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Slumping is a categorical description of an area of techniques for the forming of glass by applying heat to the point where the glass becomes plastic. The increasing fluidity of the glass with temperature causes the glass to 'slump' into the mould under the force of gravity.



Glass is most commonly heated in an oven, often using glass in a sheet form and 'slumping' it over a form or into a mold. Molds are generally made of high temperature plaster, clay coated with plaster or another release agent, graphite, sand mixed with a bonding agent, steel, or other materials. At the point where the glass has achieved the desired form the heat is quickly vented and the temperature reduced to prevent further movement of the glass and then it is stabilized at its respective annealing temperature and annealed.


During the Roman period open vessels, such as bowls and plates, could be produced by forming a glass sheet over a core or former. This technique resulted in vessels with rough surfaces, which could then be ground or polished to a smooth finish[1]. An additional technique, used in the production of Roman pillar-moulded bowls, utilised a slotted tool to impress ribs on the glass sheet prior to slumping. This created a bowl with a ribbed exterior, and these were then polished around the rim and sometimes given horizontal cut lines inside for further decoration[1].

See also


  1. ^ a b Allen, D., Roman Glass in Britain, ed. J. Dyer. 1998, Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire: Shire Publications


Allen, D., "Roman Glass in Britain", ed. J. Dyer. 1998, Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire: Shire Publications.



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