A coalition of 16 small populist parties (Skånes Väl) held 6 seats of 149 in the regional council during the period 1998-2002, but in Region Skåne's 2002 election, they lost all their seats. In 2006, one of the 16 parties in the coalition, the small populist anti-immigration party Skånepartiet, made an unsuccessful bid for seats in the general election of Sweden, receiving 11 votes nationally. In the regional elections of 2006, The Scanian Independence Party ("Skånes självständighetsparti"), a coalition between Skånepartiet and another party called Centrum-Demokraterna, received 4623 votes.[47]

As a part of the process of decentralization in Sweden, and as a part of the regionalist efforts in Scania, separatism thus plays a negligible role. According to some scholars, separatist driven activities may however run parallel with the top-down driven region-building efforts put in place to promote regional development, as well as the efforts by regional actors to promote and protect Scanian culture, and therefore, separatism may contribute to the mobilization of mutually supporting forces, especially in border areas like Scania where cross-border cooperation is important.[48]

Decentralization

During Sweden's financial crisis in the early and mid-1990s, Scania, Västra Götaland and Norrbotten were among the hardest hit in the country, with high unemployment rates as a result.[49] In response to the crisis, the County Governors were given a task by the government in September 1996 to co-ordinate various measures in the counties to increase economic growth and employment by bringing in regional actors.[49] The first proposal for regional autonomy and a regional parliament had been introduced by the Social Democratic Party's local districts in Scania and Västra Götaland already in 1993. When Sweden joined the European Union two years later, the concept "Regions of Europe" came in focus and a more regionalism-friendly approach was adopted in national politics.[50] These factors contributed to the subsequent transformation of Skåne County into one of the first "trial regions" in Sweden in 1999, established as the country's first "regional experiment".[50]

The relatively strong regional identity in Scania is often referred to in order to explain the general support in the province for the decentralization and regionalization efforts introduced by the Swedish government.[51] On the basis of large scale interview investigations about Region Skåne in the region, scholars have found that the prevailing trend among the inhabitants of Scania is to "[look] upon their region with more positive eyes and a firm reliance that it would deliver the goods in terms of increased democracy and constructive results out of economic planning".[52] The regionalist grassroots organizations in Scania generally oppose separatism and nationalism, while embracing multi-culturalism, cross-border activities and Swedish EU membership.[53][54][55]

Geography and environmental factors

Land usage in Scania, showing woods (green), fields (yellow), garden and fruit (orange) and residential areas (red)
A crop field in southeastern Scania
The south-western Scanian countryside, with Malmö (viewed from the east) in the distance.
The Turning Torso in Malmö, the tallest building in Sweden.

The geography of Scania was shaped by the last ice age, the Weichsel glaciation, a time when it was totally covered with ice. The relief of Scania's south-western landscape was formed by thick Quaternary deposits from sediment accumulation during the glaciations.[56] Hallandsåsen and Söderåsen are major landmarks but, contrary to popular belief, they are not ridges left behind by the retreating ice but horsts formed by inversion tectonic activity along the Tornquist Tectonic zone in the late Cretaceous. The Scanian horsts run in a North-West to South-West direction, marking the southwest border of Fennoscandia.[56]

Unlike some of the other regions of Sweden, the Scanian landscape is not mountainous. With the exception of the lake-rich and densely forested northern parts (Göinge), the rolling hills in the north-west (the Bjäre and Kulla peninsulas) and the beech-wood clad areas extending from the slopes of the horsts, a sizeable portion of Scania's terrain consists of plains. Its low profile and open landscape distinguish Scania from most other geographical regions of Sweden which consist mainly of waterway-rich, cool, mixed coniferous forests, boreal taiga and alpine tundra.[57] Stretching from the north-western to the south-eastern parts of Scania is a belt of deciduous forests following the Linderödsåsen ridge and previously marking the border between Malmöhus County and Kristianstad County. Denser fir forests are found in the north-eastern Göinge parts along the border with the forest dominated province of Småland.

The two major plains, Söderslätt in the south-west and Österlen in the south-east, consist of highly fertile agricultural land—the yield per unit area is higher than in any other region in Sweden. The Scanian plains are an important resource for the rest of Sweden since between 25-50% of the total production of various types of cereals come from the region. In addition, close to 90% of Sweden's sugar beet is grown in Scania.[58] The soil is among the most fertile in the world.

The Kullaberg Nature Preserve in northwest Scania is home to several rare species including Spring vetchling, Lathyrus sphaericus.[59]

National parks

Three of the 29 National parks of Sweden[60] are situated in Scania.

Extremes

  • Largest lake: Ivösjön, 55 km²
  • Largest island: Ven, 7,5 km²

Population development

It has been estimated that around 1570, Scania had about 110,000 inhabitants.[65] The figures here are from two different sources.[66][67]

  • 1620: 126,000
  • 1699: 142,000
  • 1718: 152,000
  • 1735: 180,000
  • 1750: 197,000
  • 1760: 202,000
  • 1772: 216,000
  • 1780: 231,000
  • 1795: 250,000
  • 1800: 259,000
  • 1810: 275,000
  • 1820: 312,000
  • 1830: 350,000
  • 1840: 388,000
  • 1850: 443,000
  • 1860: 494,000
  • 1870: 538,000
  • 1880: 580,000
  • 1890: 591,000
  • 1900: 628,000
  • 1910: 685,000
  • 1920: 728,000
  • 1930: 757,000
  • 1940: 778,000
  • 1950: 843,000
  • 1960: 882,000
  • 1970: 983,000
  • 1980: 1,023,000
  • 1990: 1,068,000
  • 2000: 1,129,000
  • 2010: 1,212,000

Cities

Eslöv church, built 1890 in Neo-Gothic. This style became known as Eslöv-Gothic in Sweden.[68]

In 1658 the following ten places in Scania were chartered and held town rights: Lund (since approximately 990), Helsingborg (1085), Falsterbo (approximately 1200,) Ystad (approximately 1200), Skanör (approximately 1200), Malmö (approximately 1250), Simrishamn (approximately 1300), Landskrona (1413), and Kristianstad (1622). Others had existed earlier, but lost their privilegies. Ängelholm got new privilegies in 1767 and in 1754 Falsterbo and Skanör were merged. The concept of municipalities was introduced in Sweden in 1863, making each of the towns a city municipality of its own. In the 19th and 20th centuries four more municipalities were granted city status, Trelleborg (1867), Eslöv (1911), Hässleholm (1914) and Höganäs (1936). The system with city status was abolished in 1971

Over 90% of Scania's population live in urban areas.[69] In 2000, the Öresund bridge—the longest combined road and rail bridge in Europe—linked Malmö and Copenhagen, making Scania's population part of a 3.6 million total population in the Öresund Region. In 2005, the region had 9,200 commuters crossing the bridge daily, the vast majority of them from Malmö to Copenhagen.[70]

The following localities had more than 10,000 inhabitants within the boundaries of 2005:[71]

  1. Malmö, 258,020
  2. Helsingborg, 91,457
  3. Lund, 76,188
  4. Kristianstad, 33,083
  5. Landskrona, 28,670
  6. Trelleborg, 25,643
  7. Ängelholm, 22,532
  8. Hässleholm, 17,730
  9. Ystad, 17,286
  10. Eslöv, 16,551
  11. Staffanstorp, 13,783
  12. Höganäs, 13,401
  13. Höllviken, 10,014

Hundreds

Scania was formerly divided into 23 hundreds.

Culture

Traditional half-timbered farm of the southern plains in Scania.

Scania's long-running and sometimes intense trade relations with other communities along the coast of the European continent through history have made the culture of Scania distinct from other geographical regions of Sweden. Its open landscape, often described as a colorful patchwork quilt of corn[citation needed] and rape fields, and the relatively mild climate at the southern tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, have inspired many Swedish artists and authors to compare it to European regions like Provence in southern France and Zeeland in the Netherlands.[72] Among the many authors who have described the "foreign" continental elements of the Scanian landscape, diet and customs are August Strindberg and Carl Linnaeus. In 1893 August Strindberg wrote about Scania: "In beautiful, large wave lines, the fields undulate down toward the lake; a small deciduous forest limits the coastline, which is given the inviting look of the Riviera, where people shall walk in the sun, protected from the north wind. [...] The Swede leaves the plains with a certain sense of comfort, because its beauty is foreign to him." In another chapter he states: "The Swedes have a history that is not the history of the South Scandinavians. It must be just as foreign as Vasa’s history is to the Scanian."[73]

In Ystad singer-songwriter Michael Saxell's popular Scanian anthem Om himlen och Österlen (Of Heaven and Österlen), the flat, rolling hill landscape is described as appearing to be a little closer to heaven and the big, unending sky.

Architecture

The house of magistrate Jacob Hansen in Helsingborg, Scania, built 1641.
The Old Church of Södra Åsum in the municipality of Sjöbo — a typical example of a medieval Danish church.

Traditional Scanian architecture is shaped by the limited availability of wood; it incorporates different applications of the building technique called half-timbering. In the cities, the infill of the façades consisted of bricks,[74] whereas the country-side half-timbered houses had infill made of clay and straw.[75] Unlike many other Scanian towns, the town of Ystad has managed to preserve a rather large core of its half-timbered architecture in the city center—over 300 half-timbered houses still exist today.[76] Many of the houses in Ystad were built in the renaissance style that was common in the entire Oresund Region, and which has also been preserved in Elsinore (Helsingør). Among Ystad's half-timbered houses is the oldest such building in Scandinavia, Pilgrändshuset from 1480.[77]

In Göinge, located in the northern part of Scania, the architecture was not shaped by a scarcity of wood, and the pre-17th century farms consisted of graying, recumbent timber buildings around a small grass and cobblestone courtyard. Only a small number of the original Göinge farms remain today. During two campaigns, the first in 1612 by Gustav II Adolf and the second by Charles XI in the 1680s, entire districts were leveled by fire.[78] In Örkened Parish, in what is now eastern Osby Municipality, the buildings were destroyed to punish the different villages for their protection of members of the Snapphane movement in the late 17th century.[79] An original, 17th century Göinge farm, Sporrakulla Farm, has been preserved in a forest called Kullaskogen, a nature reserve close to Glimåkra in Östra Göinge. According to the local legend, the farmer saved the farm in the first raid of 1612 by setting a forest fire in front of it, making the Swedish troops believe that the farm had already been plundered and set ablaze.[80]

Sweyn Forkbeard's coin, likely minted in Lund between 994 and 1013 AD.
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A number of Scanian towns flourished during the Viking Age. The city of Lund is believed to have been founded by the Viking-king Sweyn Forkbeard.[81] Scanian craftsmen and traders were prospering during this era and Denmark's first and largest mint was established in Lund. The first Scanian coins have been dated to 870 AD.[82] The archaeological excavations performed in the city indicate that the oldest known stave church in Scania was built by Sweyn Forkbeard in Lund in 990.[81] In 1103, Lund was made the archbishopric for all of Scandinavia.[83]

Many of the old churches in today's Scanian landscape stem from the medieval age, although many church renovations, extensions and destruction of older buildings took place in the 16th and 19th century. From those that have kept features of the authentic style, it is still possible to see how the medieval, Romanesque or Renaissance churches of Danish Scania looked like. Many Scanian churches have distinctive Crow-stepped gables and sturdy church porches, usually made of stone.

The first version of Lund Cathedral was built in 1050, in sandstone from Höör, on the initiative of Canute the Holy.[83] The oldest parts of today's cathedral are from 1085, but the actual cathedral was constructed during the first part of the 12th century with the help of stone cutters and sculptors from the Rhine valley and Italy, and was ready for use in 1123. It was consecrated in 1145 and for the next 400 years, Lund became the ecclesiastical power center for Scandinavia and one of the most important cities in Denmark.[81] The cathedral was altered in the 16th century by architect Adam van Düren and later by Carl Georg Brunius and Helgo Zetterwall.

Lund skyline, with the Cathedral towers.

Scania also has churches built in the gothic style, such as Saint Petri Church in Malmö, dating from the early 14th century. Similar buildings can be found in all Hansa cities around the Baltic Sea (such as Helsingborg and Rostock). The parishes in the countryside did not have the means for such extravagant buildings. Possibly the most notable countryside church is the ancient and untouched stone church in Dalby. It is the oldest stone church in Sweden, built around the same time as Lund cathedral. After the Lund Cathedral was built, many of the involved workers travelled around the province and used their acquired skills to make baptism fonts, paintings and decorations, and naturally architectural constructions.

Scania has 240 castles and country estates—more than any other province in Sweden.[84] Many of them received their current shape during the 16th century, when new or remodeled castles started to appear in greater numbers, often erected by the reuse of stones and material from the original 11th–15th century castles and abbeys found at the estates. Between 1840 and 1900, the landed nobility in Scania built and rebuilt many of the castles again, often by modernizing previous buildings at the same location in a style that became typical for Scania. The style is a mixture of different architectural influences of the era, but frequently refers back to the style of the 16th century castles of the Reformation era, a time when the large estates of the Catholic Church were made Crown property and the abbeys bartered or sold to members of the aristocracy by the Danish king.[85] For many of the 19th century remodels, Danish architects were called in. According to some scholars, the driving force behind the use of historical Scanian architecture, as interpreted by 19th century Danish architects using Dutch Renaissance style, was a wish to refer back to an earlier era when the aristocracy had special privileges and political power in relation to the Danish king.[86]

Language, literature and art

Scanian dialects have various local native idioms and speech patterns, and realizes diphthongs and South Scandinavian Uvular trill, as opposed to the supradental /r/-sound characteristic of spoken Standard Swedish. They are very similar to the dialect of Danish spoken in Bornholm, Denmark. The prosody of the Scanian dialects has more in common with German, Danish and Dutch (and sometimes also with English, although to a lesser extent) than with the prosody of central Swedish dialects.[87]

Famous Scanian authors include Victoria Benedictsson, (1850–1888) from Domme, Trelleborg, who wrote about the inequality of women in the 19th century society, but who also authored regional stories about Scania, such as From Skåne of 1884; Ola Hansson[88] (1860–1925) from Hönsinge, Trelleborg; Vilhelm Ekelund (1880–1949) from Stehag, Eslöv; Fritiof Nilsson Piraten (1895–1972) from Vollsjö, Sjöbo; Hjalmar Gullberg (1898–1961) from Malmö; Artur Lundkvist (1906–1991) from Hagstad, Perstorp; Hans Alfredsson (born 1931) and Jacques Werup (born 1945), both from Malmö. Birgitta Trotzig (born 1929) from Gothenburg has written several historic novels set in Scania, such as The Exposed of 1957, which describes life in 17th century Scania with a primitive country priest as its main character and the 1961 novel A Tale from the Coast, which recounts a legend about human suffering and is set in Scania in the 15th century. Gabriel Jönsson, (1892–1984) from Ålabodarna, Landskrona;

A printing-house was established in the city of Malmö in 1528. It became instrumental in the propagation of new ideas and during the 16th century, Malmö became the center for the Danish reformation.[89]

Traditional Scanian nuptial array in Auguste Racinet's Le costume historique.

Scanian culture, as expressed through the medium of textile art, has received international attention during the last decade.[90] The art form, often referred to as Scanian Marriage Weavings, flourished from 1750 for a period of 100 years, after which it slowly vanished. Consisting of small textile panels mainly created for wedding ceremonies, the art is strongly symbolic, often expressing ideas about fertility, longevity and a sense of hope and joy.[91] The Scanian artists were female weavers working at home, who had learned to weave at a young age, often in order to have a marriage chest filled with beautiful tapestries as a dowry.[92]

According to international collectors and art scholars, the Scanian patterns are of special interest for the striking similarities with Roman, Byzantine and Asian art. The designs are studied by art historians tracing how portable decorative goods served as transmitters of art concepts from culture to culture, influencing designs and patterns along the entire length of the ancient trade routes.[92] The Scanian textiles show how goods traded along the Silk Road brought Coptic, Anatolian, and Chinese designs and symbols into the folk art of far away regions like Scania, where they were reinterpretated and integrated into the local culture. Some of the most ancient designs in Scanian textile art are pairs of birds facing a tree with a "Great Bird" above, often symbolized simply by its wings.[92] Regionally derived iconography include mythological Scanian river horses in red (Swedish: bäckahästar), with horns on their foreheads and misty clouds from their nostrils.[92] The horse motif has been traced to patterns on 4th and 5th century Egyptian fabrics, but in Scanian art it is transformed to illustrate the Norse river horse of Scanian folklore.[93]

Dukes

The title of duke was reintroduced in Sweden in 1772 and since this time, Swedish Princes have been created Dukes of various provinces, although this is a solely nominal title.

The Dukes of Skåne are:

From his marriage, in 1905, King Gustaf VI Adolf had his summer residence at Sofiero Palace in Helsingborg. He and his family spent their summers there, and the cabinet meetings held there during the summer months forced the ministers to arrive by night train from Stockholm. He died at Helsingborg Hospital in 1973.

See also

Notes

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  4. ^ "Prices | Øresundsbron". Uk.oresundsbron.com. http://uk.oresundsbron.com/page/34. Retrieved 2010-03-03. 
  5. ^ "Öresundsregionen.se". Oresundsregionen.se. http://www.oresundsregionen.se/en/about.aspx. Retrieved 2010-03-03. 
  6. ^ Statistics Sweden. Folkmängd i riket, län och kommuner 31 mars 2008 och befolkningsförändringar kvartal 1 2008: "Skåne: 1 202 646". SCB, 13 May 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  7. ^ Skåne i siffror. Den skånska resan mot framtiden. Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län, 14 February 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2008.
  8. ^ Graham, Brian and Peter Howard, eds. (2008). The Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 9780754649229, p. 79
  9. ^ "Berömda svenska slag, 1700-tal (1c)". Algonet.se. 2007-01-21. http://www.algonet.se/~hogman/slb_slag_1700d.htm#Slaget%20vid%20Helsingborg. Retrieved 2010-03-03. 
  10. ^ Germundsson, Tomas (2005). "Regional Cultural Heritage versus National Heritage in Scania’s Disputed National Landscape." International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2005, pp. 21–37. (ISSN 1470–3610).
  11. ^ "Sweden / Skåne". Geographia.com. http://www.geographia.com/sweden/castles.html. Retrieved 2010-03-03. 
  12. ^ "Skane, Sweden". Planetware.com. http://www.planetware.com/sweden/skane-s-skn-skn.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-03. 
  13. ^ "Map of Skane in Sweden". Map-of-sweden.co.uk. http://www.map-of-sweden.co.uk/map-of-skane.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-03. 
  14. ^ Haugen, Einar (1976). The Scandinavian Languages: An Introduction to Their History. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1976.
  15. ^ Helle, Knut (2003). "Introduction". The Cambridge History of Scandinavia. Ed. E. I. Kouri et al. Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-521-47299-7. p. XXII. "The name Scandinavia was used by classical authors in the first centuries of the Christian era to identify Skåne and the mainland further north which they believed to be an island."
  16. ^ Olwig, Kenneth R. "Introduction: The Nature of Cultural Heritage, and the Culture of Natural Heritage—Northern Perspectives on a Contested Patrimony". International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2005, p. 3: The very name 'Scandinavia' is of cultural origin, since it derives from the Scanians or Scandians (the Latinised spelling of Skåninger), a people who long ago lent their name to all of Scandinavia, perhaps because they lived centrally, at the southern tip of the peninsula."
  17. ^ Østergård, Uffe (1997). "The Geopolitics of Nordic Identity – From Composite States to Nation States". The Cultural Construction of Norden. Øystein Sørensen and Bo Stråth (eds.), Oslo: Scandinavian University Press 1997, 25-71.
  18. ^ "Paynesville Historical Society - scandinavian settlers". Paynesvillearea.com. http://www.paynesvillearea.com/community/histsociety/scandinavians080101.html. Retrieved 2010-03-03. 
  19. ^ Anderson, Carl Edlund (1999). Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia. PhD dissertation, Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic (Faculty of English), University of Cambridge, 1999.
  20. ^ Helle, Knut (2003). "Introduction". The Cambridge History of Scandinavia. Ed. E. I. Kouri et al. Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-521-47299-7.
  21. ^ a b North, Richard (1997). Heathen Gods in Old English Literature. Cambridge University Press: 1997, ISBN 0521551838, p.192.
  22. ^ Svenskt ortnamnslexikon, 2003
  23. ^ Björkman,Erik (1973). Studien über die Eigennamen im Beowulf. M. Sändig, ISBN 3500284701, p. 99.
  24. ^ Helle, Knut, ed. (2003). The Cambridge History of Scandinavia. Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0521472997, p. 183.
  25. ^ Sawyer, Birgit and P. H. Sawyer (1993). Scandinavia: From Conversion to Reformation, Circa 800-1500. U of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0816617392, p. 85.
  26. ^ Bonney, Richard (1995). Economic Systems and State Finance. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198205457, p.110.
  27. ^ Region Skåne.Municipalities in Skåne. Official site. Retrieved 24 August 2007.
  28. ^ Region Skåne. Democracy-Increased autonomy. Official site. Retrieved 24 August 2007.
  29. ^ Clara Nevéus, Bror Jacques de Wærn: Ny svensk vapenbok. Riksarkivet 1992. (In Swedish)
  30. ^ Vårt vapen. Region Skåne. (In Swedish). Retrieved 4 April 2008.
  31. ^ Swedish Academy (2006). SAOB. (In Swedish). Retrieved 20 October 2006.
  32. ^ Danish National Archives. Lensregnskaberne 1560-1658. (In Danish). Retrieved 20 October 2006.
  33. ^ "Terra Scaniae - Om Peder Winstrup". Ts.skane.se. http://www.ts.skane.se/person/peder-winstrup/kallforteckning. Retrieved 2010-03-09. 
  34. ^ a b c d Terra Scaniae. Skånes län efter 1658. (In Swedish). Retrieved 8 March 2010.
  35. ^ Oresundstid. The Swedification of Scania. 17th century. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
  36. ^ a b Upton, Anthony F. (1998). Charles XI and Swedish Absolutism, 1660-1697. Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0521573904.
  37. ^ Terra Scaniae. Hårdare försvenskning. (In Swedish). Retrieved 7 January 2006.
  38. ^ Stadin, Kekke. "The Masculine Image of a Great Power: Representations of Swedish imperial power c. 1630–1690". Scandinavian Journal of History Vol. 30, No. 1. March 2005, pp. 61–82. ISSN 0346-8755.
  39. ^ Olin, Martin (2005). "Kungliga rum – maktmanifestation och distribution". Historikermöte 2005, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen. Published online (in English) by the Department of History, Uppsala University, in pdf-format.
  40. ^ Jespersen, Knud J. V. (2004) . A History of Denmark. Palgrave Macmillian. ISBN 0333659171, p. 3.
  41. ^ a b Verzijl, J. H. W. et al. (1971). International law in historical perspective. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9028600515, p. 133-138.
  42. ^ Can, Mustafa. I Sveriges namn ("In the name of Sweden"). Dagens Nyheter, 28 September 2002. (In Swedish).
  43. ^ "Danish politician stakes claim to Swedish territory". The Local, 23 December 2007.
  44. ^ "Han vill ge Skåne till Danmark" (He wants to give Scania to Denmark). Aftonbladet, 22 December 2007. (In Swedish).
  45. ^ Krarup drømmer om dansk storrige (Krarup dreams of a Greater Denmark)
  46. ^ Sorens, Jason (2005). The Cross-Sectional Determinants of Secessionism in Advanced Democracies. Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 38, No. 3, 304-326 (2005). DOI: 10.1177/0010414004272538 2005 SAGE Publications.
  47. ^ Valmyndigheten (2006). Val till landstinget i Skåne län
  48. ^ Tägil, Sven (2000). "Regions in Europe – a historical perspective". Border Regions in Comparison. Ed. Hans-Åke Persson. Studentlitteratur, Lund. ISBN 9144018584, p. 18: "Together, [the] processes of decentralization, separatism and region building may proceed in parallel and can mobilise mutually supporting forces. This is especially likely in border areas where today co-operating cross-border regions are emerging throughout Europe. [...] For instance, Malmoe is a peripheral city in relation to Stockholm, but is the most central area in Sweden from a continental viewpoint! Today many old conflict areas and risk zones in Europe have been transformed into areas of co-operation and development. Both within and outside the European Union, cross-border collaboration is burgeoning. This form of regionalisation neutralises international borders and nibbles at the sovereign state."
  49. ^ a b McCallion, Malin Stegmann (2004). The Europeanisation of Swedish Regional Government. Policy Networks in Sub National Governance: Understanding Power Relations. Paper 8, Workshop 25, European Consortium of Political Research. 2004 Joint Sessions of Workshops, Uppsala, Sweden.
  50. ^ a b Peterson, Martin (2003). "The Regions and Regionalism: Regionalism in Sweden". CoR Report Sweden. The Interdisciplinary Centre for Comparative Research in the Social Sciences, EUROPUB Case Study (WP2).
  51. ^ Kramsch,Olivier and Olivier Thomas (2004). Cross-border Governance in the European Union. Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0415315417.
  52. ^ Peterson, Martin (2003). "The Regions and Regionalism and Regionalism: Regionalism in Sweden". CoR Report Sweden, The Interdisciplinary Centre for Comparative Research in the Social Sciences, EUROPUB Case Study (WP2). Final Report.
  53. ^ The Scanian Manifesto. The Foundation for the Future of Scania, 2000.
  54. ^ Björk, Gert and Henrik Persson. "Fram för ett öppet och utåtriktat Skåne". (Let Scania be open and extroverted). Sydsvenskan, 20 May 2000. Reproduced by FSF. (In Swedish). Retrieved 3 April 2008.
  55. ^ Ottosson, Ante. Bristande respekt för Hallands historia (Lack of respect for the history of Halland]. Scanias Regionala Institut. (In Swedish). Retrieved 11 April 2008.
  56. ^ a b Lidmar-Bergström, Karna and Jens-Ove Näslund (2005). "Uplands and Lowlands in Southern Sweden". In The Physical Geography of Fennoscandia. Ed. Matti Seppälä. Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 255-261. ISBN 0199245908.
  57. ^ Österberg, Klas (2001). Forest - Geographical Regions. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 25 January 2001. Retrieved 4 November 2006.
  58. ^ SCB. Jordbruksstatistisk årsbok 2006. (Agricultural Statistic Yearbook 2006). Published online in pdf-format by Statiska Centralbyrån (Statistics Sweden). (In Swedish). Retrieved 10 January 2007.
  59. ^ Hogan, C.M. (2004). Kullaberg environmental analysis. Lumina Technologies prepared for municipality of Höganäs, Aberdeen Library Archives, Aberdeen, Scotland, July 17, 2004.
  60. ^ "Nationalparker och andra fina platser - Naturvårdsverket - Swedish EPA". Naturvardsverket.se. 2009-11-06. http://www.naturvardsverket.se/sv/Att-vara-ute-i-naturen/Nationalparker-och-andra-fina-platser/. Retrieved 2010-03-04. 
  61. ^ "Dalby Söderskog, Skåne län - Naturvårdsverket - Swedish EPA". Naturvardsverket.se. 2009-08-03. http://www.naturvardsverket.se/Att-vara-ute-i-naturen/Nationalparker-och-andra-fina-platser/Nationalparker/Dalby-Soderskog. Retrieved 2010-03-06. 
  62. ^ "Welcome - Länsstyrelsen i Skåne". Lst.se. 2009-06-18. http://www.lst.se/skane/Om_Lanet/Stenshuvud/Welcome.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-06. 
  63. ^ "Söderåsen National Park". Nationalpark-soderasen.lst.se. http://www.nationalpark-soderasen.lst.se/eng/eindex2.html. Retrieved 2010-03-06. 
  64. ^ "skanebravaden.se". skanebravaden.se. http://www.skanebravaden.se/index_mozilla.html. Retrieved 2010-03-04. 
  65. ^ "De svenska länens befolkning". Tacitus.nu. 2008-09-07. http://www.tacitus.nu/historisk-atlas/befolkning/lan.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-05. 
  66. ^ Folkmängden i Sveriges socknar och kommuner 1571-1991
  67. ^ B.R Mitchell: International Historical Statistics 1750-1993
  68. ^ "Churches - Eslövs kommun". Eslov.se. 2009-09-30. http://www.eslov.se/turism/inenglish/churches.5725.html. Retrieved 2010-03-05. 
  69. ^ The Foundation for Recreational Areas in Scania. "Information about the Skaneled Trails". Region Skåne. Retrieved 20 October 2006.
  70. ^ Peter, Laurence. "Bridge shapes new Nordic hub". BBC News, 14 September 2006. Retrieved 20 October 2006.
  71. ^ Tätortsstatistik från Statistiska centralbyrån
  72. ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1750). Skånska resa (Scanian Journey).
  73. ^ Strindberg, August (1893). "Skånska landskap med utvikningar". Prosabitar från 1890-talet. Bonniers , Stockholm, 1917. (In Swedish).
  74. ^ Albertsson, Rolf. "Half-timbered houses". Section in Malmö 1692 - a historical project. Malmö City Culture Department and Museum of Foteviken. Retrieved 16 January 2007.
  75. ^ Oresundstid.Images: Half-timbered house in Scania. Retrieved 16 January 2007.
  76. ^ Ystad Municipality. Welcome to Ystad. Official site. Retrieved 16 January 2007.
  77. ^ Ystad Municipality. A walk through the centuries, section "Pedestrian street". Official site. Retrieved 16 January 2007.
  78. ^ A letter from the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf describes a raid in 1612: "We have been in Scania and we have burned most of the province, so that 24 parishes and the town of Vä lie in ashes. We have met no resistance, neither from cavalry nor footmen, so we have been able to rage, plunder, burn and kill to our hearts' content. We had thought of visiting Århus in the same way, but when it was brought to our knowledge that there were Danish cavalry in the town, we set out for Markaryd and we could destroy and ravage as we went along and everything turned out lucky for us." (Quoted and translated by Oresundstid in the section "Scania was ravaged".
  79. ^ Herman Lindquist (1995). Historien om Sverige – storhet och fall. Norstedts Förlag, 2006. ISBN 9113015354. (In Swedish).
  80. ^ Skåneleden: 6B. Breanäsleden (In Swedish). Official site by The Foundation for Recreational Areas in Scania and Region Skåne. See also Göingebygden, official site by Skåne Nordost Tourism Office and The Snapp-hane Kingdom. Official site by Osby Tourism Office.
  81. ^ a b c City of Lund. Touchdowns in the History of Lund. Official site for the City of Lund. Retrieved 10 January 2006.
  82. ^ Hauberg, P. (1900). Myntforhold og Udmyntninger i Danmark indtil 1146. D. Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., 6. Række, historisk og filosofisk Afd. V. I., Chapter III: Danmarks Mynthistorie indtil 1146, and Chapter V: Myntsteder published online by Gladsaxe Gymnasium. (In Danish). Retrieved 10 January 2007.
  83. ^ a b Terra Scaniae. Lunds Domkyrka. (In Swedish). Retrieved 11 January 2007.
  84. ^ Region Skåne (2006). What is typical Skåne?. Official site. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
  85. ^ Terra Scaniae. 1600-talet. (In Swedish). Retrieved 27 January 2007.
  86. ^ Bjurklint Rosenblad, Kajsa. Scenografi för ett ståndsmässigt liv: adelns slottsbyggande i Skåne 1840-1900. Malmö: Sekel, 2005. ISBN 9197522236. Abstract in English at Scripta Academica Lundensia, Lund University.
  87. ^ Gårding, Eva (1974). "Talar skåningarna svenska" (Do Scanians speak Swedish). Svenskans beskrivning. Ed. Christer Platzack. Lund: Institutionen för nordiska språk, 1973, p 107, 112. (In Swedish)
  88. ^ "Poems" of 1884 and "Notturno" of 1885 celebrate the natural beauty and folkways of Scania. The result of a globetrotting life style, Ola Hansson's later poetry had various continental influences, but like many other Scanian writers', his authorship often reflected the tension between cosmopolitan culture and regionalism. For larger trends and a historic perspective on Scanian literature, see Vinge, Louise (ed.) Skånes litteraturhistoria del I, ISBN 9156410484, and Skånes litteraturhistoria del II, ISBN 9156410492, Corona: Malmö, 1996-1997. (In Swedish).
  89. ^ Infotek Öresund. Litteraturhistoria, Malmö. Fact sheet produced by Infotek Öresund, a cooperative project between the public libraries of Helsingborg, Elsinore, Copenhagen and Malmö, published online by Malmö Public Library, 4 November 2005. (In Swedish).
  90. ^ See for example: Monument to Love and Textiles de Scania des XVIIIe et XIXe Siècles. Scanian textiles from the Khalili Collection exhibited at the Swedish Cultural Centre in Paris and the Boston University Art Gallery. Retrieved 15 January 2007.
  91. ^ Keelan, Major Andrew and Wendy Keelan. The Khalili Collection - An Introduction. The Khalili Family Trust. Retrieved 15 January 2007.
  92. ^ a b c d Hansen, Viveka (1997). Swedish Textile Art: Traditional Marriage Weavings from Scania. Nour Foundation: 1997. ISBN 1874780072.
  93. ^ Lundström, Lena (2003). "Vattenväsen i väverskans händer". Curator's description of the exhibition "Aqvaväsen" at Trelleborgs Museum in Vårt Trelleborg, 2:2003, pp. 20-21. Available online in pdf format. (In Swedish).

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  • Strindberg, August (1893). "Skånska landskap med utvikningar". Prosabitar från 1890-talet. Bonniers , Stockholm, 1917. (In Swedish).
  • SAOB (2008). Skåneland.(In Swedish). Retrieved 2 April 2008.
  • Sawyer, Birgit and P. H. Sawyer (1993). Scandinavia: From Conversion to Reformation, Circa 800-1500. U of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0816617392.
  • Sorens, Jason (2005). "The Cross-Sectional Determinants of Secessionism in Advanced Democracies". Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 38, No. 3, 304-326 (2005). DOI: 10.1177/0010414004272538 2005 SAGE Publications.
  • Språk- och Folkminnesinstitutet (2003). Svenskt Ortnamnslexikon. Uppsala, 2003. (In Swedish)
  • Tägil, Sven (2000). "Regions in Europe – a historical perspective". In Border Regions in Comparison. Ed. Hans-Åke Persson. Studentlitteratur, Lund. ISBN 9144018584.
  • Terra Scaniae (2008). Skånes län efter 1658, Hårdare försvenskning, "Kuppförsök mot svenskarna 1658", "Lunds Domkyrka", 1600-talet, Generalguvernörens uppgifter.(In Swedish). Retrieved 2 April 2008.
  • Upton, Anthony F. (1998). Charles XI and Swedish Absolutism, 1660-1697. Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0521573904.
  • Vinge, Louise (ed.) Skånes litteraturhistoria, Corona: Malmö, 1996–1997, Part I, ISBN 9156410484, and Part II, ISBN 9156410492. (In Swedish).
  • Ystad Municipality (2007). Welcome to Ystad and "Pedestrian street". A walk through the centuries. Retrieved 16 January 2007.

External links

Official links

Organizations

  • Oresund Region - The regional body of the Oresund Region
  • Regional Museum - Museum in Kristianstad
  • Kommunförbundet Skåne - A cooperation between Scania's 33 municipalities
  • Skånes hembygdsförbund (in Swedish) - Heritage conservation organization
  • Terra Scaniae - History project established for Scanian schools, financed with subsidies from the Region of Scanias culturedepartment – Kultur Skåne – and the Foundation Culture of the Future, established by the Swedish Government.

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Scania article)

From Wikitravel

Contents

Scania (Swedish: Skåne, [1]) is the southernmost province in Sweden, and part of the Götaland region. It is known for its rich agricultural fields, its old history, long beaches, Danish heritage and a remarkable local accent.

  • Eslöv
  • Helsingborg
  • Kristianstad
  • Landskrona
  • Lund - has a university and a cathedral
  • Malmö - the third largest city of Sweden
  • Simrishamn
  • Trelleborg
  • Ystad - home of fictional detective Kurt Wallander, created by Henning Mankell
  • Ängelholm - Known for its 6km long beach and for clay pidgeons - a kind of ocarina
  • Mölle - Small picturesque port town. Known for views and fish dishes.
  • Ven Island
  • The picturescue southeastern district of Österlen
  • The Kullaberg nature reserve
  • The three small national parks Stenshuvud, Söderåsen, and Dalby Söderskog
  • Falsterbo peninsula
  • Båstad [2] town and Bjäre area
  • The Kullabygden region which hosts a nature reserve, horseback riding and picturesque coastal towns
  • Ales stenar - a 67 metre long stone ship formed by 59 large boulders of sandstone, a megalithic monument from the Nordic Iron Age

Get around

Skånetrafiken [3] provides comprehensive rail and bus service in the region.

  • Glimmingehus [4] - a well preserved manor from the 16th century
  • Skåne Zoo [5] - the only Scandinavian zoo with Scandinavian animals only

Do

Hike on Skåneleden.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Danish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Danish Wikipedia has an article on:
Skåne

Wikipedia da

Proper noun

Skåne

  1. Scania (region of Sweden occupying the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula)

Swedish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Swedish Wikipedia has an article on:
Skåne

Wikipedia sv

Proper noun

Skåne

  1. Scania (region of Sweden occupying the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula)

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