Sleep paralysis: Wikis

  
  

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The Nightmare, by Henry Fuseli (1781) is thought to be one of the classic depictions of sleep paralysis perceived as a demonic visitation.
.Sleep paralysis is paralysis associated with sleep[citation needed] which may occur in normal subjects or be associated with narcolepsy, cataplexy, and hypnagogic hallucinations.^ Sleep paralysis is generally associated with sleep-wake transitions but also occurs from REM sleep.
  • Parasomnia's - Sleep and it's Disorders 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.css.to [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other common symptoms include sleep paralysis, hallucinations and cataplexy.
  • AASM - Journal SLEEP: Persons with Narcolepsy with Cataplexy Have Low Levels of CSF Hypocretin-1, which Aids in the Regulation of Sleep 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.aasmnet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ 'Flying' in your sleep may be a paralysis .
  • 'Flying' in your sleep may be a paralysis - Telegraph 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

.The pathophysiology of this condition is closely related to the normal hypotonia that occur during REM sleep.^ The temporary muscle paralysis that normally occurs during REM sleep does not occur in this disorder.

^ Most dreaming occurs during REM sleep.
  • REM Sleep Behavior Disorder | Rocky Mountain Sleep Disorders Center 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.rockymountainsleep.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sleep-related painful erections Erections are a normal component of REM sleep for men.
  • Parasomnias - Sleep walking, talking and other parasomnias - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .When considered to be a disease, isolated sleep paralysis is classified as MeSH D020188.[2] Some evidence suggests that it can also, in some cases, be a symptom of migraine.^ When considered to be a disease, isolated sleep paralysis is classified as MeSH D020188.

^ Some symptoms of narcolepsy include EDS, cataplexy, and sleep paralysis.
  • St. Joseph and Redwood Memorial Hospitals - Sleep Disorders Center 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.stjosepheureka.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here are some of the symptoms of sleep paralysis I have experienced: .
  • Lucid Dream Guide - lucid dreaming, dream control, OBE guides, sleep paralysis 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC lucidguide.com [Source type: Original source]

[3][4]

Contents

Symptoms and characteristics

.Physiologically, sleep paralysis is closely related to the paralysis that occurs as a natural part of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, which is known as REM atonia.^ This is called “atonia.” Sleep paralysis seems to be when this atonia occurs while you are awake.

^ I've been known to have sleep paralysis!
  • KVR: Sleep Paralysis. 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.kvraudio.com [Source type: General]

^ Sleep paralysis is not known to be harmful .
  • The horrors of sleep paralysis 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.xzone-radio.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sleep paralysis occurs when the brain awakes from a REM state, but the body paralysis persists.^ Sleep paralysis is generally associated with sleep-wake transitions but also occurs from REM sleep.
  • Parasomnia's - Sleep and it's Disorders 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.css.to [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is called “atonia.” Sleep paralysis seems to be when this atonia occurs while you are awake.

^ Sleep paralysis is when the mind awakes but the body does not.

.This leaves the person fully conscious, but unable to move.^ This leaves the person fully conscious, but unable to move.
  • Sleep Paralysis Information 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC sleepparalysis.researchtoday.net [Source type: Academic]
  • OLD HAG/ Incubus/Succubus versus Sleep Paralysis 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.hauntedamericatours.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Lucid Dream Guide - lucid dreaming, dream control, OBE guides, sleep paralysis 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC lucidguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This leaves the person fully aware, but unable to move.
  • Paranormal Research Society > Sleep Paralysis / Night Tremors 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC forums.pennstateprs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This causes the person to be fully aware, but unable to move.
  • Sleep Disorders 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC upia.moonfruit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sleep Paralysis Sounds Scary 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.darrenbarefoot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The paralysis can last from several seconds to several minutes "after which the individual may experience panic symptoms and the realization that the distorted perceptions were false".[5] As the correlation with REM sleep suggests, the paralysis is not entirely complete; use of EOG traces shows that eye movement can be instigated during such episodes.^ Sleep paralysis episode one: Aliens!
  • Sleep paralysis – A personal account and analysis | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For a second I thought "Cool, sleep paralysis!"
  • Sleep paralysis | MetaFilter 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Second, they have episodes of apparent sleep paralysis accompanied by hallucinations."
  • Sleep Disorders 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC upia.moonfruit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .When there is an absence of narcolepsy, sleep paralysis is referred to as isolated sleep paralysis (ISP).^ When there is an absence of narcolepsy, sleep paralysis is referred to as isolated sleep paralysis (ISP).
  • Sleep Paralysis Information 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC sleepparalysis.researchtoday.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Lucid Dream Guide - lucid dreaming, dream control, OBE guides, sleep paralysis 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC lucidguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sleep paralysis is a common symptom of narcolepsy which is a sleep .

^ Isolated sleep paralysis .
  • Isolated sleep paralysis 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: Academic]

[7]
.In addition, the paralysis state may be accompanied by terrifying hallucinations (hypnopompic or hypnagogic) and an acute sense of danger.^ Terrifying hypnagogic hallucinations are also a sign of this disease.
  • The Straight Dope: What causes sleep paralysis? 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.straightdope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sleep paralysis may occur at the onset of sleep (hypnagogic) or when emerging from sleep (hypnopompic).
  • Lucid Dream Guide - lucid dreaming, dream control, OBE guides, sleep paralysis 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC lucidguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, the paralysis state may be accompanied by terrifying hallucinations (hypnopompic or hypnagogic) and an acute sense of danger.

[8] .Sleep paralysis is particularly frightening to the individual because of the vividness of such hallucinations.^ Sleep paralysis and one crazy hallucination .
  • Paranormal Research Society > Sleep Paralysis / Night Tremors 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC forums.pennstateprs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sleep paralysis is particularly frightening to the individual because of the vividness of such hallucinations.

^ But how are hallucinations connected to sleep paralysis?
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/a6092471 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .The hallucinatory element to sleep paralysis makes it even more likely that someone will interpret the experience as a dream, since completely fanciful, or dream-like, objects (often described as looking distinctly demonic by those who experience the paralysis)[citation needed] may appear in the room alongside one's normal vision.^ People who experience it against their will describe it as a sleep disorder.

^ Sleep paralysis episode one: Aliens!
  • Sleep paralysis – A personal account and analysis | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sexual abuse may also make a person susceptible to sleep paralysis.
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.anapsid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some scientists have proposed this condition as an explanation for alien abductions and ghostly encounters.^ It may also explain claims of alien abductions and ghostly encounters.

^ Some scientists have proposed this condition as a theory for alien abductions and ghostly encounters.
  • Paranormal Research Society > Sleep Paralysis / Night Tremors 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC forums.pennstateprs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some scientists have proposed this condition as an explanation for alien abductions and ghostly encounters.

[9] .A study by Susan Blackmore and Marcus Cox (the Blackmore-Cox study) of the University of the West of England supports the suggestion that reports of alien abductions are related to sleep paralysis rather than to temporal lobe lability.^ Many of those alien abduction tales are simply sleep paralysis.

^ Cox,M. (1995) The Prevalence of Sleep Paralysis and Temporal Lobe Lability in persons who report Alien Abduction.

^ Sleep paralysis and alien abductions .
  • Eugenia's Rants and Thoughts » Blog Archive » Sleep paralysis and alien abductions 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC eugenia.gnomefiles.org [Source type: General]

[10]

Possible causes

.REM atonia occurs during REM sleep, thus preventing the body from manifesting movements made in the subject's dreams.^ PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Sleep paralysis is supposed to occur when the sleeping subject becomes aware during REM sleep muscular atonia.

^ This sleep state, called rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, is when dreaming occurs.

^ PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Sleep paralysis is supposed to occur when the sleeping subject becomes aware during REM sleep of muscular atonia.

.Very little is known about the physiology of sleep paralysis.^ Key observations about Sleep paralysis .
  • http://www.spiritualresearchfoundation.org/spiritualresearch/spiritualityandhealth/sleepparalysis/ 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.spiritualresearchfoundation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This question about " Sleep Paralysis?
  • Sleep Paralysis? - Yahoo! Answers 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Sleep paralysis is not known to be harmful .
  • The horrors of sleep paralysis 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.xzone-radio.com [Source type: Original source]

.January 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] However, some have suggested that it may be linked to post-synaptic inhibition of motor neurons in the pons region of the brain.^ However, some have suggested that it may be linked to post-synaptic inhibition of motor neurons in the pons region of the brain.
  • Paranormal Research Society > Sleep Paralysis / Night Tremors 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC forums.pennstateprs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OLD HAG/ Incubus/Succubus versus Sleep Paralysis 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.hauntedamericatours.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It has been suggested by some scientists that the striking parallels between OOBEs and NDEs may be more than coincidence.
  • Hypnagogia sleep paralysis OOBE microsleep NDE ASSAP 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.assap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Random One Infamous Scribbler Posts: 562 Joined: 29 May 2008 .

.January 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In particular, low levels of melatonin may stop the depolarization current in the nerves, preventing the stimulation of the muscles and any consequent enactment of the dream activity by the body (e.g.^ In particular, low levels of melatonin may stop the depolarization current in the nerves, preventing the stimulation of the muscles and any consequent enactment of the dream activity by the body (e.g.

^ In particular, low levels of melatonin may stop the depolarization current in the nerves, which prevents the stimulation of the muscles, to prevent the body from enacting the dream activity (e.g.

^ Relaxation Therapy Techniques such as deep breathing, thought stopping, and progressive relaxation may reduce or eliminate anxiety and body tension.
  • Pulmonary Associates of Richmond 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.parsleep.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

preventing a sleeper from flailing his or her legs when dreaming about running).[citation needed]
.Several studies have concluded that many or most people will experience sleep paralysis at least once or twice in their lives.^ Most SOREM episodes, however, were not associated with the experience of sleep paralysis.

^ About 30% of young adults experience Sleep paralysis at least once in their lives.
  • http://www.spiritualresearchfoundation.org/spiritualresearch/spiritualityandhealth/sleepparalysis/ 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.spiritualresearchfoundation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a common sleep problem that most people experience at least occasionally.
  • Sleep Disorders - Types & Symptoms - neurologychannel 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.neurologychannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.December 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] A study conducted by Sedaghat F. et al.^ From the same laboratory came a comprehensive study of SP by Ohayon, et al (1999).
  • The Lucid Dream Exchange - Article: Scared Stiff - Sleep Paralysis - Jorge Conesa 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.dreaminglucid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later studies focusing on specific ethnic groups yielded higher rates; such was the case for Bell et al.

^ Sleep researchers conducted a study in which healthy adults between the ages of 21 and 38 were randomly placed in one of four restricted sleep conditions (Van Dongen et al., 2003).
  • Top 10 Amazing Facts About Dreams - Listverse 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

has investigated the prevalence of sleep paralysis among .Iranian medical students.^ Iranian medical students.

^ Sedaghat-Hamedani F.,Kayvanpour E.,Rezai A.:" Prevalence of sleep paralysis and other symptoms of narcolepsy in Iranian medical students " ^ Friedman, S. & Paradis, C. (2002).

.24.1% of students reported experiencing sleep paralysis at least once in their lifetime.^ I never experienced sleep paralysis so I can’t say.
  • OCCULT VIEW » Blog Archive » An Alien Abduction Story: Extraterrestrials, Spirit Abduction or Sleep Paralysis? 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC occultview.com [Source type: General]

^ Have you ever experienced sleep paralysis?
  • Sleep Paralysis: What it is and How to Avoid it - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Have you ever experienced sleep paralysis? (souls, spirits, believing, Christ) - Religion and Philosophy - Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Atheism, God, Universe, Science, Spirituality, Faith, Evidence - Page 3 - City-Data Forum 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I never have experienced sleep paralysis.
  • Sleep Paralysis: What it is and How to Avoid it - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The same result was reported among Japanese, Nigerian, Kuwaiti, Sudanese and American students.^ The same result was reported among Japanese, Nigerian, Kuwaiti, Sudanese and American students.

[11]
.Many people who commonly enter sleep paralysis also suffer from narcolepsy.^ I suffer from sleep paralysis.
  • I suffer from sleep paralysis. Help me!!! - Sleep Community - Forum - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ People with insomnia suffer from insufficient sleep.
  • Sleep Disturbance:Health, Counseling, and Prevention Services: Northern Kentucky University 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC hcp.nku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people who suffer from this condition are reluctant to talk about it.
  • The Puzzling Phenomenon Of Sleep Paralysis - by Dr. Rose Windale 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.healthzine.org [Source type: General]

.In non-Nigerian Africans, panic disorder occurs with sleep paralysis more frequently than in Caucasians.^ In non-Nigerian Africans, panic disorder occurs with sleep paralysis more frequently than in Caucasians.

^ In African-Americans, panic disorder occurs with sleep paralysis more frequently than in Caucasians[2].
  • Paranormal Research Society > Sleep Paralysis / Night Tremors 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC forums.pennstateprs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I've experienced sleep paralysis more times than I can count.
  • [article] Paranormal Sleep Paralysis - OccultCorpus 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.occultcorpus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Some reports read that various factors increase the likelihood of both paralysis and hallucinations.^ Some report that various factors increase the likelihood of both paralysis and hallucinations.
  • Buprenorphine Treatment Peer-Support Forum 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.naabt.org [Source type: General]

^ Some reports read that various factors increase the likelihood of both paralysis and hallucinations.

^ Situational factors affecting sleep paralysis and associated hallucinations: position and timing effects.

These include:[13]
  • Sleeping in a face upwards or supine position
  • Irregular sleeping schedules; naps, sleeping in, sleep deprivation
  • Increased stress
  • Sudden environmental/lifestyle changes
  • A lucid dream that immediately precedes the episode.

Treatment

.Treatment starts with patient education about sleep stages and about the muscle atonia that is typically associated with REM sleep.^ REM sleep atonia.

^ Physiology and pathology associated with Sleep Stages: .
  • Home       Objectives      Schedule       Lectures      Topics       Cases      Quizzes       PDA Refs 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC umed.med.utah.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The typical person starts a sleep cycle in non-REM sleep and ends it in REM sleep.
  • Howstuffworks "How Sleep Problems Work" 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For most healthy individuals, avoiding chronic sleep deprivation is enough to relieve symptoms.^ Avoid sleep deprivation.
  • Anyone else ever experience Sleep Paralysis? - CookingLight.com Community 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC community.cookinglight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For most healthy individuals, avoiding chronic sleep deprivation is enough to relieve symptoms.

^ Sleep disorders, including sleep apnea (that is, absence of breathing during sleep), insomnia, and narcolepsy, may require behavioral, pharmacological, or even surgical intervention to relieve the symptoms.

.It is recommended that patients be evaluated for narcolepsy if symptoms persist.^ It is recommended that patients be evaluated for narcolepsy if symptoms persist.

^ Behavioral changes are usually recommended along with medications to help a person to manage narcolepsy symptoms.
  • Narcolepsy: Narcoleptic Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, and Medication 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Up to 10 percent of patients diagnosed with narcolepsy with cataplexy report having a close relative with the same symptoms.
  • Narcolepsy Fact Sheet: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[14]

Related phenomena

.Many perceptions associated with sleep paralysis (visceral buzzing, loud sounds, adrenal mental state, presences, and the paralysis itself) also constitute a common phase in the early progression of episodes referred to as out of body experiences.^ I have had many sleep paralysis episodes and they are indeed terrifying.
  • The waking nightmare of sleep paralysis | Chris French | Science | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ But on the flip side, I’ve also had many positive experiences with sleep paralysis.
  • Lucid Dream Guide - lucid dreaming, dream control, OBE guides, sleep paralysis 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC lucidguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An episode of sleep paralysis often is terminated by sound or touch.
  • Parasomnias 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Parasomnias - Sleep walking, talking and other parasomnias - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15][16] .Mental focus varies between the two conditions; paralysis sufferers tend to fixate on reestablishing operation of the body, whereas subjects of out-of-body episodes are more occupied by perceived non-equivalence with the body.^ Mental focus varies between the two conditions; paralysis sufferers tend to fixate on reestablishing operation of the body, whereas subjects of out-of-body episodes are more occupied by perceived non-equivalence with the body.

^ Sleep paralysis episode two: Defrosting!
  • Sleep paralysis – A personal account and analysis | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many perceptions associated with sleep paralysis (visceral buzzing, loud sounds, adrenal mental state, presences, and the paralysis itself) also constitute a common phase in the early progression of episodes referred to as out of body experiences.

Folklore

.The original definition of sleep paralysis was codified by Dr Johnson in his A Dictionary of the English Language as "nightmare," a term that evolved into our modern definition.^ This is definitely a symptom of sleep paralysis.

^ Spiritual research into Sleep paralysis .
  • http://www.spiritualresearchfoundation.org/spiritualresearch/spiritualityandhealth/sleepparalysis/ 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.spiritualresearchfoundation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Close The waking nightmare of sleep paralysis .
  • The waking nightmare of sleep paralysis | Chris French | Science | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Such sleep paralysis was widely considered to be the work of demons and more specifically incubi, which were thought to sit on the chests of sleepers.^ For a second I thought "Cool, sleep paralysis!"
  • Sleep paralysis | MetaFilter 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As such, this is considered the deepest stage of sleep.
  • Glossary of Terms - Sleep HealthCenters® 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.sleephealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Such nightmares were widely considered to be the work of demons and more specifically incubi, which were thought to sit on the chests of sleepers.

.In Old English the name for these beings was mare or mære (from a proto-Germanic *marōn, cf.^ Other European cultures share variants of the same folklore, calling her under different names; Proto-Germanic: marōn ; Old English: mære ; German: Mahr ; Dutch: nachtmerrie ; Icelandic, Old Norse, Faroese, and Swedish: mara ; Danish: mare ; Norwegian: mare ; Old Irish: morrigain ; Slovene: môra ; Bulgarian, Serbian, Polish: mora ; French: cauchemar ; Romanian: moroi ; Czech: můra .

^ In Old English, the being in question was called a mare or mære (from a proto-Germanic *maron, related to Old High German and Old Norse mara), whence comes the mare part in nightmare.

^ The concept of the mara has very old roots in the folklore of the Germanic peoples, possibly the belief was shaped as early as in proto-Indo-European religion.

.Old Norse mara), hence comes the mare part in nightmare.^ In Old English, the being in question was called a mare or mære (from a proto-Germanic *maron, related to Old High German and Old Norse mara), whence comes the mare part in nightmare.

^ "Mara" is the Old Norse, Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic name, "mare" is Norwegian and Danish.

^ A mara, or a mare is a kind of malignant female wraith in Scandinavian folklore believed to cause nightmares.

The word might be etymologically cognate to Hellenic Marōn (in the Odyssey) and Sanskrit Māra.
.Folk belief in Newfoundland, South Carolina and Georgia describe the negative figure of the Hag who leaves her physical body at night, and sits on the chest of her victim.^ The mythology of the Sea Island people of South Carolina and Georgia describes the negative figure of the Hag who leaves her physical body at night, and sits on the chest of her victim.

^ The Irish call it a visit from the “old hag.” - In Chinese folk culture, the translation of sleep paralysis is “ghost press bed,” meaning a ghost is sitting on top of a sleeping victim.
  • Sleep Disorders: From Paralysis to Sexsomnia | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

^ This was copied from the Beaufort County Public Library web site on the subject: (Folklore and the myth is stated here)"When night falls, the hag is free to leave her body (or to shed her skin, depending on who is telling the story) to wander unseen on land, underground or through the air.

.The victim usually wakes with a feeling of terror, has difficulty breathing because of a perceived heavy invisible weight on his or her chest, and is unable to move i.e., experiences sleep paralysis.^ A person often also feels pressure on his or her chest and has difficulty breathing.
  • Ask the Brains: What Is Sleep Paralysis?: Scientific American 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ask the Brains: What Is Sleep Paralysis?: Scientific American 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.sciam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ask the Brains: What Is Sleep Paralysis?: Scientific American 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.pheedcontent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The weight of the mara could also result in breathing difficulties or feeling of suffocation (an experience now known as sleep paralysis).

^ A feeling of terror makes breathing difficult.
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.anapsid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This nightmare experience is described as being "hag-ridden" in the Gullah lore.^ This nightmare experience is described as being "hag ridden" in the Gullah lore.

^ I had never heard sleep paralysis called the 'old hag syndrome' and found this especially amusing, as the scary being in my experience ended up being me!
  • Sleep paralysis | MetaFilter 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In that same show they talked about these sleep paralysis episodes and described it as likely being the same basic mechanism going awry as with the abductee experience.
  • The sleep of reason | MetaFilter 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

.The "Old Hag" was a nightmare spirit in British and also Anglophone North American folklore.^ The "Old Hag" was a nightmare spirit in British and also Anglophone North American folklore.

^ In poring over collections of both contemporary and past ghost folklore from around the world, I noticed that Old Hag attacks accompany other manifestations with startling frequency.

.In Fiji the experience is interpreted as "kana tevoro" being 'eaten' or possessed by a demon.^ Several of my friends have shared their experiences of these night terrors with me, and they all sound eerily similar (being choked, visited by demonic presence).
  • Fear-Induced Hallucination: How Sleep Paralysis Triggers Hallucination | Serendip's Exchange 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sleepers may interpret the experience as a dream, which may explain the common description of being frozen, unable to move.
  • Sleep Disorders: From Paralysis to Sexsomnia | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

^ Does a house with a reputation of being haunted encourage someone to interpret the experience as supernatural or does the experience itself promote the house to be called haunted?

.In many cases the 'demon' can be the spirit of a recently dead relative who has come back for some unfinished business, or has come to communicate some important news to the living.^ That will give them something to laugh about!” The barrier was breaking, the police falling one after another, some living, some dead or unconscious and bloody on the ground.
  • Animals Downtown, a General fanfic - FictionPress.com 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.fictionpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The quality of our sleep impacts the quality of our lives in many ways, so it is important that we sleep well.
  • Sleep Disturbance:Health, Counseling, and Prevention Services: Northern Kentucky University 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC hcp.nku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many tales of alien abduction, demonic possession, succubus and incubus attacks, all can be traced back to sleep paralysis and associated hallucinations.
  • Sleep Paralysis Sounds Scary 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.darrenbarefoot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Nigeria, "ISP appears to be far more common and recurrent among people of African descent than among whites or Nigerian Africans",[5] and is often referred to within African communities as "the Devil on your back."[17][18][19]
.Various forms of magic and spiritual possession were also advanced as causes.^ The Nightmare, Henry Fuseli, 1802 (Frankfurter Goethe-Museum, Frankfurt)Various forms of magic and spiritual possession were also advanced as causes.

^ This is the origin of incubi, succubi, various forms of demonic possession, and alien abduction stories.
  • Freaky Sleep Paralysis: Being Awake in Your Nightmares | Wired Science | Wired.com 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

.In nineteenth century Europe, the vagaries of diet were thought to be responsible.^ In nineteenth century Europe, the vagaries of diet were thought to be responsible.

.For example, in Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol, Ebenezer Scrooge attributes the ghost he sees to "...^ For example, in Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol Ebenezer Scrooge attributes the ghost he sees to "...

an undigested bit of beef, a blot of mustard, a crumb of cheese, a fragment of an underdone potato..." In a similar vein, the Household Cyclopedia (1881) offers the following advice about nightmares:
"Great attention is to be paid to regularity and choice of diet. Intemperance of every kind is hurtful, but nothing is more productive of this disease than drinking bad wine. Of eatables those which are most prejudicial are all fat and greasy meats and pastry... Moderate exercise contributes in a superior degree to promote the digestion of food and prevent flatulence; those, however, who are necessarily confined to a sedentary occupation, should particularly avoid applying themselves to study or bodily labor immediately after eating... Going to bed before the usual hour is a frequent cause of night-mare, as it either occasions the patient to sleep too long or to lie long awake in the night. Passing a whole night or part of a night without rest likewise gives birth to the disease, as it occasions the patient, on the succeeding night, to sleep too soundly. Indulging in sleep too late in the morning, is an almost certain method to bring on the paroxysm, and the more frequently it returns, the greater strength it acquires; the propensity to sleep at this time is almost irresistible."[20]
Complete references to many cultures are given in the References section
.
  • In African culture, isolated sleep paralysis is commonly referred to as "the witch riding your back".[17][21]
  • In the Muslim culture of South Asia (Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Indian Muslims), sleep paralysis is considered to be an encounter with evil jinns and demons who have taken over ones body.^ In the Muslim culture of South Asia (Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Indian Muslims), sleep paralysis is considered an encounter with evil jinns and demons.

    ^ Sleep paralysis episode one: Aliens!
    • Sleep paralysis – A personal account and analysis | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sleep on your side instead of your back.
    • Sleep Disorders: Insomnia, Sleep Apnea, Sleep Hygiene 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.learnwell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    In northwestern Pakistan, this ghoul is known as 'bakhtak' (Urdu: بختک). .It is also assumed that it is caused by the black magic performed by enemies and jealous persons.^ It is also assumed that it is due to the black magic performed by enemies and jealous persons.

    ^ It is also assumed that it is caused by the black magic performed by enemies and jealous persons.

    .Spells, incantations and curses could also result in ghouls haunting a person.^ Curses could also result in ghoul haunting a person.

    ^ Spells and Curses could also result in a ghoul haunting a person.

    ^ Various versions of the psychotropic or psychoactive drugs known today could perhaps help to calm a person and deal with sleep difficulty resulting in sleep deprivation .

    .Some homes and places are also haunted by evil ghosts, satanic or other supernatural beings and they could haunt people living there.^ Stop it, they are living beings.
    • Animals Downtown, a General fanfic - FictionPress.com 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.fictionpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Some homes and locations are also alleged to be haunted by these satanic beings.

    ^ Some homes and loactions are also haunted by these satanic beings.

    Sufis, Mullahs, Faqirs or Imams perform exorcism on individuals who are possessed. .Talismans and Amulets are worn by people to keep them safe especially the young children.^ Many people experience a few attacks of sleep paralysis, especially in young adulthood.
    • georgiahealthinfo.gov 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The homes, houses, buildings and grounds are blessed and consecrated by Sufis, Mullahs or Imams by reciting Qur'an and Adhan (Urdu: أَذَان), the Islamic call to prayer, recited by the muezzin.
  • In Cambodian, Laotian, and Thai culture, sleep paralysis is called phǐǐ am and khmout sukkhot.^ I suffer from this sleeping disorder called Sleep paralysis.

    ^ It's called sleep paralysis, and it's perfectly natural.
    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/a6092471 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In Cambodian, Laotian, and Thai culture, sleep paralysis is called pee umm and khmout sukkhot .

    .It is described as an event in which the person is sleeping and dreams that one or more ghostly figures are nearby or even holding him or her down.^ It is described as an event in which the person is sleeping and dreams that one or more ghostly figures are nearby or even holding him or her down.

    ^ It describes an event where the person is sleeping and dreams that ghostly figure(s) are either holding him/her down or the ghosts can just be near.

    ^ The hallucinatory element to sleep paralysis makes it even more likely that someone will interpret the experience as a dream, since completely fanciful, or dream-like, objects may appear in the room alongside one’s normal vision.
    • Sleep Paralysis and Waking Dreams « The Pointless and Profound… 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC singingchelle.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The sufferer usually thinks that he or she is awake but unable to move or make any noises.^ The person usually thinks that they are awake but is unable to move or make any noises.

    ^ The sufferer usually thinks that he or she is awake but unable to move or make any noises.

    ^ Frank, 40, awoke late one and was unable to move his body .I cite this example, since it can compare with what a person is thinking, feeling, experiencing as they awake paralyzed.

    This is not to be confused with pee khao and khmout jool, ghost possession.
  • In Hmong culture, sleep paralysis describes an experience called "dab tsog" or "crushing demon." Often the sufferer claims to be able to see a tiny figure, no larger than a child, sitting on his or her chest. What is alarming is that a vast number of American Hmong have died in their sleep, prompting the Centers for Disease Control to create the term "Sudden Unexpected Nocturnal Death Syndrome" (see Sudden unexplained death syndrome) or "SUNDS" for short; this is now theorized to be a form of Brugada syndrome.
  • In Vietnamese culture, sleep paralysis is referred to as "ma đè", meaning "held down by a ghost" or "bóng đè", meaning "held down by a shadow".
  • In Chinese culture, sleep paralysis is widely known as "鬼壓身/鬼压身" (pinyin: guǐ yā shēn) or "鬼壓床/鬼压床" (pinyin: guǐ yā chuáng), which literally translate into "ghost pressing on body" or "ghost pressing on bed." A more modern term is "夢魘/梦魇" (pinyin: mèng yǎn).
  • In Japanese culture, sleep paralysis is referred to as kanashibari (金縛り, literally "bound or fastened in metal," from kane "metal" and shibaru" to bind, to tie, to fasten"). .This term is occasionally used by English speaking authors to refer to the phenomenon both in academic papers and in pop psych literature.^ This term is occasionally used by English speaking authors to refer to the phenomenon both in academic papers and in pop psych literature.

    ^ I believe these terms technically refer to the accompanying hallucinations rather than to sleep paralysis, but I've often heard them used to describe sleep paralysis as well.
    • sleep paralysis@Everything2.com 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Here are couple of authors, one used to work for NASA. They both had many out of body experiences and decided to write about it and share their experiences.
    • Sleep Paralysis: What it is and How to Avoid it - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [22]
  • .
  • In Korean culture, sleep paralysis is called gawee nulim (Hangul: 가위눌림), literally meaning "being pressed down by scissors". It is often associated with a superstitious belief that a ghost or spirit is laying on top of or pressing down on the sufferer.
  • In Philippine culture, "bangungut", or sudden unexplained death syndrome, has traditionally been attributed to nightmares.^ It's called sleep paralysis, and it's perfectly natural.
    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/a6092471 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "Bangungut in Manila: sudden and unexplained death in sleep of adult Filipinos".

    ^ I have suffered sleep paralysis for years.
    • Freaky Sleep Paralysis: Being Awake in Your Nightmares | Wired Science | Wired.com 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

    [23] .People who have claimed to survive such nightmares have reported experiencing the symptoms of sleep paralysis.^ People who have claimed to survive such nightmares have reported experiencing the symptoms of sleep paralysis .

    ^ I never experienced sleep paralysis so I can’t say.
    • OCCULT VIEW » Blog Archive » An Alien Abduction Story: Extraterrestrials, Spirit Abduction or Sleep Paralysis? 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC occultview.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Have you ever experienced sleep paralysis?
    • Have you ever experienced sleep paralysis? (souls, spirits, believing, Christ) - Religion and Philosophy - Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Atheism, God, Universe, Science, Spirituality, Faith, Evidence - Page 3 - City-Data Forum 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: Original source]

    .May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]
  • During the Salem witch trials several people reported nighttime attacks by various alleged witches including Bridget Bishop that may have been the result of sleep paralysis.^ This was in 1965, sleep paralysis included.

    ^ I have seen people and been attacked by people when im under sleep paralysis.
    • Sleep Paralysis? - Yahoo! Answers 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Some people report tasting odd things while in sleep paralysis.
    • Lucid Dream Guide - lucid dreaming, dream control, OBE guides, sleep paralysis 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC lucidguide.com [Source type: Original source]

    [24]
  • .
  • In Hungarian folk culture sleep paralysis is called "lidércnyomás" ("lidérc pressing") and can be attributed to a number of supernatural entities like "lidérc" (wraith), "boszorkány" (witch), "tündér" (fairy) or "ördögszerető" (demon lover).^ One of the most fascinating aspects of sleep paralysis for me is the different ways that the same core experience is interpreted across different cultures.
    • Nightmare Sleep Paralysis - The waking nightmare sleep paralysis Imagine awaking strong sense prese 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.cathinfo.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The waking nightmare of sleep paralysis | Chris French | Science | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ Just like other sensations possibly associated with sleep paralysis, these are unpleasant (for many patients they are really frightening) but not harmful phenomena.

    ^ One time, I had a lucid dream after realizing it was Sleep Paralysis, and a demon made me play a stupid game before I could wake up.
    • Sleep Paralysis Sounds Scary 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.darrenbarefoot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [25] .The word "boszorkány" itself stems from the Turkish root "bas-", meaning "to press".[26]
  • In Iceland folk culture sleep paralysis is generally called having a "Mara". A goblin or a succubus (since it is generally female) believed to cause nightmares (the origin of the word 'Nightmare' itself is derived from her name).^ It's called sleep paralysis, and it's perfectly natural.
    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/a6092471 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ How to ascertain the cause of Sleep paralysis?
    • http://www.spiritualresearchfoundation.org/spiritualresearch/spiritualityandhealth/sleepparalysis/ 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.spiritualresearchfoundation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Michael its called sleep paralysis, I used to have it.
    • Top 10 Amazing Facts About Dreams - Listverse 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Other European cultures share variants of the same folklore, calling her under different names; Proto-Germanic: marōn; Old English: mære; German: Mahr; Dutch: nachtmerrie; Icelandic, Old Norse, Faroese, and Swedish: mara; Danish: mare; Norwegian: mare; Old Irish: morrigain; Slovene: môra; Bulgarian, Serbian, Polish: mora; French: cauchemar; Romanian: moroi; Czech: můra.^ In Old English, the being in question was called a mare or mære (from a proto-Germanic *maron, related to Old High German and Old Norse mara), whence comes the mare part in nightmare.

    ^ "Mara" is the Old Norse, Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic name, "mare" is Norwegian and Danish.

    ^ Other European cultures share variants of the same folklore, calling her under different names; Proto-Germanic: marōn ; Old English: mære ; German: Mahr ; Dutch: nachtmerrie ; Icelandic, Old Norse, Faroese, and Swedish: mara ; Danish: mare ; Norwegian: mare ; Old Irish: morrigain ; Slovene: môra ; Bulgarian, Serbian, Polish: mora ; French: cauchemar ; Romanian: moroi ; Czech: můra .

    .The origin of the belief itself is much older and goes back to the reconstructed Proto Indo-European root mora-, an incubus, from the root mer- "to rub away" or "to harm".
  • In Malta, folk culture attributes a sleep paralysis incident to an attack by the "Haddiela" who is the wife of the "Hares", the entity in Maltese folk culture which haunts the individual in similar ways as to those of a poltergeist.^ The origin of the belief itself is much older and goes back to the reconstructed Proto Indo-European root mora- , an incubus, from the root mer- "to rub away" or "to harm".

    ^ According to the American Heritage Dictionary, the word can be traced back to an Indo-European root *mer, meaning to rub away or to harm.

    ^ In Malta, folk culture attributes a sleep paralysis incident to an attack by the "Haddiela" who is the wife of the "Hares", the entity in Maltese folk culture which haunts the individual in similar ways as to those of a poltergeist.

    .As believed in folk culture, to rid oneself of the Haddiela, one must place a piece of silverware or a knife under the pillow prior to sleep.
  • In New Guinea, people refer to this phenomenon as "Suk Ninmyo", believed to originate from sacred trees that use human essence to sustain its life.^ In New Guinea, people refer to this phenomenon as "Suk Ninmyo", believed to originate from sacred trees that use human essence to sustain its life.

    ^ The Irish call it a visit from the “old hag.” - In Chinese folk culture, the translation of sleep paralysis is “ghost press bed,” meaning a ghost is sitting on top of a sleeping victim.
    • Sleep Disorders: From Paralysis to Sexsomnia | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If left unconstrained by the demands of everyday life, people with a fast clock tend to go to sleep and wake up several hours earlier than normal.

    .The trees are said to feed on human essence during night as to not disturb the human's daily life, but sometimes people wake unnaturally during the feeding, resulting in the paralysis.
  • In Turkish culture, sleep paralysis is often referred to as "karabasan" ("The dark presser/assailer").^ The trees are said to feed on human essence during night as to not disturb the human's daily life, but sometimes people wake unnaturally during the feeding, resulting in the paralysis.

    ^ I had sleep paralysis last night .
    • I have never had sleep paralysis. - Page 2 - Bodybuilding.com Forums 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The waking nightmare of sleep paralysis .
    • The waking nightmare of sleep paralysis | Chris French | Science | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

    .It is believed to be a creature which attacks people in their sleep, pressing on their chest and stealing their breath.
  • In Mexico, it is believed that this is caused by the spirit of a dead person.^ It is believed to be a creature which attacks people in their sleep, pressing on their chest and stealing their breath.

    ^ In Greece and Cyprus, it is believed that sleep paralysis occurs when a ghost-like creature or Demon named Mora, Vrahnas or Varypnas (Greek: Μόρα, Βραχνάς, Βαρυπνάς) tries to steal the victim's speech or sits on the victim's chest causing asphyxiation.

    ^ The first and second time I experienced this I believed it was a demonic attack as it occurred with either pressure on my chest or a choking feeling.
    • Sleep Paralysis: Awake But Still Asleep | Serendip's Exchange 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .This ghost lies down upon the body of the sleeper, rendering him unable to move.^ I would wake up in the middle of the nite, can’t move, can’t speak, tried to move my head but my neck is held down with the rest of my body.
    • Sleep Paralysis Sounds Scary 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.darrenbarefoot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It describes an event where the person is sleeping and dreams that ghostly figure(s) are either holding him/her down or the ghosts can just be near.

    ^ He totally didn't believe me when I told him that when I woke up, I'd sat there for a good minute with my head on the headrest, completely unable to move.
    • The sleep of reason | MetaFilter 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

    .People refers to this as "Subirse el Muerto" (Dead Person on you).
  • In many parts of the Southern United States, the phenomenon is known as a "hag", and the event is said to often be a sign of an approaching tragedy or accident.
  • Ogun Oru is a traditional explanation for nocturnal disturbances among the Yoruba of Southwest Nigeria; ogun oru (nocturnal warfare) involves an acute night-time disturbance that is culturally attributed to demonic infiltration of the body and psyche during dreaming.^ How many times has this happened to you?
    • Old Hag 2/Sleep Paralysis - Chiller TV Boards 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC boards.nbc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "Ogun Oru: a traditional explanation for nocturnal neuropsychiatric disturbances among the Yoruba of Southwest Nigeria".

    ^ In many parts of the Southern United States, the phenomenon is known as a "hag", and the event is said to often be a sign of an approaching tragedy or accident.

    .Ogun oru is characterized by its occurrence, a female preponderance, the perception of an underlying feud between the sufferer's earthly spouse and a 'spiritual' spouse, and the event of bewitchment through eating while dreaming.^ Ogun oru is characterized by its occurrence, a female preponderance, the perception of an underlying feud between the sufferer's earthly spouse and a ;spiritual' spouse, and the event of bewitchment through eating while dreaming.

    ^ If you experience sleep paralysis, I advise against thinking of yourself as a sufferer but instead as a lucky individual because you have the opportunity to experience fantastical dreams and possibly spiritual events that will alter your perception of life and reality.
    • Lucid Dream Guide - lucid dreaming, dream control, OBE guides, sleep paralysis 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC lucidguide.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The condition is believed to be treatable through Christian prayers or elaborate traditional rituals designed to exorcise the imbibed demonic elements.^ The condition is believed to be treatable through Christian prayers or elaborate traditional rituals designed to exorcise the imbibed demonic elements.

    ^ God the Father has given real supernatural power and authority to anyone who believes in His son Jesus, to expel demons and all evil through him.
    • Sleep Paralysis: What it is and How to Avoid it - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [27]
  • .
  • In Greece and Cyprus, it is believed that sleep paralysis occurs when a ghost-like creature or Demon named Mora, Vrachnas or Varypnas (Greek: Μόρα, Βραχνάς, Βαρυπνάς) tries to steal the victim's speech or sits on the victim's chest causing asphyxiation.
  • In Zimbabwean Shona culture the word Madzikirira is used to refer something really pressing one down.^ Sleep paralysis episode one: Aliens!
    • Sleep paralysis – A personal account and analysis | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is believed to be a creature which attacks people in their sleep, pressing on their chest and stealing their breath.

    ^ Detailed list of causes of Sleep paralysis .
    • Sleep paralysis - WrongDiagnosis.com 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

    .This mostly refers to the spiritual world in which some spirit—especially an evil one—tries to use its victim for some evil purpose.^ This mostly refers to the spiritual world in which some spirit--especially an evil one--tries to use its victim for some evil purpose.

    ^ This mostly refers to the spiritual world in which some spirit—especially an evil one—tries to use its victim for some evil purpose.

    ^ I used to think it was some sort of evil spirit attacking.
    • Lucid dreaming, Sleep paralysis- Taking total control of your dreams | We Saved Hitler's Brain | Cracked.com Forums 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The people believe that witches can only be people of close relations to be effective, and hence a witches often try to use one's spirit to bewitch one's relatives.
  • In Ethiopian culture the word Dukak is used.^ In Ethiopian culture the word Dukak is used.

    ^ The people believe that witches can only be people of close relations to be effective, and hence a witches often try to use one's spirit to bewitch one's relatives.

    ^ As believed in folk culture, to rid oneself of the Haddiela, one must place a piece of silverware or a knife under the pillow prior to sleep.

    .Dukak is believed to be some form of evil spirit that possesses people during their sleep.^ Then again, some people will sleep through anything.
    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/a6092471 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Dukak is believed to be some form of evil spirit that possesses people during their sleep.

    ^ Some people hallucinate during sleep paralysis.
    • Sleep Paralysis: What it is and How to Avoid it - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This experience is also believed to be related to use of Khat.^ This experience is also believed to be related to use of Khat.

    ^ Most Khat users experience sleep paralysis when quitting after a long time of use.

    ^ The people believe that witches can only be people of close relations to be effective, and hence a witches often try to use one's spirit to bewitch one's relatives.

    .Most Khat users experience sleep paralysis when quitting after a long time of use.
  • Several studies have shown that African-Americans may be predisposed to isolated sleep paralysis also known as "the witch is riding you" or "the haint is riding you".[19] In addition, other studies have shown that African-Americans who have frequent episodes of isolated sleep paralysis, i.e., reporting having one or more sleep paralysis episodes per month coined as "sleep paralysis disorder," were predisposed to having panic attacks.^ People who experience it against their will describe it as a sleep disorder.

    ^ In addition, millions of Americans experience problems sleeping because of undiagnosed sleep disorders or sleep deprivation.

    ^ You may use in your comment.
    • The Horrors of Being Asleep Yet Awake: Sleep Paralysis - yoshke.com 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.yoshke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [28] .This finding has been replicated by other independent researchers[29][30].
  • In Tamil and Sri Lankan Culture, this particular phenomenon is referred to as 'Amuku Be" or 'Amuku Pei' meaning "the ghost that forces one down".
  • In Malay of Malay Peninsula, sleep paralysis is known as 'kena tindih' (or 'ketindihan' in Indonesia), which means "being pressed".[31] Incidents are commonly considered to be the work of a malign agency; occurring in what are explained as blind spots in the field of vision, they are reported as demonic figures.
  • In Newfoundland and Labrador, it is known as the 'Old Hag'.[32] In island folklore, the Hag can be summoned to attack a third party, like a curse.^ IMHO Old Hag attacks occur, or at least are reported more frequently in settings that are considered "haunted."

    ^ Sleep paralysis episode one: Aliens!
    • Sleep paralysis – A personal account and analysis | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Others see the ‘Old Hag’.

    .In his 1982 book, The Terror that Comes in the Night, David J. Hufford writes that in local culture the way to call the Hag is to recite the Lord's Prayer backwards.^ There are also things called night terrors.
    • Top 10 Amazing Facts About Dreams - Listverse 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Read David Hufford's book.
    • Anyone else ever experience Sleep Paralysis? - CookingLight.com Community 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC community.cookinglight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Unfortunately, through all those early years I never told anyone about these events and did not know about sleep paralysis until I read Hufford's (1982) classic on night terrors in 1985.
    • The Lucid Dream Exchange - Article: Scared Stiff - Sleep Paralysis - Jorge Conesa 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.dreaminglucid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is also common for believers to claim that those who are not wakened from this paralysis will die.
  • In Persian culture it is known as 'bakhtak' (Persian: بختک) which is a ghost-like black creature who sits on the dreamers chest, making breathing hard for him/her.
  • In Nepal, especially Newari culture it is also known as 'Khyaak' a ghost-like figure which is believed to reside in the darkness under the staircases of a house.
  • In Swahili speaking East Africa, it is known as 'jinamizi', which refers to a creature sitting on one's chest making it difficult for him/her to breath.^ It is also common for believers to claim that those who are not wakened from this paralysis will die.

    ^ In Persian culture it is known as 'bakhtak' (Persian: بختک) which is a ghost-like creature who does this.

    ^ In Tamil and Sri Lankan Culture, this particular phenomenon is referred to as 'Amuku Be" or 'Amuku Pei' meaning "the ghost that forces one down".

    .It is attributed to result from a person sleeping on his back.^ In a person with obstructive sleep apnea, the throat muscles and tongue relax during sleep, and the tongue and uvula (the small dangling tissue at the back of the throat) sag and block the airway.
    • Howstuffworks "How Sleep Problems Work" 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Out of my own personal research, I believe Sleep Paralysis is a result of your spirit leaving your body..
    • Sleep Paralysis: What it is and How to Avoid it - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It would also seem that sleeping on the back in the supine position predisposes a person to sleep paralysis with an incidence of 60 percent of sleep paralysis reported to occur in this position.
    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/a6092471 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Most people also recall being strangled by this 'creature'. People generally survive these 'attacks'
  • In contemporary western culture it is believed that the phenomenon of reported Alien Abduction is caused by sleep paralysis where the hallucination of aliens has been generated by 20th and 21st century Science Fiction.^ These are the most common symptoms of sleep paralysis.
    • Lucid Dream Guide - lucid dreaming, dream control, OBE guides, sleep paralysis 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC lucidguide.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sleep paralysis episode one: Aliens!
    • Sleep paralysis – A personal account and analysis | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Abduction by aliens or sleep paralysis?
    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/a6092471 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [33]

Notes

  1. ^ (From Adv Neurol 1995;67:245-271)
  2. ^ D020188
  3. ^ http://www.dreaminglucid.com/articlejc.html
  4. ^ http://www.migraine-aura.org/content/e27891/e27265/e42285/e42290/e55289/e58636/index_en.html
  5. ^ a b Hersen, Turner & Beidel. (2007) Adult Psychopathology and Diagnosis. p. 380
  6. ^ Hearne, K. (1990) The Dream Machine: Lucid dreams and how to control them, p18. ISBN 0-85030-906-9
  7. ^ a b Hersen, Turner & Beidel. (2007) Adult Psychopathology and Diagnosis
  8. ^ Hersen Turner & Beidel. (2007) Adult Psychopathology and Diagnosis
  9. ^ McNally RJ, Clancy SA. (2005). "Sleep Paralysis, Sexual Abuse, and Space Alien Abduction". Transcultural Psychiatry 42 (1): 113–122. doi:10.1177/1363461505050715. PMID 15881271. 
  10. ^ Blackmore, Susan; Marcus Cox. "Alien Abductions, Sleep Paralysis and the Temporal Lobe". European Journal of UFO and Abduction Studies (1): 113–118. http://72.14.235.132/search?q=cache:oDUW-O3VERkJ:www.susanblackmore.co.uk/Articles/ejufoas00.html+%22Alien+Abductions,+Sleep+Paralysis+and+the+Temporal+Lobe%22&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=au&client=firefox-a. Retrieved 2008-07-26. 
  11. ^ Sedaghat-Hamedani F.,Kayvanpour E.,Rezai A.:" Prevalence of sleep paralysis and other symptoms of narcolepsy in Iranian medical students "
  12. ^ Friedman, S. & Paradis, C. (2002). Panic disorder in African-Americans: symptomatology and isolated sleep paralysis. Cult Med Psychiatry. 2002 Jun;26(2):179-98 PMID 12211324
  13. ^ J. A. Cheyne. "Preventing and Coping with Sleep Paralysis". http://watarts.uwaterloo.ca/~acheyne/prevent.html. Retrieved 17 July 2006. 
  14. ^ Wills L, Garcia J. Parasomnias: Epidemiology and Management. CNS Drugs [serial online]. December 2002;16(12):803-810.
  15. ^ http://www.susanblackmore.co.uk/Conferences/SPR99.html "OBEs and Sleep Paralysis", Susan Blackmore
  16. ^ "The Projection of the Astral Body", 1968, Sylvan Muldoon and Hereward Carrington: chapter II, "Sensation and emotion at different stages of exteriorization" subsection
  17. ^ a b Mattek, (2005) Memoirs p. 34
  18. ^ Katherine Roberts. "Contemporary Cauchemar: Experience, Belief, Prevention". Folklife in Louisiana. The Louisiana Folklife Program. http://www.louisianafolklife.org/LT/Articles_Essays/main_misc_cauchemar.html. 
  19. ^ a b Bell CC, Shakoor B, Thompson B, Dew D, Hughley E, Mays R, Shorter-Gooden K (1984). "Prevalence of isolated sleep paralysis in black subjects". Journal of the National Medical Association 76 (5): 501–508. PMID 6737506. 
  20. ^ The Household Cyclopedia - Medicine
  21. ^ Katherine Roberts. "Contemporary Cauchemar: Experience, Belief, Prevention". Folklife in Louisiana. The Louisiana Folklife Program. http://www.louisianafolklife.org/LT/Articles_Essays/main_misc_cauchemar.html. 
  22. ^ Fukuda K, Miyasita A, Inugami M, Ishihara K. (1987), Chapter 10, "High prevalence of isolated sleep paralysis: kanashibari phenomenon in Japan", Sleep: pp. 279–286 
  23. ^ Munger, Ronald G.; Elizabeth A. Booton (1998). "Bangungut in Manila: sudden and unexplained death in sleep of adult Filipinos". International Journal of Epidemiology (Logan, UT: International Epidemiological Association) 27 (4): 677–684. http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/27/4/677.pdf. Retrieved May 28, 2009. 
  24. ^ Justice at Salem William H. Cooke
  25. ^ lidérc, Magyar Néprajzi Lexikon, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1977, ISBN
  26. ^ boszorkány, Magyar Néprajzi Lexikon, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1977, ISBN
  27. ^ Aina OF, Famuyiwa OO (2007). "Ogun Oru: a traditional explanation for nocturnal neuropsychiatric disturbances among the Yoruba of Southwest Nigeria". Transcultural psychiatry 44 (1): 44–54. doi:10.1177/1363461507074968. PMID 17379609. 
  28. ^ Bell CC, Dixie-Bell DD, Thompson B (1986). "Further studies on the prevalence of isolated sleep paralysis in black subjects". Journal of the National Medical Association 78 (7): 649–659. PMID 3746934. 
  29. ^ Paradis CM, Friedman S (2006). "Sleep Paralysis in African Americans with Panic Disorder". Transcultural psychiatry 43 (4): 692–694. doi:10.1177/1363461505050720. ISBN 3461505050720. PMID 15881272. 
  30. ^ Friedman S, Paradis CM, Hatch M (1994). "Characteristics of African-Americans and white patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia". Hospital and Community Psychiatry 45 (8): 798–803. PMID 7982696. 
  31. ^ http://sleepclinicjakarta.tblog.com/post/1969898557
  32. ^ Firestone, M. (1985), Section 8, "The “Old Hag”: sleep paralysis in Newfoundland", The Journal of Psychoanalytic Anthropology: pp. 47–66 
  33. ^ "Sleep Paralysis". The Skeptics Dictionary. http://www.skepdic.com/sleepparalysis.html. 

References

.
  • Culhane-Pera, Kathie (2003).^ Culhane-Pera, Kathie (2003).

    .Healing by Heart: Clinical and Ethical Case Stories of Hmong Families and Western Providers.^ Healing by Heart: Clinical and Ethical Case Stories of Hmong Families and Western Providers.

    .Vanderbilt University Press.
  • Bower, Bruce (July 9, 2005).^ Bower, Bruce (July 9, 2005).

    ^ Vanderbilt University Press.

    "Night of the Crusher." Science News.
  • Conesa, J. (2000). .Geomagnetic, cross-cultural and occupational faces of sleep paralysis: An ecological perspective.^ Geomagnetic, cross-cultural and occupational faces of sleep paralysis : An ecological perspective.

    ^ In the Muslim culture of South Asia (Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Indian Muslims), sleep paralysis is considered an encounter with evil jinns and demons.

    ^ In Japanese culture, sleep paralysis is referred to as kanashibari ( literally "bound or fastened in metal," from kane "metal" and shibaru" to bind, to tie, to fasten").

    .Sleep and Hypnosis, 2, (3), 105-111.
  • Conesa, J. (2002).^ Sleep and Hypnosis , 2, (3), 105-111.

    .Isolated Sleep Paralysis and Lucid Dreaming: Ten-year longitudinal case study and related dream frequencies, types, and categories.^ "Further studies on the prevalence of isolated sleep paralysis in black subjects".

    ^ Sleep paralysis is not a disorder unless it's isolated (i.e.
    • sleep paralysis@Everything2.com 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Lucid dreaming, Sleep paralysis- Taking total control of your dreams .
    • Lucid dreaming, Sleep paralysis- Taking total control of your dreams | We Saved Hitler's Brain | Cracked.com Forums 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Sleep and Hypnosis, 4, (4), 132-143.
  • Conesa, J. (2003).^ Sleep and Hypnosis , 4, (4), 132-143.

    .Sleep Paralysis Signaling (SPS) As A Natural Cueing Method for the Generation and Maintenance of Lucid Dreaming.^ Since smoking marijuana reduces the ability to achieve REM sleep, it must also affect the ability to lucid dream.
    • Lucid Dream Guide - lucid dreaming, dream control, OBE guides, sleep paralysis 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC lucidguide.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One time, I had a lucid dream after realizing it was Sleep Paralysis, and a demon made me play a stupid game before I could wake up.
    • Sleep Paralysis Sounds Scary 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.darrenbarefoot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sleep paralysis and lucid...
    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/a6092471 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Presented at The 83rd Annual Convention of the Western Psychological Association, May 1–4, 2003 in Vancouver, BC, Canada.
  • Conesa-Sevilla, Jorge (2004).^ Conesa-Sevilla, Jorge (2004).

    ^ Presented at The 83rd Annual Convention of the Western Psychological Association, May 1 - 4, 2003 in Vancouver, BC, Canada.

    .Wrestling With Ghosts: A Personal and Scientific Account of Sleep Paralysis.^ I never even knew about sleep paralysis at the time, but now I do, I find it extremely interesting that a succubus is a common manifestation (along with ghosts and aliens).
    • The Skeptics Society Forum • View topic - About Sleep Paralysis 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.skepticforum.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There are numerous descriptions of sleep paralysis in works of fiction, from Herman Melville's Moby Dick to accounts by F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway.
    • The waking nightmare of sleep paralysis | Chris French | Science | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ Sleep Paralysis is a loss of muscle control that occurs when a person is waking up, or just starting to fall asleep.
    • Pulmonary Associates of Richmond 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.parsleep.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Pennsylvania: Xlibris/Randomhouse.
  • Cooke, William H..^ Pennsylvania: Xlibris/Randomhouse.

    Justice at Salem: Reexamining the Witch Trials. Undertaker Press, Annapolis. .2009 ISBN 1-59594-322-6
  • Firestone M. The “Old Hag”: sleep paralysis in Newfoundland.^ In Newfoundland, people called it the old hag.
    • Sleep Paralysis [Archive] - Albanian Forums 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.albanian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Old Hag 2/Sleep Paralysis , Restarting the topic .
    • Old Hag 2/Sleep Paralysis - Chiller TV Boards 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC boards.nbc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Irish call it a visit from the “old hag.” - In Chinese folk culture, the translation of sleep paralysis is “ghost press bed,” meaning a ghost is sitting on top of a sleeping victim.
    • Sleep Disorders: From Paralysis to Sexsomnia | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

    .The Journal of Psychoanalytic Anthropology 1985; 8:47-66.
  • Fukuda K, Miyasita A, Inugami M, Ishihara K. High prevalence of isolated sleep paralysis: kanashibari phenomenon in Japan.^ Fukuda K, Miyasita A, Inugami M, Ishihara K. High prevalence of isolated sleep paralysis : kanashibari phenomenon in Japan.

    ^ "Prevalence of isolated sleep paralysis in black subjects".

    ^ Sleep paralysis is not a disorder unless it's isolated (i.e.
    • sleep paralysis@Everything2.com 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Sleep 1987; 10:279-286.
  • Hartmann E. The nightmare: the psychology and biology of terrifying dreams.^ Sleep 1987; 10: 279-286.

    ^ Hartmann E. The nightmare: the psychology and biology of terrifying dreams.

    ^ Sleep 1987; 10:279-286.

    .New York:Basic,1984.
  • Hufford D.J. The terror that comes in the night: an experience-centered study of supernatural assault traditions.^ New York:Basic,1984.

    ^ There is in an interesting book on the topic which deals with the folklore and superstition surrounding the phenomena, called " The Terror That Comes in the Night: An Experience-Centered Study of Supernatural Assault Traditions " by David J. Hufford.
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    ^ Hufford D.J. The terror that comes in the night: an experience-centered study of supernatural assault traditions.

    .Philadelphia:University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982
  • Kettlewell, N; Lipscomb, S; Evans, E. (June, 1993).^ Philadelphia:University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982 Kettlewell, N; Lipscomb, S; Evans, E. (June, 1993).

    ."Differences in neuropsychological correlates between normals and those experiencing "Old Hag Attacks'." Perceptual and Motor Skills.^ "Differences in neuropsychological correlates between normals and those experiencing "Old Hag Attacks'."

    ^ IMHO Old Hag attacks occur, or at least are reported more frequently in settings that are considered "haunted."

    ^ In poring over collections of both contemporary and past ghost folklore from around the world, I noticed that Old Hag attacks accompany other manifestations with startling frequency.

    .76 (3 Pt 1): 839-45; discussion 846. PMID 8321596
  • Ness RC. “The Old Hag” phenomenon as sleep paralysis: a bicultural interpretation.^ PMID 8321596 Ness RC. “The Old Hag” phenomenon as sleep paralysis : a bicultural interpretation.

    ^ Old Hag 2/Sleep Paralysis , Restarting the topic .
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    ^ Fukuda K, Miyasita A, Inugami M, Ishihara K. High prevalence of isolated sleep paralysis : kanashibari phenomenon in Japan.

    .Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 1978; 2:15-39.
  • Ohayon MM, Zulley J, Guilleminault C, Smirne, S. Prevalence and pathologic associations of sleep paralysis in the general population.^ Ohayon MM, Zulley J, Guilleminault C, Smirne S. Prevalence and pathologic associations of sleep paralysis in the general population.

    ^ Ohayon MM, Zulley J, Guilleminault C, Smirne, S. Prevalence and pathologic associations of sleep paralysis in the general population.

    ^ Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 1978; 2:15-39.

    .Neurology, 1999; 52:1194-1200.
  • Sagan, Carl (1997).^ Neurology 1999; 52: 1194-1200.

    ^ Neurology , 1999; 52:1194-1200.

    ^ Sagan, Carl (1997).

    .The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark.
  • Schneck JM. Sleep paralysis and microsomatognosia with special reference to hypnotherapy.^ Schneck JM. Sleep paralysis and microsomatognosia with special reference to hypnotherapy.

    ^ In the Muslim culture of South Asia (Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Indian Muslims), sleep paralysis is considered an encounter with evil jinns and demons.

    ^ In Japanese culture, sleep paralysis is referred to as kanashibari ( literally "bound or fastened in metal," from kane "metal" and shibaru" to bind, to tie, to fasten").

    .The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 1977; XXV:72-77.
  • Takeuchi T, Miyasita A, Sasaki Y, Inugami M, Fukuda K. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.^ Recurrent Isolated Sleep Paralysis , by Jean-Christophe Terrillon and Sirley Marques-Bonham .
    • Fear-Induced Hallucination: How Sleep Paralysis Triggers Hallucination | Serendip's Exchange 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I've had several episodes of sleep paralysis through my life - they're usually isolated but there was a time when I had several within a short period of time.
    • The waking nightmare of sleep paralysis | Chris French | Science | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 17:12 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ SLEEP PARALYSIS DEFINITION AND CLINICAL PRESENTATION A transient state of inability to move and to speak at sleep onset (hypnagogic form) or on awakening (hypnopompic form).

    American Sleep Disorders Association and Sleep Research Society, 1992; 15: 217-225.

External links


Simple English

Sleep paralysis is a condition in which people wake from sleep and find that they are unable to move. Usually it lasts for only a few minutes, and people have said they feel a "presence" during it.

Possible causes

Little is known about the physiology of sleep paralysis. However, some have suggested that it may be linked to post-synaptic inhibition of nerves in the pons region of the brain. In particular, low levels of melatonin may stop the depolarization current in the nerves, which stops stimulation of the muscles.

Studies suggest that many people get sleep paralysis at least once in their lives. People who have narcolepsy often get it much more. Many people try to induce sleep paralysis, to have an Out of Body Experience. If you suffer from sleep paralysis, you can change it into an enjoyable experience.

Some report that various factors make paralysis and hallucinations happen more.[1] These include:

  • Sleeping on your back
  • Irregular sleeping schedules; naps, sleeping in, sleep deprivation
  • Increased stress
  • Sudden changes of lifestyle or environment
  • A lucid dream just before it
  • Medium to long-term imagining of involuntary movements with your eyes closed before sleep.

References

  1. J. A. Cheyne. "Preventing and Coping with Sleep Paralysis". http://watarts.uwaterloo.ca/~acheyne/prevent.html. 


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Sleep paralysis, which are similar to those in the above article.








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