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Slovenian Littoral in Slovenia

The Slovenian Littoral (Slovene: Primorska; Italian: Litorale; German: Küstenland) is a historical region of Slovenia. Its name recalls the historical Habsburg crown land of the Austrian Littoral, of which the Slovenian Littoral was a part.

The region comprises two traditional provinces: Goriška and Slovenian Istria. The Goriška region takes name after the town of Gorizia (Gorica in Slovene), now part of Italy. It comprises those areas of the former County of Gorizia and Gradisca that were assigned to Yugoslavia (Slovenia) after 1947, as well as the Vipava and Idrija municipalities. Slovenian Istria comprises the northern part of the Istria peninsula and provides, at the port of Koper, access to the sea for Slovenia which otherwise is landlocked.

History

During the period of Austrian rule, the region was known as the Austrian Littoral, and was divided into Istria, the Imperial Free City of Trieste, and the autonomous Crown Lands of Gorizia and Gradisca.

In 1918, the whole area was occupied by the Italian army; in 1920, Italy annexed it, calling it the Julian March. After World War II, the area was split between Yugoslavia, which got the majority of the region, and Italy, which kept the urban centres of Trieste and Gorizia. As a result, new urban centres on the Slovenian part of the border developed; today, the main urban centers of the Slovene Littoral are Koper and the Nova Gorica - Šempeter conurbation.

After Ljubljana, the Slovene Littoral is the most developed and economically prosperous part of Slovenia. The western part of the Slovenian Istria (the coast) is a bilingual region where both Slovene and Italian can be used in education, legal and administrative environments.

See also

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