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Slovaks
(Slováci)
Svks2.jpg Anton Bernolák, Ľudovít Štúr, Andrej Hlinka, Štefan Banič, Jozef Miloslav Hurban, Aurel Stodola, Adam František Kollár, Milan Hodža, Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav, Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Gustáv Husák, Alexander Dubček
Total population
up to 7 million
Regions with significant populations
 Slovakia:    4,614,854[1]

 United States:    1,200,000[2]
 Czech Republic:    200,000[3]
 Canada:    100,000[4]
 Serbia:    59,021Slovaks#References
 Ireland:    30,000[5]
 Austria:    25,000[6]
 Germany:    20,200Slovaks#References
 Hungary:    17,693
 Belgium:    4,000[7]]
Other:    120,000 (est.)[citation needed]

Languages

Slovak

Religion

Roman Catholic 68.9%, Byzantine Rite Catholic 4.1%, Protestant 10.8%, Eastern Orthodox, other or unspecified 3.2%, no denomination, agnostic or non-religious 13% (2001 census within Slovakia, extrapolated to outside Slovaks)

Related ethnic groups

other West Slavs

The Slovaks (Slovak Slováci, singular Slovák, feminine Slovenka, dual Slovenky) are a western Slavic people that primarily inhabit Slovakia and speak the Slovak language, which is closely related to the Czech language.

Most Slovaks today live within the borders of the independent Slovakia (circa 5,000,000). There are Slovak minorities in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Serbia and sizable populations of immigrants and their descendants in the U.S. and in Canada.

Contents

History

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Slavs of the Pannonian Basin

The people of Slovakia are descended from the Slavic settlers who populated the Danube river basin around 500 A.D.[1] and from the Czech (Bohemian, Moravian), Polish (Lesser Polish) and German (Silesian, Saxonian, Swabian) settlers who came during 10th–18th century in the Kingdom of Hungary. Slovaks also have Hungarian roots.[2] The first known Slavic states on the territory of present-day Slovakia were the Empire of Samo and the Principality of Nitra, founded sometime in the 8th century.

Great Moravia

Pribina, ruler of Principality of Nitra [3] and established and ruled the Balaton Principality from 839/840 to 861.[4]

Great Moravia (833 - ?907) was a slavic state in the 9th and early 10th century A.D. Current ethnolinguistic Slovak nationalism traces the roots of the Slovak nation to the times of Greater Moravia, claiming the polity to have been the ‘first Slovak state’.[5][note 1] However, there is no continuity in politics, culture, or written language between this early Slavic polity and the modern Slovak nation.[5] Its formation and rich cultural heritage have attracted somewhat more interest since 19th century. Important developments took place at this time, including the mission of Cyril and Methodius, the development of the Glagolitic alphabet (an early form of the Cyrillic alphabet), and the use of Old Church Slavonic as the official and literary language.

The original territory inhabited by the Proto Slavic tribes included not only present-day Slovakia, but also parts of present-day southeastern Moravia and approximately the entire northern half of present-day Hungary.

Kingdom of Hungary

Gallery of famous Slovak people, active in different areas (history, literature, education, religion, science). Published on occasion of establishing Matica slovenská ("Slovak Foundation"), major patriotic organization. List of portraited personalities: Ján Mallý-Dusarov, Juraj Tvrdý, Jozef Kozáček, Štefan Moyzes, Martin Čulen, Karol Kuzmány, Štefan Závodník, Michal Chrástek, Viliam Pauliny-Tóth, Michal Miloslav Hodža, Štefan Marko Daxner, Ján Francisci-Rimavský, Ján Gotčár, Andrej Ľudovít Radlinský, Jozef Miloslav Hurban, Jonáš Záborský, Jozef Karol Viktorin, Mikuláš Štefan Ferienčík, Ján Kalinčiak, Martin Hattala, Ján Palárik, František Víťazoslav Sasinek, Andrej Sládkovič, Daniel Gabriel Lichard, Ján Čipka, Juraj Slota, Andrej Kossa
Štúr generation (Viliam Pauliny-Tóth, Andrej Sládkovič, Samo Tomášik, Samo Chalupka, Michal Miloslav Hodža, Janko Matúška, Janko Kráľ, Ján Kalinčiak, Ján Botto, Jozef Miloslav Hurban)
Ľudovít Štúr - epitome of the Slovak Revival - politician, poet, journalist, publisher, teacher, philosopher and linguist
Juraj Jánošík, Slovak, Czech, Polish folk hero
Madonna in Slovak National Museum
Slovak soldiers on parade

The territory of present day Slovakia became the part of the Kingdom of Hungary under Hungarian rule gradually from 907 to the early 14th century (major part by 1100) and remained within the framework of this kingdom (see also Upper Hungary or Kingdom of Hungary) until the formation of Czechoslovakia in 1918. Politically, Slovakia formed (again) the separate entity called Nitra Frontier Duchy, this time within the Kingdom of Hungary. This duchy was abolished in 1107. The territory inhabited by the Slovaks in present-day Hungary was gradually reduced,[1] but in the 14th century, there were still many Slovak settlements in northern eastern present-day Hungary.[citation needed]

When present-day Hungary was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1541 (see Ottoman Hungary), the territory of present day Slovakia (then Upper Hungary) became the core of the "reduced" kingdom that remained under Habsburg rule, officially called Royal Hungary. Many Magyars (Hungarians) fleeing from present-day Hungary to the north settled in large parts of present-day southern Slovakia, thereby creating the considerable Magyar minority in southern Slovakia today.[citation needed] Some Croats settled around and in present-day Bratislava for similar reasons. Also, many Germans settled in the Kingdom of Hungary, especially in the towns, as work-seeking colonists and mining experts from the 13th to the 15th century. German settlers outnumbered the native populace in almost all towns in the Kingdom of Hungary,[citation needed] but their numbers began to stagnate in the 16th century and to decrease later. Jews and Romanies(Gypsies) also formed significant populations within the territory.

After the Ottoman Empire were forced to retreat from present-day Hungary around 1700, thousands of Slovaks were gradually settled in depopulated parts of the restored Kingdom of Hungary (present-day Hungary, Romania, Serbia, and Croatia) under Maria Theresia, and that is how present-day Slovak enclaves (like Slovaks in Vojvodina) in these countries arose.

After Transylvania, Upper Hungary (the territory of present day Slovakia), was the most advanced part of the Kingdom of Hungary for centuries (the most urbanized part, intense mining of gold and silver), but in the 19th century, when Buda/Pest became the new capital of the kingdom, the importance of the territory, as well as other parts within the Kingdom fell, and many Slovaks were impoverished. As a result, hundreds of thousands of Slovaks emigrated to North America, especially in the late 19th and early 20th century (between cca. 1880–1910), a total of at least 1.5 million emigrants (~2/3 of them were part of some minority).

Slovakia exhibits a very rich folk culture. A part of Slovak customs and social convention are common with those of other nations of the former Habsburg monarchy (the Kingdom of Hungary was in personal union with the Habsburg monarchy from 1526 to 1918).

Czechoslovakia

People of Slovakia spent most part of the 20th century within the framework of Czechoslovakia, a new state formed after World War I. Significant reforms and post-World War II industrialization took place during this time. The Slovak language has been strongly influenced by the Czech language during this period.

Contemporary Slovaks

The political transformations of 1989, 1993 and the accession to the EU in 2004 brought new liberties, which have considerably improved the outlook and prospects of all Slovaks.

Contemporary Slovak society organically combines elements of both folk traditions and Western European lifestyles.

Name and ethnogenesis

The Slovaks and Slovenes are the only current Slavic nations that have preserved the old name of the Slavs (singular: slověn) in their name - the adjective "Slovak" is still slovenský and the feminine noun "Slovak" is still Slovenka in the Slovak language; only the masculine noun "Slovak" changed to Slovenin, probably in the High Middle Ages, and finally (under Czech and Polish influence) to Slovák around 1400. For Slovenes, the adjective is still slovenski and the feminine noun "Slovene" is still Slovenka, but the masculine noun has since changed to Slovenec. The Slovak name for their language is slovenčina and the Slovene name for theirs is slovenščina. The Slovak term for the Slovene language is slovinčina; and the Slovenes call Slovak slovaščina. The name is derived from proto-Slavic form slovo "word, talk" (cf. Slovak sluch, which comes from the IE root *ḱlew-). Thus Slovaks as well as Slovenians would mean "people who speak (the same language)", i.e. people who understand each other.

According to Nestor and modern Slavic linguists, the above-mentioned word slověn probably was the original name of all Slavs, but most Slavs (Czechs, Poles, Croats, etc.) took other names in the Early Middle Ages. Although the Slovaks themselves seem to have had a slightly different word for "Slavs" (Slovan), they were called "Slavs" by Latin texts approximately up to the High Middle Ages. Thus, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish when Slavs in general and when Slovaks are meant. One proof of the use of "Slavs" in the sense of "Slovaks" are documents of the Kingdom of Hungary which mention Bohemians (Czechs), Poles under a different name.[1] Slovaks of Hungary were dubbed as "Slavi Pannonii"[6] and Czechs as "Slavi Bohemii"[6]. The semantic closeness of the ethnonym ‘Slovak’ to that of ‘Slav’ endowed the Slovak national movement with the myth that of all the Slavic nations the Slovaks are the most direct descendants of the original Slavs, and the Slovak language the most direct continuation of Old Slavic.[6]

Some Slovak scholars interpret this to mean that all references to Slavs in the territory of present-day Slovakia are references to Slovaks (e.g. as early as the 7th century), while on the other hand, some scholars from Hungary or the Czech Republic conclude that all references to Slovaks are just references to Slavs. The current position of the most prominent Slovak ethnographers and linguists is that the Slavs in the territory of Slovakia can be called "Slovaks" not later than from 955 or 1000 onwards (when the Magyars settled in Hungary) and that this Slovak ethnogenesis (i.e. separation from the other Slavs) started approximately in the 8th century. Considering, however, that the Slavs who came to present-day Slovakia around 500 are the direct predecessors of present-day Slovaks (they have never been "replaced" by "other" Slavs)[1] and that it is usual today to call the Slovenes, Poles and other nations by their later names for contexts well before 1000 (although the ethnic situation is not different from that of the Slovaks at that time), the 1000 limit is rather arbitrary and it is not completely wrong to call the Slavs in this territory "Proto-Slovaks" or "Old Slovaks" or even "Slovaks" even before 1000 in certain contexts.

Quotes from important chronicles

This is how Nestor in his Primary Chronicle (historically correctly) describes the Slovaks[citation needed]: Slavs that were settled along the Danube, which have been occupied by the Hungarians, the Czechs, the Lachs, and Poles that are now known as the Rus. Nestor calls these Slavs "Slavs of Hungary" in another place of the text, and mentions them in the first place in a list of Slavic nations (besides Moravians, Bohemians, Poles, Russians, etc.), because he considers the Carpathian Basin (including what is today Slovakia) the original Slavic territory.

Anonymus, in his Gesta Hungarorum, calls the Slovaks (around 1200 with respect to past developments) Sclavi , i.e. Slavs (as opposed to "Boemy" - the Bohemians, and "Polony" - the Poles) or in another place Nytriensis Sclavi, i.e. Nitrian Slavs.

And this is how Slovaks were called in various very precise sources approximately from 1200 to about 1400: Slovyenyn, Slowyenyny; Sclavus, Sclavi, Slavus, Slavi; Tóth; Winde, Wende, Wenden.

Culture

See also List of Slovaks

The art of Slovakia can be traced back to the Middle Ages, when some of the greatest masterpieces of the country's history were created. Significant figures from this period included the many Masters, among them the Master Paul of Levoča and Master MS. More contemporary art can be seen in the shadows of Koloman Sokol, Albín Brunovský, Martin Benka, Mikuláš Galanda, and Ľudovít Fulla. The most important Slovak composers have been Eugen Suchoň, Ján Cikker, and Alexander Moyzes, in the 21st century Vladimir Godar and Peter Machajdik.

The most famous Slovak names can indubitably be attributed to invention and technology. Such people include Jozef Murgaš, the inventor of wireless telegraphy; Ján Bahýľ, Štefan Banič, inventor of the modern parachute; Aurel Stodola, inventor of the bionic arm and pioneer in thermodynamics; and, more recently, John Dopyera, father of modern acoustic string instruments. Štefan Anián Jedlík Slovakia is also known for its polyhistors, of whom include Pavol Jozef Šafárik, Matej Bel, Ján Kollár, and its political revolutionaries, such Milan Rastislav Štefánik and Alexander Dubček.

There were two leading persons who codified the Slovak language. The first one was Anton Bernolák whose concept was based on the dialect of western Slovakia (1787). It was the enactment of the first national literary language of Slovaks ever. The second notable man was Ľudovít Štúr. His formation of the Slovak language had principles in the dialect of central Slovakia (1843).

The best known Slovak hero was Juraj Jánošík (the Slovak equivalent of Robin Hood). Prominent explorer Móric Benyovszky had Slovak ancestors.

In terms of sports, the Slovaks are probably best known (in North America) for their hockey personalities, especially Stan Mikita, Peter Šťastný, Peter Bondra, Žigmund Pálffy and Marián Hossa. For a list see List of Slovaks.

For a list of the most notable Slovak writers and poets, see List of Slovak authors.

Statistics

There are approximately 4.6 million autochthonous Slovaks in Slovakia. Further Slovaks live in the following countries (the list shows estimates of embassies etc. and of associations of Slovaks abroad in the first place, and official data of the countries as of 2000/2001 in the second place).

The list stems from Claude Baláž, a Canadian Slovak, the current plenipotentiary of the Government of the Slovak Republic for Slovaks abroad (see e.g.: 6)  :

  • USA (1 200 000 / 821 325*) [*(1)there were, however, 1 882 915 Slovaks in the US according to the 1990 census, (2) there are some 400 000 "Czechoslovaks" in the US, a large part of which are Slovaks] - 19th - 21st century emigrants; see also [8]
  • Czech Republic (350 000 / 183 749*) [*there were, however, 314 877 Slovaks in the Czech Republic according to the 1991 census] - due to the existence of former Czechoslovakia
  • Hungary (39 266 / 17 693)
  • Canada (100 000 / 50 860) - 19th - 21st century migrants
  • Serbia (60 000 / 59 021*) [especially in Vojvodina;*excl. the Rusins] - 18th & 19th century settlers
  • Poland (2002) (47 000 / 2 000*) [* The Central Census Commission has accepted the objection of the Association of Slovaks in Poland with respect to this number ]- ancient minority and due to border shifts during the 20th century
  • Romania (18 000 / 17 199) - ancient minority
  • Ukraine (17 000 / 6 397) [especially in Carpathian Ruthenia] - ancient minority and due to the existence of former Czechoslovakia
  • France (13 000/ n.a.)
  • Australia (12 000 / n.a.) - 20th - 21st century migrants
  • Austria (10 234 / 10 234) - 20th - 21st century migrants
  • United Kingdom (10 000 / n.a.)
  • Croatia (5 000 / 4 712) - 18th & 19th century settlers
  • other countries

The number of Slovaks living outside Slovakia in line with the above data was estimated at max. 2 016 000 in 2001 (2 660 000 in 1991), implying that, in sum, there were max. some 6 630 854 Slovaks in 2001 (7 180 000 in 1991) in the world. The estimate according to the right-hand site chart yields an approximate population of Slovaks living outside Slovakia of 1.5 million.

Other (much higher) estimates stemming from the Dom zahraničných Slovákov (House of Foreign Slovaks) can be found here(in Slovak).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ For examples see: Bagin, Anton (1993) (in Slovak). Cyrilometodská tradícia u Slovákov [Cyril and Methodius traditions for Slovaks]. Bratislava: Slovak Academic Press. ISBN 8085665085.  and Durica, Milan S. (1996) (in Slovak). Dejiny Slovenska a Slovákov [History of Slovakia and the Slovaks]. Bratislava: Media Trade and Slovenské pedagogické nakladatel' stvo.. 

References

  1. ^ a b c d Vauchez, André; Barrie Dobson, Richard; Lapidge, Michael (2000). Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. 1. Routledge. p. 1363. ISBN 1579582826, 9781579582821. http://books.google.com/books?id=om4olQhrE84C&pg=PA1363&dq=slovakia+history+slavs&as_brr=3&cd=8#v=onepage&q=slovakia%20history%20slavs&f=false. 
  2. ^ Malyarchuk, BA; Vanecek, T; Perkova, MA; Derenko, MV; Sip, M. "Mitochondrial DNA variability in the Czech population, with application to the ethnic history of Slavs; Hum Biol. 2006 Dec;78(6):681-96.". Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Russian Academy of Sciences. Portovaya str. 18, 685000 Magadan, Russia.. 
  3. ^ [|Kirschbaum, Stanislav J.] (March 1995). A History of Slovakia: The Struggle for Survival. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; St. Martin's Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-312-10403-0. http://us.macmillan.com/ahistoryofslovakia. 
  4. ^ Bagnell Bury, John (1923). The Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: Macmillan. p. 211. http://books.google.com/books?id=_9IHAAAAIAAJ&q=Balaton+Principality&dq=Balaton+Principality&pgis=1. 
  5. ^ a b Tomasz Kamusella (2009). The Politics of Language and Nationalism in Modern Central Europe. Basingstoke, UK (Foreword by Professor Peter Burke): Palgrave Macmillan. p. 131. ISBN 13: 978–0–230–55070. 
  6. ^ a b c Tomasz Kamusella (2009). The Politics of Language and Nationalism in Modern Central Europe. Basingstoke, UK (Foreword by Professor Peter Burke): Palgrave Macmillan. p. 132. ISBN 13: 978–0–230–55070. 
  1. Slovaks in the US PDF
  2. Slovaks in Czech Republic
  3. Slovaks in Serbia
  4. Slovaks in Canada
  5. Slovaks in Hungary
  6. Baláž, Claude: Slovenská republika a zahraniční Slováci. 2004, Martin
  7. Baláž, Claude: (a series of articles in:) Dilemma. 01/1999 – 05/2003

Maps

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

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Slovaks-1.jpg
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SLOVAKS (Slovak, fern. Slovenka, adj. slovensky, formerly called Slovene, but to be distinguished from the Slovenes of Carinthia, in Magyar Tot), a Slav people numbering about 2,500,000 and mostly living in the northern counties of Hungary. On the west they extend into the neighbouring districts of Lower Austria and Moravia where they march with the Germans and the kindred Moravians, being bounded by the river Morava and the Jablunka Mountains; on the north they touch the Poles along the frontiers of Silesia and Galicia; on the east about 22° E. they meet the Little Russians along an indented boundary; on the south they have the Magyars as neighbours along a line joining Pressburg and Zemplin. Within these limits, save for the Germans in the towns, the Slovaks are not much mixed: they have isolated settlements throughout the western half of Hungary extending far enough south to meet similar settlements of Servians. Their chief centre is S. Marton on the Turocz. The Slovaks seem to have occupied this territory in the 5th or 6th century A.D. and also to have stretched far to the south; they formed part of Samo's empire (middle of 7th century), but were subject to the Avars and the Franks, and then formed part of Great Moravia until that kingdom was in 907 conquered by the Magyars, who displaced or assimilated the southern Slovaks and have ever since been lords of the rest, save for a short time when they were under Boleslav the Brave (A.D. 973) of Poland, and early in the 14th century when a local magnate,Count Matthew of Trencin, made himself an independent ruler. In 1848-1849, when the Magyars rose against Austria, the Slovaks rose against the Magyars, but were handed back to them on the conclusion of peace. The Magyars have always treated the Slovaks as an inferior race and have succeeded in assimilating many districts where the prefix Tot in place-names shows the former presence of Slovaks: those who take the Magyar language and attitude are called Magyarones. The Magyars, in pursuance of this policy, do their best to suppress the Slovak nationality in every way, even to the extent of taking away Slovak children to be brought up as Magyars, and denying them the right to use their language in church and school. The result is a large emigration to America. (See letters by Scotus Viator in Spectator, 1906 sqq.) The Slovaks are a peaceful, rather slow race 01 peasants (their aristocracy is Magyarized), living almost exclusively upon the land, which they till after the most primitive methods. Where this does not yield sufficient, they wander as labourers and especially as tinkers all over Austria-Hungary and even into South Russia. They are fond of music, and their songs have been collected.

The Slovak language is most closely connected with tech, the difference being bridged by the transitional dialects of Moravia: though Miklosich has classed it as a variety of tech, it is better to take it separately, since it has not been subjected to the special changes which have in that language assimilated the vowels to the foregoing palatal consonants, nor developed the which is characteristic of the other North-Western Slavonic tongues, but has remained in a more primitive stage and preserved (as might be expected from its central position in the Slavonic world) many points of agreement, phonetic, morphological and lexical, with South Slavonic and Russian. The alphabet is founded on the tech, the accent is always on the first syllable, long vowels are indicated by acute accents. There are usually reckoned to be three groups of dialects, Western, Central and Eastern; the first being nearest to Cech, the last to Little Russian; the Central dialects exhibit less decided features. The Slovak dialects spoken in Moravia have been well investigated by Bartos, the others still await satisfactory treatment, as does the question of the relation of Slovak to other Slavonic groups.

From the time of the Hussites and still more after the Reformation, tech missionaries, colonists and refugees had brought with them their Bible and service books; tech became the literary language, and is still the church language of the Slovak Protestants. The use of the local tongue was the result of a desire on the part of the Roman Catholic clergy to get at their people. A. Bernolak (1762-1813), who first systematized the orthography and made a dictionary, taking Western Slovak as his basis, was a priest, and so was Jan Holly (1785-1849), who wrote epics and odes in the classical taste. A new start was made in the 'forties by L'udevit Stur, Josef Hurban and M. Hodza who adopted the central dialect, united the Catholic and Protestant Slovaks in its use and successfully opposed the attempts to keep the Slovaks to the use of tech. However, Safafik the great Slavist and the poet Kollar continued to write in Cech, the argument being that Sla y s should unite to oppose the enemies of the race: but without their language the Slovaks, having no traditions of independent political life, would have nothing to cling to. The chief Slovak writers since S tur (mostly poets) have been O. Sladkovic, S. Chalupka, V. Pauliny-Tot, and at present Orszag-Hviezdoslav and Svetozar Hurban-Vajansky. During the 'sixties the Slovaks founded three gymnasia and a Matica, or literary, linguistic and educational society, such as has been the centre of revival for the national life of other Slavonic nations. These were all closed and their property confiscated by the Magyars in the early 'seventies, but the struggle continues, and national self-consciousness is too strong for the attempts at Magyarization to have much probability of success.

Bibliography.-R. W. Seton-Watson, Racial Problems in Hungary: a History of the Slovaks (1909), gives all that can be required, with special chapters on Popular Art, Poetry and Music by D. Jurkovic the architect, S. Hurban-Vajansky and M. Lichard the composer. See also T. Capek, The Slovaks (New York, 1906); Dr E. Stodola, Prispevok ku Statistike Slovenska (contribution to statistics of Slovakland) (Turocz S. Marton, 1902); Fr. Sasinek, Die Slovaken (Prague, 1875); S. Czambel, in Die osterreichische Monarchie in Wort and Bild; Ungarn; vol. v. pp. 434 sqq. (Vienna); K. Kalal, Die Unterdruckung der Slovaken (Prague, 1903); J. Borbis, Die evangelisch-lutheranische Kirche Ungarns (Nordlingen, 1861), gives the religious history; J. Vlcek, Dejiny Literatury Slovenskej (history of Slovak literature) (Turocz S. Marton, 1889; Russian trans., Kiev, 1889);; Sbornik Slovenskych Ndrodnich piesni (collection of Slovak Popular Songs, &c.), published by the Matica 0870-1874); Slovenske Spevy (Slovak Ballads) (Tur. S. Mart., 1882); D. Jurkovic, Les Ouvrages populaires des Slovaques, text in Cech, headings in French (Vienna, 1906); J. Loos, Worterbuch der slovakischen, ungarischen and magyarischen Sprache (Budapest, 1871); L.;tin-, Nauka reci Slovenskej (Science of Slovak Speech) (Pressburg, 1846); J. Victorin, Grammatik der slovakischen Sprache (Practical) (Budapest, 1878); S. Czambel, Prispevky k dejindm jazyka Slovenskeho (Budapest, 1887); Rukovdt Spisovnej redi Slovenskej (Handbook of Literary Slovak) (Tur. S. Mart., 1902); Slovdci a ich red (Slovaks and their speech) (Budapest, 1903), cf. a review in Archiv f. Sla y. Phil. xxvi. p. 290; Fr. Pastrnek, Beitrage zur Lautlehre der slovakischen Sprache (Vienna, 1888); Fr. Barto, Dialektologie Mora y skd with specimens (Briinn, 1886); A. Sembera, Zdkladove Dialektologie Cecho-Sovenske (Foundations of Cecho-Slovak Dialectology) (Vienna, 1864).

(E. H. M.)


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Noun

Slovaks

  1. Plural form of Slovak.

Simple English

Slovaks
[[File:|300px|]]

Anton Bernolák, Ľudovít Štúr, Andrej Hlinka, Štefan Banič, Jozef Miloslav Hurban, Aurel Stodola, Adam František Kollár, Milan Hodža, Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav, Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Gustáv Husák, Alexander Dubček

Total population

~7 million

Regions with significant populations
File:Flag of Slovakia (bordered).svg:    4,614,854[1]

:    1,200,000[2]
:    200,000[3]
:    100,000[4]
File:Flag of Serbia (bordered).svg:    59,021[5]
:    30,000[6]
:    25,000[7]
:    20,200[8]
:    17,693
:    4,000[9]
Latin America:   300,000 (est.)[needs proof]
Other:    120,000 (est.)[needs proof]

Languages

Slovak

Religions

Roman Catholic 68.9%, Byzantine Rite Catholic 4.1%, Protestant 10.8%, Eastern Orthodox, other or unspecified 3.2%, no denomination, agnostic or non-religious 13% (2001 census within Slovakia, extrapolated to outside Slovaks)

Related ethnic groups

other West Slavs

File:Ludovit
Ľudovít Štúr - epitome of the Slovak Revival - politician, poet, journalist, publisher, teacher, philosopher and linguist
File:Pribina, Nitra (2008).jpg
Pribina, ruler of Principality of Nitra
File:Czechs Slovakians1880.gif
Area of Czech and Slovakian languages in the Austrian monarchy in the 19th century
File:Slovak USC2000
The language spread of Slovak in the United States according to U. S. Census 2000 and other resources interpreted by research of U. S. ENGLISH Foundation, percentage of home speakers

The Slovaks or Slovakians are a western Slavic people that primarily inhabit Slovakia and speak the Slovak language, which is closely related to the Czech language.

References


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