Sleep deprivation: Wikis

  
  

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.Sleep deprivation, a sleep disorder characterized by having too little sleep, can be either chronic or acute.^ In this context, it is important to distinguish between acute and chronic sleep deprivation.
  • Deep into Sleep | Harvard Magazine Jul-Aug 2005 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC harvardmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chronic sleep deprivation.
  • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC orsted.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There are now more than 3,000 Sleep Disorders Centers that can provide the kind of help the little girl from Pittsburgh received.
  • Sleep Deprivation And ADHD - DrGreene.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.drgreene.com [Source type: General]

.Long-term sleep deprivation causes certain death in severe cases, especially with lab animals.^ With sleep deprivation, it is so difficult for people to be sleep deprived for long term.
  • The Effects Of Sleep Deprivation (Health & Wellbeing: Insomnia & Sleep Disorders) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.videojug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the other causes of sleep deprivation are?
  • Sleep deprivation@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many causes of sleep deprivation.
  • Sleep Habits: More Important Than You Think 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]

.A chronic sleep-restricted state can cause fatigue, daytime sleepiness, clumsiness and weight loss.^ Research the causes of these diseases that are similar to, or related to, Sleep deprivation: Sleep disorders Sleep deprivation Daytime sleepiness Biological rhythms Delayed sleep-phase syndrome more related diseases...» Medical Textbooks Online about Sleep deprivation .
  • Sleep deprivation Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tags: sleep deprivation , sleep loss , sleep disorders , sleep apnea , work hours , obstructive sleep apnea , chronic fatigue syndrome , medical errors , house staff , effects of sleep deprivation , fatigue management , cognitive performance , surgical residents , duty hours , daytime sleepiness Categories: Views: 0 Language: Persian Sleep From: DanPaulli .
  • sleep deprivation - docstoc 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various causes of sleep deprivation are studied including experimentally-induced deprivation as well as the effects of sleep disorders that restrict or disrupt sleep.
  • AASM - Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.aasmnet.org [Source type: Academic]

.Complete absence of sleep over long periods is impossible to achieve; brief microsleeps cannot be avoided.^ A microsleep is a short period of time, usually between 10 seconds to a minute in length, in which the brain actually enters a sleep state, regardless of what the person is doing at the time.
  • Sleep Deprivation, Psychosis and Mental Efficiency - CareCure Forums 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC sci.rutgers.edu [Source type: General]

^ I find it hard to sleep for long periods of time.
  • Deep into Sleep | Harvard Magazine Jul-Aug 2005 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC harvardmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Microsleeps may last for only a few seconds, although many episodes of narcolepsy result in longer periods of sleep.
  • Insomnia And Sleep Deprivation | Natural Sleep Aid 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.sleepsogood.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]

Contents

Physiological effects

.
Main health effects of sleep deprivation.
^ Some of the effects of sleep deprivation are: .
  • Sleep deprivation@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Related: sleep deprivation , sleep , list , health .
  • Sleep+deprivation on Shine 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC shine.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Effects of sleep deprivation.svg English: Main health effects of sleep deprivation (See Wikipedia:Sleep deprivation ).
  • File:Effects of sleep deprivation.svg - Wikiversity 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

[2]
Generally, lack of sleep may result in[3][4]

Diabetes

.In 2005, a study of over 1400 participants showed that participants who habitually slept few hours were more likely to have associations with Diabetes Type 2.^ In a recent Harvard Medical School study involving 82,000 nurses, they found an increased risk of death among those who slept less than six hours a night.

^ The risk ranged from 23 percent for six-hour-a-night sleepers to 73 percent for individuals who slept only two to four hours.
  • Bwog » sleep deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC bwog.net [Source type: General]

^ It starts forgetting how to do the basics, like metabolising glucose, occasionally to the same level as people with type 2 diabetes.
  • Sleep Deprivation… a Standard Form of Torture | Ririan Project 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC ririanproject.com [Source type: General]

[14] .However, because this study was merely correlational, the direction of cause and effect between little sleep and diabetes is uncertain.^ According to a study conducted by the University of Chicago Medical Center in 1999, our body's capability to metabolize glucose is affected significantly because of sleep deprivation.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.targetwoman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some research suggests there is a link between sleep deprivation and obesity, however the direction of the causal link is unclear, and it may be the discomfort of obesity that causes sleep deprivation, not the other way around.
  • Sleep deprivation – a major problem? 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.privatehealth.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various causes of sleep deprivation are studied including experimentally-induced deprivation as well as the effects of sleep disorders that restrict or disrupt sleep.
  • AASM - Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.aasmnet.org [Source type: Academic]

.The authors point to an earlier study which showed that experimental rather than habitual restriction of sleep resulted in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).^ According to a study conducted by the University of Chicago Medical Center in 1999, our body's capability to metabolize glucose is affected significantly because of sleep deprivation.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.targetwoman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various causes of sleep deprivation are studied including experimentally-induced deprivation as well as the effects of sleep disorders that restrict or disrupt sleep.
  • AASM - Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.aasmnet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Powell, who was the head of the aforementioned study found out that on all seven measures, the group of sleep deprived subject results were worse than those of the drinking group at a blood alcohol level of 0.057 percent.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Reaction Time 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[15]

Effects on the brain

.Sleep deprivation can adversely affect brain and cognitive function.^ Sleep deprivation affects multiple distinct cognitive processes.
  • WSU Spokane: Sleep and Performance Research Center 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.spokane.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Sleep deprivation and human immune function.
  • Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: eMedicine Neurology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sleep deprivation affects moral judgment .
  • Sleep deprivation affects moral judgment 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.rxpgnews.com [Source type: Academic]

[16] .A 2000 study, by the UCSD School of Medicine and the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System in San Diego, used functional magnetic resonance imaging technology to monitor activity in the brains of sleep-deprived subjects performing simple verbal learning tasks.^ Sleep deprivation has been used as a weapon .
  • Sleep deprivation@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sleep deprivation and human immune function.
  • Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: eMedicine Neurology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) markers : Subjects have been tested on a variety of tasks after sleep deprivation while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
  • Sleep deprivation - Scholarpedia 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

[17] .The study showed that regions of the brain's prefrontal cortex displayed more activity in sleepier subjects.^ After a 12- hour period of either wake or sleep, respectively, the subjects were tested on their ability to recall these finger movements while an MRI measured the activity of their brain.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Teens - 2005-08 LEGACY OF HOPE Newsletter 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.legacyofhope.com [Source type: General]

^ Considering that the subjects in this study were chosen specifically because they did not complain about daytime sleepiness, this result proves without a doubt that a significant percentage of the population carries out daily tasks and activities while dangerously sleepy.
  • Sleepless at Stanford 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A recent study has shown that the prefrontal cortex, usually the most active area of the brain in rested individuals, becomes more active as a person remains awake for long periods of time (3) , (4) .
  • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Depending on the task at hand, the brain would sometimes attempt to compensate for the adverse effects caused by lack of sleep.^ The study revealed, using MRI scans, that lack of sleep causes the brain to become incapable of putting an emotional event into the proper perspective and incapable of making a controlled, suitable response to the event.
  • sleep deprivation - Discussion Board - Beliefnet Community 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC community.beliefnet.com [Source type: General]

^ When people or animals are sleep-deprived, the brain attempts to produce more orexin-A but often not enough to achieve alertness past the normal daily cycle.
  • Researchers Find A Solution to Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.empowereddoctor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sleep-deprived people who are tested by using a driving simulator or by performing a hand-eye coordination task perform as badly as or worse than those who are intoxicated.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The temporal lobe, which is a brain region involved in language processing, was activated during verbal learning in rested subjects but not in sleep deprived subjects.^ The temporal lobe, which is a brain region involved in language processing, was activated during verbal learning in rested subjects but not in sleep deprived subjects.

^ Furthermore, the temporal lobe, a brain region involved in language processing, was activated during verbal learning in rested subjects but not in sleep deprived subjects.
  • Brain Activity is Visibly Altered Following Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC health.ucsd.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, a region of the brain called the parietal lobes, not activated in rested subjects during the verbal exercise, was more active when the subjects were deprived of sleep.
  • Brain Activity is Visibly Altered Following Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC health.ucsd.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The parietal lobe, not activated in rested subjects during the verbal exercise, was more active when the subjects were deprived of sleep.^ When viewing the upsetting pictures, those who were sleep-deprived showed much more activation of the amygdala, a primitive part of the brain that governs emotional arousal, especially responses to fear.
  • Sleep deprivation and negative emotions - The Boston Globe 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: News]
  • Sleep deprivation and negative emotions - The Boston Globe 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: News]

^ When people or animals are sleep-deprived, the brain attempts to produce more orexin-A but often not enough to achieve alertness past the normal daily cycle.
  • Researchers Find A Solution to Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.empowereddoctor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MORE ABOUT: immune system • sleep deprivation • common cold • Carnegie Mellon University • cytokines • histamines .
  • sleep deprivation – News Stories About sleep deprivation - Page 1 | Newser 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: General]

.Although memory performance was less efficient with sleep deprivation, greater activity in the parietal region was associated with better memory.^ Johnson, LC. Sleep deprivation and performance.
  • Definition and consequences of sleep deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Greater activity within this region corresponded to better performance by subjects in research studies (7) .
  • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although memory performance was less efficient with sleep deprivation, greater activity in the parietal region was associated with better memory.

.A 2001 study at Chicago Medical Institute suggested that sleep deprivation may be linked to more serious diseases, such as heart disease and mental illnesses including psychosis and bipolar disorder.^ Previous studies have linked sleep apnea with cardiovascular disease.
  • Sleep deprivation: Can it cause high blood pressure? - Valley Health System 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A 2001 study at Chicago Medical Institute suggested that sleep deprivation may be linked to more serious diseases, such as heart disease and mental illnesses, such as psychosis and bipolar disorder.
  • sleep deprivation - Discussion Board - Beliefnet Community 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC community.beliefnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Sleep deprivation, to your heart .
  • Bwog » sleep deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC bwog.net [Source type: General]

[18] .The link between sleep deprivation and psychosis (psychiatric disorders) was further documented in 2007 through a study at Harvard Medical School and the University of California at Berkeley.^ The link between sleep deprivation and psychosis (psychiatric disorders) was further documented in 2007 through a study at Harvard Medical School and the University of California at Berkeley.
  • sleep deprivation - Discussion Board - Beliefnet Community 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC community.beliefnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Get assigned to the sleep deprivation study instead 3.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC old.4hv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sleep deprivation preceded the psychosis.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

.The study revealed, using MRI scans, that lack of sleep causes the brain to become incapable of putting an emotional event into the proper perspective and incapable of making a controlled, suitable response to the event.^ The study revealed, using MRI scans, that lack of sleep causes the brain to become incapable of putting an emotional event into the proper perspective and incapable of making a controlled, suitable response to the event.
  • sleep deprivation - Discussion Board - Beliefnet Community 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC community.beliefnet.com [Source type: General]

^ I read above that lack of sleep can cause: .
  • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When viewing the upsetting pictures, those who were sleep-deprived showed much more activation of the amygdala, a primitive part of the brain that governs emotional arousal, especially responses to fear.
  • Sleep deprivation and negative emotions - The Boston Globe 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: News]
  • Sleep deprivation and negative emotions - The Boston Globe 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: News]

.A 2002 University of California animal study indicated that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was necessary for turning off neurotransmitters and allowing their receptors to "rest" and regain sensitivity which allows monoamines (norepinephrine, serotonin and histamine) to be effective at naturally produced levels.^ Normal sleep is divided into non–rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.
  • Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: eMedicine Neurology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The REM-off neurons use norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine to inhibit the REM-on cholinergic cells and stop REM sleep.
  • Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: eMedicine Neurology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the hallmarks of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is muscle atonia.
  • Selective REM sleep deprivation during daytime: II. Muscle atonia in non-REM sleep -- Werth et al. 283 (2): 527 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

This leads to improved regulation of mood and increased learning ability. .The study also found that REM sleep deprivation may alleviate clinical depression because it mimics selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI).^ Get assigned to the sleep deprivation study instead 3.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC old.4hv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For people, sleep deprivation leads to depression .

^ REM sleep deprivation has been used as a mode of treatment for major depression.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

.This is because the natural decrease in monoamines during REM is not allowed to occur, which causes the concentration of neurotransmitters in the brain, that are depleted in clinically depressed persons, to increase.^ In the second 30 minutes during REM (rapid eye movement ), your brain restores levels of oxygen to the cornea, while you dream.

^ Serotonin is a neurotransmitter important in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle and has been found in decreased concentrations in the brainstem of suicide victims.
  • Sleep Deprivation, Behavior, and the Young | Brain Blogger 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC brainblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ If the real reason of the decreased mood and activity in the morning is the shifted circadian rhythm, then selective REM deprivation would not cause the restoration of mood, because this deprivation leaves circadian rhythm intact.
  • VADIM ROTENBERG.SLEEP DEPRIVATION IN DEPRESSION: AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC rjews.net [Source type: Academic]

.Sleep outside of the REM phase may allow enzymes to repair brain cell damage caused by free radicals.^ Professor Jerry Siegel: During sleep protein synthesis is enhanced, so sleep is a great time for repairing damage to the body and particularly to the brain.
  • Wenatex Blog :: Healthy Sleep for a Better Life » Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC wenatex.com.au [Source type: General]

^ REM sleep stimulates areas of the brain used for learning and memory (10) .
  • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus cataplexy may represent an inappropriate intrusion of REM sleep atonia into wakefulness, whereas a loss of REM sleep atonia may be induced by antidepressant medication.
  • Selective REM sleep deprivation during daytime: II. Muscle atonia in non-REM sleep -- Werth et al. 283 (2): 527 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.High metabolic activity while awake damages the enzymes themselves preventing efficient repair.^ Some experts believe sleep gives neurons used while we are awake a chance to shut down and repair themselves.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This study observed the first evidence of brain damage in rats as a direct result of sleep deprivation.^ Get assigned to the sleep deprivation study instead 3.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC old.4hv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sleep deprivation can result from physiological deficits (e.g.
  • Sleep deprivation - Scholarpedia 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ According to a study conducted by the University of Chicago Medical Center in 1999, our body's capability to metabolize glucose is affected significantly because of sleep deprivation.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.targetwoman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
.Animal studies suggest that sleep deprivation increases stress hormones, which may reduce new cell production in adult brains.^ It has been seen to increase with sleep deprivation.
  • Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: eMedicine Neurology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Animal studies have indicated an increase in REM sleep after training, and have also indicated deceased memory when REM sleep is deprived.
  • SLEEP AND ITS IMPACT ON HEALTH 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adult symptoms of sleep deprivation may vary from those of a child.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.targetwoman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]

Effects on growth

.A 1999 study[21] found that sleep deprivation resulted in reduced cortisol secretion the next day, driven by increased subsequent slow-wave sleep.^ It has been seen to increase with sleep deprivation.
  • Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: eMedicine Neurology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The amount of sleep a person needs also increases if he or she has been deprived of sleep in previous days.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next Diseases » Sleep deprivation » Introduction   Sleep deprivation .
  • Sleep deprivation Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Sleep deprivation was found to enhance activity on the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (which controls reactions to stress and regulates body functions such as digestion, the immune system, mood, sex, or energy usage) while suppressing growth hormones.^ Sleep deprivation and human immune function.
  • Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: eMedicine Neurology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sleep deprivation effects on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and growth axes: potential clinical implications.
  • File:Effects of sleep deprivation.svg - Wikimedia Commons 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]
  • File:Effects of sleep deprivation.svg - Wikiversity 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In humans, sleep deprivation also results in a decrease in core body temperature, a decrease in immune system function as measured by white cell count and activity, and a decrease in the release of growth hormone.
  • Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: eMedicine Neurology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The results supported previous studies, which observed adrenal insufficiency in idiopathic hypersomnia.^ These results support the results of previous studies and suggest further investigation of this novel sleep/pharmacologic intervention is warranted.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ These findings support previous reports of an association between an abnormal DST result and antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation in depressed patients.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

Effects on the healing process

.A study conducted in 2005 showed that a group of rats which were deprived of REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep for five days had no significant effect on their ability to heal wounds, compared to a group of rats not deprived of "dream" sleep.^ Some of the effects of sleep deprivation are: .
  • Sleep deprivation@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q What are the effects of sleep deprivation on blood pressure?
  • Sleep deprivation: Can it cause high blood pressure? - Valley Health System 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mental effects of sleep deprivation .
  • Sleep deprivation – a major problem? 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.privatehealth.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .The rats were allowed deep (NREM) sleep.^ NREM, rapid eye movement, REM, stage R sleep, stage N1 sleep, light sleep, stage N2 sleep, stage N3 sleep, deep sleep, delta-wave sleep, polysomnography .
  • Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: eMedicine Neurology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ NREM sleep is further divided into progressively deeper stages of sleep: stage N1, stage N2, and stage N3 (deep or delta-wave sleep).
  • Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: eMedicine Neurology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ So when you are allowing yourself more sleep, the stage that tends to disappear is light sleep and a huge amount of the deep sleep is recovered; a lot of the rapid-eye-movement sleep is recovered.
  • The Effects Of Sleep Deprivation (Health & Wellbeing: Insomnia & Sleep Disorders) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.videojug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, another study conducted by Gumustekin et al.^ A previous study by the same researchers found higher symptoms of ADHD, according to parents’ reports, in children with OSA (O’Brien et al., 2003).
  • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC orsted.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, one study showed no clear threshold level between level of hypoxia and performance deficits (Adams et al., 2001).
  • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC orsted.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A more direct study on exercise capacity and the physiological strain across multiple systems from adventure racing was provided by Lucas et al.
  • PezCycling News - What's Cool In Pro Cycling 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.pezcyclingnews.com [Source type: General]

[23] in .2004 showed sleep deprivation hindering the healing of burns on rats.^ [Web of Science] [Medline] Tobler I and Borbély AA. The effect of 3-h and 6-h sleep deprivation on sleep and EEG spectra of the rat.
  • Sleep Deprivation Effects on Growth Factor Expression in Neonatal Rats: A Potential Role for BDNF in the Mediation of Delta Power -- Hairston et al. 91 (4): 1586 -- Journal of Neurophysiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC jn.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thirty minutes after tetanus population spike amplitude increased 101 ± 15% in 16 slices from sleep deprived rats and 139 ± 14% in 14 slices from control rats.
  • Sleep Deprivation Impairs Long-Term Potentiation in Rat Hippocampal Slices -- Campbell et al. 88 (2): 1073 -- Journal of Neurophysiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC jn.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Food consumption remained normal in sleep-deprived rats fed protein-rich diets, but increased 250% in rats fed calorie-rich diets.
  • PLoS Medicine: Short Sleep Duration Is Associated with Reduced Leptin, Elevated Ghrelin, and Increased Body Mass Index 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

Attention

.Among the numerous physical consequences of sleep deprivation, attention deficits are perhaps the most important; attentional lapses in mundane routines can lead to unfortunate results, from forgetting ingredients while cooking to missing a sentence while taking notes.^ Physical effects of sleep deprivation .
  • Sleep deprivation – a major problem? 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.privatehealth.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation.
  • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC orsted.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Sleep deprivation can result from physiological deficits (e.g.
  • Sleep deprivation - Scholarpedia 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

.The attentional lapses also extend into more critical domains in which the consequences can be literally life-or-death; traffic accidents and industrial disasters can result from inattentiveness attributable to sleep deprivation.^ Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation.
  • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC orsted.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Sleep deprivation can result from physiological deficits (e.g.
  • Sleep deprivation - Scholarpedia 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Driver fatigue is responsible for an estimated 100,000 motor vehicle accidents and 1500 deaths each year, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To empirically measure the magnitude of these attention deficits, researchers typically employ the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) which requires the subject to press a button in response to a light at pseudo-random intervals.^ After a 12- hour period of either wake or sleep, respectively, the subjects were tested on their ability to recall these finger movements while an MRI measured the activity of their brain.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Teens - 2005-08 LEGACY OF HOPE Newsletter 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.legacyofhope.com [Source type: General]

^ Tasks requiring sustained attention and mental calculations become seriously impaired, especially if the task is repetitious and boring.

^ These global deficits in cognitive functioning account for the increased variability in performance, as well as the observed slowing of fastest or optimal responses.
  • Sleep deprivation - Scholarpedia 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

.Failure to press the button in response to the stimulus (light) is recorded as an error, attributable to the microsleeps that occur as a product of sleep deprivation.^ Responses to “264 Hours of Sleep Deprivation” .
  • Emptywheel » 264 Hours of Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OCR for page 141 Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem The likelihood of response preservation on ineffective solutions is increased.
  • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC orsted.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternatively the plasticity reduction we recorded may be related to a nonspecific effect of sleep deprivation such as stress.
  • Sleep Deprivation Impairs Long-Term Potentiation in Rat Hippocampal Slices -- Campbell et al. 88 (2): 1073 -- Journal of Neurophysiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC jn.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.Crucially, individuals' subjective evaluations of their fatigue often do not predict actual performance on the PVT. While totally sleep-deprived individuals are usually aware of the degree of their impairment, lapses from chronic (lesser) sleep deprivation can build up over time so that they are equal in number and severity to the lapses occurring from total (acute) sleep deprivation.^ The effects of sleep deprivation over time are as follows: .

^ I usually wake up several times a night to cover her back up.
  • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Phases of sleep deprivation Up to age 4 1.
  • The Sleep Deprivation Carnival 2009! - Sleep is for the Weak 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC sleepisfortheweak.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chronically sleep-deprived people, however, continue to rate themselves considerably less impaired than totally sleep-deprived participants.^ Some people seem to get by with less sleep than others.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Fat Gain: Burn The Fat Blog 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.burnthefatblog.com [Source type: General]

^ But we don’t know what happens when people are chronically sleep-deprived over years.” .
  • Deep into Sleep | Harvard Magazine Jul-Aug 2005 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC harvardmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The patients were rated before and after the sleep deprivation(s).
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

[24] .Since people usually evaluate their capability on tasks like driving subjectively, their evaluations may lead them to the false conclusion that they are able to perform tasks that require constant attention when their abilities are in fact impaired.^ In fact, decision making and reaction times can become so impaired, that studies have shown that people deprived of sleep for as little as 19 hours, can perform as badly as someone who is over the legal drink drive limit.
  • Sleep deprivation – a major problem? 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.privatehealth.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tasks requiring sustained attention and mental calculations become seriously impaired, especially if the task is repetitious and boring.

^ Sleep-deprived people who are tested by using a driving simulator or by performing a hand-eye coordination task perform as badly as or worse than those who are intoxicated.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Impairment of ability

.The dangers of sleep deprivation are nowhere more apparent than on the road; the American Academy of Sleep Medicine reports that one in every five serious motor vehicle injuries is related to driver fatigue, with 80,000 drivers falling asleep behind the wheel every day and 250,000 accidents every year related to sleep[25], though the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration suggests the figure for traffic accidents may be closer to 100,000.[26] The AASM recommends pulling off the road and taking a 15- or 20-minute nap if you begin to feel drowsy.^ Motor vehicle accidents related to fatigue, drowsy driving, and falling asleep at the wheel are particularly common but often underestimated.
  • Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep Deprivation: Sleep Deprivation and Accident Risk 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sleep deprivation increases the risk of human-error related accidents.
  • Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep Deprivation: Sleep Deprivation and Accident Risk 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Extreme temperatures may disrupt sleep or prevent you from falling asleep.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]
.According to a 2000 study published in the British Medical Journal, researchers in Australia and New Zealand reported that sleep deprivation can have some of the same hazardous effects as being drunk.^ Q What are the effects of sleep deprivation on blood pressure?
  • Sleep deprivation: Can it cause high blood pressure? - Valley Health System 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mental effects of sleep deprivation .
  • Sleep deprivation – a major problem? 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.privatehealth.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Physical effects of sleep deprivation .
  • Sleep deprivation – a major problem? 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.privatehealth.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .People who drove after being awake for 17–19 hours performed worse than those with a blood alcohol level of .05 percent, which is the legal limit for drunk driving in most western European countries and Australia.^ Being awake more than 24 hours impairs performance as much as having a blood-alcohol level of 0.1 percent—which is legally drunk.” .
  • Deep into Sleep | Harvard Magazine Jul-Aug 2005 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC harvardmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Researchers in Austraila have determined that people who operated vehicles after 17-19 hours without sleep where worse than people who operated vehicles with a blood alcohol level of .05 (the legal limit in most of Europe).
  • Sleep deprivation@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the media harps about the U.S. being the fattest country (although both Canada and Australia media tell their citizens that too) do they ever talk about how Americans have less vacations than Western European countries?
  • The Stunning Consequences of Not Getting Enough Sleep | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

Another study suggested that performance begins to degrade after 16 hours awake, and 21 hours awake was equivalent to a blood alcohol content of .08 percent, which is the blood alcohol limit for drunk driving in Canada, the U.S., and the U.K.[28]
.In addition, as a result of continuous muscular activity without proper rest time, effects such as cramping are much more frequent in sleep-deprived individuals.^ Q What are the effects of sleep deprivation on blood pressure?
  • Sleep deprivation: Can it cause high blood pressure? - Valley Health System 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mental effects of sleep deprivation .
  • Sleep deprivation – a major problem? 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.privatehealth.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Individual differences in sleep loss effects .
  • WSU Spokane: Sleep and Performance Research Center 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.spokane.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Extreme cases of sleep deprivation have been reported to be associated with hernias, muscle fascia tears, and other such problems commonly associated with physical overexertion.^ Physical effects of sleep deprivation .
  • Sleep deprivation – a major problem? 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.privatehealth.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the other causes of sleep deprivation are?
  • Sleep deprivation@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sleep deprivation – a major problem?
  • Sleep deprivation – a major problem? 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.privatehealth.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Beyond impaired motor skills, people who get too little sleep may have higher levels of stress, anxiety and depression, and may take unnecessary risks.^ The less people sleep the higher their risk for being overweight.
  • PLoS Medicine: Short Sleep Duration Is Associated with Reduced Leptin, Elevated Ghrelin, and Increased Body Mass Index 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They also have a higher risk of developing depression and anxiety disorders.
  • Weight Loss Advice & Articles - Emotional Eating - Deborah King 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.deborahkingcenter.com [Source type: General]

^ The British Medical Association also reaffirms the higher levels of stress, anxiety and depression among the sleep-deprived.
  • Sleep Deprivation: Effects on Safety, Health and the Quality of Life 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.cameraguild.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.A new study has shown that while total sleep deprivation for one night caused many errors, the errors were not significant until after the second night of total sleep deprivation.^ Many studies make it clear that sleep deprivation is dangerous.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NEWS ABOUT: sleep deprivation .
  • sleep deprivation – News Stories About sleep deprivation - Page 1 | Newser 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: General]

^ Get assigned to the sleep deprivation study instead 3.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC old.4hv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .However, combining alcohol with acute sleep deprivation results in a trebled rate of driving off the road when using a simulator.^ Sleep deprivation has been used as a weapon .
  • Sleep deprivation@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The patients were rated before and after the sleep deprivation(s).
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Sleep deprivation can result from physiological deficits (e.g.
  • Sleep deprivation - Scholarpedia 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

[30]
.The National Sleep Foundation identifies several warning signs that a driver is dangerously fatigued, including rolling down the window, turning up the radio, trouble keeping your eyes open, head-nodding, drifting out of your lane, and daydreaming.^ Have a look at this if you can keep youre eyes open long enough.
  • The Sleep Deprivation Carnival 2009! - Sleep is for the Weak 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC sleepisfortheweak.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This need for leg movement leads to tossing and turning, or getting up out of bed, all of which interferes with the ability to fall asleep.
  • Sleep deprivation Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, the risk of accidents occurring due to sleep deprivation-related fatigue can pose severe hazards beyond the worker.
  • PezCycling News - What's Cool In Pro Cycling 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.pezcyclingnews.com [Source type: General]

.If you notice one of these cautionary signals, you should pull off the road and take a nap, even if you do not feel especially tired.^ Coffee, then nap - Researchers at the Sleep Research Center at Loughborough University in England found that the best way to regain alertness if you feel like you’re falling asleep is to chug a cup of coffee and then immediately take a 15-minute nap.

^ I sometimes find it hard to get to sleep even though I feel really tired.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC old.4hv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you next feel the urge to eat, take a moment to think about whether or not you are hungry.
  • Weight Loss Advice & Articles - Emotional Eating - Deborah King 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.deborahkingcenter.com [Source type: General]

.At particular risk are lone drivers between midnight and 6AM, when the circadian rhythm is at its lowest point.^ The period between 17.00 and 00.00 h is the only period in circadian rhythm relatively free from REM sleep and dream mentation.
  • VADIM ROTENBERG.SLEEP DEPRIVATION IN DEPRESSION: AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC rjews.net [Source type: Academic]

[31]
.Sleep deprivation can negatively impact performance in professional fields as well, potentially jeopardizing lives.^ And that can have a major impact on the well-being of the sleep-deprived.
  • Sleep Scientists: Research Twisted to Justify Torture (Updated) | Danger Room | Wired.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sleep deprivation and cognitive performance .
  • WSU Spokane: Sleep and Performance Research Center 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.spokane.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Sleep deprivation effects on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and growth axes: potential clinical implications.
  • File:Effects of sleep deprivation.svg - Wikimedia Commons 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

.Due largely to the February crash of a regional jet in Buffalo, N.Y., which killed 50 people and was partially attributed to pilot fatigue, the FAA is reviewing its procedures to ensure pilots are sufficiently rested.^ Show me an example of a large number of “wrong thinking” Christians who have a perverted world view and are daily killing people any way they can.
  • Sleep Scientists: Research Twisted to Justify Torture (Updated) | Danger Room | Wired.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: Original source]

[32] .A 2004 study also found medical residents with less than four hours of sleep a night made more than twice as many errors as residents who slept for more than seven hours a night, an especially alarming trend given that less than 11% of surveyed residents were sleeping more than seven hours a night.^ Half of all adolescents get less than seven hours of sleep on weeknights.
  • SLEEP DEPRIVATION 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.nldline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, of 1.1 million Americans surveyed, as many as 20% indicated that they sleep 6.5 hours or less each night.
  • Sleep deprivation - Scholarpedia 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The researchers found that people who slept less were on average heavier.
  • PLoS Medicine: Short Sleep Duration Is Associated with Reduced Leptin, Elevated Ghrelin, and Increased Body Mass Index 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

[33]

Microsleeps

.Microsleeps occur when a person has a significant sleep deprivation.^ Sleep deprivation also magnifies alcohol's effects on the body, so a fatigued person who drinks will become much more impaired than someone who is well-rested.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fifteen subjects showed a significant response to sleep deprivation as defined by a 35% improvement on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The amount of sleep a person needs also increases if he or she has been deprived of sleep in previous days.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The brain automatically shuts down, falling into a sleep state for a period that can last 10 to 60 seconds.^ After a 12- hour period of either wake or sleep, respectively, the subjects were tested on their ability to recall these finger movements while an MRI measured the activity of their brain.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Teens - 2005-08 LEGACY OF HOPE Newsletter 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.legacyofhope.com [Source type: General]

^ Although this position prevented most detainees from sleeping, three of the detainees stated that they did fall asleep once or more while shackled in this position.
  • Think Progress » Fleischer On Torture Memos: ‘I Have No Problem With’ Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ It took me straight down into a deep state of relaxation, then off to sleep in minutes.
  • Cure Sleep Deprivation CD - Stop Sleep Deprivation Help - CLICK! 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.endtoinsomnia.com [Source type: General]

.The person mentally falls asleep no matter what activity he or she is engaged in.^ The prefrontal cortex is active whenever a person is awake, no matter how little sleep they have had.
  • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • TOOLS: Sleep interruption and deprivation---- how to handle. 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC bpdfamily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microsleeps are similar to blackouts and a person experiencing them is not consciously aware that they are occurring.^ In many cases, people are not aware that they are experiencing microsleeps.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Great sleep deprivation mimics psychosis: distorted perceptions can lead to inappropriate emotional and behavioral responses.^ Responses to “264 Hours of Sleep Deprivation” .
  • Emptywheel » 264 Hours of Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sleep deprivation also interferes with emotional mood.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.targetwoman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sleep deprivation preceded the psychosis.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

[34]

Weight Gain/Loss

.In rats, prolonged, complete sleep deprivation increases both food intake and energy expenditure, leading to weight loss and, ultimately, death.^ I can guarantee that sleep deprivation leads to weight gain!
  • Sleep Deprivation and Fat Gain: Burn The Fat Blog 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.burnthefatblog.com [Source type: General]

^ The influence of sleep and sleep loss upon food intake and metabolism.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Fat Gain: Burn The Fat Blog 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.burnthefatblog.com [Source type: General]

^ The net effect was weight loss and, ultimately, death [ 33 ].
  • PLoS Medicine: Short Sleep Duration Is Associated with Reduced Leptin, Elevated Ghrelin, and Increased Body Mass Index 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

[35]
.Several large studies using nationally representative samples suggest that the obesity problem in the United States might have as one of its causes a corresponding decrease in the average number of hours that people are sleeping.^ An increase of 50% above the MAXIMUM peer-reviewed scientifically-reached number of hours of sleep deprivation at which your body begins to experience seriously damage?
  • Think Progress » Fleischer On Torture Memos: ‘I Have No Problem With’ Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Sleep-deprived people who are tested by using a driving simulator or by performing a hand-eye coordination task perform as badly as or worse than those who are intoxicated.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lots of people don't get enough sleep and would like to get more, but the claim that they think about it every several seconds is ridiculous.
  • State of Sleep Deprivation | MetaFilter 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: General]

[36][37][38] .The findings suggest that this might be happening because sleep deprivation could be disrupting hormones that regulate glucose metabolism and appetite.^ [Maybe it is because] we are sleep-deprived and unable to curb our appetites.
  • Weight Loss Advice & Articles - Emotional Eating - Deborah King 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.deborahkingcenter.com [Source type: General]

^ This study shows that sleep duration affects appetite-regulating hormones.
  • PLoS Medicine: Short Sleep Duration Is Associated with Reduced Leptin, Elevated Ghrelin, and Increased Body Mass Index 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ According to a study conducted by the University of Chicago Medical Center in 1999, our body's capability to metabolize glucose is affected significantly because of sleep deprivation.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.targetwoman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]
.The association between sleep deprivation and obesity appears to be strongest in young and middle-age adults.^ Phases of sleep deprivation Up to age 4 1.
  • The Sleep Deprivation Carnival 2009! - Sleep is for the Weak 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC sleepisfortheweak.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults.
  • PLoS Medicine: Short Sleep Duration Is Associated with Reduced Leptin, Elevated Ghrelin, and Increased Body Mass Index 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The association between short sleep duration and obesity in young adults: A 13-year prospective study.
  • PLoS Medicine: Short Sleep Duration Is Associated with Reduced Leptin, Elevated Ghrelin, and Increased Body Mass Index 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.Other scientists hold that the physical discomfort of obesity and related problems, such as sleep apnea, reduce an individual's chances of getting a good night's sleep.^ Obesity is strongly related to sleep apnea.
  • American Observer » Sleep deprivation linked to obesity, depression, other dangers for youth 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC americanobserver.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other scientists hold that the physical discomfort of obesity and related problems, such as sleep apnea, reduce an individual's chances of getting a good night's sleep.

^ The secret to a good night sleep!
  • The Sleep Secret Audio - Sleep Well, Sleep Tonight Gauranteed. 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.sleepsecretaudio.com [Source type: General]

Uses

Scientific study

.In science, sleep deprivation (of rodents, e.g.^ [Web of Science] [Medline] Tobler I and Borbély AA. The effect of 3-h and 6-h sleep deprivation on sleep and EEG spectra of the rat.
  • Sleep Deprivation Effects on Growth Factor Expression in Neonatal Rats: A Potential Role for BDNF in the Mediation of Delta Power -- Hairston et al. 91 (4): 1586 -- Journal of Neurophysiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC jn.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem (2006) Board on Health Sciences Policy ( HSP ) .
  • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC orsted.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Sleep-deprived brain can call in reinforcements , CNEWS science website .
  • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

) is used in order to study the function(s) of .sleep and the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of sleep deprivation.^ Some of the effects of sleep deprivation are: .
  • Sleep deprivation@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Effects of sleep deprivation .
  • File:Effects of sleep deprivation.svg - Wikiversity 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ File:Effects of sleep deprivation.svg .
  • File:Effects of sleep deprivation.svg - Wikiversity 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

.Sleep deprivation can result in a form of psychosis if sleep is deprivated for more than 5 days.^ Sleep deprivation is a powerful form of torture.
  • Sleep deprivation@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deprivation of NREM sleep results in far more sleepiness than deprivation of REM sleep.
  • SLEEP AND ITS IMPACT ON HEALTH 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sleep deprivation preceded the psychosis.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
Some sleep deprivation techniques are as follows:
.
  • Gentle handling (often require polysomnography): during the sleep deprivation period, the animal and its polygraph record are continuously observed; when the animal displays sleep electrophysiological signals or assumes a sleep posture, it is given objects to play with and activated by acoustic and if necessary tactile stimuli.^ Continued sleep deprivation can result in trouble concentrating, blurry vision, impaired judgment, and even more severe mental effects.
    • The Stunning Consequences of Not Getting Enough Sleep | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

    ^ The treatments were on individual animals rather than individual slices; therefore, differences between control and sleep-deprivation treatments were evaluated with Mann-Whitney U- tests conducted on animal means.
    • Sleep Deprivation Impairs Long-Term Potentiation in Rat Hippocampal Slices -- Campbell et al. 88 (2): 1073 -- Journal of Neurophysiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC jn.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Alternatively the plasticity reduction we recorded may be related to a nonspecific effect of sleep deprivation such as stress.
    • Sleep Deprivation Impairs Long-Term Potentiation in Rat Hippocampal Slices -- Campbell et al. 88 (2): 1073 -- Journal of Neurophysiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC jn.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    [40] Although subjective,[41] this technique is used for total sleep deprivation as well as REM or NREM sleep deprivation.
.
This rat is being deprived of restful REM sleep by an animal researcher using a single platform ("flower pot") technique.
^ But some techniques are being lied about, like the sleep deprivation.
  • Emptywheel » 264 Hours of Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sleep deprivation was part of the techniques.
  • Sleep Scientists: Research Twisted to Justify Torture (Updated) | Danger Room | Wired.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: Original source]

^ REM sleep deprivation has been used as a mode of treatment for major depression.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

The water is within 1 cm of the small flower pot bottom platform where the rat sits. .At the onset of REM sleep, the exhausted rat would either fall into the deep water only to clamber back to its pot to avoid death from drowning, or its nose would become submerged into the water shocking it back to an awakened state.
  • Single platform: probably one of the first scientific methods (see Jouvet, 1964[42] for cats[43] and for rodents).^ REM sleep and only one without REM sleep.
    • VADIM ROTENBERG.SLEEP DEPRIVATION IN DEPRESSION: AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC rjews.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ EMG level from sleep onset to the first occurrence of REM sleep.
    • Selective REM sleep deprivation during daytime: II. Muscle atonia in non-REM sleep -- Werth et al. 283 (2): 527 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Deep into Sleep .
    • Deep into Sleep | Harvard Magazine Jul-Aug 2005 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC harvardmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .During the sleep deprivation period, the animal is placed on an inverted flower pot whose bottom diameter is small relative to the animal size (usually 7 cm for adult rats); the pot is placed in a large tub filled with water to within 1 cm of the flower pot bottom.^ The treatments were on individual animals rather than individual slices; therefore, differences between control and sleep-deprivation treatments were evaluated with Mann-Whitney U- tests conducted on animal means.
    • Sleep Deprivation Impairs Long-Term Potentiation in Rat Hippocampal Slices -- Campbell et al. 88 (2): 1073 -- Journal of Neurophysiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC jn.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Akerstedt T, Palmblad J, de la Torre B, Marana R, Gillberg M (1980) Adrenocortical and gonadal steroids during sleep deprivation.
    • Sleep deprivation - Scholarpedia 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ [Web of Science] [Medline] Tobler I and Borbély AA. The effect of 3-h and 6-h sleep deprivation on sleep and EEG spectra of the rat.
    • Sleep Deprivation Effects on Growth Factor Expression in Neonatal Rats: A Potential Role for BDNF in the Mediation of Delta Power -- Hairston et al. 91 (4): 1586 -- Journal of Neurophysiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC jn.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The animal is able to rest on the pot and is even able to get NREM sleep.^ Some organs, such as muscles, are able to regenerate even when a person is not sleeping so long as they are resting.
    • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Even animals and babies in a mother's womb sleep to restore their lost energy.
    • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.targetwoman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The sleep-like behavior of "lower animals" is mainly a resting condition.
    • SLEEP AND ITS IMPACT ON HEALTH 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .But at the onset of REM sleep, with its ensuing muscular relaxation, it would either fall into the water and clamber back to its pot or would get its nose wet enough to waken it.^ Lots of people don't get enough sleep and would like to get more, but the claim that they think about it every several seconds is ridiculous.
    • State of Sleep Deprivation | MetaFilter 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Thus cataplexy may represent an inappropriate intrusion of REM sleep atonia into wakefulness, whereas a loss of REM sleep atonia may be induced by antidepressant medication.
    • Selective REM sleep deprivation during daytime: II. Muscle atonia in non-REM sleep -- Werth et al. 283 (2): 527 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An REM sleep episode with latency shorter than 15 min was defined as a sleep onset REM (SOREM) sleep episode.
    • Selective REM sleep deprivation during daytime: II. Muscle atonia in non-REM sleep -- Werth et al. 283 (2): 527 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    .So this technique is used only for REM sleep deprivation.
  • Multiple platform: in order to reduce the elevated stress response induced by the single platform method,[44] developed this technique in which the animal is placed into a large tank containing multiple platforms, thus eliminating the movement restriction experienced in the single platform.^ REM sleep and only one without REM sleep.
    • VADIM ROTENBERG.SLEEP DEPRIVATION IN DEPRESSION: AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC rjews.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This pattern was seen only after REM sleep deprivation.
    • Selective REM sleep deprivation during daytime: II. Muscle atonia in non-REM sleep -- Werth et al. 283 (2): 527 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Responses to “264 Hours of Sleep Deprivation” .
    • Emptywheel » 264 Hours of Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This technique is also used only for REM sleep deprivation.
  • Modified multiple platform: modification of the multiple platform method where several animals together get the sleep deprivation (Nunes and Tufik, 1994).
  • Pendulum: animals are prevented from entering into PS by allowing them to sleep for only brief periods of time.^ REM sleep and only one without REM sleep.
    • VADIM ROTENBERG.SLEEP DEPRIVATION IN DEPRESSION: AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC rjews.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This pattern was seen only after REM sleep deprivation.
    • Selective REM sleep deprivation during daytime: II. Muscle atonia in non-REM sleep -- Werth et al. 283 (2): 527 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Extended periods of REM sleep are only seen in mammals.
    • SLEEP AND ITS IMPACT ON HEALTH 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This is accomplished by an apparatus which moves the animals' cages backwards and forwards like a pendulum. At the extremes of the motion postural imbalance is produced in the animals forcing them to walk downwards to the other side of their cages.[45]

Interrogation

.Sleep deprivation can be used as a means of interrogation, which has resulted in court trials over whether or not the technique is a form of torture.^ Sleep deprivation was part of the techniques.
  • Sleep Scientists: Research Twisted to Justify Torture (Updated) | Danger Room | Wired.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes, sleep deprivation is torture.
  • Think Progress » Fleischer On Torture Memos: ‘I Have No Problem With’ Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Sleep-deprived people who are tested by using a driving simulator or by performing a hand-eye coordination task perform as badly as or worse than those who are intoxicated.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46]
.Under one interrogation technique, a subject might be kept awake for several days and when finally allowed to fall asleep, suddenly awakened and questioned.^ Be kept awake for 2 days.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC old.4hv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I went through Army OCS and one time had to stay awake for 5 days straight.
  • Sleep Scientists: Research Twisted to Justify Torture (Updated) | Danger Room | Wired.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Somehow, between 2002 and 2005, CIA interrogators began using what the International Committee of the Red Cross called “prolonged stress standing” as a means to keep detainees from falling asleep so as to make them docile and cooperative when questioned.

Menachem Begin, the Prime Minister of Israel from 1977-83, described his experience of sleep deprivation when a prisoner of the NKVD in Russia as follows:
In the head of the interrogated prisoner, a haze begins to form. .His spirit is wearied to death, his legs are unsteady, and he has one sole desire: to sleep...Anyone who has experienced this desire knows that not even hunger and thirst are comparable with it.^ But for those of us who don’t even know how to spell “moderate,” it may be impossible to just eat one cookie.
  • Weight Loss Advice & Articles - Emotional Eating - Deborah King 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.deborahkingcenter.com [Source type: General]

^ So that's 2 hours a day, and I know many people who have tried it with few if any adverse affects, once they train themselves to be strict, and stick to their sleep schedule.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC old.4hv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the mechanism of sleep isn’t fully understood yet, doctors and scientists do know that it’s one of our body’s most important processes.
  • The Stunning Consequences of Not Getting Enough Sleep | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[47]
.Sleep deprivation is one of the five techniques used by the British government in the 1970s.^ Sleep deprivation was part of the techniques.
  • Sleep Scientists: Research Twisted to Justify Torture (Updated) | Danger Room | Wired.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sleep-deprived people who are tested by using a driving simulator or by performing a hand-eye coordination task perform as badly as or worse than those who are intoxicated.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to a newly-declassified report from the Senate Armed Services Committee , sleep deprivation was one of a number of techniques " reverse-engineer[ed] " from the U.S. special forces program to resist interrogation and torture.
  • Sleep Scientists: Research Twisted to Justify Torture (Updated) | Danger Room | Wired.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: Original source]

.The European Court of Human Rights ruled that the five techniques "did not occasion suffering of the particular intensity and cruelty implied by the word torture ...^ I suffer from insomnia occasionally and after a long day at work I am definitly not right in the head.
  • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

[but] amounted to a practice of inhuman and degrading treatment", in breach of the European Convention on Human Rights.[48]
.The question of extreme use of sleep deprivation as torture has advocates on both sides of the issue.^ I have a question for you related to sleep deprivation.
  • Attachment Parenting Blog: "Sleep Deprivation: The Essential Attachment Parenting Experience" 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.apparenting.com [Source type: General]

^ While such events are excellent applications for sleep deprivation research, using them as experimental models is difficult because of the intertwined nature of extreme and continuous exercise, nutritional deficits, and sleep deprivation.
  • PezCycling News - What's Cool In Pro Cycling 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.pezcyclingnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Sleep-deprived people who are tested by using a driving simulator or by performing a hand-eye coordination task perform as badly as or worse than those who are intoxicated.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2006, Australian Federal Attorney-General Philip Ruddock argued that sleep deprivation does not constitute torture.^ Re:Sleep Deprivation « Reply #16 on: January 05, 2006, 05:54:45 PM » .
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC old.4hv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Re:Sleep Deprivation « Reply #24 on: January 06, 2006, 07:30:25 PM » .
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC old.4hv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wow, that headline isn’t loaded or anything…I mean EVERYONE would HAVE to agree that sleep deprivation of terrorists constitutes torture right?
  • Sleep Scientists: Research Twisted to Justify Torture (Updated) | Danger Room | Wired.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: Original source]

[49] .Nicole Bieske, a spokeswoman for Amnesty International Australia, has stated, "At the very least, sleep deprivation is cruel, inhumane and degrading.^ Sleep deprivation is indicated in nearly every therapeutic situation, including drug-resistant melancholia, furthermore in severe neurotic depression and in depressive states of schizophrenic patients.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Vigilance state amounts were compared with time-matched values obtained from non-sleep-deprived (no-SD) animals of the same age.
  • Sleep Deprivation Effects on Growth Factor Expression in Neonatal Rats: A Potential Role for BDNF in the Mediation of Delta Power -- Hairston et al. 91 (4): 1586 -- Journal of Neurophysiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC jn.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I have noticed that at times of my own sleep deprivation it's almost as though my subconscious thought processes have been re-routed through my speech centre...or at very least through my "top-of-mind" thought centre.
  • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

If used for prolonged periods of time it is torture."[50]

Treatment for depression

.Recent studies show sleep deprivation has some potential in the treatment of depression.^ Treatment for depression Recent studies show sleep deprivation has some potential in the treatment of depression.

^ Some of the effects of sleep deprivation are: .
  • Sleep deprivation@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Summary of scientific studies of sleep deprivation .
  • Sleep Debt | Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.sleepdex.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About 60% of patients, when sleep-deprived, show immediate recovery, with most relapsing the following night.^ After subsequent sleep, relapse followed as a rule.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Caffeine effects on recovery sleep following 27 h total sleep deprivation.
  • WSU Spokane: Sleep and Performance Research Center 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.spokane.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Amphetamine effects on recovery sleep following total sleep deprivation.
  • WSU Spokane: Sleep and Performance Research Center 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.spokane.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

The effect has been shown to link to increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).[51] .It has been shown that chronotype is related to the effect of sleep deprivation on mood in normal people; those with morningness circadian preference show an increase in depression-dejection scores while those with eveningness preference show a significant decrease.^ Normalization of activity with sleep deprivation is associated with a decrease in depression.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been seen to increase with sleep deprivation.
  • Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: eMedicine Neurology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Phasic depressives showed a marked improvement after treatment by sleep deprivation.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

[52]
.The incidence of relapse can be decreased by combining sleep deprivation with medication.^ Under conditions where the patients was either medication-free or receiving antidepressant therapy, improvement with SD was followed by full relapse on returning to sleep.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The literature suggests that sleep deprivation can potentiate the effect of antidepressant medication in depressed patients.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ NOTE Do not attempt to use sleep deprivation as a therapy for depression without medical supervision.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

[53] .Many tricyclic antidepressants happen to suppress REM sleep, providing additional evidence for a link between mood and sleep.^ Many antidepressants suppress REM sleep.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In animals, the occurrence of ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves is an additional phenomenon that is typical for REM sleep ( 16 ).
  • Selective REM sleep deprivation during daytime: II. Muscle atonia in non-REM sleep -- Werth et al. 283 (2): 527 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus cataplexy may represent an inappropriate intrusion of REM sleep atonia into wakefulness, whereas a loss of REM sleep atonia may be induced by antidepressant medication.
  • Selective REM sleep deprivation during daytime: II. Muscle atonia in non-REM sleep -- Werth et al. 283 (2): 527 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[54] .Similarly, tranylcypromine has been shown to completely suppress REM sleep at adequate doses.^ Many antidepressants suppress REM sleep.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medications, such as antidepressants, that increase the amount of norepinephrine or serotonin can cause a pharmacologic suppression of REM sleep.
  • Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: eMedicine Neurology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent findings have led us to suggest that the suppression of non-REM sleep intensity is the common pathway in the set of experimental data on the antidepressant effects of sleep manipulations.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

Voluntary

.Sleep deprivation has sometimes been self-imposed to achieve personal notoriety in the context of record-breaking stunts.^ Alternatively the plasticity reduction we recorded may be related to a nonspecific effect of sleep deprivation such as stress.
  • Sleep Deprivation Impairs Long-Term Potentiation in Rat Hippocampal Slices -- Campbell et al. 88 (2): 1073 -- Journal of Neurophysiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC jn.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Surgery, recording, and sleep-deprivation procedures were performed as previously described (Hairston et al.
  • Sleep Deprivation Effects on Growth Factor Expression in Neonatal Rats: A Potential Role for BDNF in the Mediation of Delta Power -- Hairston et al. 91 (4): 1586 -- Journal of Neurophysiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC jn.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sleep deprivation also magnifies alcohol's effects on the body, so a fatigued person who drinks will become much more impaired than someone who is well-rested.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One such record belonged to Randy Gardner, who stayed awake for 264 hours (eleven days).^ I went through Army OCS and one time had to stay awake for 5 days straight.
  • Sleep Scientists: Research Twisted to Justify Torture (Updated) | Danger Room | Wired.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So that's 2 hours a day, and I know many people who have tried it with few if any adverse affects, once they train themselves to be strict, and stick to their sleep schedule.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC old.4hv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply MrWhy June 22nd, 2009 at 3:35 pm 14 According to Wikipedia, Randy Gardner, a 17-year-old high school student, stayed awake for 264 hours in 1964.
  • Emptywheel » 264 Hours of Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lt. Cmdr. .John J. Ross of the US Navy Medical Neuropsychiatric Research Unit later published an account of this event, which became well known among sleep-deprivation researchers.^ Although the modern era of sleep research started in the 1950s with the discovery of REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, the field remained, well, somnolent until recently.
  • Deep into Sleep | Harvard Magazine Jul-Aug 2005 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC harvardmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hochli D, Riemann D, Zulley J, Berger M. Total sleep deprivation (TSD) and tricyclic medication are successful treatment modalities for patients with a major depressive disorder.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ But they all fall apart after two nights without sleep.” In a sleep-deprived state, says White, “Most of us can perform at a fairly low level.
  • Deep into Sleep | Harvard Magazine Jul-Aug 2005 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC harvardmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2004, Shattered was a controversial British reality television competition where contestants competed to go for 7 full days sleeping just one hour per day.^ That is the equivalent of 2-3 hours per day.
  • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ With children averaging three hours of television per day, its hard to make the case children are universally overscheduled.
  • SLEEP DEPRIVATION 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.nldline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The light from a television or computer can delay both the necessary drop in core body temperature and melatonin productionand thus delaying sleep onsetby two hours.
  • SLEEP DEPRIVATION 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.nldline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Causes and treatments

Mental health

.A potential cause of sleep deprivation is a chemical imbalance in brain activity,[citation needed] such as those associated with mania or hypomania.^ Normalization of activity with sleep deprivation is associated with a decrease in depression.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ What’s more, when I was studying psychology, the understanding was that the negative effects of sleep deprivation of such magnitudes was very often PERMANENT. Permanent brain damage, and permanent psychoses, in much the same manner that long bouts of sensory deprivation can lead to.
  • Think Progress » Fleischer On Torture Memos: ‘I Have No Problem With’ Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ "Prolonged stress with sleep deprivation will lead to a physiological exhaustion of the body’s defense mechanisms, physical collapse, and with the potential for various ensuing illnesses."
  • Sleep Scientists: Research Twisted to Justify Torture (Updated) | Danger Room | Wired.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: Original source]

.Manic individuals are often capable of long periods without sleep, or with very little sleep.^ What’s more, when I was studying psychology, the understanding was that the negative effects of sleep deprivation of such magnitudes was very often PERMANENT. Permanent brain damage, and permanent psychoses, in much the same manner that long bouts of sensory deprivation can lead to.
  • Think Progress » Fleischer On Torture Memos: ‘I Have No Problem With’ Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ I find it hard to sleep for long periods of time.
  • Deep into Sleep | Harvard Magazine Jul-Aug 2005 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC harvardmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the results of the sleep deprivation studies little or no activity should be seen in the prefrontal cortex at anytime when the individual is unaware of his or herself.
  • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

School

.A National Sleep Foundation survey found that college/university-aged students get an average of 6.8 hours of sleep each night.^ Often I sleep less than that, 2 or 3 hours a night.
  • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I am a university freshman this year and for the last seven years I have only slept 1-3 hours a night.
  • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (B) Mean ghrelin levels and standard errors for half-hour increments of total sleep time after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and time of storage (see Table 2 ).
  • PLoS Medicine: Short Sleep Duration Is Associated with Reduced Leptin, Elevated Ghrelin, and Increased Body Mass Index 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

[55] .Sleep deprivation is common in college freshmen as they adjust to the stress and social activities of college life.^ "Prolonged stress with sleep deprivation will lead to a physiological exhaustion of the body’s defense mechanisms, physical collapse, and with the potential for various ensuing illnesses."
  • Sleep Scientists: Research Twisted to Justify Torture (Updated) | Danger Room | Wired.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Don't underestimate the damage sleep deprivation can do to a life.
  • The Stunning Consequences of Not Getting Enough Sleep | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ According to the results of the sleep deprivation studies little or no activity should be seen in the prefrontal cortex at anytime when the individual is unaware of his or herself.
  • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A study performed by the Department of Psychology at the National Chung Cheng University in Taiwan concluded that freshmen received the shortest amount of sleep during the week.^ Secondly, it will take two to three weeks of extra nightly sleep before they return to baseline performance.
  • Deep into Sleep | Harvard Magazine Jul-Aug 2005 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC harvardmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is supported by oxygen positron emission tomography (PET) studies, which show that, during NREM sleep, the blood flow throughout the entire brain progressively decreases.
  • Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: eMedicine Neurology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Impairment of driving performance caused by sleep deprivation or alcohol: A comparative study.
  • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC orsted.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[56]
.Students get more sleep each night in the summer than during the school year,[citation needed] and one in four U.S. high school students admits to falling asleep in class at least once a week.^ I set a record for more than 2 weeks of not sleeping.
  • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I basically sleep less than four hours a night and in two or more segments.
  • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Crap, I have to stop sleeping on school nights.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC old.4hv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] .Research has indicated that teenage children have a variation in their circadian cycle that delays sleep past the normal time for adults.^ However, a confounder to later school start times is the potential onset of sleep phase delay during middle school (seventh and eighth grade).
  • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC orsted.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Phase advance of the sleep-wake cycle and antidepressant treatment may have complementary effects on the circadian system.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ I found that my sleep cycle was around 4 hours, even now I wake after 4 hours sleep and depending on the time of day, I'll either get up or sleep for another 4 hours.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC old.4hv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since school schedules are based around the adult workday, it is not surprising that students have difficulty obtaining adequate sleep.^ For patients with mania, sleep deprivation is not an adequate treatment--in contrast, treatment strategies aiming at stabilizing a regular sleep-wake schedule are indicated.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Despite the physiological need for about 9 hours of sleep, sleep duration, across this age span, averages around 7 hours and about a quarter of high school and college students are sleep deprived (Wolfson and Carskadon, 1998).
  • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC orsted.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stratification was based on risk for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), with an oversampling of habitual snorers to ensure an adequate distribution of SDB. Analyses were adjusted for the weighted sampling when appropriate.
  • PLoS Medicine: Short Sleep Duration Is Associated with Reduced Leptin, Elevated Ghrelin, and Increased Body Mass Index 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.July 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] It is known that during human adolescence, sleep patterns typically undergo marked changes.^ Sleepless in Chicago: Tracking the effects of adolescent sleep loss during the middle school years.
  • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC orsted.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Brain activation patterns and individual differences in working memory impairment during sleep deprivation.
  • WSU Spokane: Sleep and Performance Research Center 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.spokane.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Patterns of performance degradation and restoration during sleep restriction and subsequent recovery: a sleep dose-response study.
  • WSU Spokane: Sleep and Performance Research Center 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.spokane.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Electroencephalogram (EEG) studies indicate a 50% reduction of deep (stage 4) sleep and a 75% reduction in the peak amplitude of delta waves during nonrapid-eye movement sleep in adolescence.School schedules are often incompatible with a corresponding delay in sleep offset, leading to a less than optimal amount of sleep for the majority of adolescents.^ Sleep schedules and daytime functioning in adolescents.
  • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC orsted.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the modern era of sleep research started in the 1950s with the discovery of REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, the field remained, well, somnolent until recently.
  • Deep into Sleep | Harvard Magazine Jul-Aug 2005 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC harvardmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What’s more, when I was studying psychology, the understanding was that the negative effects of sleep deprivation of such magnitudes was very often PERMANENT. Permanent brain damage, and permanent psychoses, in much the same manner that long bouts of sensory deprivation can lead to.
  • Think Progress » Fleischer On Torture Memos: ‘I Have No Problem With’ Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

[58]
.In 1997 the University of Minnesota did research that compared students who went to school at 7:15 a.m.^ Anand Shetty of Hampton University studied high school students over the course of three months.
  • Weight Loss Advice & Articles - Emotional Eating - Deborah King 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.deborahkingcenter.com [Source type: General]

^ University of Texas at Austin researchers found that girls who are obese are half as likely to attend college as thin girls.
  • Weight Loss Advice & Articles - Emotional Eating - Deborah King 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.deborahkingcenter.com [Source type: General]

^ A 3-year study of 2,200 middle school students did not find that sleep loss resulted in lower academic performance.
  • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC orsted.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

and those who went to school at 8:40 a.m. .They found that students who went to school at 8:40 got higher grades and more sleep on weekday nights.^ Crap, I have to stop sleeping on school nights.
  • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC old.4hv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The immune system is also thought to be maintained while asleep; people who don’t get enough sleep tend to be more susceptible to infections and have slower healing times.
  • The Stunning Consequences of Not Getting Enough Sleep | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ However, a confounder to later school start times is the potential onset of sleep phase delay during middle school (seventh and eighth grade).
  • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC orsted.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[26]

Counteracting sleep deprivation

.Several strategies are common in attempting to increase alertness and counteract the effects of sleep deprivation.^ It has been seen to increase with sleep deprivation.
  • Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: eMedicine Neurology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Caffeine reversal of sleep deprivation effects on alertness and mood.
  • WSU Spokane: Sleep and Performance Research Center 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.spokane.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Here, a sleep deprivation effect was evident.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

.Caffeine, the most commonly used stimulant in the U.S., is often used over short periods to boost wakefulness when experiencing acute sleep deprivation; however, caffeine is less effective if taken routinely.^ BDNF increases after short periods of sleep deprivation.
  • Sleep Deprivation Effects on Growth Factor Expression in Neonatal Rats: A Potential Role for BDNF in the Mediation of Delta Power -- Hairston et al. 91 (4): 1586 -- Journal of Neurophysiology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC jn.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sleep-deprived people who are tested by using a driving simulator or by performing a hand-eye coordination task perform as badly as or worse than those who are intoxicated.
  • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Partial sleep deprivation (PSD), keeping a subject awake from 2 AM to 9 PM produces an acute mood improvement in 60% of patients with major depression.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

.Other strategies recommended by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine include prophylactic sleep before deprivation, naps, other stimulants, and combinations thereof.^ The patients were rated before and after the sleep deprivation(s).
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In practice, as Bradbury’s other May 10, 2005 memo makes clear, these "enhanced interrogation techniques" — of which "sleep deprivation" is only "one" — are usually used in combination with each other.
  • Firedoglake » Torture: What’s in a Name? It Was Never Just “Sleep Deprivation” 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Benzodiazepines and alcohol (which produce withdrawal), caffeine, stimulants, exposure to bright light, and sleep deprivation during excited phases should be avoided.
  • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

.However, the only sure and safe way to combat sleep deprivation is to increase nightly sleep time.^ It has been seen to increase with sleep deprivation.
  • Normal Sleep, Sleep Physiology, and Sleep Deprivation: eMedicine Neurology 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An increase of 50% above the MAXIMUM peer-reviewed scientifically-reached number of hours of sleep deprivation at which your body begins to experience seriously damage?
  • Think Progress » Fleischer On Torture Memos: ‘I Have No Problem With’ Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ However, a confounder to later school start times is the potential onset of sleep phase delay during middle school (seventh and eighth grade).
  • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC orsted.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[59]

Longest period without sleep

Depending on how sleep is defined, there are several people who can claim the record for having gone the longest without sleep:
  1. Thai Ngoc, born 1942, claimed in 2006 to have been awake for 33 years or 11,700 nights, according to Vietnamese news organization Thanh Nien. .It was said that Ngoc acquired the ability to go without sleep after a bout of fever in 1973,[60] but other reports indicate he stopped sleeping in 1976 with no known trigger.^ So maybe a month after posting my first comment on this page, (going without sleep can mess me up sometimes...
    • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Last night, 4am, G- was pestering Linda to nurse and she wanted to sleep, so I groggily said "no worries, I'll get him something to drink".
    • Attachment Parenting Blog: "Sleep Deprivation: The Essential Attachment Parenting Experience" 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.apparenting.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Work by others and our own studies indicate that sleep deprivation and a phase advance of the sleep period can be used to treat bipolar patients during the depressed phase.
    • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

    [61] .At the time of the Thanh Nien report, Ngoc suffered from no apparent ill effect (other than a minor decline in liver function), was mentally sound and could carry 100 kg of pig feed down a 4 km road,[60] but another report indicates that he was healthy before the sleepless episode but that now he was not feeling well because of the lack of sleep.^ In a survey of 5,600 medical residents, conducted by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, total work time was inversely correlated with reported sleep time.
    • Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC orsted.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ When I was younger I was like you and I couldn't sleep at home because I didn't feel safe.
    • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ok well im starting to get worried about myself im starting to feel as if nothing is real.I constantly feel dizzy and im afraid im going crazy.I like to party alot like all the time is the way im feeling coming from lack of sleep or the drunken sleep that i do get enough?
    • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

    [61]
  2. .
  3. In January 2005, the RIA Novosti published an article about Fyodor Nesterchuk from the Ukrainian town of Kamen-Kashirsky who claimed to have not slept in more than 20 years.^ But those who trained in the evening and returned for a retest the following morning were 15 to 20 percent faster and 30 to 50 percent more accurate.
    • Deep into Sleep | Harvard Magazine Jul-Aug 2005 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC harvardmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ About 60 million Americans a year have insomnia frequently or for extended periods of time, which leads to even more serious sleep deficits.
    • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sleep deprivation also magnifies alcohol's effects on the body, so a fatigued person who drinks will become much more impaired than someone who is well-rested.
    • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Local doctor Fyodor Koshel, chief of the Lutsk city health department, claimed to have examined him extensively and failed to make him sleep.^ When people make the unlikely claim that they get by on four hours of sleep per night, Stickgold often asks if they worry about what they are losing.
    • Deep into Sleep | Harvard Magazine Jul-Aug 2005 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC harvardmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Koshel also said however that Nesterchuck did not suffer any of the normally deleterious effects of sleep deprivation.^ Normal sleep and sleep deprivation , on emedicine website .
    • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Here, a sleep deprivation effect was evident.
    • Sleep Deprivation and Depression 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Did I already develop any long term effects of sleep deprivation?
    • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

    [62] .People who claim not to sleep are usually shown to sleep when studied in sleep laboratories with EEG. Nesterchuck reports experiencing drowsiness at night, commenting that he attempts to sleep "in vain" when he notices his eyelids drooping.^ Sleep-deprived people who are tested by using a driving simulator or by performing a hand-eye coordination task perform as badly as or worse than those who are intoxicated.
    • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The immune system is also thought to be maintained while asleep; people who don’t get enough sleep tend to be more susceptible to infections and have slower healing times.
    • The Stunning Consequences of Not Getting Enough Sleep | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Report this comment ] Posted by: jparsons on Apr 2, 2009 12:46 AM Current rating: 5 [ 1 = poor; 5 = excellent] I haven't had a decent block of sleep since I was heavily pregnant with kid #1, who is now 4.
    • The Stunning Consequences of Not Getting Enough Sleep | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

    .Many people experience microsleep episodes during sleep deprivation, in which they sleep for periods of seconds to fractions of a second and frequently don't remember these episodes.^ In many cases, people are not aware that they are experiencing microsleeps.
    • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sleep-deprived people who are tested by using a driving simulator or by performing a hand-eye coordination task perform as badly as or worse than those who are intoxicated.
    • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An increase of 50% above the MAXIMUM peer-reviewed scientifically-reached number of hours of sleep deprivation at which your body begins to experience seriously damage?
    • Think Progress » Fleischer On Torture Memos: ‘I Have No Problem With’ Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

    .Because microsleep is frequently not remembered, microsleep or a related phenomenon may be responsible for lack of sleep and/or lack of memory of sleep in individuals like Nesterchuk and Thai Ngoc.
  4. Randy Gardner holds the scientifically documented record for the longest period of time a human being has intentionally gone without sleep not using stimulants of any kind.^ Or it depends on the time period when he/she has gone to sleep or the temperature or weather of the place.
    • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As discussed [in the book Why We Slept], the longest documented period of time for which any human has gone without sleep is 264 hours.
    • Emptywheel » 264 Hours of Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When I was younger I was like you and I couldn't sleep at home because I didn't feel safe.
    • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Gardner stayed awake for 264 hours (eleven days), breaking the previous record of 260 hours held by Tom Rounds of Honolulu.^ I went through Army OCS and one time had to stay awake for 5 days straight.
    • Sleep Scientists: Research Twisted to Justify Torture (Updated) | Danger Room | Wired.com 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Reply MrWhy June 22nd, 2009 at 3:35 pm 14 According to Wikipedia, Randy Gardner, a 17-year-old high school student, stayed awake for 264 hours in 1964.
    • Emptywheel » 264 Hours of Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ My hypothesis: Because I stayed up for 36 hours then slept for 15, before staying awake for this long must have given me more rest than I could possibly get had I not been exhausted by the previous day.
    • Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC old.4hv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [63] .Other sources claim that the Guinness World Records record stands at 449 hours (18 days, 17 hours), held by Maureen Weston, of Peterborough, Cambridgeshire in April, 1977, in a rocking-chair marathon.^ The longest I have gone without any sleep at all is 5 days, then got flu-like symptoms and slept for about 8 hours-a sleep marathon, so to speak.
    • The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior | Serendip's Exchange 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Some animals sleep 20 hours a day, others only two or three.
    • Emptywheel » 264 Hours of Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Your point was not that they did it for 11 days, just that they set an 11 day limit based on the Guinness Book of World Records.
    • Emptywheel » 264 Hours of Sleep Deprivation 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [64]
  5. The toddler Rhett Lamb[65] of St. Petersburg, Florida, has a rare condition and slept only one to two hours per day in the first three years of his life. .He has a rare abnormality called an Arnold-Chiari malformation where brain tissue protrudes into the spinal canal; the skull puts pressure on the protruding part of the brain.^ Neurons in the brainstem, which connects the brain with the spinal cord, produce neurotransmitters such as serotonin and norepinephrine that keep some parts of the brain active while we are awake.
    • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The SCN rests in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus, just above the point where the optic nerves cross.
    • Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 10 January 2010 20:19 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The boy was operated on at All Children's Hospital in St. Petersburg in May 2008. Two days after surgery he slept through the night.[66][67]

See also

References

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  2. ^ Reference list is found on image page in Commons: Commons:File:Effects of sleep deprivation.svg#References
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External links


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