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Republic of Slovenia
Republika Slovenija
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem7th stanza of Zdravljica
Location of  Slovenia  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (bright green & dark gray)
– in the European Union  (bright green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Blason ville si Ljubljana (Slovénie).svg Ljubljana
46°03′N 14°30′E / 46.05°N 14.5°E / 46.05; 14.5
Official language(s) Slovene1
Demonym Slovenian, Slovene
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Danilo Türk
 -  Prime Minister Borut Pahor
Independence from Yugoslavia 
 -  Declared 25 June 1991 
 -  Recognised 1992 
EU accession 1 May 2004
Area
 -  Total 20,273 km2 (153rd)
7,827 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.6
Population
 -  2009 estimate 2,054,199[1] (144th)
 -  2002 census 1,964,036 
 -  Density 99.6/km2 (80th)
251/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $59.413 billion[2] (82nd)
 -  Per capita $29,520[2] (30th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $54.639 billion[2] (69th)
 -  Per capita $27,148[2] (31st)
Gini (2007) 28.4 (low
HDI (2007) 0.929 (very high) (29th)
Currency Euro ()3 (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .si4
Calling code 386
1 Italian and Hungarian are recognised as official languages in the residential municipalities of the Italian or Hungarian national community.
2 Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia: Population, Slovenia, 30 June 2008
3 Prior to 2007: Slovenian tolar
4 Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.
Slovenia en-us-Slovenia.ogg /sloʊˈviːniə/ sloh-VEE-nee-ə, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: Republika Slovenija, [reˈpublika sloˈveːnija] Republika-slovenija.ogg ), is a country in Central Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy on the west, the Adriatic Sea on the southwest, Croatia on the south and east, Hungary on the northeast, and Austria on the north. The capital and largest city of Slovenia is Ljubljana. Slovenia covers an area of 20,273 square kilometres and has a population of 2.06 million. Around 40% of Slovenia's land mass is elevated land - mostly in the form of mountains and plateaus - which is located in the interior regions of the country. The highest point of Slovenia is the 2,864 metres (9,396 ft) high Mount Triglav, the lowest point is the Adriatic Sea at sea level. The majority of the population speaks Slovene which is also the country's official language. Other local official languages are Hungarian and Italian.
Slovenia is a member of the European Union, the Eurozone, the Schengen area, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, NATO, UNESCO, WTO, and UN. Per capita, it is the richest Slavic nation-state, and is 88.3% of the EU27 average GDP (PPP) per capita.

History

Slovenia is a relatively modern geographical and political entity: the notion first emerged in the 19th Century with the idea of United Slovenia, an autonomous region that would unite all Slovene-inhabited territories in the Austrian Empire. .Slovenia was first established as a political entity after World War Two, as an autonomous republic (state) within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.^ Slovenia is generally recognized as one of the more politically and economically stable former Yugoslav republics.

Its current borders were established in 1954, with the abolition of the Free Territory of Trieste and the official annexation of the Koper district to Slovenia. During its history, the current territory of Slovenia was part of the Roman Empire; the Ostrogothic Kingdom; the Byzantine Empire; the principality of Carantania (only modern Slovenia's northern part); the Avar state; the Lombard Kingdom (only its western part); the Frankish Kingdom; the Holy Roman Empire; the Republic of Venice (only the coastal area and some other peripheral districts of western Slovenia); the Kingdom of Hungary (only Slovenia's eastern part); the Habsburg Monarchy; the First French Empire (only its western part); the Austrian Empire (later known as Austria-Hungary); the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929); the Kingdom of Italy (only the western part); between the two World Wars it was occupied and or annexed by Germany, Italy, Hungary, and the Independent State of Croatia (1941–1945); and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1945 until independence in 1991.

Early History

Southeastern Europe in the 8th century, with Carantanians, ancestors of present-day Slovenes, shown in periwinkle.
Slavic ancestors of the present-day Slovenes settled in the area in the 6th century. These Slavic tribes, known as the Alpine Slavs, established the independent principality of Carantania in the 7th century. In 745, Carantania was incorporated into the Carolingian Empire, while Carantanians and other Slavs living in present Slovenia converted to Christianity. Carantania retained its internal independence until 828 when the local princes were deposed following the anti-Frankish rebellion of Ljudevit Posavski and replaced by a Germanic (mostly Bavarian) ascendancy. Under Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia, Carantania, now ruled by a mixed Bavarian-Slav nobility, shortly emerged as a regional power, but was destroyed by the Hungarian invasions in the late 9th century.
Carantania-Carinthia was established again as an autonomous administrative unit in 976, when Emperor Otto I, "the Great", after deposing the Duke of Bavaria, Henry II, "the Quarreller", split the lands held by him and made Carinthia the sixth duchy of the Holy Roman Empire, but old Carantania never developed into a unified realm.
The installation of the Dukes in Carinthia, carried out in an ancient ritual in Slovene language until 1414.
.In the century of the second millennium protecting marches were established at the south-eastern borders of the Empire, which by the 13th century developed into duchies in their right: Styria, Carniola and Friuli, into which the Slovene Lands remained divided up to 1918.[citation needed] The Carantanian identity remained alive[citation needed] into the 12th century[citation needed] when it was slowly replaced by regional identities.^ According to Women 2000 -An Investigation into the Status of Women's Rights in Central and South-Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States Report on Slovenia , (Women 2000) "[The Slovene Press] tend[s] to present domestic violence as a problem for which both partners are responsible and connect it mostly with alcohol abuse."

^ Women 2000: An Investigation into the Status of Women's Rights in Central and South-Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States , International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, 5 November 2000.

The first mentions of a common Slovene ethnic identity, transcending regional boundaries, date from the 16th century.
The Freising Manuscripts, dating from the 10th century A.D., most probably written in upper Carinthia, are the oldest surviving documents in Slovene language.
During the 14th century, most of the Slovene Lands passed under the Habsburg rule. In the 15th century, the Habsburg domination was challenged by the Counts of Celje, but by the end of the century the great majority of Slovene-inhabited territories were incorporated into the Habsburg Monarchy. Most Slovenes lived in the administrative region known as Inner Austria, forming the majority of the population of the Duchy of Carniola and the County of Gorizia and Gradisca, as well as of Lower Styria and southern Carinthia. Slovenes also inhabited most of the territory of the Imperial Free City of Trieste, although representing the minority of its population. Slovene majorities also existed in the Prekmurje region of the Kingdom of Hungary, and in Venetian Slovenia and north-western Istria, which were part of the Republic of Venice.
The first document in the Slovene language are the Freising manuscripts, dating to the late 10th century. Throughout the Middle Ages, there was a modest but continuous presence of Slovene language in the written form. Nevertheless, Slovene was first codified only in the late 16th century, when the first books in Slovene were printed. In the Middle Ages, the geographical presence of Slovene language shrank considerably. In the 10th century, Slovene was still widely spoken throughout modern Carinthia and Styria; due to Medieval colonization policies, however, by the mid 15th century the compact Slovene-speaking territory shrunk to the present area of about 25,000 square kilometers.

Early Modern Period

Janez Vajkard Valvasor's lithography "The Carniolan Victory at Sisak", commemorating the Battle of Sisak of 1593
In the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation spread throughout the Slovene Lands. During this period, the first books in the Slovene language were written by the Protestant preacher Primož Trubar and his followers, establishing the base for the development of the standard Slovene language. In the second half of the 16th century, numerous books were printed in Slovene, including an integral translation of the Bible by Jurij Dalmatin. Although almost all Protestants were expelled from the Slovene Lands (with the exception of Prekmurje) by the beginning of the 17th century, they left a strong legacy in the tradition of Slovene culture, which was partially incorporated in the Catholic Counter-Reformation in the 17th century. The old Slovene orography, also known as Bohorič's Alphabet, which was developed by the Protestants in the 16th century and remained in use until mid 19th century, testified to the unbroken tradition of Slovene culture as established in the years of the Protestant Reformation.
Between the 15th and the 17th century, the Slovene Lands suffered many calamities. Many areas, especially in southern Slovenia, were devastated by the Ottoman-Habsburg Wars. Many flourishing towns, like Vipavski Križ and Kostanjevica na Krki, were completely destroyed by incursions of the Ottoman Army, and never recovered. The nobility of the Slovene-inhabited provinces had an important role in the fight against the Ottoman Empire. The Carniolan noblemen's army thus defeated the Ottomans in the Battle of Sisak of 1593, marking the end of the immediate Ottoman threat to the Slovene Lands, although sporadic Ottoman incursions continued well into the 17th century. In the 16th and 17th century, the western Slovene regions became the battlefield of the wars between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Venetian Republic, most notably the War of Gradisca, which was largely fought in the Slovene Goriška region. Between late 15th and early 18th century, the Slovene lands also witnessed many peasant wars, most famous being the Carinthian peasant revolt of 1478, the Slovene peasant revolt of 1515, the Croatian-Slovenian peasant revolt of 1573 and the Tolmin peasant revolt of 1713.
Late 17th century was also marked by a vivid intellectual and artistic activity. Many Italian Baroque artists, mostly architects and musicians, settled in the Slovene Lands, and contributed greatly to the development of the local culture. Scientists like Janez Vajkard Valvasor contributed to the development of the scholarly activities. In 1693, the first academy on Slovene soil, the Academia operosorum Labacensis, was established. By the early 18th century, however, the region entered another period of stagnation, which was slowly overcome only by mid 18th century.

From Enlightened Absolutism to the rise of national identity

Monument to the Napoleonic Wars near Bovec in western Slovenia
Between early 18th century and early 19th century, the Slovene lands experienced a period of peace, with a moderate economic recovery starting from mid 18th century onward. The Adriatic town of Trieste was declared a free port in 1718, boosting the economic activity throughout the western parts of the Slovene Lands. The political, administrative and economic reforms of the Hapsburg rulers Maria Theresa of Austria and Joseph II improved the economic situation of the peasantry, and were well received by the emerging bourgeoisie, which was however still weak. The Slovene cultural tradition was strongly reinforced in the Enlightenment period in the 18th century by the endeavours of the Zois Circle. After two centuries of stagnation, Slovene literature emerged again, most notably in the works of the playwright Anton Tomaž Linhart and the poet Valentin Vodnik.
After a short French interim between 1805 and 1813, all Slovene Lands were included in the Austrian Empire. Slowly, a distinct Slovene national consciousness developed, and the quest for a political unification of all Slovenes became widespread. In 1848, a mass political and popular movement for the United Slovenia (Zedinjena Slovenija) emerged as part of the Spring of Nations movement within the Austrian Empire.

Clashing nationalisms in late 19th century

Peter Kozler's map of the Slovene Lands, designed during the Spring of Nations in 1848, became the symbol of the quest for a United Slovenia.
Between 1848 and 1918, numerous institutions (including theatres and publishing houses, as well as political, financial and cultural organisations) were founded in the so-called Slovene National Awakening. Despite their political and institutional fragmentation and lack of proper political representation, the Slovenes were able to establish a functioning and integrated national infrastructure. During this period, the town of Ljubljana, the capital of Carniola, emerged as the undisputed centre of all Slovene Lands, while the Slovenes developed an internationally comparable literature and culture. Nevertheless, the Slovene national question remained unsolved, so the political élite started looking towards other Slavic nations in Austria-Hungary and the Balkans in order to engage in a common political action against German and Hungarian hegemony.[citation needed] The idea of a common political entity of all South Slavs, known as Yugoslavia, emerged.

Between the two World Wars

The Austro-Hungarian Army in western Slovenia during the Battles of the Isonzo.
Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941.
Adolf Hitler visiting occupied Maribor in April 1941, officially launching the Nazi anti-Slovene policies.
During World War I, after the Italian attack on Austria-Hungary in 1915, the Italian front opened, and some of the most important battles (the Battles of the Isonzo) were fought along the river Soča and on the Kras Plateau in the Slovenian Littoral.
With the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, the Slovenes initially joined the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, which just a few months later merged into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The western part of the Slovene Lands (the Slovenian Littoral and western districts of Inner Carniola) was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy and became known under the name of Julian March. In 1920, in the Carinthian Plebiscite, the majority of the population of Carinthia including the Carinthian Slovenes voted to remain within Austria. Although the Slovenes in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia were submitted to an intolerant centralist policy trying to eradicate a distinct Slovene national consciousness, they were still better off than the ethnic Slovenes in Italy, Austria and Hungary, who became victims of policies of forced assimilation and sometimes violent persecution. As a reaction to the fascist violence of the Italian State in the Julian March, the organisation TIGR, was founded in 1927. In 1929, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
On 6 April 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis Powers. Slovenia was divided between Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany and Horthy's Hungary and several villages given to the Independent State of Croatia. Soon, a liberation movement under the Communist leadership emerged. Due to political assassinations carried out by the Communist guerrillas as well as the pre-existing radical anti-Communism of the conservative circles of the Slovenian society, a civil war between Slovenes broke out in the Italian-occupied south-eastern Slovenia (known as Province of Ljubljana) in spring of 1942. The two fighting factions were the Liberation Front of the Slovenian People and the Axis-sponsored anti-communist militia, the Slovene Home Guard, initially formed to protect villages from attacks by partisans. The Slovene partisan guerrillas managed to liberate large portions of the Slovene lands, making a contribution to the defeat of Nazism. As a result of the war the vast majority of the native ethnic German population were either forcefully expelled or fled to neighboring Austria.

The Communist period

.Following the re-establishment of Yugoslavia at the end of World War II, Slovenia became part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, declared on 29 November 1943. A socialist state was established, but because of the Tito-Stalin split, economic and personal freedoms were broader than in the Eastern Bloc.^ Women 2000: An Investigation into the Status of Women's Rights in Central and South-Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States , International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, 5 November 2000.

In 1947, Italy ceded most of the Julian March to Yugoslavia, and Slovenia thus regained the Slovenian Littoral. The dispute over the port of Trieste however remained opened until 1954, until the short-lived Free Territory of Trieste was divided among Italy and Yugoslavia, thus giving Slovenia access to the sea. This division was ratified only in 1975 with the Treaty of Osimo, which gave a final legal sanction to Slovenia's long disputed western border. From the 1950s, the Socialist Republic of Slovenia enjoyed a relatively wide autonomy.

Independent country

A column of the Yugoslav People's Army during the Ten-Day War.
In 1990, Slovenia abandoned its socialist infrastructure, the first free and democratic elections were held, and the Democratic Opposition of Slovenia defeated the former Communist parties. The state reconstituted itself as the Republic of Slovenia. In December 1990, the overwhelming majority of Slovenian citizens voted for independence, which was declared on 25 June 1991. A Ten-Day War followed in which the Slovenians rejected Yugoslav military interference. After 1990, a stable democratic system evolved, with economic liberalization and gradual growth of prosperity. Slovenia joined NATO on 29 March 2004 and the European Union on 1 May 2004. Slovenia was the first post-Communist country to hold the Presidency of the Council of the European Union, for the first six months of 2008.

Politics

Trade Union demonstration on the Congress Square in Ljubljana.
.As a young independent republic, Slovenia pursued economic stabilisation and further political openness, while emphasising its Western outlook and Central European heritage.^ Slovenia is generally recognized as one of the more politically and economically stable former Yugoslav republics.

.Today, with a growing regional profile, a participant in the SFOR peacekeeping deployment in Bosnia-Hercegovina and the KFOR deployment in Kosovo, and a charter World Trade Organization member, Slovenia plays a role on the world stage quite out of proportion to its small size.^ Role of Trade Unions in Educating Workers and Other Community Members on Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault Issues .

The Slovenian head of state is the president, who is elected by popular vote every five years. The executive branch is headed by the prime minister and the council of ministers or cabinet, who are elected by the National Assembly.
The bicameral Parliament of Slovenia is characterised by an asymmetric duality, as the Constitution does not accord equal powers to both chambers. The bulk of the power is concentrated in the National Assembly (Državni zbor), while the National Council (Državni svet) only has a very limited advisory and control powers. The National Assembly has ninety members, 88 of which are elected by all the citizens in a system of proportional representation, while two are elected by the indigenous Hungarian and Italian minorities. Elections take place every four years. It is the supreme representative and legislative institution, exercising legislative and electoral powers as well as control over the Executive and the Judiciary. The National Council has forty members, appointed to represent social, economic, professional and local interest groups. Among its best-known powers is the authority of the "postponing veto" — it can demand that the National Assembly re-discusses a certain piece of legislation. The veto can be overrun by a majority vote.
The government, like most of the Slovenian polity, shares a common view of the desirability of a close association with the West, specifically of membership in both the European Union and NATO.
.Between 1992 and 2004, the Slovenian political scene was characterized by the rule of the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia, which carried out much of the economic and political transformation of the country.^ Slovenia is generally recognized as one of the more politically and economically stable former Yugoslav republics.

^ Country Report on Human Rights Practices: Slovenia , Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 25 February 2004.

Throughout this period, a policy of relative consensus between left and right wing political parties was followed, favouring grand coalitions over single-party governments. Nevertheless, several serious clashes occurred between left wing and right wing parties in the 1990s, with many accusations of corruption. The relationship between the state and the Roman Catholic Church was also an important political issue in the 1990s, and has remained a source of controversy. Since 2004, Slovenia has been moving towards a two-party system, with the liberal conservative Slovenian Democratic Party and the left wing Social Democrats as the two main competing political forces.
.On the general level, the Slovenian left tends to favour a strong welfare state over economic freedom and is often characterized by protectionist policies towards nationally-owned business, while the right wing stresses economic freedom and follows more friendly policies towards foreign investments.^ Slovenia is generally recognized as one of the more politically and economically stable former Yugoslav republics.

Regarding social policies, the left tends to be more inclusive towards immigrants and ethnic and social minorities, while being rather critical to the role of the Roman Catholic Church in public life. The right wing, on the other hand, is more socially conservative and more in favour of religious communities, especially the Catholic Church. .Issues such as the relations between public and private education, the role of private enterprise in public health care, and the regionalization of the country have been important divisive issues in the past years.^ Role of Health Care Providers .

^ Role of Trade Unions in Educating Workers and Other Community Members on Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault Issues .

.In general, the right wing parties draw most of their support from eastern and northern Slovenia, and from rural areas and smaller towns throughout the country, while the left wing is stronger in the west, in the strongly industrialized towns throughout the country, and in bigger urban centers, especially in Ljubljana.^ According to the U.S. Department of State's 2003 Country Report on Human Rights Practices for Slovenia, violence against women is an area of concern and is underreported.

.Despite apparent bitterness that divides the left and right forces in contemporary Slovenia, much of which derives from a different stand towards the Communist past, there are few fundamental philosophical differences between them in the area of public policy.^ According to the U.S. Department of State's 2003 Country Report on Human Rights Practices for Slovenia, violence against women is an area of concern and is underreported.

Slovenian society is built on consensus, which has converged on a social-democrat model of welfare state. Political differences tend to be rooted in the roles that groups and individuals played during the years of communist rule, and during the struggle for independence and democracy in the 1980s, rather than in radically different economic policies.
.Unlike many other former Communist countries, Slovenia pursued internal economic restructuring with caution, giving a clear preference to an approach of gradual economic transformation, and rejecting shock therapies.^ Slovenia is generally recognized as one of the more politically and economically stable former Yugoslav republics.

The first phase of privatisation (socially owned property under the SFRY system) is now complete, and sales of remaining large state holdings are planned for next year. .Trade has been diversified toward the West (trade with EU countries make up 66% of total trade in 2000) and the growing markets of central and eastern Europe.^ Women 2000: An Investigation into the Status of Women's Rights in Central and South-Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States , International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, 5 November 2000.

Manufacturing accounts for most employment, with machinery and other manufactured products comprising the major exports. The economy provides citizens with a good standard of living.

Administrative divisions

Slolands.PNG
The traditional regions of Slovenia based on the former four Habsburg crown lands (Carniola, Carinthia, Styria, and the Littoral) are the following:
English name Native name Largest city
Slovenian Littoral Primorska Koper
Upper Carniola Gorenjska Kranj
Inner Carniola Notranjska Postojna
Lower Carniola Dolenjska Novo mesto
Carinthia Koroška Ravne na Koroškem
Lower Styria Štajerska Maribor
Prekmurje Prekmurje Murska Sobota
Statistical regions

Statistical regions

The two macroregions are:
  • East Slovenia (Vzhodna Slovenija - SI01), which groups the regions of Pomurska, Podravska, Koroška, Savinjska, Zasavska, Spodnjeposavska, Jugovzhodna Slovenija and Notranjsko-kraška.
  • West Slovenia (Zahodna Slovenija - SI02), which groups the regions of Osrednjeslovenska, Gorenjska, Goriška and Obalno-kraška.

Municipalities

Slovenia is divided into 210 local municipalities, eleven of which have urban status.

Tourism

The Central European nation of Slovenia offers tourists a wide variety of landscapes in a small space: Alpine in the northwest, Mediterranean in the southwest, Pannonian in the northeast and Dinaric in the southeast.
Logarska Valley
Hotel Palace in Portorož
Triglav Lakes valley
The nation's capital, Ljubljana, proudly shows its Baroque and Art Nouveau influence, and the work of native born architect Jože Plečnik. Other attractions include the Julian Alps with picturesque Lake Bled in Bled and the Soča Valley, as well as the nation's highest peak, Mount Triglav. Perhaps even more famous is Slovenia's karst named after the Karst plateau in southwestern Slovenia. More than 28 million visitors have visited Postojna Cave, while a 15-minute ride from it are Škocjan Caves, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Further in the same direction is the coast of the Adriatic Sea, with a jewel of Venetian Gothic, Piran. The hills around the nation's second-largest city, Maribor, are renowned for their wine-making. Even though Slovenes tend to consume most of the wine they produce, some brands like Ljutomer have made their appearance abroad. Geology has made the northeastern part of the country rich with spas, with Rogaška Slatina being perhaps its most prominent site.
Triglav National Park (Slovene: Triglavski narodni park) is a national park located in Slovenia. It was named after Mount Triglav, a national symbol of Slovenia. Triglav is situated almost in the middle of the national park. From it the valleys spread out radially, supplying water to two large river systems having their sources in the Julian Alps: the Soča and the Sava, flowing to the Adriatic and Black Sea, respectively.
The proposal for conservation dates back to the year 1908, and was realised in 1924. Then, on the initiative taken by the Nature Protection Section of the Slovene Museum Society together with the Slovene Mountaineering Society, a twenty year lease was taken out on the Triglav Lakes Valley area, some 14 km². It was destined to become an Alpine Protection Park, however permanent conservation was not possible at that time.In 1961, after many years of effort, the protection was renewed (this time on a permanent basis) and somewhat enlarged, embracing around 20 km². The protected area was officially designated as the Triglav National Park. Under this act, however, all objectives of a true national park were not attained and for this reason over the next two decades, new proposals for the extension and rearrangement of the protection were put forward. Finally, in 1981, a rearrangement was achieved and the park was given a new concept and enlarged to 838 km² – the area it continues to cover to this day.

Geography

Satellite image of Slovenia
Slovenia is situated in Central Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean . The Alps—including the Julian Alps, the Kamnik-Savinja Alps and the Karavanke chain, as well as the Pohorje massif—dominate Northern Slovenia along its long border with Austria. Slovenia's Adriatic coastline stretches approximately 43 km (27 mi)[3] from Italy to Croatia. The term "Karst topography" refers to that of southwestern Slovenia's Kras Plateau, a limestone region of underground rivers, gorges, and caves, between Ljubljana and the Mediterranean. On the Pannonian plain to the East and Northeast, toward the Croatian and Hungarian borders, the landscape is essentially flat. However, the majority of Slovenian terrain is hilly or mountainous, with around 90% of the surface 200 m (656 ft) or more above sea level.
Four major European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: the Alps, the Dinarides, the Pannonian Plain, and the Mediterranean. Slovenia's highest peak is Triglav (2,864 m/9,396 ft); the country's average height above sea level is 557 m (1,827 ft). Although on the shore of the Adriatic Sea, near the Mediterranean, most of Slovenia is in the Black Sea drainage basin. The geographical centre of Slovenia is at the coordinates 46°07'11.8" N and 14°48'55.2" E. It lies in Spodnja Slivna near Vače in the municipality of Litija. Slovenia's coastline measures 47 km (29 mi).
Triglav, the highest point of Slovenia and other landscapes in Julian Alps, Slovenia
Izola Bay and view of Prekmurje
Around half of the country (11,691 km2/4,514 sq mi) is covered by forests; the third most forested country in Europe, after Finland and Sweden. Remnants of primeval forests are still to be found, the largest in the Kočevje area. Grassland covers 5,593 km2 (2,159 sq mi) and fields and gardens (954 km2/368 sq mi). There are 363 km2 (140 sq mi) of orchards and 216 km2 (83 sq mi) of vineyards. There is a Continental climate in the northeast, a severe Alpine climate in the high mountain regions, and a sub-Mediterranean climate in the coastal region. Yet there is a strong interaction between these three climatic systems across most of the country. This variety is also reflected in climatic variability over time and is an important factor determining the impact of global climate change in the country.

Natural regions

Landscape types in Slovenia      Alpine landscape      Panonnian landscape      Dinaric landscape      Mediterranean landscape
The first regionalisations of Slovenia were made by geographers Anton Melik (1935–1936) and Svetozar Ilešič (1968). The newer regionalisation by Ivan Gams divides Slovenia in the following macroregions:[citation needed]
  • the Alps (visokogorske Alpe)
  • the Prealpine Hills (predalpsko hribovje)
  • the Ljubljana Basin (Ljubljanska kotlina)
  • Submediterranean (Littoral) Slovenia (submediteranska - primorska Slovenija)
  • the Dinaric Karst of inner Slovenia (dinarski kras notranje Slovenije)
  • Subpannonian Slovenia (subpanonska Slovenija)
According to a newer natural geographic regionalisation, the country consists of four macroregions. These are the Alpine, the Mediterranean, the Dinaric, and the Pannonian landscapes. Macroregions are defined according to major relief units (the Alps, the Pannonian plain, the Dinaric mountains) and climate types (submediterranean, temperate continental, mountain climate).[4] These are often quite interwoven.
Protected areas of Slovenia include national parks, regional parks, and nature parks. Under the Wild Birds Directive, 26 sites totalling roughly 25% of the nation's land are "Special Protected Areas"; the Natura 2000 proposal would increase the totals to 260 sites and 32% of national territory.

Biodiversity

A deciduous forest in Lower Carniola and the linden tree, national symbol of Slovenia
Olm in Postojna cave, female Alpine ibex, photographed in the Julian Alps and Eurasian Lynx in Kočevje Area
Although Slovenia is a small country, there is an exceptionally wide variety of habitats. In the north of Slovenia are the Alps (namely, Julian Alps, Karavanke, Kamnik Alps), and in the south stand the Dinaric Alps. There is also a small area of the Pannonian plain and a Littoral Region. Much of southwestern Slovenia is characterised by Classical Karst, a very rich, often unexplored underground habitat containing diverse flora and fauna.
About 54% of the country is covered by forests.[5] The forests are an important natural resource, but logging is kept to a minimum, as Slovenians also value their forests for the preservation of natural diversity, for enriching the soil and cleansing the water and air, for the social and economic benefits of recreation and tourism, and for the natural beauty they give to the Slovenian landscape. In the interior of the country are typical Central European forests, predominantly oak and beech. In the mountains, spruce, fir, and pine are more common. The tree line is at 1,700 to 1,800 metres (or 5,575 to 5,900 ft).
Pine trees also grow on the Kras plateau. Only one third of Kras is now covered by pine forest. Before that Kras was covered by oak forest. It is said that most of the forest was chopped down long ago to provide the wooden piles on which the city of Venice now stands. The Kras and White Carniola are known for the proteus. The lime/linden tree, also common in Slovenian forests, is a national symbol.
In the Alps, flowers such as Daphne blagayana, various gentians (Gentiana clusii, Gentiana froelichi), Primula auricula, edelweiss (the symbol of Slovene mountaineering), Cypripedium calceolus, Fritillaria meleagris (snake's head fritillary), and Pulsatilla grandis are found.
The country's fauna includes marmots, Alpine ibex, and chamois. There are numerous deer, roe deer, boar, and hares. The edible dormouse is often found in the Slovenian beech forests. Hunting these animals is a long tradition and is well described in the book The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola (Slovene: Slava vojvodine Kranjske, 1689), written by Janez Vajkard Valvasor (1641–1693). Some important carnivores include the Eurasian lynx (reintroduced to the Kočevje area in 1973), European wild cats, foxes (especially the red fox), and European jackal.[6] There are also hedgehogs, martens, and snakes such as vipers and grass snakes. As of March 2005, Slovenia also has a limited population of wolves and around four hundred brown bears.
There is a wide variety of birds, such as the Tawny Owl, the Long-eared Owl, the Eagle Owl, hawks, and Short-toed Eagles. Various other birds of prey have been recorded, as well as a growing number of ravens, crows and magpies migrating into Ljubljana and Maribor where they thrive. Other birds include (both Black and Green) Woodpeckers and the White Stork, which nests in Prekmurje.
The marble trout or marmorata (Salmo marmoratus) is an indigenous Slovenian fish. Extensive breeding programmes have been introduced to repopulate the marble trout into lakes and streams invaded by non-indigenous species of trout.
The only regular species of cetaceans found in the northern Adriatic sea is the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).[7]
Domestic animals originating in Slovenia include the Carniolan honeybee, the indigenous Karst Shepherd and the Lipizzan horse. The exploration of various cave systems has yielded discoveries of many cave-dwelling insects and other organisms.
Slovenia is a veritable cornucopia of forest, cavern and mountain-dwelling wildlife. Many species that are endangered or can no longer be found in other parts of Europe can still be found here.

Economy

Slovenian Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Ljubljana, the economic and administrative centre of Slovenia
Slovenia has a high-income developed economy which enjoys the highest GDP per capita of the new member states in the European Union, at $29,521 in 2008[8], or 91% of the EU average[9]. Slovenia today is a developed country that enjoys prosperity and stability, as well as a GDP per capita substantially higher than that of the other transitioning economies of Central Europe. It benefits from a well-educated and productive work force, and its political and economic institutions are vigorous and effective.
Although Slovenia has taken a cautious, deliberate approach to economic management and reform, with heavy emphasis on achieving consensus before proceeding, its overall record is one of success. Slovenia's trade is oriented towards other EU countries, mainly Germany, Austria, Italy, and France. This is the result of a wholesale reorientation of trade toward the West and the growing markets of central and eastern Europe in the face of the collapse of its Yugoslav markets. Slovenia's economy is highly dependent on foreign trade. Trade equals about 120 % of GDP (exports and imports combined). About two-thirds of Slovenia's trade is with EU members.This high level of openness makes it extremely sensitive to economic conditions in its main trading partners and changes in its international price competitiveness. However, despite the economic slowdown in Europe in 2001–03, Slovenia maintained 3% GDP growth. Keeping labour costs in line with productivity is thus a key challenge for Slovenia's economic well-being, and Slovenian firms have responded by specialising in mid- to high-tech manufacturing. Industry and construction comprise over one-third of GDP. As in most industrial economies, services make up an increasing share of output (57.1%), notably in financial services.
A big portion of the economy remains in state hands and foreign direct investment (FDI) in Slovenia is one of the lowest in the EU per capita. Taxes are relatively high, the labor market is seen by business interests as being inflexible, and industries are losing sales to China, India, and elsewhere.[10] Unemployment is relatively low; though it rose to 5.5% in 2009.[11]
During the 2000s, privatisations were seen in the banking, telecommunications, and public utility sectors. Restrictions on foreign investment are being dismantled, and foreign direct investment (FDI) is expected to increase. Slovenia is the economic front-runner of the countries that joined the European Union in 2004, was the first new member which adopted the euro on 1 January 2007 and held the presidency of the European Union in the first half of 2008.

Transport

Railways

Slovenian Railways operates 1,229 km of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge tracks, 331 km as double track, and reaches all regions of the country. It is well connected to every surrounding country reflecting the fact that Slovenia used to be part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and later of Yugoslavia.
Rail network of Slovenia
Electrification is provided by a 3 kV DC system and covers about 503 km. The remainder of the former Yugoslavian railroads that have been electrified operate with 25 kV AC system, thus trains to Zagreb will be switching engines at Dobova until dual system engines are available.

Highways

The first highway in Slovenia, the A1, was opened in 1970. It connects Vrhnika and Postojna. Constructed under the liberal minded government of Stane Kavčič, their development plan envisioned a modern highway network spanning Slovenia and connecting the republic to Italy and Austria. After the liberal fraction of the Communist Party of Slovenia was deposed, expansion of the Slovenian highway network came to a halt. In the 90s the new country started the 'National Programme of Highway Construction', effectively re-using the old communist plans. Since then about 400 km of motorways, expressways and similar roads have been completed, easing automotive transport across the country and providing a much better road service between eastern and western Europe. This has provide a boost to the national economy, encouraging the development of transportation and export industries.
Črni Kal Viaduct on the A1 motorway
There are two types of highways in Slovenia. Avtocesta (abbr. AC) are dual carriageway motorways with a speed limit of 130 km/h. They have green road signs as in Italy, Croatia and other countries nearby. A hitra cesta (HC) is a secondary road, also a dual carriageway, but without an emergency lane. They have a speed limit of 100 km/h and have blue road signs.
Since the 1st June 2008 highway users in Slovenia are required to buy a vignette. 7-day, 1-month and 12-month passes are available.
As of 2008 159 km of Highway is under construction in Slovenia. Out of this total 94 km shall be opened during the year and work shall begin upon a further 10 km.

Ports and harbours

Port of Koper by night
Until the end of World War I the main Austrian imperial port of Trieste (Slovene: Trst, German: Triest) was the main port in Slovenia. As the city stood surrounded by territory inhabited by Slovenes and its population being a third Slovene, it was hoped that it would, based on Wilson's 14 points, form a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. But after the city fell to Italy and remained under Italy after World War II which was finalised in the London Memorandum of Understanding of 1954 the Slovenian government saw the need for a new port. Thus the Port of Koper was established in 1957 and opened to international trade in 1958. The port has since been much expanded, and in 2007 more than 15 million tonnes of cargo passed through it, making it the second biggest port in the North Eastern Adriatic after Trieste and before Rijeka. Further development and expansion of the port in Koper now depends largely on the construction of the third pier and on the opening of a second rail track between Koper and the Slovene rail network to ease the transport of goods from the port to the rest of Slovenia and Europe. This work still needs to be announced by the national government and local authorities, with whom the provision of these new facilities largely rests.
Air Force Base in Cerklje ob Krki

Airports

Slovenia has 3 international airports of any note. Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport is by far the busiest airport in the country with connections to many major European destinations. More than 1.5 million passengers pass through per annum and 22,000 tonnes of cargo is moved per year. The second largest international airport serves Maribor. However, this has struggled since Slovenian independence due to economic changes in the Maribor region. Only 30,000 passengers passed through in 2007. There is also a small international airport in Sečovlje on the Slovene littoral, near the resort town of Portorož, which only serves small private aircraft. Slovenia has also an active Air Force Base in Cerklje ob Krki Airbase.

Communications

The use of internet in Slovenia is widespread; according to official polls in the first quarter of 2008, 58% citizens between the ages 10 and 74 were internet users, which is above Europe's average. In the same period, 59% households (85% of which through broadband) and 97% companies with 10 or more employed (84% of those through broadband) had internet access. The country's top-level domain is .si. It is administered by ARNES, the Academic and Research Network of Slovenia. Other major providers are Telekom Slovenije (under the trademark SiOL), Telemach, AMIS and T-2. Slovenian internet service providers provide ADSL; ITU G.992.5, VDSL, SHDSL, VDSL2 and FTTH.

Demographics

Ethnic composition of Slovenia
Slovene
  
83.06%
Serbian
  
1.98%
Croatian
  
1.81%
Bosniak
  
1.10%
other minorities
  
4.85%
undeclared or unknown
  
8.9%
source: 2002 census
Slovenia's main ethnic group is Slovene (83%). Ethnic groups from other parts of the former Yugoslavia (Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Macedonian, Montenegrin and people who consider themselves "Yugoslavian") form 5.3%, and the Hungarian, Albanian, Roma, Italian and other minorities form 2.8% of the population. Ethnic affiliation of 8.9% was either undeclared or unknown.
Life expectancy in 2007 was 74.6 years for men and 81.8 years for women.[12] The suicide rate is 19.8 per 100,000 persons per year.[13]
With 99 inhabitants per square kilometre (256/sq mi), Slovenia ranks low among the European countries in population density (compared to 320/km² (829/sq mi) for the Netherlands or 195/km² (505/sq mi) for Italy). The Notranjska-Kras statistical region has the lowest population density while the Central Slovenian statistical region has the highest. Approximately 51% of the population lives in urban areas and 49% in rural areas.
Religion in Slovenia
Roman Catholic
  
57.8%
undeclared or unknown
  
22.8%
Atheist
  
10.1%
other religions
  
9.3%
source: 2002 census
The official language is Slovene, which is a member of the South Slavic language group. Hungarian and Italian enjoy the status of official languages in the ethnically mixed regions along the Hungarian and Italian borders.
Many Slovenes are multilingual. According to the Eurobarometer survey, a majority of Slovenes can speak Croatian, English, and German in addition to Slovene; also, Italian is popular in Koper and other parts of the littoral.
Traditionally, Slovenes are Roman Catholic (57.8% according to the 2002 Census) but like elsewhere in Europe the Roman Catholicism affiliation in Slovenia is dropping (71.6% according to the 1991 census), a drop of more than 1 % annually.[14]
According to the more recent but 5 year oldEurobarometer Poll 2005,[15] 37% of Slovenian citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 46% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 16% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".

Culture

Slovenia's first book was printed by the Protestant reformer Primož Trubar (1508–1586). It was actually two books, Latin: Catechismus (a catechism) and Abecedarium, which were published in 1550 in Tübingen, Germany.
France Prešeren, considered Slovenia's national poet and Jacobus Gallus, composer
The central part of the country, namely Carniola (which existed as a part of Austria-Hungary until the early 20th century) was ethnographically and historically well-described in the book The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola (German: Die Ehre deß Herzogthums Crain, Slovene: Slava vojvodine Kranjske), published in 1689 by Baron Janez Vajkard Valvasor (1641–1693).
Some of Slovenia's greatest authors were the poets France Prešeren (1800–1849), Oton Župančič, Srečko Kosovel, Edvard Kocbek and Dane Zajc, as well as the writer and playwright Ivan Cankar (1876–1918). Boris Pahor, Evald Flisar, Drago Jančar, Alojz Rebula, Tomaž Šalamun and Aleš Debeljak are some of the leading names of contemporary Slovene literature.
The most important Slovene painters include Jurij Šubic and Anton Ažbe in late 19th century. Ivana Kobilca, Rihard Jakopič, Ivan Grohar worked in the beginning of 20th century while Avgust Černigoj, Lojze Spacal, Anton Gojmir Kos, Riko Debenjak, Marij Pregelj, exceptional Gabrijel Stupica, Janez Bernik worked mostly in the second part of 20. century. Contemporary artists are Emerik Bernard, Metka Krašovec, Ivo Prančič, Gustav Gnamuš, group IRWIN and Marko Peljhan. Zoran Mušič, who worked in Paris and Venice, obtained world fame.
Some important Slovene sculptors were Fran Berneker, Lojze Dolinar, Zdenko Kalin, Slavko Tihec, Janez Boljka and now Jakov Brdar and Mirsad Begić. The most famed Slovene architects were Jože Plečnik and Max Fabiani and later Edo Ravnikar and Milan Mihelič.
Slovenia is a homeland of numerous musicians and composers, including Renaissance composer Jacobus Gallus (1550–1591), who greatly influenced Central European classical music, and the violin virtuoso Giuseppe Tartini. In the twentieth century, Bojan Adamič was a renowned film music composer and Ivo Petrić (born 16 June 1931) is a composer of European classical music.
Contemporary popular musicians have been Slavko Avsenik, Laibach, Vlado Kreslin, Pero Lovšin, Pankrti, Zoran Predin, Lačni Franz, New Swing Quartet, DJ Umek, Valentino Kanzyani, Siddharta, Big Foot Mama,Terrafolk, Katalena, Magnifico and others.
Slovene cinema has more than a century-long tradition with Karol Grossmann, Janko Ravnik, Ferdo Delak, France Štiglic, Mirko Grobler, Igor Pretnar, France Kosmač, Jože Pogačnik, Matjaž Klopčič, Jane Kavčič, Jože Gale, Boštjan Hladnik and Karpo Godina as its most established filmmakers. Contemporary film directors Janez Burger, Jan Cvitkovič, Damjan Kozole, Janez Lapajne and Maja Weiss are the most notable representatives of the so-called "Renaissance of Slovenian cinema".
Famous Slovene scholars include the chemist and Nobel prize laureate Friderik - Fritz Pregl, physicist Joseph Stefan, psychologist and anthropologist Anton Trstenjak, philosophers Slavoj Žižek and Milan Komar, linguist Franc Miklošič, physician Anton Marko Plenčič, mathematician Jurij Vega, sociologist Thomas Luckmann, theologian Anton Strle and rocket engineer Herman Potočnik.

Sport

Soccer in Slovenia is played domestically at the top level in the Slovenian PrvaLiga (1. SNL), with 10 teams. Followed by the 2.SNL, and the two-sectioned 3.SNL. The Slovenia national football team, is ranked 31 in the world and has qualified for 2 FIFA World Cup's (2002, 2010), and 1 UEFA European Football Championship (2000), in the past decade. The national soccer team qualified for the 2010 FIFA World Cup by upsetting heavily favored Russia in the qualifying tournament. Russia, with a population of 142 million, is 71 times more populous than Slovenia. They will play in Group C with England, Algeria, and the United States. Slovene football stars include; Robert Koren, Milivoje Novakovič, and Zlatan Ljubijankič.
Top-level Slovene Basketball is played in the Premier A Slovenian Basketball League, with 13 teams. The Slovenian national basketball team has qualified for 8 Eurobaskets, including a 4th place finish in 2009, and 1 FIBA World Championship in 2006. Famous Slovene basketball players in the NBA include; Goran Dragić, Sasha Vujačić, Radoslav Nesterović, and Beno Udrih.
The Slovenian Ice Hockey Championship, with 10 teams, is the highest level ice hockey league in the country. The Slovenia men's national ice hockey team is currently ranked 17 in the world, and has qualified for 5 Ice Hockey World Championships. One of Slovenia's most famous athletes is Anže Kopitar who plays for the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League, and his USD $47.6 million (€34.7 million) 7-year contract, is the greatest amount by any Slovene athlete. Other famous Slovene hockey players include; Robert Kristan, Jan Muršak, and Marcel Rodman.

Education

University in Ljubljana and Maribor
The Slovenian education system consists of:
  • pre-school education
  • basic education (single structure of primary and lower secondary education)
  • (upper) secondary education: vocational and technical education, secondary general education
  • higher vocational education
  • higher education
Specific parts of the system:
  • adult education
  • music and dance education
  • special needs education
  • programmes in ethnically and linguistically mixed areas
Currently there are three public universities in Slovenia:
In addition, there is the private University of Nova Gorica.
The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks Slovenia's education as the 12th best in the world, being significantly higher than the OECD average.[16]

Primary school

Children first enter primary schooling at about the age of 6 and finish at about the age of 14. Each group of children born in the same year form one grade or class in primary school which lasts until the end of primary school. Each grade or year is divided into 2 terms. Once or twice per term, children have holidays: Autumn, Christmas, winter and May first holidays; each holiday is approximately one week long. At summer time, school ends on 24 June (except in the last/ninth grade, where it ends one week earlier), followed by a holiday of more than two months. The next school year starts on the 1 September.

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Reporters Without Borders Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2009 37 out of 175
The Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom 2010 61 out of 179
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2009 27 out of 180
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 2009 29 out of 182
Institute for Economics and Peace Global Peace Index 2009 9 out of 144

See also

References

  1. ^ http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&language=en&pcode=tps00001&tableSelection=1&footnotes=yes&labeling=labels&plugin=1
  2. ^ a b c d "Slovenia". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=961&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=51&pr.y=8. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  3. ^ Boštjan Burger web-site about Slovenia
  4. ^ Ogrin, Darko (August 2004). "Modern climate change in Slovenia" (PDF). Slovenia: a geographical overview. Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia. http://www.zrc-sazu.si/Zgds/glasgow/9.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-01. 
  5. ^ Golob A.. "Forests and forestry in Slovenia". FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/w3722e/w3722e25.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  6. ^ Krofel M.; Potočnik H. (2008). "First record of a golden jackal (Canis aureus) in the Savinja Valley (Northern Slovenia)". Natura Sloveniae 10 (1): 57–62. http://web.bf.uni-lj.si/bi/NATURA-SLOVENIAE/pdf/NatSlo_10_1_5.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-01. 
  7. ^ "Delfini pri nas" (in Slovene). Morigenos. http://www.morigenos.org/index.php?path=Delfini_pri_nas. Retrieved 2006-04-06. 
  8. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects, October 2009 World Economic Outlook". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=13&pr.y=15&sy=2004&ey=2008&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=193%2C158%2C122%2C542%2C124%2C137%2C156%2C138%2C423%2C196%2C128%2C142%2C172%2C182%2C132%2C576%2C134%2C961%2C174%2C184%2C532%2C144%2C176%2C146%2C178%2C528%2C436%2C112%2C136%2C111&s=PPPPC&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 2009-10-26. 
  9. ^ "GDP per capita in PPS - GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) (EU-27 = 100)". http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en&pcode=tsieb010&plugin=1. Retrieved 2009-11-23. 
  10. ^ "The World Factbook 2007 -- Slovenia, Economy". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/si.html#Econ. 
  11. ^ "Labour Force Survey Results, Slovenia". http://www.stat.si/eng/novica_prikazi.aspx?id=2262#Econ. 
  12. ^ Complete life table for the population of Slovenia, 2007, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009, index page at SURS site
  13. ^ Suicide rates (per 100,000), by gender, Slovenia, 1997-2008, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009, index page at SURS site
  14. ^ Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Census of Population, Households and Housing, 2002
  15. ^ "Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 – page 11" (PDF). http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-05. 
  16. ^ "Table: Range of rank on the PISA 2006 science scale" (PDF). PISA 2006. OECD. 2007-12-04. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/42/8/39700724.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-15. 

External links

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Central Europe : Slovenia
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:si-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Ljubljana
Government parliamentary democratic republic
Currency € euro (EUR)
Area 20,273 sq km
Population 2,010,347 (July 2006 est.)
Language Slovenian, Italian, and Hungarian (minorities)
Religion Roman Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Eastern Orthodox 2.3%, Protestant 0.9%, atheist 10.1%, other and unknown 26.5%
Electricity 230V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code 386
Internet TLD .si
Time Zone UTC +1
.Slovenia (Slovenija) [1] is a country in Central Europe that lies in the eastern Alps at the northeastern end of the Adriatic Sea, with Austria to the north, Italy to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast and Croatia to the south.^ The Republic of Slovenia is among the smallest countries in Europe.
  • S L O V E N I A 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.culturelink.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Slovenia is a country in Central Europe bordering Croatia to the south and southeast, Hungary to the northeast, Austria to the north and Italy to the west.
  • Slovenia - eRepublik Official Wiki 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC wiki.erepublik.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Republic of Slovenia ( Slovenian : Republika Slovenija) is a coastal sub-Alpine country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north.

.Despite its small size, Slovenia has a surprising variety of terrain, ranging from the beaches of the Mediterranean to the peaks of the Julian Alps, to the rolling hills of the south.^ The Alps--including the Julian Alps, the Kamnik-Savinja Alps, the Karavanke chain, and the Pohorje Massif--dominate northern Slovenia near Austria.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Alps are in the north (namely, Julian Alps , Karavanke , Kamnik Alps ), the Dinarides lie in the south, and there is also a small part of Pannonian plain and a Littoral Region .

^ Geography Four major European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: the Alps , the Dinarides , the Pannonian plain , and the Mediterranean .

.Slovenia was already more economically advanced than other "East Block" nations prior to European integration and the powerhouse of Tito's Yugoslavia.^ With its small transition economy and population of approximately two million, Slovenia is a model of economic success and stability for its neighbors in the former Yugoslavia.
  • Slovenia - SPAMfighter 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.spamfighter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than geographically, Slovenia is a bridge from developed Europe into the Balkans, an area of the continent that poses significant diplomatic and security challenges.

^ In the opinion of some experts, there are more than 40 distinct cuisines in Slovenia.

.Added the fact that Slovenia is also home to some of the finest scenery in the "New Europe", the transition from socialism to the european common market economy has gone well and serves as a model for other nations on the same track to follow.^ The attainment of independence, the transition from an ethnic group to a nation, the establishment of a state making a clear break with the real-socialist cultural policy - all these require an essentially new definition of the position of culture and the arts in Slovenia, a new definition of cultural policy, a new model of cultural organisation, decision-making, administration and management, and new legislation in the cultural sphere.
  • S L O V E N I A 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.culturelink.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other areas only those changes connected with the abolition of anonymous social ownership and the self-management model have been made.
  • S L O V E N I A 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.culturelink.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In so doing, it has made substantial progress in its transition to a market economy, particularly becoming party to a number of bilateral and regional free trade agreements.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Map of Slovenia
.
Map of Slovenia
  • Ljubljana - the picturesque pint-sized capital
  • Idrija - the oldest Slovenian mining city, with more than 500 years of history
  • Celje - one of Slovenia's oldest cities
  • Maribor — Slovenia's second largest city
  • Nova Gorica - the city literary on the border with Italy
  • Brežice - lovely medieval city close to the largest Slovenian thermal resort
  • Piran - gorgeous Venetian port
  • Portorož — Beaches, casinos and package tourism
  • Ptuj - one of Slovenia's oldest cities - pronounced "P-too-ee"
  • Kamnik [2]- Lovely medieval town nestled beneath the picturesque Kamniške alps.
  • Divača — Site of the less commercial but no less impressive Škocjan caves (UNESCO)
  • Dovje-Mojstrana- The best starting point for hiking and climbing to Julian Alps
  • Bled - Impossibly romantic mountain lake complete with castle and island
  • Radovljica - Old historical town, apiculture museum
  • Bohinj - Alpine lake
  • Postojna — Site of the gigantic Postojna caves
  • Triglav National Park - Home to national symbol Mt.^ Dolenjska and Bela krajina .

    ^ It symbolises the three rivers: Sava, Krka, Ljubljanica.

    ^ Apparently he was a Slovenian no more.
    • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

    Triglav and mythical golden chamois Zlatorog.
  • Velika planina - Lovely mountain village in idyllic location near to Kamnik. Chairlift and skiing nearby as well. Well worth a day trip.
  • Skocjan Caves - UNESCO Heritage Site on the border close to Koper and Trieste, Italy.
  • Vintgar Gorge - Spectacular Gorge near Lake Bled

Understand

History

.Slavic ancestors of Slovenians came from eastern parts of Europe and inhabited territory north of present Slovenian territory in the 6th century AD. They established a state called Caranthania (Karantanija in Slovene), which was an early example of parliamentary democracy in Europe.^ The Slavic ancestors of today's Slovenians arrived in the 6th century.

^ This exciting journey takes you from enigmatic Russia via the little known Baltic and Balkan states to Turkey, where Eastern Europe meets the Middle East.

^ Wine regions Podravje Wine Region Podravje has the largest area under wine, but is ranked second behind Primorska in terms of total production.This region comprises the north-eastern part of Slovenia.

.The ruler (knez in Slovene) was elected by popular vote.^ Politics The Slovenian head of state is the president , who is elected by popular vote every 5 years.

^ Government type : parliamentary democratic republic The Slovenian head of state is the president, who is elected by popular vote every 5 years.

The Caranthanians were later defeated by Bavarians and Franks who subjugated them. They were christianized but they preserved many rituals of their pagan religion, and above all they preserved their native language. .The Slovene lands were part of the Holy Roman Empire and Austria under Habsburg dynasty until 1918 when the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new south-Slavic state ruled by Serbian Karadjordjević dynasty called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians ("Kraljevina Srbov, Hrvatov in Slovencev" in Slovene), renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. In WWII, Slovenia was invaded and occupied by Germans, Italians and Hungarians, leading to a parallel civil war between pro-communist liberation forces (Partizani) and Nazi-collaborator factions ("Belogardisti" and Domobranci).^ The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929.
  • Jobs in Slovenia Careers, Jobs, Education - Careers.org 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC international.careers.org [Source type: News]

^ With the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1918 , Slovenians joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes , later renamed ( 1929 ) the Kingdom of Yugoslavia .

^ Slovenia was part of: Kingdom of Yugoslavia until 1945, SFR of Yugoslavia from 1945 until gaining independence in 1991 .

.The victory of the Allies and consequently the Partizans resulted in a violent mass exodus of those who had collaborated with the occupying forces, including most of the native German and Italian minorities.^ The erasures have been an embarrassment to Slovenia's otherwise fairly good record on human rights, with unpleasant social consequences for those who refused to comply.
  • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There were no reports of forced religious conversion, including of minor U.S. citizens who had been abducted or illegally removed from the United States, or of the refusal to allow such citizens to be returned to the United States.
  • Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hungarian (as well as Italian) minorities in Slovenia are accorded special treatment under the Slovenian constitution, including a permanent parliamentary seat.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.After World War II, Slovenia became a republic in the reestablished Yugoslavia, which although Communist, distanced itself from the Soviet bloc and small territorial gains were made from Italy.^ After the World War Two Ljubljana became the capital of Yugoslav socialist republic of Slovenia.

^ Following the re-establishment of Yugoslavia at the end of World War II , Slovenia became a part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia , officially declared in 1945 .

^ During the communist era, Slovenia became Yugoslavia's most prosperous republic, at the forefront of Yugoslavia's unique version of communism.

.Dissatisfied with the exercise of power in Belgrade, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 with minimal bloodshed.^ Dissatisfied with the exercise of power of the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war.
  • Jobs in Slovenia Careers, Jobs, Education - Careers.org 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC international.careers.org [Source type: News]

^ When Slovenia seceded from Yugoslavia and became independent in 1991, one of the first acts of the new government was to remove non-ethnic Slovenes from the public registries.
  • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

In 2004, Slovenia joined the European Union and NATO. Most recently, Slovenia adopted the euro in 2007, completing a quick and efficient accession to Europe and the EU.
Independence 
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday 
Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
Independence and Unity Day, 26 December (1990)
Constitution 
adopted 23 December 1991, effective 23 December 1991
Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy make Slovenia a leading country among the new members of the EU and NATO.
Totalitarian disco
We are no ordinary type of group
We are no humble pop musicians
We don't seduce with melodies
And we're not here to please you
We have no answers to your questions
Yet we can question your demands
.Without a doubt Slovenia's most misunderstood export, industrial band Laibach and their Neue Slowenische Kunst (NSK) collective emerged from the coal mining town of Trbovlje to smash their first sledgehammer in 1980 and, despite the best efforts of the state they skewered, went on to outlast Yugoslavia and are still going strong.^ They went on an activities holiday in Slovenia.

^ During the communist era, Slovenia became Yugoslavia's most prosperous republic, at the forefront of Yugoslavia's unique version of communism.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the sources in the State Department, this does not mean though that Slovenia will lose the funds, as they will merely be frozen.
  • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

.Using totalitarian imagery stretched to the limit, with band members decked out in military uniforms, memorable moments include reworking Queen's starry-eyed "One Nation" into a Wagnerian march (sung in German, of course) that would make a Teuton blanch.^ The National Assembly ratified accession to the North Atlantic Treaty in February 2004, and Slovenia officially became a member of the Alliance on March 29, 2004.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Keep an eye on the NSK website [3] and try to catch a concert when in town.
For a pint-sized country Slovenes are fiercely proud of their culture. .Two names you will run into over and over again are national poet France Prešeren (1800-1849), who penned (among other things) the Slovenian national anthem, and the architect Jože Plečnik (1872-1957), credited with Ljubljana's iconic Tromostovje bridges and, seemingly, half the modern buildings in the country.^ Most people look vague when you ask them to pinpoint exactly where Slovenia, one of the continent's newest countries, slots into Europe's map.

^ Rijeka : Trains run from Ljubljana to Rijeka two or three times a day.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ There are two or three fast modern 'ICN' air-conditioned daytime trains from Zagreb to Split, for Zadar you must change trains at Knin.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

It was the monks of the Catholic Church that kept Slovenian alive over the centuries of relentless Germanization from the north. .As a result Slovenian survived in its unique form different than Serbo-Croatian to the south.^ Slovenian 92%, Serbo-Croatian 6.2%, other 1.8% .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Slovenian 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4% (2002 census) .
  • Slovenia - SPAMfighter 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.spamfighter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, as a result it borrows many idiomatic phrases from German. Much of both the countryside and city architecture shares a lot in common with neighboring Austria, including countless roadside shrines and pretty baroque steeples, giving the interior of the nation a truly alpine favor. One could easily mistake parts of mountainous Slovenia for Tyrol, Salzburg or Bavaria. In modern times, industrial band Laibach (see box) has served to put Slovenia on the map. In the decades before them, Slavko Avsenik and his Oberkrainer did the same.

Climate

.Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east.^ Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Slovenia - SPAMfighter 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.spamfighter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Terrain

.A short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an Alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountain and valleys with numerous rivers to the east.^ The scenery through southeast Germany, Austria & Slovenia is stunning, with views of snow capped mountains, lush meadows & winding rivers.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Central Ljubljana valley with Ljubljana marshes in the southern part. In the southwest there is the Karst (Kras in Slovene, Carso in Italian) (where the name for karst topography actually comes from). .The Karst region is a barren but beautiful limestone region directly north of the Italian city of Trieste.^ Karst limestone region of caves in the south-southwest, hills in the east, and approximately 50 kilometers (39 mi.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term "karst"--a limestone region of underground rivers, gorges, and caves--originated in Slovenia's Karst plateau between Ljubljana and the Italian border.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Natural hazards 
flooding and earthquakes
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m
lowest point: Adriatic sea 0 m

Get in

.Slovenia is a member of the Schengen Agreement.^ Slovenia signed an association agreement with the EU in 1996 and became a full EU member state on May 1, 2004.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: Slovenia is a party to the Schengen agreement.
  • Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Slovenia is a founding member of the WTO and joined the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) in 1996.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.For EU, EEA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) or Swiss citizens, an officially approved ID card (or a passport) is sufficient for entry.^ If an American citizen wishes to ensure that his or her entry is properly documented, it may be necessary to request a stamp at an official point of entry.
  • Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In no case will they need a visa for a stay of any length. Others will generally need a passport for entry.
.There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.^ Civil Society organizations within a country and outside it, along with regional intergovernmental organizations (such as the European Union) must hold countries which engage in policies accountable for their actions.
  • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Additionally, the country has penetrated successfully the south and east European markets, including the former Soviet Union region.

^ The main reason the governments haven't signed the treaty is that doing so would violate the policy of the European Union, which most are also joining.
  • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

.Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty.^ Special and diplomatic passport holders should verify all visa requirements for this and other destinations, as they may differ from those that apply to regular passport holders.
  • Slovenia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.But be careful: Not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union.^ Schengen Area The Member States of the European Union (EU) (not including the United Kingdom and Ireland), along with Norway, Iceland, and Switzerland, make up the Schengen Area, which aims for common rules regarding visas, asylum rights, and controls at external borders.
  • Slovenia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ The main reason the governments haven't signed the treaty is that doing so would violate the policy of the European Union, which most are also joining.
  • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Slovenia signed an association agreement with the EU in 1996 and became a full EU member state on May 1, 2004.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Airports in Europe are thus divided into "Schengen" and "non-Schengen" sections, which effectively act like "domestic" and "international" sections elsewhere.^ Its aim is to encourage the effective use of energy and thus to reduce the use of fossil fuel and to decrease the emissions of harmful substances into the air at the same time.
  • Agenda 21 - Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This atlas offers well over 100 maps of Slovenia, divided into nine topical sections.
  • Slovenia maps from Omnimap, the world's leading map store. 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you are flying from outside Europe into one Schengen country and continuing to another, you will clear Immigration and Customs at the first country and then continue to your destination with no further checks.^ How do you do that when there are no records of your existence?
  • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For further details about travel into and within Schengen countries, please see our Schengen fact sheet .
  • Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Travel between a Schengen member and a non-Schengen country will result in the normal border checks.^ This does not apply to Canadians travelling within the EU or in transit to a non-EU country.
  • Slovenia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.Note that regardless of whether you travelling within the Schengen area or not, some airlines will still insist on seeing your ID card or passport.^ It is important to get your passport stamped when entering the Schengen Area.
  • Slovenia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Verify with your financial institution whether your bank card can be used with ABMs abroad.
  • Slovenia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ You pay by credit card and print out your own tickets in .pdf format.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Keep in mind that the counter begins once you enter any country in the Schengen Area and is not reset by leaving a specific Schengen country for another Schengen country, or vice-versa.^ It is important to get your passport stamped when entering the Schengen Area.
  • Slovenia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Some countries or regions may not permit children to enter or, in some cases, leave the country or region without proper documentation such as a letter of consent or a court order.
  • Slovenia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ If you plan to visit forested areas, you should seek advice regarding inoculations before leaving Canada.
  • Slovenia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.As of January 2010 only the citizens of the following non-EU/EEA/Swiss countries do not need a visa for entry into the Schengen Area; note that they must not stay longer than three months in half a year and must not work while in the EU: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National (Overseas), Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.^ UK citizens do not need a visa to visit Croatia or Slovenia.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ The country, which joined the EU in 2004, has excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and an excellent central location.
  • Slovenia - SPAMfighter 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.spamfighter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most are small, weak or entirely dependent on the United States: The latest to sign are Antigua and Barbuda, Botswana, Ghana, Malawi, Uganda and East Timor.
  • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

Note that
  • while British subjects with the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British Overseas Territories citizens connected to Gibraltar are considered "United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes" and therefore eligible for unlimited access to the Schengen Area,
  • British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British subjects without the right of abode in the United Kingdom as well as British Overseas citizens and British protected persons in general do require visas.
.However, all British Overseas Territories citizens except those solely connected to the Cyprus Sovereign Base Areas are eligible for British citizenship and thereafter unlimited access to the Schengen Area.^ With this ruling the constitutional court has annulled the act of independence and activities connected to it and also disgraced all independence fighters and equalled them to those who were acting against Slovenia's independence."
  • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

Further note that
(*) Macedonian, Montenegrin and Serbian citizens need a biometric passport to enjoy visa-free travel and
.(**) Serbian citizens with passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate (Serbs residing in Kosovo) still do need a visa.^ UK citizens do not need a visa to visit Croatia or Slovenia.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

By bus

.The Ljubljana Bus Station (Avtobusna Postaja Ljubljana) provides composite information about international and airport bus services.^ STAT-USA/Internet , a service of the U.S. Department of Commerce, provides authoritative economic, business, and international trade information from the Federal government.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Services provided & students dealt with: Information on recognition of higher education degrees.
  • STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION SYSTEM IN SLOVENIA 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.euroeducation.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Services provided & students dealt with: Information and recognition of qualifications of EU citizens, qualifications obtained in the EU countries in regulated professions .
  • STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION SYSTEM IN SLOVENIA 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.euroeducation.net [Source type: Academic]

Phone: 090 93 42 30 (inland only), website in English: [4].
Connections between the Italian city of Trieste and nearby Koper and Piran are frequent on weekdays. There's also a daily bus between Trieste and Ljubljana. In addition services between Gorizia (Italy) and its twin town of Nova Gorica (Slovenia) are at least hourly throughout the day although the journey is easily walkable. .This offers an ideal connection between the Italian and Slovene railway networks or an alternative entry point from Trieste's Ronchi Airport or the city of Venice.^ The incompetent Italian Railways management have proved more effective then the Yugoslav communists at creating an iron curtain at this point!
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

By plane

.Ljubljana is Slovenia's primary international airport and the hub of national carrier Adria Airways [5], which flies to most major European cities and various Balkan destinations.^ Lively Ljubljana - Ljubljana, ranked among the middle sized European cities, maintains the friendliness of a small town, and at the same time possesses all the characteristics of a metropolis.

^ We offer rental cars in all major cities of Slovenia and you can save up to 40%.
  • Slovenia car hire from 165 EUR / 150 GBP / 239 USD per week - Cheap Slovenia car rental 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC slovenia.rentalcargroup.com [Source type: News]

^ With strong U.S. support, Slovenia has developed the International Trust Fund as the demining instrument of choice in the Balkans and is expanding operations to include the Caucasus.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The cheapest ways into the city, though, are via easyJet's daily flight from London-Stansted.
There are a few other options worth exploring. Ryanair also runs flights from Dublin to Pula across the border in Croatia. Another convenient gateway, especially to western Slovenia, is via Italy's Trieste airport which is but an hour's drive from Ljubljana via super highway. Klagenfurt, in Austria, is also an option. .Although further away, the airports in Venice and Treviso (called 'Venice Treviso) offer other entry points to Slovenia or good day trips to/from Slovenia.^ Because of this, Slovenia is a good example for other countries, the guest stressed as quoted by the ministry .
  • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With its entry into the European Union, Slovenia has become a strong advocate for the inclusion of other former Yugoslav republics into Euro-Atlantic institutions.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Slovenia's entry into the European Union provides the impetus for further economic improvements.

By train

.Slovenia is well connected to Austria and Croatia by train.^ UK to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia by train?
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia .
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.The most popular routes connect from Vienna or Villach in Austria (in good weather, this journey past the Julian Alps is spectacular), from Budapest in Hungary and from Zagreb in Croatia.^ The Alps--including the Julian Alps, the Kamnik-Savinja Alps, the Karavanke chain, and the Pohorje Massif--dominate northern Slovenia near Austria.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Austria 330 km, Croatia 670 km, Hungary 102 km, Italy 280 km .
  • Slovenia - SPAMfighter 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.spamfighter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Austria 330 km, Croatia 670 km, Italy 232 km, Hungary 102 km .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All lines converge on the capital Ljubljana.^ In-depth coverage of all the sights, from the beautiful capital, Ljubljana, to the majestic lakes and mountains of the Julian Alps, and the stunning caves of Postojna and Škocjan.
  • Slovenia :: Rough Guides Shop 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.roughguides.com [Source type: News]

With April 2008, the Italian Railways have slashed the only remaining daytime cross-border service, even though it still appears on many international timetables. Contact the the Slovenian Railways for current information on replacement buses. The night train to Venice is still running. .To get around this poor connection one can take a train to Nova Gorica (Slovenia) and then walk or take a bus to its neighboring town of Gorizia (Italy) from where there are frequent trains to Trieste, Udine, Venice and further afield.^ As the direct EuroCity train 'Casanova' has been withdrawn between Venice and the Slovenia frontier, this route is no longer recommended.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ First travel from London to Bari in Italy, taking Eurostar to Paris, the overnight sleeper train to Bologna and a fast train on to Bari.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.For trips to Trieste it may be more advisable to take a train to Sezana and then take a taxi on to Trieste (about 10km, 10 euro) or a connecting bus (3 times a day, weekdays only, 1 euro).^ More pictures & information about this train...
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Rijeka : Trains run from Ljubljana to Rijeka two or three times a day.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ More pictures & information about this City Night Line train .
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

English website of the Slovenian Railways company [6]. .There are number of international routes [7], special offers exist for some destinations, so you should consider informing yourself about that in advance.^ There is something here for everyone from easy valley walks and rougher forest trails to high-mountain protected routes, some of which require Alpine mountaineering experience.
  • Slovenia maps from Omnimap, the world's leading map store. 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Special and diplomatic passport holders should verify all visa requirements for this and other destinations, as they may differ from those that apply to regular passport holders.
  • Slovenia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.There are destinations, which have tickets on contingency basis, meaning that they could run out fast, but are usually a lot cheaper, such as Ljubljana - Prague line (cooperation between SŽ and Czech railways), 58€ for a return ticket (with the normal price of just bellow 200€).^ Several shipping lines run overnight ferries on various days of the week between Ancona & Split, including www.jadrolinija.hr & www.bli-ferry.com .
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ S pecial fare just 29 euros (25) one-way, 58 euros (50) return 2nd class if you book in advance ( limited availability).
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Then use the journey planner at the German Railways website www.bahn.de to bring up the Munich-Ljubljana-Zagreb train shown above, and buy the ticket.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

For return trips originating in Slovenia, "City Star" tickets, which are open-dated, but usually require a weekend stay, are often the cheapest choice [8]. .Also, be aware that you also receive a discount with the Euro<26 youth card [9] on most international lines (of course the discount does not stack up if you already have a special deal).^ Registration will make your presence and whereabouts known in case it is necessary to contact you in an emergency and will enable you to receive up-to-date information on security conditions.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The same card also applies for all domestic lines, with a 30% discount.
The quality and comfort of the trains on international routes varies significantly. The unwritten rule is that everything heading up north from Ljubljana has a pretty good standard. The trains usually have restaurants on board, with clean and modern toilets. .The same can not be guaranteed for the lines heading south (such as Belgrade, Sofia, Skopje or Thessaloniki), so be sure to carry a supply of food and beverages on board (water (and coffee) is available in every sleeping compartment), when heading to or from Ljubljana from the Balkans, with the train.^ First, travel from London to Ljubljana, taking Eurostar to Paris, the City Night Line sleeper train to Munich and a EuroCity train to Ljubljana.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Brand-new sleeping-cars with 1, 2 & 3-berth compartments are available (see photos below), but no couchettes.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ The train has 1st & 2nd class seats, but no buffet or restaurant car, so take your own supplies of food, water and wine or beer...
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.However the express services which run to Zagreb (usually starting in Munich, Germany) are very high quality - but the price shows this.^ However, I wouldn't risk the connection with the 07:00 train from Zagreb to Munich.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

By car

Slovenia has an excellent highway network [10] connected to neighboring countries. .Since 1 July 2008 Slovenia demands that all vehicles with a permissible weight of up to 3.5 tons buy a vignette (road tax) before using motorways or expressways.^ Slovenia's ability to meet its growth rate objectives will largely depend on the state of the world economy, since exports demand in Slovenia's primary market has stalled.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Then use the journey planner at the German Railways website www.bahn.de to bring up the Munich-Ljubljana-Zagreb train shown above, and buy the ticket.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

For passenger vehicles, the vignette costs 15€ for a week, 30€ for a month, or 95€ for a year. For motorcyclists, this costs 7.50€ per week, 25€ for 6 months and 47.50€ for a year. [11]. Using motorways without a vignette will result in a fine of 300€ or more. Vignettes are actually sold at the border, and the border agents are supposed to give you a flyer advising you to buy one, but they don't always do that. There are also signs advising you to buy, but they are in Slovene only.
When entering through northern neighbor Austria, you also need a separate vignette to use the Austrian highway network.
.
  • There is a fast ferry between Venice and Izola, running with an irregular schedule mainly during the summer season (for the timetable see [12]).^ Other cities --Maribor (110,668), Kranj (51,225), Celje (48,081), Koper (47,539).
    • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The journey takes 3 hours.
  • Venezialines [13] run one fast ferry per week between Venice and Piran.
  • During the summer months there is a fast craft service operated by Trieste Lines between Trieste (Italy), Piran (Slovenia), Porec (Croatia) and Rovinj (Croatia).^ Even with these successes, much of the economy remains in state hands and foreign direct investment in Slovenia is one of the lowest in the EU on a per capita basis.
    • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Today, Slovenia is one the best economic performers in central and eastern Europe, with a GDP per capita in PPP in 2008 at $23,100.
    • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The portion of the journey between Piran and Trieste lasts 30 minutes which is pretty much the same as the same journey in a car.

Get around

Slovenia is a small country — there are no domestic flights — and getting around is generally quick and painless. However, the explosive growth in car ownership has meant tougher times for public transport, and bus schedules in particular have been slashed, so some planning ahead is required. Services are sparse on Saturdays and very limited indeed on Sundays.
Timetable decoder
D — Mon-Fri
D+ — Mon-Sat
N — Sundays
NP — Sundays and holidays
PP — Mon-Fri
SN — Sat-Sun
Šr — School days
V — Daily
.Slovenia's train network, operated by Slovenske železnice (SŽ) [14] will get you to most destinations in the country, although there are some annoying gaps in the network and routes can be circuitous, so going from anywhere to anywhere usually requires a transfer in Ljubljana.^ There is something here for everyone from easy valley walks and rougher forest trails to high-mountain protected routes, some of which require Alpine mountaineering experience.
  • Slovenia maps from Omnimap, the world's leading map store. 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In March 2004, Slovenia sent a detachment of special operations troops, along with some vehicles, to the ISAF mission in Afghanistan.

^ Although some disagreements over support for the other country's minorities continue to flare up, they are usually handled diplomatically and in a straightforward manner.

Trains are, however, some 30% cheaper than buses and return discounts are available on weekends. Buy tickets before you board, as there's a surcharge for any tickets bought from the conductor. A €1.20 surcharge also applies to any InterCity trains.
Quite a bit of money and effort has been put into modernizing the system and the newest trains are as nice as anything you'll find in Western Europe, and although rural stations are often quite basic most stations are extremely well kept with flowers decorating the platforms throughout summer months. In particular, the name of the station is typically only visible on a single sign on the station building itself, so figuring out where you are means craning your neck a lot. Trains are punctual though, so check the expected arrival time and some previous station names to be sure where to get off. For figuring out your next train from a station, electronic signboards are a rarity (outside Ljubljana), but printed schedules are always available: odhod (yellow) means departures, while prihod (white) is arrivals although this is usually indicated in both English and Slovene.

By bus

Buses fill in the gaps, and may be a better option for some towns not directly served from Ljubljana by train (eg. Bled, Piran). Some bigger stations have handy electronic search engines for schedules and fares.
Time table in English: [15]

By car

Slovenia's roads are for the most part well maintained and well signposted, and you won't have a problem if you drive or hire a car. Having a car certainly does add a level of mobility and self direction that you won't get by train or bus.
There are a number of car rental and taxi businesses in Ljubljana. .The big international companies are all represented[16], but if you are on a budget, the local companies have some nice offers if you do not mind using a car which is a few years old.^ With these objectives in mind, the EBLUL is planning to set up member-state committees in all of the new EU countries to represent the interests of some 20 million minority-language speakers.
  • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We offer rental cars in all major cities of Slovenia and you can save up to 40%.
  • Slovenia car hire from 165 EUR / 150 GBP / 239 USD per week - Cheap Slovenia car rental 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC slovenia.rentalcargroup.com [Source type: News]

^ Slovenia Auto Rental offers you the option to book your car rental securely online.
  • Slovenia car hire from 165 EUR / 150 GBP / 239 USD per week - Cheap Slovenia car rental 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC slovenia.rentalcargroup.com [Source type: News]

Talk

.Slovene, the national language, is spoken as mother tongue by 91% of the population, but there are also small Italian (concentrated on the Primorska coast) and somewhat bigger Hungarian (in Prekmurje to the northeast) minorities.^ Hungarians and Italians have the status of indigenous minorities under the Slovenian constitution, which guarantees them seats in the National Assembly.
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^ Political parties: National Assembly seats--Social Democrats (SD) 29; Slovenian Democratic Party (SDS) 28 seats; ZARES 9; Democratic Party of Slovenian Pensioners (DeSUS) 7; Slovene People's Party (SLS) 5; Slovene National Party (SNS) 5, Liberal Democracy of Slovenia (LDS) 5; Italian minority 1; Hungarian minority 1; unaffiliated 1.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hungarian (as well as Italian) minorities in Slovenia are accorded special treatment under the Slovenian constitution, including a permanent parliamentary seat.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Historically, and prior to the end of WWII there was also a significant German speaking minority.^ It says there is much to be done to help the 20 million people who speak minority languages in Central and East Europe.
  • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

.Most people you come into contact with as a tourist, especially younger ones, will speak English, and if not they'll almost certainly speak either Italian or German or other Serbo-Croatian.^ Slovenian 92%, Serbo-Croatian 6.2%, other 1.8% .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When speaking in English, use a simple language, no fancy stuff (as anywhere where English is not a native language). It will get you further and help to avoid any misunderstandings. The Slovenian school system promotes the teaching of many languages, especially English from elementary school on. .Children study two foreign languages (most commonly English and German) by the time they get to high school.^ Also, Foreign Minister Rupel has met with Secretary Rice several times in 2005 as the chairman of OSCE, most recently in July.

A typical high school often has a third foreign language (usually Spanish, French or Italian). .Young people usually speak English quite fluently, also because there is no dubbing (on television) in the native language and the wide-spread use and availability of Internet.^ It says there is much to be done to help the 20 million people who speak minority languages in Central and East Europe.
  • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

^ English is widely understood by business people and students.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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However, learning a few words of the local language will earn you a great deal of respect. The level of English is very high when compared with most European countries.
.The related Serbo-Croatian is widely understood and spoken fluently by anyone who was schooled before 1991, the same goes for reading and writing the Cyrillic alphabet.^ It concerns around 20,000 people, mostly Croats, Bosnians and Serbs who were living in Slovenia before it won independence from the former Yugoslavia in 1991.
  • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many Slovenes have some functional knowledge of German, English and Italian.^ The atmosphere on board is good, many families travelling from a variety of countries, Italians, Germans, many Eastern Europeans and a smattering of Brits.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Italian is a co-official language in the coastal region and the area surrounding Trieste, Italy. Similarly, Slovene is spoken in many parts of Italy close to Slovenia.

Do

.There are many great opportunities for activity holidays in Slovenia: The mountains and rivers of the Julian Alps provide the perfect location for hiking, mountain biking, rafting and kayaking.^ The Alps--including the Julian Alps, the Kamnik-Savinja Alps, the Karavanke chain, and the Pohorje Massif--dominate northern Slovenia near Austria.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ A car rental in Slovenia will let you explore the country at your own pace, and discover the many great places off the beaten track.
  • Slovenia Car hire: Rent cars in Slovenia and Europe with DriveAway Holidays. 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.driveaway.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The scenery through southeast Germany, Austria & Slovenia is stunning, with views of snow capped mountains, lush meadows & winding rivers.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

The southern part of Slovenia is an area of numerous caves. .You can enjoy different spa resorts in the eastern part, take a dive in the Adriatic Sea, experience the Slovene cities, go skiing, or enjoy in the countryside tasting Slovene cuisine and local wine.^ Central Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • Adrenaline adventures in the Posocje area, you can stay in Ljubljana and a short distance away discover the amazing North-Eastern area of Slovenia called Posocje and Triglav National Park -- canyoning, rafting, para-gliding and much more!^ More than geographically, Slovenia is a bridge from developed Europe into the Balkans, an area of the continent that poses significant diplomatic and security challenges.

    ^ The National Assembly ratified accession to the North Atlantic Treaty in February 2004, and Slovenia officially became a member of the Alliance on March 29, 2004.
    • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ More than geographically, Slovenia is a bridge from developed Europe into the Balkans, an area of the continent where significant diplomatic and security challenges remain.
    • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    *While .Slovenia is a small country, you can discover it in a few days.^ A car rental in Slovenia will let you explore the country at your own pace, and discover the many great places off the beaten track.
    • Slovenia Car hire: Rent cars in Slovenia and Europe with DriveAway Holidays. 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.driveaway.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Advance reservation isn't necessary for Ljubljana-Rijeka trains, so you can buy a ticket at Ljubljana on the day & hop on, indeed this is cheaper than buying a through ticket from outside Slovenia.
    • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    ^ For example, you have a very small community of Italians in Slovenia."
    • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Therefore you can visit the capital (Ljubljana), Alps, Karst region, alpine lakes and much more.
  • There are more than 8.000 known caves in Slovenia, including the tourist areas of Postojna and UNESCO site Škocjan.
  • Take advantage of beautiful nature in the Alps and go hiking or nordic walking
  • Visit of one many spa resorts in Slovenia
  • Visit Slovene seaside and swim in the Adriatic Sea.^ Thank you for visiting my site...
    • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Slovenia is also home to some of Europe’s largest underground caves; the Skocjan caves are located in the Karst region and are absolutely stunning.
    • Slovenia Car hire: Rent cars in Slovenia and Europe with DriveAway Holidays. 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.driveaway.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Most of Slovenia is covered in mountainous land, having the tail end of the Alps next door to the Pre Alpine Hills and the natural beauty makes it an unbelievable experience.
    • Slovenia Car hire: Rent cars in Slovenia and Europe with DriveAway Holidays. 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.driveaway.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Try local sea food and visit the towns of Piran and Portoroz
  • Visit one of the golf courses in Slovenia
  • Skiing in the Julian Alps is popular in the winter.^ The Alps--including the Julian Alps, the Kamnik-Savinja Alps, the Karavanke chain, and the Pohorje Massif--dominate northern Slovenia near Austria.

    ^ Having the small town charm and coziness that some of its neighbouring nations have lost; Slovenia is fast becoming one of the most popular European alternatives for tourists.
    • Slovenia Car hire: Rent cars in Slovenia and Europe with DriveAway Holidays. 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.driveaway.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    More popular ski resorts are: Krvavec, Vogel, Rogla, Cerkno, Kanin, Mariborsko Pohorje

Buy

.Slovenia entered the Eurozone on January 1st, 2007 and now utilises the euro (€, EUR) as its currency, having previously used the Slovenian tolar (SIT).^ Slovenia joined the Euro Zone in January 2007.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the inflation trend is in the right direction (lower) and barring any major, unforeseen macroeconomic issues arising, Slovenia will likely adopt the Euro in 2007.

^ The Slovene currency (the tolar, or SIT in abbreviated form) is stable, fully convertible, and backed by substantial reserves.

.Prices are high compared to most Eastern European countries (except Croatia), but generally a bit lower (but not by much) compared to Italy or Austria.^ Multilateral discussions among Slovenia, Croatia, and Italy on this issue continue with European Commission participation.

^ The atmosphere on board is good, many families travelling from a variety of countries, Italians, Germans, many Eastern Europeans and a smattering of Brits.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Slovenia is the only remaining Central or Eastern European country without a single mosque .
  • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

Although prices do vary quite a bit. It really depends on your location. .For example, a beer (0,5 litre) in a pub in "Stara Ljubljana" (literally "Old (Town) Ljubljana") would cost you around 3€, while a beer outside Ljubljana would cost around half as much.^ Advance reservation isn't necessary for Ljubljana-Rijeka trains, so you can buy a ticket at Ljubljana on the day & hop on, indeed this is cheaper than buying a through ticket from outside Slovenia.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

A budget minded traveller can hold his own, if he is smart. .For example buying your groceries in a large store (supermarket), such are Mercator, Tuš, Spar, Lidl, Hofer etc., will be likely cheaper than buying on the market, or in a small store, etc.^ Advance reservation isn't necessary for Ljubljana-Rijeka trains, so you can buy a ticket at Ljubljana on the day & hop on, indeed this is cheaper than buying a through ticket from outside Slovenia.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

A value-added tax (VAT) of 20% is charged on most purchases—this is always included in the price displayed. Note that if you are not an EU citizen, you are entitled to VAT tax return for purchases over a certain value. .Ask the cashier to write down your name on your bill (racun) and show this bill when you leave Slovenia through Brnik airport, or any of the main border crossings with Croatia.^ Slovenia Rent a Car shows a comparison of all the leading car rental providers including Hertz, Sixt, Europcar, Alamo, CarTrawler, ian to find you the very best deal on your car rental.
  • Slovenia car hire from 165 EUR / 150 GBP / 239 USD per week - Cheap Slovenia car rental 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC slovenia.rentalcargroup.com [Source type: News]

^ A car rental in Slovenia will let you explore the country at your own pace, and discover the many great places off the beaten track.
  • Slovenia Car hire: Rent cars in Slovenia and Europe with DriveAway Holidays. 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.driveaway.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Slovenia Auto Rental offers you the option to book your car rental securely online.
  • Slovenia car hire from 165 EUR / 150 GBP / 239 USD per week - Cheap Slovenia car rental 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC slovenia.rentalcargroup.com [Source type: News]

Tipping

The flip side to the near-disappearance of Communist-style "service with a snarl" is that tips for service are now generally expected of foreigners at sit-down restaurants, with 10% considered standard. Note, however, that most Slovenians do not tip.

Eat

.Not too many people come to Slovenia for the food, but with Austrian, Italian, Hungarian and Balkan influences most people will find something to their liking — unless they're strict vegetarians.^ Hungarian and Italian are spoken in the border regions, and German fluency is common near the Austrian border.
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^ GEOGRAPHY AND PEOPLE Slovenia is situated at the crossroads of central Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Balkans.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Many say they were hesitant because of unrest in Bosnia and Croatia, and thought Slobodan Milosevic might retake Slovenia.
  • News on 'Izbrsani' (erased persons) in Slovenia - Prevent Genocide International 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC preventgenocide.org [Source type: Original source]

Cuisine

Generally speaking, Slovenian food is heavy, meaty and plain. A typical three-course meal starts with a soup (juha), often just beef (goveja -) or chicken (piščančja -) broth with egg noodles (rezanci), and then a meat dish served with potatoes (krompir) and a vinegary fresh salad (solata). Fresh bread (kruh) is often served on the side and is uniformly delicious.
Common mains include cutlets (zrezek), sausage (klobasa) and goulash (golaž), all usually prepared from pork, but there is a large choice of fish (ribe) and seafood even further away from the coast. Popular Italian imports include all sorts of pasta (testenine), pizza (pica), ravioli (žlikrofi) and risotto (rižota). A major event in the countryside still today is the slaughtering of a pig from which many various products are made: blood sausage (krvavica), roasts, stuffed tripe, smoked sausage (prekajena salama), salami (salama), ham (šunka) and bacon (slanina). Recipes for the preparation of poultry (perutnina), especially turkey (puran), goose (gos), duck (raca) and capon, have been preserved for many centuries. Chicken (piščanec) is also common. Squid is fairly common and reasonably priced.
Uniquely Slovenian dishes are available, but you won't find them on every menu, so here are some to look out for:
  • Kraški pršut — air-dried ham, similar to but not the same as Italian prosciutto
  • štruklji — dumplings which Slovenians prepare in 70 different ways stuffed with sweet fillings, meat or vegetables
  • žganci — a type of polenta
  • žlikrofi — potato dumplings similar to gnocchi, specialty of the Idria region
  • jota — a type of soup made of beans, sauerkraut, potatoes, bacon, spare ribs, and the main seasoning is garlic.
Some Slovenian desserts can also be found:
  • potica, a type of nut roll for holiday occasions also prepared with the widest variety of fillings.
  • gibanica, a very heavy cakelike pastry of poppy seeds, walnuts, apples, raisins, cheese etc, topped with cream
A typical gostilna, Kamnik
A typical gostilna, Kamnik
At the top of the food chain is the restavracija, a fancy restaurant with waiters and tablecloths. More common in the countryside are the gostilna and gostišče, rustic inns serving hearty Slovene fare. Lunch sets (dnevno kosilo) cost around €7 for three courses (soup, salad and main) and are usually good value.
Fast food, invariably cheap, greasy and (more often than not) terrible — it's best to steer clear of the local mutation of the hamburger — is served up in grills and snack bars known as bife or okrepčevalnica, where trying to pronounce the name alone can cause indigestion. .There is no real Slovenian fast food, but greasy Balkan grills like pljeskavica (a spiced-up hamburger patty) and čevapčiči (spicy meatballs) are ubiquitous, but one of the more tasty if not healthy options is the Bosnian speciality burek, a large, flaky pastry stuffed with meat (mesni), cheese (sirni) or apple (jabolčni), often sold for as little as €2. In recent years many fast food places started making döner kebabs, and they are now among the most popular fast foods in Slovenia, and can be found virtually everywhere.^ Set up in 2005, it's an amazing system and probably the best place to start for booking any hotel online in any country, worldwide.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Alternatively, there is an overnight Zagreb-Sarajevo train, which has seats but now no couchette car so is not the most comfortable or civilised option.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ There is also now an overnight Sarajevo-Zagreb train, with seats but no sleepers or couchettes.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Dietary restrictions

Slovenia is not the easiest of places for a vegetarian, although even the smokiest inn can usually whip up a decent fresh salad (solata) on request. Some dumplings and other dishes with cheese (sir) are vegetarian, and in the cities the Mediterranean chick-pea staple falafel and its cousin the vegiburger have made some inroads on fast-food menus. Many restaurants offer a "vegetarian plate", which includes potatoes, fresh or boiled vegetables and soya "steak". There are a rising number of vegetarian restaurants in the cities, particularly in Ljubljana.

Drink

.In proper Slovene style, all bases are covered for drinks and you can get very good Slovenian beers, wines and spirits.^ Italian-Slovenian bilateral relations are also very good.
  • Slovenia (04/09) 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tap water is generally drinkable.

Coffee and tea

In Slovenia, coffee (kava) usually means a tiny cup of strong espresso, and cafes (kavarna) are a common sight with a basic cup costing around €1-1,5. One can also order coffee with milk (kava z mlekom) or whipped cream (kava s smetano). Coffee culture is wide-spread in Slovenia, and one can see Slovenes with friends sitting in the same café for hours. Tea (čaj) is nowhere near as popular, and if they do drink it, Slovenes prefer all sorts of fruit-flavored and herbal teas over a basic black cup.

Beer

Beer (pivo) is the most popular tipple and the main brands are Laško and Union. An inside tip would be Adam Ravbar beer, which is usually hard to find anywhere except in their small brewery (located in Domžale, a town about 10 km north of Ljubljana). A bottle or jug will cost you on the order of €2.5 in a pub (pivnica). Ask for veliko (large) for 0.5L and malo (small) for 0.3L.

Wine

Despite what you might think if you've ever sampled an exported sickly sweet Riesling, Slovenian wine (vino) can be quite good — they keep the best stuff for themselves. Generally, the Goriška brda region produces the best reds and the drier whites (in a more Italian/French style), while the Štajerska region produces the best semi-dry to sweet whites, which cater more to the German/Austrian-type of palate. Other local specialities worth sampling are Teran, a very dry red from the Kras region, and Cviček, a red so dry and light it's almost a rosé. Wine is usually priced and ordered by the decilitre (deci, pronounced "de-tsee"), with a deci around one euro and a normal glass containing about two deci.

Spirits

A Slovene brandy known as žganje or (colloquially) šnops, not unlike the Hungarian palinka, can be distilled from almost any fruit. Medeno žganje also known as medica has been sweetened with honey.

Sleep

Slovenia has a wide variety of accommodation, ranging from five star hotels to secluded cottages in the mountains.
  • Visitslovenija, Bohinjska Bela (Near Bled), +442081446675, [17]. checkin: 1600; checkout: 1000. At Visit Slovenija we offer quality self-catering accommodation in the best locations Slovenia has to offer. .Still very much an undiscovered gem, Slovenia has everything you could want from a holiday destination.^ Most destinations, including Slovenia, require that you have adequate un-used pages in your passport, allowing for any necessary stamps upon arrival and departure.
    • Slovenia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Slovenian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC slovenia.visahq.com [Source type: General]

    Ancient castles, beautiful mountains, stunning lakes, sunshine and skiing all come together to make one of the most varied and enjoyable holiday spots in Europe.
    From €600.  edit

Hostels

.There are many hostels in and around Ljubljana, the average price for a basic bed in a dorm is around 10-20 euro, with discounts for Hostelling International/YHA members.^ The Ljubljana-Rijeka fare is only about 13 euros one-way, 20 euros return.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ For a dorm bed or an ultra-cheap private room in backpacker hostels in most European cities use www.hostelbookers.com .
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Quite a few student dormitories (dijaški dom) are converted into hostels in the summer, but these tend to be poorly located and somewhat dingy.
.Amongst the best hostels around Slovenia can be found in the Triglav National Park where there are many 'Mountain Huts' which are very warm, welcoming and friendly.^ ICN trains tilt round the bends on this mountainous route, cutting the journey time to 5 hours from a previous best of around 8 hours.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Again, information about these huts can be found at tourist information offices who will also help you plan your walks around the area and phone the hostels to book them for you.^ If you buy your ticket at Zagreb station, the fare is about 170 Kuna (17), which includes a complimentary coffee & sandwich.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ If you buy your ticket at Zagreb station, the fare by ICN train is about 170 Kuna (17), which includes a complimentary coffee & sandwich.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

The only way to get to the huts is by foot, and expect a fair bit of walking up hills, as the lowest huts are around 700m up. .There are clear signs/information around stating how long it will take to travel to/between all the huts indicated in hours.^ Between June & September, there's also a daily fast ferry, taking 4 hours, leaving Ancona at around 11:00 and returning from Split at 17:00, see www.snav.it .
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Tourist farms

One of interesting ways of accommodation are also tourist farms. You can find them all around Slovene countryside and usually they offer wide selection of traditional food, local wine, different sport activities etc. They also offer opportunities to experience real traditional countryside life.

Camping

Camping is not permitted in the national parks of Slovenia, but there are various camping grounds. It's advisable to take a camping mat of some sort, as nice, comfortable grass is a luxury at camp sites and you're much more likely to find pitches consisting of small stones.

Learn

Slovenia has four universities (Ljubljana [18], Maribor [19], Koper [20], Nova Gorica [21]) and several independent colleges (i.e. BSA Kranj, IEDC Bled [22]). The University of Ljubljana also contains 3 art academies: Theater and Film, Music, Fine Arts.

Work

It's possible for English-speaking graduates to get work in a Slovene school teaching English for around a year in a scheme similar to Japan's JET programme.

Stay safe

Phone Nr.: Emergency 112 Phone Nr.: Police 113
Slovenia is most likely one of the safest countries to visit, but be aware of your surroundings.
Tivoli Park (Ljubljana): The park is generally very safe, and a great place to take an afternoon stroll, but rapes have been reported in Tivoli park after dark, and flashers are know to hang around the Eastern side of the Park across from the student dormitories. Horse mounted police patrol the park.
Discotheques: People may get a bit aggressive in crowded bars, and it is not uncommon to be grabbed or groped.

Stay healthy

There are no unusual health concerns in Slovenia. Hygience standards are generally high and tap water is potable. While in nature, always use tick repellents, due to Boreliosis and Meningitis danger.

Respect

Slovenians are a bit more reserved than neighboring nations but after the initial contact they are quite open and friendly. Don't hesitate to address people, those younger than 50 understand English and they will be eager to help you. You will impress them if you try using some basic Slovene words. Slovenian is rarely spoken by foreigners, so your effort will be appreciated and rewarded.
Not thinking of the former "Eastern Bloc" as one monolithic entity is a big plus (see two paragraphs down), and knowing at least a few basic facts about Slovenia (something still fairly rare with foreigners) will always sit well with the locals.
Slovenians are proud of the fact that they preserved their national identity (especially the language) in spite of the pressures from neighboring non-Slavic nations in past centuries. While Slovenian is closely related to Serbo-Croatian it is not the same language, nor do most people sympathize with the idea of a Yugoslav nation or language.
Due to their economic success and historical, as well as contemporary cultural bonds to the West, they don't like their country to be described as part of "Eastern Europe". Another common misconception is that Slovenia was part of the Soviet Bloc (in fact it was part of Yugoslavia that notoriously split with the Eastern bloc back in 1948). People have no problems talking about the communist period and often become nostalgic over it. They are also proud that they were the first of the federal republics to secede from Yugoslavia. Tito is considered by the vast majority as a national hero, as he also spoke Slovenian very fluently and his mother was Slovenian.
There are some open territorial issues with Croatia. Be careful if entering a discussion on this subject as nationalists get quite emotional when this subject is broached! Another delicate issue is the Slovenian civil war during WWII. This national tragedy is still painful for many Slovenians. Try to stay neutral if discussing it.
Practical advice:
  • If you are invited to dinner to someone's home bring a bottle of good wine. You will often be asked if you want to change to slippers when you arrive. You should accept it. It's a gesture of hospitality. It's expected to give a compliment to a cook. Do it before you are asked if you liked the meal!
  • It's normal that you shake your hand when introduced to someone. Don't try to make a kiss when introduced. It might be considered intrusive.
  • Always use formal forms ("vikanje" in Slovene) in any language you use when addressing elderly people. Otherwise some might not want to talk to you.
  • Slovenian Alps (especially the highest peak Triglav) are in the heart of every Slovenian. Don't litter unless you want to listen to unpleasant comments. It's common to greet people you meet in the mountains in Slovene (Dober dan) and when you part you say Good luck (Srečno). You can expect people you meet to be very friendly and helpful to you. There is a strong spirit of camaraderie in the mountains.
  • In most Slovenian households it is customary to take off one's shoes. This is a habit prevailing in most of Central Europe, maybe because of general cleanliness, but also because grit and slush from the pavements can cause havoc to a flat in winter.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia has an article on:
See also slovenia

Contents

English

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA: /sləʊˈviː.ni.ə/, /sləʊˈviːn.jə/
  • (US) IPA: /sloʊˈvi.ni.ə/, /sloʊˈvin.jə/
  •  Audio (US)help, file

Proper noun

Singular
Slovenia
Plural
-
Slovenia
.
  1. A country in Central Europe.^ We offer a wide range of research services in Central and Eastern Europe for companies interested in business over the countries in the region.
    • Market research Slovenia - PMR Research 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.research-pmr.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Welcome to Slovenia Life Slovenia Life is a website devoted exclusively to the small but uniquely charming country of Slovenia, located at the base of the Alps in central Europe.
    • Slovenia Life: The Complete Travel Guide to Slovenia 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC slovenia-life.com [Source type: General]

    ^ SLOVENIA is a country in the south-east part of central Europe and IT'S NOT SLOVAKIA! SLOVENIA =/= SLOVAKIA SLOVENIA is not SLOVAKIA SLO-VEN-IA is not SLO-VAK-IA slo VEN ia slo VAK ia understand now?

    Official name: Republic of Slovenia, "Republika Slovenija"

Related terms

Translations

See also


Finnish

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Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Slovenia
Wikipedia fi

Proper noun

Slovenia
  1. Sloveni

Declension


Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Slovenia
Wikipedia it

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /zloˈvɛnja/, SAMPA: /zlo"vEnja/

Proper noun

Slovenia f.
  1. Slovenia

Related terms

Anagrams


Norwegian

Proper noun

Slovenia
  1. Slovenia

Related terms


Romanian

Pronunciation

  • IPA: [slo've.ni.a]

Proper noun

Slovenia f.
  1. Slovenia

Declension

gender f. uncountable
Nom/Acc Slovenia
Gen/Dat Sloveniei

See also


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Slovenia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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