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A woman smiling.

A smile is a facial expression formed by flexing those muscles most notably near both ends of the mouth [1]. The smile can also be found around the eyes (See 'Duchenne smile' below). Among humans, it is customarily an expression denoting pleasure, happiness, or amusement, but can also be an involuntary expression of anxiety, in which case it is known as a grimace. Cross-cultural studies have shown that smiling is used as a means of communicating emotions throughout the world.[2] Happiness is most often the motivating cause of a smile. Among animals, the exposure of teeth, which may bear a resemblance to a smile, is often used as a threat or warning display—known as a snarl—or a sign of submission. In chimpanzees, it can also be a sign of fear. The study of smiles is a part of gelotology, psychology, and linguistics, comprising various theories of affect, humor, and laughter.[3]

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Historical background

Many biologists think the smile originated as a sign of fear. Primalogist Signe Preuschoft traces the smile back over 30 million years of evolution to a "fear grin" stemming from monkeys and apes who often used barely clenched teeth to portray to predators that they were harmless. Monkeys and apes still do that. Biologists believe the smile has evolved differently among species and especially among humans. Humans smile differently. Some show their teeth when they smile, some don't.

Biology is not the only academic discipline that interprets the smile. Those who study kinesics view the smile as an affect display. It can communicate feelings such as love, happiness, pride, contempt, and embarrassment.[3]

Dimples

A man smiling, with dimples.

Cheek dimples are visible indentations of the skin, caused by underlying flesh, which form on some people's cheeks, especially when they smile. Dimples are genetically inherited and are a dominant trait.[4] Dimples on each cheek are a relatively common occurrence for people with dimples. A rarer form is the single dimple, which occurs on one side of the face only. Anatomically, dimples may be caused by variations in the structure of the facial muscle known as zygomaticus major. Specifically, the presence of a double or bifid zygomaticus major muscle may explain the formation of cheek dimples.[5] This bifid variation of the muscle originates as a single structure from the zygomatic bone. As it travels anteriorly, it then divides with a superior bundle that inserts in the typical position above the corner of the mouth. An inferior bundle inserts below the corner of the mouth.

Duchenne smile

Although many different types of smiles have been identified and studied, researchers (e.g. Freitas-Magalhaes) have devoted particular attention to an anatomical distinction first recognized by French physician Guillaume Duchenne. While conducting research on the physiology of facial expressions in the mid-nineteenth century, Duchenne identified two distinct types of smiles. A Duchenne smile involves contraction of both the zygomatic major muscle (which raises the corners of the mouth) and the orbicularis oculi muscle (which raises the cheeks and forms crow's feet around the eyes). A non-Duchenne smile involves only the zygomatic major muscle.[6] Many researchers believe that Duchenne smiles indicate genuine spontaneous emotions since most people cannot voluntarily contract the outer portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Freitas-Magalhães, A., & Castro, E. (2009). The Neuropsychophysiological Construction of the Human Smile. In A. Freitas-Magalhães (Ed.), Emotional Expression: The Brain and The Face (pp.1-18). Porto: University Fernando Pessoa Press. ISBN 978-989-643-034-4..
  2. ^ Carroll E. Izard (1971). The Face of Emotion, New York: Appleton-Century-Croft.
  3. ^ a b Freitas-Magalhães, A. (2006). The Psychology of Human Smile. Oporto: University Fernando Pessoa Press.
  4. ^ Singapore Science Centre: ScienceNet|Life Sciences|Genetics/ Reproduction
  5. ^ http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/78395/
  6. ^ Duchenne, Guillaume (1990). The Mechanism of Human Facial Expression. New York: Cambridge University Press. (Original work published 1862).
  7. ^ Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., and O'Sullivan, M. (1988). "Smiles when lying". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, pp. 414–420.

Further reading

  • Conniff, R. (2007). What's behind a smile? Smithsonian Magazine, 38,46-53.
  • Miller, Professor George A., et al. Overview for "smile." Retrieved 12 December 2003 from this page.
  • Ottenheimer, H.J. (2006). The anthropology of language: An introduction to linguistic anthropology. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworh.
  • Ekman, P., Davidson, R.J., & Friesen, W.V. (1990). The Duchenne smile: Emotional expression and brain psysiology II. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 342-353. Cited in: Russell and Fernandez-Dols, eds. (1997).
  • Russell and Fernandez-Dols, eds. (1997). The Psychology of Facial Expression. Cambridge. ISBN 0521587964.

External links

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Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Smile article)

From Wikisource

The Smile
by William Blake

There is a Smile of Love
And there is a Smile of Deceit
And there is a Smile of Smiles
In which these two Smiles meet

And there is a Frown of Hate
And there is a Frown of Disdain
And there is a Frown of Frowns
Which you strive to forget in vain

For it sticks in the Hearts deep Core
And it sticks in the deep Back bone
And no Smile that ever was smild
But only one Smile alone

That betwixt the Cradle & Grave
It only once Smild can be
But when it once is Smild
Theres an end to all Misery


Simple English

A smile is a face made by flexing the muscles near both ends of the mouth.[1]. The smile can also be made through the eyes (See 'Duchenne smile' below). Smiles usually show happiness. A smile can be natural or fake. However, smiling can be different with animals. When smiling, the teeth shows, but sometimes animals do this when they are threatening. When chimpanzees show their teeth, it can also be a sign of fear.

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Dimples

Dimples are genetically inherited.[2] They are caused by the flesh underneath the skin, that forms on some people's cheeks, especially when they smile. Some people may only have one dimple on only one side of the face.

Duchenne smile

Although there are many different types of smiles, researchers are interested in the duchenne smile because it is done with the eyes. The Duchenne smile was named after the French physician Guillaume Duchenne. Duchenne identified two types of smiles. A Duchenne smile is when the cheek raises and forms a wrinkle around the eyes.[3] Many researchers think that Duchenne smiles are usually hard to make when you are pretending to smile.[4]

Internet

On the Internet, smiles can normally be typed up. This is normally called a smiley, smiley face, or happy face. Smileys show emotion when people are not able to see it in real life. Smileys typed on the computer are called emoticons. Smileys can change depending on where the person typing the smiley is.

Western Style: :-), :-(, ;-), :-O, :-D

Eastern Style: d(^.^)b, \(^o^)/, >.<, ^_^, *<):)

See also

References

  1. Freitas-Magalhães, A., & Castro, E. (2009). The Neuropsychophysiological Construction of the Human Smile. In A. Freitas-Magalhães (Ed.), Emotional Expression: The Brain and The Face (pp.1-18). Porto: University Fernando Pessoa Press. ISBN 978-989-643-034-4..
  2. Singapore Science Centre: ScienceNet|Life Sciences|Genetics/ Reproduction
  3. Duchenne, Guillaume (1990). The Mechanism of Human Facial Expression. New York: Cambridge University Press. (Original work published 1862).
  4. Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., and O'Sullivan, M. (1988). "Smiles when lying". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, pp. 414–420.

Further reading

  • Conniff, R. (2007). What's behind a smile? Smithsonian Magazine, 38,46-53.
  • Miller, Professor George A., et al. Overview for "smile." Retrieved 12 December 2003 from this page.
  • Ottenheimer, H.J. (2006). The anthropology of language: An introduction to linguistic anthropology. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworh.
  • Ekman, P., Davidson, R.J., & Friesen, W.V. (1990). The Duchenne smile: Emotional expression and brain psysiology II. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 342-353. Cited in: Russell and Fernandez-Dols, eds. (1997).
  • Russell and Fernandez-Dols, eds. (1997). The Psychology of Facial Expression. Cambridge. ISBN 0521587964.
  • Messinger, D. & Fogel, A. (2007). The interactive development of social smiling. In Robert Kail (ed.), Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 35, 327-366. Oxford: Elsevier. Retrieved 25 June 2010 from [1]

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