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Skin
Skin.svg
Layers of mammal skin: epidermis (A), dermis (B), and subcutis (C), showing a hair follicle (1), sweat gland (11) & sebaceous gland (7)
A close up picture of a rhinoceros skin.
The skin is a soft outer covering of an animal, in particular a vertebrate. .Other animal coverings such the arthropod exoskeleton or the seashell have different developmental origin, structure and chemical composition.^ In anatomy, endoskeleton is a term applied to the internal bony structure of man and other animals, in contradistinction to exoskeleton, which is the outer and hardened covering of such animals as the crab , lobster , etc, Research Endoskeleton ENDOSTEUM .

^ While the external basement membrane of the junctional epithelium resembles, in its structure and composition, other basement membranes that are interposed between an epithelium and a connective tissue, the internal basal lamina has distinctively different structural and molecular characteristics.
  • The Junctional Epithelium: from Health to Disease -- Bosshardt and Lang 84 (1): 9 -- Journal of Dental Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jdr.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although overlap is shown in the central region, the pulse sequence can be arranged to overlap and cover other locations of the ablation region, for example peripheral regions, such that optical feedback is enhanced in the peripheral regions where the pulses overlap.
  • OPERATOR-CONTROLLED SCANNING LASER PROCEDURE DESIGNED FOR LARGE-AREA EPITHELIUM REMOVAL - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The adjective cutaneous literally means "of the skin" (from Latin cutis, skin).^ While melasma literally means dark skin, and it is best known as the "mask of pregnancy", you don´t have to be pregnant (or even a woman!
  • Melasma, Hyperpigmentation, Dark Spots - BioSkinRefiner 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC bioskinrefiner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In mammals, the skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue, and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs.^ Cortical-bone - the outer layer of bone which is dense and made up of lamellae .
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ This is manifest with atrophy of the skin, subcutaneous tissues, muscle, and bone.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Underlying bones, costal cartilages, muscle and skin may result in high conductance regions, which produce false positives.
  • Method and System for Detecting Electrophysiological Changes in Pre-Cancerous and Cancerous Tissue and Epithelium - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

[1] .Skin of a different nature exists in amphibians, reptiles, birds.^ Chordata - an animal phylum that includes sea squirts (tunicates), lampreys and hagfishes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

[2] .All mammals have some hair on their skin, even marine mammals which appear to be hairless.^ The elasticity has some variance in that younger individuals appear to have normal elasticity, but with aging, the skin becomes more relaxed and redundant.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most are small tropical marine species, although some live in brackish and even fresh water waters .
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Because it interfaces with the environment, skin plays a key role in protecting (the body) against pathogens[3] and excessive water loss.^ They have a vital role to play in the bodies immune response to foreign proteins.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ In cultured cells, actin plays a key role in the purse string mechanism of restitution ( 4 , 8 , 11 , 38 ).
  • Restitution of single-cell defects in the mouse colon epithelium differs from that of cultured cells -- Günzel et al. 290 (6): R1496 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ THE ALKALINE MUCUS BARRIER of the duodenum plays an important role in protecting the epithelium from damage by acid chyme entering from the stomach ( 18 ).
  • Chloride conductance of CFTR facilitates basal Cl-/HCO3- exchange in the villous epithelium of intact murine duodenum -- Simpson et al. 288 (6): G1241 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC ajpgi.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[4] Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, sensation, and the protection of vitamin B folates. .Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue.^ The complexity of wound healing and scar formation parallels the complexity and synergistic effects on human skin of the substance live snails produce copiously when stressed or damaged to bathe their skin with it at will and achieve quick and scarless repair.
  • Biological Skin Treatment: Acne, Rosacea, Dry Skin, Dermatitis... 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.bioskintreatment.com [Source type: General]

^ In previous studies, mice lacking I B exhibited elevated levels of NF- B activity in several tissues, including B and T lymphocytes and skin (Beg et al.
  • Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) Regulates Proliferation and Branching in Mouse Mammary Epithelium -- Brantley et al. 12 (5): 1445 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If the skin cells keep up with the fibroblasts, then little scar tissue is formed and the skin has a more normal appearance after the wound has healed.
  • Biological Skin Treatment: Acne, Rosacea, Dry Skin, Dermatitis... 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.bioskintreatment.com [Source type: General]

This is often discolored and depigmented.
Hair with sufficient density is called fur. The fur mainly serves to augment the insulation the skin provides, but can also serve as a secondary sexual characteristic or as camouflage. .On some animals, the skin is very hard and thick, and can be processed to create leather.^ He also told me it was very hard to get rid of that skin condition and that strong medicines or surgery could help me make them more noticeable.
  • Melasma, Hyperpigmentation, Dark Spots - BioSkinRefiner 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC bioskinrefiner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reptiles and fish have hard protective scales on their skin for protection, and birds have hard feathers, all made of tough β-keratins.^ A cutaneous horn is skin lesion made of compacted keratin that forms an exophytic conical projection that becomes curved and resembles a French horn.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chordata - an animal phylum that includes sea squirts (tunicates), lampreys and hagfishes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

Amphibian skin is not a strong barrier to passage of chemicals and is often subject to osmosis. A frog sitting in an anesthetic solution could quickly go to sleep.

Contents

Functions

Skin performs the following functions:
.
  1. Protection: an anatomical barrier from pathogens and damage between the internal and external environment in bodily defense; Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the adaptive immune system.^ After a wound has occurred to the skin, both skin cells and connective tissue cells (fibroblasts) begin multiplying to repair the damage.
    • Biological Skin Treatment: Acne, Rosacea, Dry Skin, Dermatitis... 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.bioskintreatment.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They are released by white cells of the immune system to communicate messages between cells .
    • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ They migrate to form the dental mesenchyme, supportive cells of the nervous system, the adrenal cortex and melanocytes of the skin.
    • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

    [3][4]
  2. .
  3. Sensation: contains a variety of nerve endings that react to heat and cold, touch, pressure, vibration, and tissue injury; see somatosensory system and haptics.
  4. Heat regulation: the skin contains a blood supply far greater than its requirements which allows precise control of energy loss by radiation, convection and conduction.^ The branches composed of I B -deficient cells were of greater length than controls.
    • Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) Regulates Proliferation and Branching in Mouse Mammary Epithelium -- Brantley et al. 12 (5): 1445 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Contrary to "Big Robbins" and most other texts, a freckle (in adult or child) will indeed also contain more melanocytes than surrounding skin.
    • SKIN DISEASES 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ May be caused by certain bacteria which spread rapidly through tissues, or by an inadequate blood supply.
    • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

    .Dilated blood vessels increase perfusion and heatloss, while constricted vessels greatly reduce cutaneous blood flow and conserve heat.^ Thus, gingival fluid is an exudate that originates from the sub-epithelial blood vessels of the lamina propria, and its flow rate corresponds to the degree of inflammation.
    • The Junctional Epithelium: from Health to Disease -- Bosshardt and Lang 84 (1): 9 -- Journal of Dental Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jdr.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Blood flows from arteries to capillaries and through veins, but the tissues surrounding the vessels are not directly bathed by blood.
    • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Exudate - the fluid plasma which leaks out of blood vessels due to an increase in capillary permeability.
    • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

    .Erector pili muscles are significant in animals.
  5. Control of evaporation: the skin provides a relatively dry and semi-impermeable barrier to fluid loss.^ Data are presented as mean ± SEM wet/dry ratio and are derived from n = 7 knockout mice and n = 7 control animals.
    • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- PMNs facilitate translocation of platelets across human and mouse epithelium and together alter fluid homeostasis via epithelial cell–expressed ecto-NTPDases 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

    [4]
  6. .
  7. Storage and synthesis: acts as a storage center for lipids and water
  8. Absorption: Oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide can diffuse into the epidermis in small amounts, some animals using their skin for their sole respiration organ (contrary to popular belief, however, humans do not absorb oxygen through the skin).^ The end products are carbon dioxide and water.
    • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The circular segment of skin is removed; optimally, a small amount of subcutaneous fat is included.
    • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ However, it can be used when lesion diagnosis or progression is in question and, therefore, a full-thickness skin excision biopsy is likely to yield the best diagnostic results.
    • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [5]
  9. Water resistance: The skin acts as a water resistant barrier so essential nutrients aren't washed out of the body.

Animal skin products

.The term skin refers to the covering of a small animal, such as a sheep, goat (goatskin), pig, snake (snakeskin) etc or the young of a large animal.^ In anatomy, endoskeleton is a term applied to the internal bony structure of man and other animals, in contradistinction to exoskeleton, which is the outer and hardened covering of such animals as the crab , lobster , etc, Research Endoskeleton ENDOSTEUM .

^ It consists of cartilage covered by skin, with small muscles connecting it to the scalp.

^ The long term storage of energy in animals is in carbon rich molecules, such as glycogen or fatty acids.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.The term hides or rawhide refers to the covering of a large adult animal such as a cow, buffalo, horse etc.^ In anatomy, endoskeleton is a term applied to the internal bony structure of man and other animals, in contradistinction to exoskeleton, which is the outer and hardened covering of such animals as the crab , lobster , etc, Research Endoskeleton ENDOSTEUM .

^ The long term storage of energy in animals is in carbon rich molecules, such as glycogen or fatty acids.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Skins and hides from different animals are used for clothing, bags and other consumer products, usually in the form of leather, but also furs.^ A multiple comparison procedure is used to isolate, the group or groups that differ from the others.
  • Method and System for Detecting Electrophysiological Changes in Pre-Cancerous and Cancerous Tissue and Epithelium - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The resistance of the skin or other epithelium at AC and a different resistance at DC are measured.
  • Method and System for Detecting Electrophysiological Changes in Pre-Cancerous and Cancerous Tissue and Epithelium - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The product is based on a natural substance secreted by a little animal to function as its powerful immune modulator and skin regeneration trigger.
  • Biological Skin Treatment: Acne, Rosacea, Dry Skin, Dermatitis... 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.bioskintreatment.com [Source type: General]
  • Melasma, Hyperpigmentation, Dark Spots - BioSkinRefiner 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC bioskinrefiner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Skin can also be cooked to make pork rind or cracklin. The skin on roasted chicken and turkey is another coveted delicacy

Mammalian skin layers

Mammalian skin is composed of three primary layers:
  • the epidermis, which provides waterproofing and serves as a barrier to infection;
  • the dermis, which serves as a location for the appendages of skin; and
  • the hypodermis (subcutaneous adipose layer).

Epidermis

.Epidermis, "epi" coming from the Greek meaning "over" or "upon", is the outermost layer of the skin.^ For some reason, most skin diseases get fancy Latin names, while most other medical terms come from Greek.
  • SKIN DISEASES 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only will you slough off that dulling, dead, outermost layer of skin that is less than a micron thick, regularly.
  • Skin Cream - Face Care - Facial Cream - Face Skin Care - Natural Skin Care 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.bioskincream.com [Source type: General]

^ Acanthosis: Thickening of the spiny layer of the skin, i.e., the epidermis in the lesion goes deeper and/or is taller than outside the lesion.
  • SKIN DISEASES 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It forms the waterproof, protective wrap over the body's surface and is made up of stratified squamous epithelium with an underlying basal lamina.^ It is a stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium that is made up of 2 strata only, i.e.
  • The Junctional Epithelium: from Health to Disease -- Bosshardt and Lang 84 (1): 9 -- Journal of Dental Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jdr.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A surface electrode placed at the surface of the breast completes the electrical circuit, so that measurements of transepithelial potential may be made between the ductal epithelium, or center of the tumor and the skin surface.
  • Method and System for Detecting Electrophysiological Changes in Pre-Cancerous and Cancerous Tissue and Epithelium - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been proposed that the junctional epithelium, which was originally derived from the reduced enamel epithelium, may be replaced in time by a junctional epithelium formed by basal cells originating from the oral gingival epithelium ( Ten Cate, 1996 ).
  • The Junctional Epithelium: from Health to Disease -- Bosshardt and Lang 84 (1): 9 -- Journal of Dental Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jdr.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

.The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and cells in the deepest layers are nourished by diffusion from blood capillaries extending to the upper layers of the dermis.^ The blood is always contained in a vessel.
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ An eosinophil is a kind of white blood cell , containing granules readily stained with eosin .

^ Yet another is layered fibrosis in the upper dermis near the lesion.
  • SKIN DISEASES 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main type of cells which make up the epidermis are Merkel cells, keratinocytes, with melanocytes and Langerhans cells also present.^ Keratinocytes - Cells of the epidermis which secrete the protein keratin.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Ciliated cells are the predominant luminal epithelial cell type present throughout the proximal and distal conducting airways and are critical cell types for facilitating MCT [5] .
  • PLoS Biology: CFTR Delivery to 25% of Surface Epithelial Cells Restores Normal Rates of Mucus Transport to Human Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelium 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It has a fibrous structure and makes up the main organic component of bone and dentine, and the fibres of tendons and ligaments.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.The epidermis can be further subdivided into the following strata (beginning with the outermost layer): corneum, lucidum (only in palms of hands and bottoms of feet), granulosum, spinosum, basale.^ The epidermis consists of four layers: the stratum basale, the stratum spinosum, the stratum granulosum, and the stratum corneum.

^ Each of these can be further subdivided into specific type, whether benign or malignant including grade of malignancy, histological appearance, and cause.

^ Not only will you slough off that dulling, dead, outermost layer of skin that is less than a micron thick, regularly.
  • Skin Cream - Face Care - Facial Cream - Face Skin Care - Natural Skin Care 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.bioskincream.com [Source type: General]

.Cells are formed through mitosis at the basale layer.^ Transitional Epithelial cells can slide by one another allowing the epithelium to get thinner (as in a full bladder) without losing the ability to form a strong layer.
  • HistoLab2.htm 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC faculty.une.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EGF binds to specific cell-surface receptors (EGFR, a trans-membrane glycoprotein receptor) present in the basal layer of the human epidermis.
  • Electronic Textbook of Dermatology, Anatomy of the Skin 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC telemedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The basal layer is composed of columnar cells which are anchored to a basement membrane--this lies between the epidermis and dermis.
  • Electronic Textbook of Dermatology, Anatomy of the Skin 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC telemedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.The daughter cells (see cell division) move up the strata changing shape and composition as they die due to isolation from their blood source.^ They are also sights on cell membranes onto which protein messengers attach such as cytokines (see also lectin s).
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The developing embryo increases in size due to cell division.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ There are many macrophages in the spleen where they remove dead red blood cells from the circulation.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.The cytoplasm is released and the protein keratin is inserted.^ Neutrophils also release toxic enzymes, stored safely in their cytoplasm as lysosomes and released in the presence of foreign proteins.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.They eventually reach the corneum and slough off (desquamation).^ They become progressively flattened as they mature and are eventually are off.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.This process is called keratinization and takes place within about 27 days.^ Enzyme - a protein that controls and helps a chemical reaction to take place, but is not used up in the process.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The front part of the choroid terminates about the place where the sclerotic passes into the cornea in a series of ridges, the ciliary processes.

^ Ectostosis is a process of bone formation in which ossification takes place in the perichondrium and either surrounds or gradually replaces the cartilage .

.This keratinized layer of skin is responsible for keeping water in the body and keeping other harmful chemicals and pathogens out, making skin a natural barrier to infection.^ Hyperkeratosis: Thickening of the keratin layer of the skin.
  • SKIN DISEASES 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other two no longer itch, and I have peeled away several layers of dead skin.
  • Melasma, Hyperpigmentation, Dark Spots - BioSkinRefiner 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC bioskinrefiner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few review points about the skin: The granules are made of filaggrin and other proteins; this is the watertight layer.
  • SKIN DISEASES 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
[also see:  image rotating (1.1 mb) ]
Optical Coherence Tomography tomogram of fingertip, depicting stratum corneum (~500 µm thick) with stratum disjunctum on top and stratum lucidum (connection to stratum spinosum) in the middle.
^ This regimen results in the thinning of the stratum corneum to approximately one half of its usual thickness.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The epidermis consists of four layers: the stratum basale, the stratum spinosum, the stratum granulosum, and the stratum corneum.

^ If you are foolish enough to biopsy impetigo, you'll see neutrophils just under the stratum corneum.
  • SKIN DISEASES 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At the bottom superficial parts of the dermis. Sweatducts are clearly visible.

Components

.The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and is nourished by diffusion from the dermis.^ The blood is always contained in a vessel.
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The epithelium of the skin (known as the epidermis ) serves primarily to protect the underlying tissue (the true skin, nerves and vessels which it contains).

^ The wrist area contains about 10 blood vessels and nerves and more than 20 tendons.

.The main type of cells which make up the epidermis are keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells and Merkels cells.^ Keratinocytes - Cells of the epidermis which secrete the protein keratin.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Melanocytes occur singly among the cells of the basal layer of the epidermis.
  • SKIN DISEASES 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Connective tissue - one of the four main types of collections of cells (tissues) which consists of cells in a matrix of ground substance and fibres.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.The epidermis helps the skin to regulate body temperature.^ BIOSKINCARE™ CREAM helps to REGULATE the skin remodeling and scar removal process.
  • Biological Skin Treatment: Acne, Rosacea, Dry Skin, Dermatitis... 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.bioskintreatment.com [Source type: General]

^ NORMAL AGING The epidermis thins (thin epidermis becomes shiny and wrinkles), the dermis thins (thin dermis looks and feels thin), and the skin loses its elasticity (and this helps the wrinkling process).
  • SKIN DISEASES 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Layers

.Epidermis is divided into several layers where cells are formed through mitosis at the innermost layers.^ Transitional Epithelial cells can slide by one another allowing the epithelium to get thinner (as in a full bladder) without losing the ability to form a strong layer.
  • HistoLab2.htm 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC faculty.une.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EGF binds to specific cell-surface receptors (EGFR, a trans-membrane glycoprotein receptor) present in the basal layer of the human epidermis.
  • Electronic Textbook of Dermatology, Anatomy of the Skin 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC telemedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The basal layer is composed of columnar cells which are anchored to a basement membrane--this lies between the epidermis and dermis.
  • Electronic Textbook of Dermatology, Anatomy of the Skin 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC telemedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.They move up the strata changing shape and composition as they differentiate and become filled with keratin.^ A lesion with an overall hemispheric shape with a keratin-filled crater and overhanging edges is highly characteristic of keratoacanthoma.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium that is made up of 2 strata only, i.e.
  • The Junctional Epithelium: from Health to Disease -- Bosshardt and Lang 84 (1): 9 -- Journal of Dental Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jdr.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When the cysts communicate with the surface, they are visible as keratin plug-filled pits.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.They eventually reach the top layer called stratum corneum and are sloughed off, or desquamated.^ They become progressively flattened as they mature and are eventually are off.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The epidermis consists of four layers: the stratum basale, the stratum spinosum, the stratum granulosum, and the stratum corneum.

.This process is called keratinization and takes place within weeks.^ Enzyme - a protein that controls and helps a chemical reaction to take place, but is not used up in the process.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Ectostosis is a process of bone formation in which ossification takes place in the perichondrium and either surrounds or gradually replaces the cartilage .

.The outermost layer of the epidermis consists of 25 to 30 layers of dead cells.^ In rare cases, these membranes consist of multiple cell layers, interspersed with collagen-rich extracellular matrix ( Figure 10 ).
  • An Overview on the Toxic Morphological Changes in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium after Systemic Compound Administration -- Mecklenburg and Schraermeyer 35 (2): 252 -- Toxicologic Pathology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC tpx.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The epidermis consists of four layers: the stratum basale, the stratum spinosum, the stratum granulosum, and the stratum corneum.

^ The most significant distinguishing features are a papillary frondlike orientation of basaloid cells and epithelial tracts consisting of more than one layer of basaloid cells.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Sublayers

Epidermis is divided into the following 5 sublayers or strata:
.Blood capillaries are found beneath the epidermis, and are linked to an arteriole and a venule.^ They are found around small blood vessels, nerve cells, muscle fibres and in particular beneath epithelial membranes as part of the basal lamina.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Arterial shunt vessels may bypass the network in ears, the nose and fingertips.^ Vessels which, having passed a layer of a hypodermic fatty tissue, on its border with a derma branch depart from this network and form a deep dermal arterial network.

^ From under- papillary networks arterial vessels to sebaceous glands to roots of hair depart also.

Dermis
Gray942.png
The distribution of the bloodvessels in the skin of the sole of the foot. (Corium - TA alternate term for dermis - is labeled at upper right.)
Gray940.png
A diagrammatic sectional view of the skin (click on image to magnify). (Dermis labeled at center right.)
Gray's subject #234 1065
MeSH Dermis
Dorlands/Elsevier Skin

Dermis

.The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.^ The mesoderm will form the muscles, blood system, connective tissue, including bone and dentine, the kidneys and the dermis of the skin.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The epithelium of the skin (known as the epidermis ) serves primarily to protect the underlying tissue (the true skin, nerves and vessels which it contains).

^ The epidermis consists of four layers: the stratum basale, the stratum spinosum, the stratum granulosum, and the stratum corneum.

.The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis by a basement membrane.^ Tonguelike projections of the atypical epidermis may project into the dermis but do not violate the basement membrane.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The OSE is separated from the ovarian stroma by a basement membrane and, underneath, by a dense collagenous connective tissue layer, the tunica albuginea, which is responsible for the whitish color of the ovary.
  • Ovarian Surface Epithelium: Biology, Endocrinology, and Pathology -- Auersperg et al. 22 (2): 255 -- Endocrine Reviews 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Basement membranes are specialized extracellular matrices that are interposed between connective tissues and epithelia, endothelia, muscle fibers, and the nervous system.
  • The Junctional Epithelium: from Health to Disease -- Bosshardt and Lang 84 (1): 9 -- Journal of Dental Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jdr.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

It also harbors many Mechanoreceptors (nerve endings) that provide the sense of touch and heat. .It contains the hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels.^ The blood is always contained in a vessel.
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It may contain large blood vessels, nerves, glands and lymphatic tissue.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Another conclusion is that the trichilemmal cyst tends to have an origin from the epithelium of the hair follicle that is at or distal to the level of sebaceous ducts.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The blood vessels in the dermis provide nourishment and waste removal from its own cells as well as from the Stratum basale of the epidermis.^ There are many macrophages in the spleen where they remove dead red blood cells from the circulation.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ They are found around small blood vessels, nerve cells, muscle fibres and in particular beneath epithelial membranes as part of the basal lamina.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The junctional epithelium, particularly its basal cell layers, is well-innervated by sensory nerve fibers ( Byers and Holland, 1977 ; Byers et al.
  • The Junctional Epithelium: from Health to Disease -- Bosshardt and Lang 84 (1): 9 -- Journal of Dental Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jdr.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

.The dermis is structurally divided into two areas: a superficial area adjacent to the epidermis, called the papillary region, and a deep thicker area known as the reticular region.^ The brain receives two types of sensations: (1) superficial sensations, including pain, temperature and crude touch, and (2) deep sensations, including sense of position, sense of movement, vibration sense, muscle sense and fine touch.
  • Electronic Textbook of Dermatology, Anatomy of the Skin 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC telemedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They typically extend into adjacent structures without respecting the fascial planes.

^ The epididymis is divided into specific segments 32 that show region-specific expression of six lipocalins.
  • Laboratory Investigation - Use of tissue recombination to predict phenotypes of transgenic mouse models of prostate carcinoma 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

Papillary region

.The papillary region is composed of loose areolar connective tissue.^ Lamina propria - the layer of loose connective tissue underneath the epithelium of mucosa, which provides physical and nutritional support.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

This is named for its fingerlike projections called papillae, that extend toward the epidermis. .The papillae provide the dermis with a "bumpy" surface that interdigitates with the epidermis, strengthening the connection between the two layers of skin.^ EGF binds to specific cell-surface receptors (EGFR, a trans-membrane glycoprotein receptor) present in the basal layer of the human epidermis.
  • Electronic Textbook of Dermatology, Anatomy of the Skin 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC telemedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A surface electrode placed at the surface of the breast completes the electrical circuit, so that measurements of transepithelial potential may be made between the ductal epithelium, or center of the tumor and the skin surface.
  • Method and System for Detecting Electrophysiological Changes in Pre-Cancerous and Cancerous Tissue and Epithelium - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The basal layer is composed of columnar cells which are anchored to a basement membrane--this lies between the epidermis and dermis.
  • Electronic Textbook of Dermatology, Anatomy of the Skin 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC telemedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

Reticular region

The reticular region lies deep in the papillary region and is usually much thicker. .It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue, and receives its name from the dense concentration of collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers that weave throughout it.^ The membrane is composed of spindle-shaped cells, some of them heavily pigmented, and abundant extracellular matrix with regular 64 nm-periodicity, indicating collagen fibers.
  • An Overview on the Toxic Morphological Changes in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium after Systemic Compound Administration -- Mecklenburg and Schraermeyer 35 (2): 252 -- Toxicologic Pathology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC tpx.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Elastic tissue is ordinary connective tissue with the addition of many fibres of the albuminoid elastin .

^ The cells of some tissues retain the ability to divide throughout life, like the epithelium and connective tissues but muscle and nerve cells lose their ability to divide soon after birth.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.These protein fibers give the dermis its properties of strength, extensibility, and elasticity.^ The pathologic defect consists of degeneration of the elastic fibers of the dermis.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Also located within the reticular region are the roots of the hair, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, receptors, nails, and blood vessels.^ They are lined with ectodermally derived squamous epithelium that contains a variable number of skin appendages (sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and sweat glands).

^ The ablative radiation is scanned to vary a location of the beam within the region in accordance with a pulse sequence.
  • OPERATOR-CONTROLLED SCANNING LASER PROCEDURE DESIGNED FOR LARGE-AREA EPITHELIUM REMOVAL - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ They are found between cells of a secreting glands and between endothelial cells of blood vessels to prevent fluid leaking out.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

Hypodermis

The hypodermis is not part of the skin, and lies below the dermis. .Its purpose is to attach the skin to underlying bone and muscle as well as supplying it with blood vessels and nerves.^ Underlying bones, costal cartilages, muscle and skin may result in high conductance regions, which produce false positives.
  • Method and System for Detecting Electrophysiological Changes in Pre-Cancerous and Cancerous Tissue and Epithelium - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They are found around small blood vessels, nerve cells, muscle fibres and in particular beneath epithelial membranes as part of the basal lamina.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The mesoderm will form the muscles, blood system, connective tissue, including bone and dentine, the kidneys and the dermis of the skin.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.It consists of loose connective tissue and elastin.^ Elastic tissue is ordinary connective tissue with the addition of many fibres of the albuminoid elastin .

^ If loose connective tissue surrounds the lymphatic anomaly, a cystic hygroma is more likely to be seen.

^ The latter forms a discontinuous layer consisting of reticular and anchoring fibrils and faces the connective tissue site from which it is supposed to originate.
  • The Junctional Epithelium: from Health to Disease -- Bosshardt and Lang 84 (1): 9 -- Journal of Dental Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jdr.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

.The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and adipocytes (the hypodermis contains 50% of body fat).^ Terminal hair (as that of scalp) have a central core known as the medulla consisting of specialized cells which contain air spaces (see: Types of Hair).
  • Electronic Textbook of Dermatology, Anatomy of the Skin 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC telemedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most investigators accept the conventional wisdom that fibroblasts represent a cell type of limited diversity.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Evidence that fibroblasts derive from epithelium during tissue fibrosis 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Evidence that fibroblasts derive from epithelium during tissue fibrosis 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Reticular- Loose CT- These form a soft internal skeleton for support to other cell types like White Blood cells, mast cells and macrophages.
  • Tissue Organization 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

Fat serves as padding and insulation for the body. Another name for the hypodermis is the subcutaneous tissue.
.Microorganisms like Staphylococcus epidermidis colonize the skin surface.^ It looks like skin, but with a bumpy surface and often less hair than usual.
  • SKIN DISEASES 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The density of skin flora depends on region of the skin. .The disinfected skin surface gets recolonized from bacteria residing in the deeper areas of the hair follicle, gut and urogenital openings.^ A clinical entity known as psoriasis vulgaris may occur anywhere on the skin, including the extensor surfaces, lumbosacral areas, intergluteal cleft, and glans of the penis.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Promotes the secretion of antimicrobials on the skin surface that keep microbes at bay and control acne bacteria.
  • Skin Cream - Face Care - Facial Cream - Face Skin Care - Natural Skin Care 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.bioskincream.com [Source type: General]

^ Most sebaceous glands have their ducts opening into hair follicles (pilosebaceous apparatus).
  • Electronic Textbook of Dermatology, Anatomy of the Skin 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC telemedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

In fish and amphibians

.The epidermis of fish and of most amphibians consists entirely of live cells, with only minimal quantities of keratin in the cells of the superficial layer.^ The lower layers of the epidermis are the most affected.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Keratinocytes - Cells of the epidermis which secrete the protein keratin.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ OSE cells also constitutively coexpress keratin with vimentin, which is a mesenchymal intermediate filament, expressed by most epithelial cells only in response to wounding, explantation into culture, or pathological conditions ( 71 , 72 , 73 ).
  • Ovarian Surface Epithelium: Biology, Endocrinology, and Pathology -- Auersperg et al. 22 (2): 255 -- Endocrine Reviews 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is generally permeable, and, in the case of many amphibians, may actually be a major respiratory organ.^ It has a major function as a respiratory organ (a gill), and with a branch of the digestive gland, it also serves as an organ for the exchange of gases and other molecules with the blood.
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Examinations carried out with endoscopic instruments may be made with local or general anaesthesia and in the case of the rectum and colon , without anaesthesia .

^ A teratoid cyst may also contain tissue of other major organ systems (eg, nervous, gastrointestinal, respiratory).

.The dermis of bony fish typically contains relatively little of the connective tissue found in tetrapods.^ The iris consists of a framework of connective tissue , and its posterior surface is lined by cells containing pigment which gives the colour to the eye.

^ The mesoderm will form the muscles, blood system, connective tissue, including bone and dentine, the kidneys and the dermis of the skin.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Periosteum - a connective tissue layer containing osteoblasts on the external aspect of all bones.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

Instead, in most species, it is largely replaced by solid, protective bony scales. .Apart from some particularly large dermal bones that form parts of the skull, these scales are lost in tetrapods, although many reptiles do have scales of a different kind, as do pangolins.^ If for some reason you want to distinguish these two entities, the autosomal dominant form spares the flexural creases, while the recessive form involves them.
  • SKIN DISEASES 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The segment of the ethmoid bone which forms part of the inner wall of the orbital cavity is called the orbital plate, while another segment , forming the roof and back part of the septum of the nasal cavity is called the perpendicular plate.

^ These condensations form lines, or beams with are orientated so as to give the best support to loads tending to crush or fracture the bone.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Cartilaginous fish have numerous tooth-like denticles embedded in their skin, in place of true scales.^ ICHTHYOSIS COMMON ICHTHYOSIS ("ichthyosis vulgaris") produces dry skin and (if you look closely), alligator-like pattern of scales, mostly on the extremities.
  • SKIN DISEASES 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sweat glands and sebaceous glands are both unique to mammals, but other types of skin gland are found in other vertebrates.^ They are lined with ectodermally derived squamous epithelium that contains a variable number of skin appendages (sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and sweat glands).

^ This lesion is a clinical finding related to other skin disorders but not its own unique pathologic entity.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tetracycline and erythromycin share similar efficacy in the systemic sense because both are concentrated in the sebaceous gland and follicle.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Fish typically have a numerous individual mucus-secreting skin cells that aid in insulation and protection, but may also have poison glands, photophores, or cells that produce a more watery, serous fluid.^ Mutation - a change in the order of nucleotide bases on a gene, which alters the configuration of the protein produced, and thus may alter the behaviour of the cell.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ They are found between cells of a secreting glands and between endothelial cells of blood vessels to prevent fluid leaking out.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ They are typically seen in fair-skinned individuals with a history of chronic sun exposure.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.In amphibians, the mucus cells are gathered together to form sac-like glands.^ To the left and in the upper part of the figure, a tumor with numerous papillae and gland-like structures has formed.
  • Ovarian Surface Epithelium: Biology, Endocrinology, and Pathology -- Auersperg et al. 22 (2): 255 -- Endocrine Reviews 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They may form a belt of adhesions between cells (as between muscle cells) or spot attachments like desmosomes which hold epithelial cells together.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Top Vacuole - a sac-like structure within a cell lined by cell membrane, containing material ingested by phagocytosis.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

Most living amphibians also possess granular glands in the skin, that secrete irritating or toxic compounds.[6]
.Although melanin is found in the skin of many species, in reptiles, amphibians, and fish, the epidermis is often relatively colourless.^ They are found in the periodontal ligament and in the epidermis of thin skin, but not in the oral mucosa.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ These lesions often become pigmented with hemosiderin and to become lipid-rich (many are yellow when cut), and the overlying epidermis tends to hyper-pigment and to thicken a bit.
  • SKIN DISEASES 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Catch per unit of effort is often used as a measurement of relative abundance for a particular fish; the total catch divided by the total amount of effort used to harvest the catch .
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Instead, the colour of the skin is largely due to chromatophores in the dermis, which, in addition to melanin, may contain guanine or carotenoid pigments.^ Melanin pigmentation may be discontinuous in extending to the papillary dermis.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The iris consists of a framework of connective tissue , and its posterior surface is lined by cells containing pigment which gives the colour to the eye.

^ It may contain large blood vessels, nerves, glands and lymphatic tissue.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Many species, such as chameleons and flounders may be able to change the colour of their skin by adjusting the relative size of their chromatophores.^ The inflammation of the skin may spread to deeper tissues, producing widespread necrosis and other complications occurring such as pneumonia , nephritis or meningitis .

^ At some point, as many as one third of patients may develop a Köbner phenomenon, which is a condition in which new insult or skin trauma is greeted with a development of psoriatic lesions.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This flounder is rarely noticed unless disturbed because of its remarkable ability to change color to match the substrate, by concentating or dispersing pigment granules in its chromatophores.
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

[6]

In birds and reptiles

.The epidermis of birds and reptiles is closer to that of mammals, with a layer of dead keratin-filled cells at the surface, to help reduce water loss.^ In reptiles, some fishes (sharks, etc), in birds, and in some mammals a third eyelid or nictitating membrane is present, and can be drawn over the surface of the eye so as to clear it of foreign matters, and also to modify the light.

^ Keratinocytes - Cells of the epidermis which secrete the protein keratin.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ It unites with the allantois to form the major structure for exchange between the embryo and the outside (birds and reptiles) or the maternal circulation (mammals) .
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.A similar pattern is also seen in some of the more terrestrial amphibians, such as toads.^ In some embodiments, video camera 25 comprises a camera sensitive to visible light and at least a portion of the epithelial fluorescence comprises visible light, such that epithelial fluorescence can be seen with video camera 25.
  • OPERATOR-CONTROLLED SCANNING LASER PROCEDURE DESIGNED FOR LARGE-AREA EPITHELIUM REMOVAL - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.However, in all of these animals there is no clear differentiation of the epidermis into distinct layers, as occurs in humans, with the change in cell type being relatively gradual.^ When the airway epithelium of the xenografts was fully differentiated, the proportion of proliferating cells (1.46 ± 0.46%) was identical to that evaluated for the normal human airway epithelium ( 1 ).
  • Differentiated and functional human airway epithelium regeneration in tracheal xenografts -- Dupuit et al. 278 (1): 165 -- AJP - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC ajplung.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In fetal human airways, achievement of full submucosal gland development occurs after surface epithelium differentiation, and mucous acini differentiate several weeks before serous cells ( 19 , 29 ).
  • Differentiated and functional human airway epithelium regeneration in tracheal xenografts -- Dupuit et al. 278 (1): 165 -- AJP - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC ajplung.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This can all happen several times in one second, but after a while there is no flood, and the sodium pump has to get to work to build up enough pressure for the depolarisation to work again.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.The mammalian epidermis always possesses at least a stratum germinativum and stratum corneum, but the other intermediate layers found in humans are not always distinguishable.^ RINGWORM ("athlete's foot", others, depending on location) is caused by a variety of fungi in the dead layer of the epidermis.
  • SKIN DISEASES 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hair is a distinctive feature of mammalian skin, while feathers are (at least among living species) similarly unique to birds.[6]
.Birds and reptiles have relatively few skin glands, although there may be a few structures for specific purposes, such as pheromone-secreting cells in some reptiles, or the uropygial gland of most birds.^ Glands - a collection of cells secreting a specific product such as insulin or sweat.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ In the frequency range between a few kHz and about 1 MHz, or the so-called .beta.-dispersion range, cell structure dominates the relaxation characteristics of the epithelial impedance profile.
  • Method and System for Detecting Electrophysiological Changes in Pre-Cancerous and Cancerous Tissue and Epithelium - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It unites with the allantois to form the major structure for exchange between the embryo and the outside (birds and reptiles) or the maternal circulation (mammals) .
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Skin care" (analysis), Health-Cares.net, 2007, webpage: HCcare.
  2. ^ Alibardi L. (2003). Adaptation to the land: The skin of reptiles in comparison to that of amphibians and endotherm amniotes. J Exp Zoolog B Mol Dev Evol. 298(1):12-41. PMID 12949767
  3. ^ a b Proksch E, Brandner JM, Jensen JM. (2008).The skin: an indispensable barrier. Exp Dermatol. 17(12):1063-72. PMID 19043850
  4. ^ a b c Madison KC. (2003). Barrier function of the skin: "la raison d'être" of the epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 121(2):231-41. PMID 12880413
  5. ^ Connor, Steven: The book of skin, Cornell University Press, 2003, pg. 176
  6. ^ a b c d Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 129–145. ISBN 0-03-910284-X. 

Wiktionary

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Pronunciation

Noun

Singular
skin
Plural
countable and uncountable; plural skins
skin (countable and uncountable; plural skins)
.
  1. (uncountable) The outer protective layer of the body of any animal, including of a human.^ On the top outer layer is the epidermis, which functions as a protective shield for the body.
    • Skin Balm - Frequently Asked Questions and Answers 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.bioskinbalm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See Also: Fusion Inhibitor Envelope [En español] The outer protective membrane of HIV that is composed of two layers of fat-like molecules called lipids.
    • AIDSinfo - HIV / AIDS Glossary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC aidsinfo.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The outer layer is called the epidermis; it is a tough protective layer that contains melanin (which protects against the rays of the sun and gives the skin its color).

    .
    • He is so disgusting he makes my skin crawl.
  2. (uncountable) The outer protective layer of the fruit of a plant.
  3. (countable) The skin and fur of an individual animal used by humans for clothing, upholstery, etc.
  4. (countable) A congealed layer on the surface of a liquid.^ Use of sun-protective clothing .
    • Cutaneous Porphyrias: Porphyrias: Merck Manual Professional 12 September 2009 9:58 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The epidermis is the thin outer layer of the skin.
    • http://www.umm.edu/dermatology-info/anatomy.htm 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This layer is the real protective layer of the skin.
    • Skin Balm - Frequently Asked Questions and Answers 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.bioskinbalm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • In order to get to the rest of the paint in the can, you'll have to remove the skin floating on top of it.
  5. (countable, computing) A set of resources that modifies the appearance and/or layout of the graphical user interface of a computer program.^ You'll have better looking skin."
    • Mari's Skin Care Salon - Dallas, TX - Home Page 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC marisskincare.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Heal Skin Tag is applied topically, you can use a finger or provided q-tip, after that essential oils will remove the viral strains from infected area.
    • Skin Tag Removal Review | How To Get Rid of Skin Tags, Moles and Warts By Using a 100% Natural Treatment 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC skin-tag-removal.org [Source type: General]

    ^ User talk:Halsoft on you skin “ Anal rape has a lot of it.
    • Skin - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • You can use this skin to change how the browser looks.
  6. (countable, slang) Rolling paper for cigarettes.^ You'll have better looking skin."
    • Mari's Skin Care Salon - Dallas, TX - Home Page 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC marisskincare.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Your skin changes as you age.
    • Healthy Skincare for Women and Men: Acne, Anti-Aging, Dry/Oily Skincare, Hair Problems, Cosmetic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.healthyu-skin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ So, how do you lighten skin correctly?
    • Skin Lightening - Skin Bleaching Whitening - How To Do It Right 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.arizona4pinoys.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Pass me a skin, mate.
  7. (countable, slang) Short for skinhead.
  8. (Australian) A subgroup within an Australian aboriginal people, also called a section, subsection, or moiety.^ Emu oil has been used for thousands of years by Australian aboriginals to treat a variety of skin conditions.
    • Skin Rashes and Emu Oil 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.emuoilcanada.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In some cases people develop what is called a vesicular infection, which can cause fluid-filled blisters to grow under the skin.
    • Skin Fungus 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.scmrrs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ People with many dysplastic nevi are more likely to develop melanoma, either within an existing nevus or on an area of normal skin.
    • Skin Cancer Causes, Symptoms, Signs, Treatment and Prevention on eMedicineHealth.com 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.emedicinehealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .These divisions are cultural, not related to a person's physical skin.^ The slowing of skin healing that occurs when we age is related to changes in the activity of these regulatory factors.

    ^ In relation to these findings, Sfrp1 physically interacts with Wnt5a and inhibits Wnt5a signaling.
    • PLoS Genetics: Sfrp Controls Apicobasal Polarity and Oriented Cell Division in Developing Gut Epithelium 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Olay Buy new : $19.00 13 used and new from $16.75 Are these related to skin?
    • Amazon.com: skin 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    (Reference: Macquarie Aboriginal Words, Macquarie University, 1994, paperback ISBN 0-949757-79-9, introduction.)
  9. (countable, video games) An alternate appearance (texture map or geometry) for a 3D character model in a video game.

Synonyms

  • (outer covering of living tissue): dermis, integument, tegument
  • (outer protective layer of a plant or animal): peel (of fruit or vegetable), pericarp
  • (skin of an animal used by humans): hide, pelt
  • (congealed layer on the surface of a liquid): film

Derived terms

See also

Translations

.The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers.^ The external intercostals (intercostalis externi) originate from the lower border of a rib and extend downward and forward to insert into the upper border of the rib below.

^ Check into laser removal with a qualified doctor.
  • Skin Care - Exfoliation, Anti Aging, Products, and Treatments 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.better-skin-care.com [Source type: General]

^ A group of glycoproteins (cadherins) inserted into the opposing plasma membranes mediate cell-to-cell adhesion at desmosomes and also at the adhesion zones or patches mentioned below.

Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Verb

Infinitive
to skin
Third person singular
skins
Simple past
skinned
Past participle
skinned
Present participle
skinning
to skin (third-person singular simple present skins, present participle skinning, simple past and past participle skinned)
  1. (transitive) To injure the skin of. .
    • He fell off his bike and skinned his knee on the concrete.
  2. (transitive) To remove the skin and/or fur of an animal or a human.
  3. (transitive, computing, colloquial) To apply a skin to (a computer program).^ Be careful, though, because these products take a layer off of your skin and applying them too often can cause damage.
    • How to Have Perfect Skin: 6 steps - wikiHow 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If the skin is not ready to come off, there will be resistance, and the skin you remove will be damp.
    • Reptile Skin Shedding 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.anapsid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Skin, hide, pelt are names for the outer covering of animals, including humans.
    • Skin Definition | Definition of Skin at Dictionary.com 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Can I skin the program to put the picture of my cat on it?

Synonyms

Derived terms

Translations

Anagrams


Danish

Noun

skin n. (singular definite skinnet, not used in plural form)
  1. Shine, light, glare.
  2. Surface, resemblance.

Dutch

Noun

skin m. and f. (plural skins, diminutive skinnetje, diminutive plural skinnetjes)
  1. Skin (computing).
  2. Short for skinhead.

Icelandic

Etymology

From skína (to shine).

Pronunciation

Noun

skin n.
  1. shine, shimmer, brightness

Declension

Derived terms

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of ikns
  • sink

Tok Pisin

Noun

skin
  1. (anatomy) skin

Simple English


Skin is the outside covering of animals. The skin of different kinds of animals is very different. Many kinds of animals have hair or fur on their skin. Birds have feathers on their skin. Most fish, and reptiles like snakes and lizards, have scales on their skin.

The skin of human beings usually has very small hairs on it that are hard to see. Some people have more hair, or hair that is easier to see, and some have less. People have hair that is longer and easier to see on some parts of their bodies, such as the tops of their heads and men's beards.

The skin of animals can be made into leather. Leather is sometimes used to make shoes, bags, and balls.

Other things can be said to have "skins". People often say that fruits, such as apples and bananas, and vegetables, such as potatoes, have "skins".

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Skin, which are similar to those in the above article.








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