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Iconic smiley face

A smiley or happy face (/), is a stylized representation of a smiling human face, commonly represented as a yellow (many other colors are also used) circle (or sphere) with two black dots representing eyes and a black half circle representing the mouth. “Smiley” is also sometimes used as a generic term for any emoticon. Smileys have completely changed the way we IM, and will probably always be here.

The variant spelling "smilie" is not as common, but the plural form "smilies" (the plural of "smily", not "smiley") is commonly used.

Contents

Popularization

Harvey Ball designed the first Smiley face, while working at State Mutual Life Assurance Company as a freelance artist.[1] However, the first smiley face recorded on film can be seen being drawn in Ingmar Bergman's film "Hamnstad", released in 1948.[citation needed] The film is a drama about a depressed and suicidal young woman named Berit and in one scene she draws an unhappy face on the bathroom mirror using her lipstick.

The graphic was popularized in the early 1940s by Bernard and Murray Spain, who seized upon it in a campaign to sell novelty items.[citation needed] The two produced buttons as well as coffee mugs, t-shirts, bumper stickers and many other items emblazoned with the symbol and the phrase "Have a happy day" (devised by Gyula Bogar).

In the UK, the smiley is associated with psychedelic culture since Ubi Dwyer and the Windsor Free Festival in the 1970s and the acid house dance music culture that emerged during the second summer of love in the late 1980s. The face was used as an engraved logo on ecstasy tablets at the time. The association was cemented when the band Bomb The Bass used an extracted smiley from Watchmen on the centre of its Beat Dis hit single.

Licensing and legal issues

Smiley has been a registered trademark in some countries since 1971 when French journalist Franklin Loufrani created "Smiley World" to sell, advertise and license the smiley face image in the United Kingdom and Europe. The Smiley name and logo is registered and used in over 100 countries for 25 classes of goods and services. Loufrani has created the icon in 1971 to highlight good news in newspaper articles.[2]

In 1999, Harvey Ball formed World Smile Corporation and began licensing the smiley face to fund his undiscovered charitable causes. Profits are distributed to charities through the Harvey Ball World Smile Foundation, which also sponsors the annual World Smile Day Ball started in 1999 to encourage "acts of kindness."[3]

In 2006 Wal-Mart, which prominently featured a smiley in its "Rolling Back Prices" campaign, sought to trademark the smiley face in the United States, coming into legal conflict with Loufrani and Smiley World over the matter.[4][5] In 2006 Wal-mart began to phase out the smiley face on its vests[6] and its website. [7] During a trademark infringement case against an online parodist, Wal-Mart again tried to claim it held the trademark rights to the yellow smiley face. In March 2008, Wal-Mart lost the case and the judge stated in his decision that Wal-Mart did not own rights to the smiley face.[8]

In 2008, the Russian entrepeneur Oleg Teterin, president of the mobile phone company Superfone, claimed a trademark for the emoticon smiley that included ownership of ;-) and closely related smileys. He says he does not intend to go after individual users, but rather intends for companies who plan to use the emoticons to pay him royalties.[9]

In 2008 Loufrani lost his case in the EU when he tried to register the right half of the Smiley-mouth as a separate trademark. [10]

Typographical smileys

The satirical U.S. magazine Puck presented these typographical emoticons on March 30, 1881.

Many typographical representations of smiley faces have been developed over the years. Some feature non-smiling expressions or other elaborations. They come in two main varieties, those meant to be viewed sideways, and those meant to be seen upright.

Online Usage- The smiley face is a wide part of todays text messaging language or online slang. It is displayed as :-) or :) or 8-) or even :].

Icon Meaning
:-) classic smile with nose (Unicode: ☺ #263A)
:-( classic frown with nose (Unicode: ☹ #2639)
:) classic smile without nose
:( classic frown without nose

The two original text smileys, :-) to indicate a joke and :-( to mark things that are not a joke were invented on September 19, 1982 by Scott E. Fahlman, a research professor at Carnegie Mellon University's Department of Computer Science. His original post at the CMU CS general board, where he suggested the use of the smileys, was retrieved on September 10, 2002 by Jeff Baird from an October 1982 backup tape of the spice vax (cmu-750x) as proof to support the claim.[11]

More recently, small, in-line graphical images of smileys and other faces have become popular, especially on forums:

Smiley Expression
Smile-tpvgames.gif Simple Smile is usually written like this, :) or (: or :] or [: or =) or (= or :-) or (-: it can also be done by using alt, keypad, 1, getting ☺. or also the same thing only using: 2 getting ☻
Confused-tpvgames.gif Confused Smiley is usually written like this, :S or S: or :/ or :\ or /: or o_O or O_O or o.O or O.O, also known as "een dolletje" or "een dolleke".

As a verb, the term "een dolleke placeren" is used.

Sad-tpvgames.gif Simple Frown is usually written like this, :( or ): or :[ or ]: or :'( or )': or :-( or )-:
Shocked-tpvgames.gif Shocked Smiley is usually written like this, :O or O: or :o or o: or :-O (with nose) or D: it can also be done by using alt, keypad, 555, getting Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA ȫ. (this does not work on Wikipedia )
Misc-tpvgames.gif Smiley with Tongue sticking out is usually written like this, :P or q: or :p. If you use ASCII keys then, :Þ, is also possible. Press ALT + keypad0222 for "Þ"
MilesSmile.png Smiley with big grin is usually written like this, :D or :]] or [[:

The reverse, or left-handed, smileys (-: have also gained popularity for being a way to avoid having text smileys converted to graphical representations in certain settings such as instant messaging programs.

Fictional use

In the movie Forrest Gump, Tom Hanks' character of the same name is splattered with mud by a passing truck when running across America. A tee-shirt designer, who is struggling to think of a new design, hands him a tee-shirt to wipe off the mud. The imprint left in the mud stain is a smiley face; As Forrest runs off, he tells the man "Have a nice day" and the designer realizes this is the design he has been looking for.

In the 1974 classic comedy Blazing Saddles by Mel Brooks, the smiley logo is prominent on the back of two members of the Ku Klux Klan who are waiting in line to sign up for the destruction of the town of Rock Ridge.

Many smileys appear in the film Repo Man, as well as posters for "Harry Pace for City Council" ("Happy Face").

Galle crater on Mars is a real crater that featured in Watchmen

A bloodstained Smiley badge is featured as the most prominent motif and recurring piece of imagery in Alan Moore's 1986 comic series Watchmen, as well as its 2009 film adaptation. The badge belongs to a murdered "Adventurer" (Hero) known as The Comedian and prominently features a line of red blood crossing over the Smiley's left eye (right-hand side, left side visually) mimicking the position a clock face set at five minutes to midnight (another motif of the Comics). In later reissues and reprints of the comic series, the Bloodstained Smiley Badge, particularly the left eye, became a symbol for the series as a whole and serves as the cover art to the paperback graphic novel.

Evolution is a 2001 comedy sci-fi movie directed by Ivan Reitman. The movie uses a 'three-eyed' smiley to show the evolution of the standard smiley. The three-eyed smiley face used as the logo of the film in marketing was borrowed from the comic book Transmetropolitan. Producers had to get permission from DC Comics to use it and were licensed by Smileyworld Ltd., owner of the smiley face trademark, to use it for advertising and commercial purposes.

Rockstar Games has used Smiley faces often for ironic purposes. In Grand Theft Auto 2, a gang known as "The Loonies" has a Smiley face as their icon. In the game Manhunt, a gang of psychotics known as "The Smileys" wear smiley face masks, some often covered in blood, or with pieces broken off.

In the series The Mentalist, the antagonist Red John uses the smiley face as his signature, which he creates using the victim's blood and makes the circle with three fingers clockwise with a rubber kitchen glove. Because it is made from blood, the dripping makes it look as if it is weeping.

Moon is a 2009 science fiction film in which the lovable computer AI of the main character's station GERTY voiced by Kevin Spacey can only express itself by using smileys on the attached computer monitor for that specific use.

References


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Frank Jason Smiley article)

From Wikispecies

American botanist (1880-1969)

Standard form: Smiley


Simple English


A smiley (also called a "smiley face" and an "emoticon") is a picture of a smiling face that is used to show emotion. The first smileys to be widely used were made as yellow buttons, but now the most common smileys are made using computer keyboard symbols. Smileys are used by many people in emails and other types of computer messages. A "smiley" is also sometimes spelt wrongly as "smily" or "smilie".

Contents

History

Smiley button

The idea of the "smiley" first came from David Stern of an advertising agency called David Stern Inc. Stern designed the "smiley" in 1967 as part of an advertising campaign for Washington Mutual. The "smiley" was a bright yellow circle representing a face, with black oval eyes and a big curved mouth with smile creases at the ends.

The design was made popular in the early 1970s by a pair of brothers, Murray and Bernard Spain, who though of a great plan to sell novelty items. The two used the "smiley face" on buttons as well to decorate coffee mugs, t-shirts, bumper stickers and many other things. They also used the phrase "Have a happy day" (which was the idea of Gyula Bogar). "Smiley" buttons were very popular from the 1970s onwards.

Smileyworld Ltd

Smiley is a brand developed by Franklin Loufrani since 1971. He controls Smileyworld Ltd, a company whose mission is to make the world a happier place to live. Its brand Smiley is sold all over the world in several lifestyle industries, and its designers are constantly developing very creative and edgy products. The company donates ten percent of its royalties to a charity called the Smiley World Association, active with social actions in several countries. Its baseline is "Share your smile with those in need".

In 1997 Franklin's son Nicolas Loufrani has started to create a new world with icons based on the original Smiley logo. Today over 1200 icons are used as part of a brand called Smileyworld. This brand is based on a communication concept aimed at helping people to communicate better through various social expression products (greeting cards, gifts, etc.). It is also an educative project with books, toys, interactive products as well as a lifestyle brand for children.

Legal

Smiley has been a registered trademark since 1971. The Smiley name and logo now registered and used in over 100 countries for 25 classes of goods and services. More than 1200 Smiley emoticons are registered with the Washington Library of Congress and protected by the Universal Copyrights Convention. In the past 10 years, Smileyworld Ltd has signed more than 800 licensing contracts worldwide and has been using its rights in most classes of goods and services in all important countries on the 5 continents. Smileyworld Ltd works with over 60 law firms to protect its IP.

Emoticon

In the 1990s people started using the internet and emails as a regular way of communicating. So that they could show happiness or fun in an easy way, people started making little smiling faces using some of the symbols on the keyboard. A keyboard smiley has a colon ":" for the eyes, a hyphen "-" for the nose, and a parenthesis ")" for the mouth. Some people make the smiley without the hyphen for a nose. The "smileys" that are made in this way are sideways.

Here is a smiley:

:-)

When you tilt your head to the left, it looks like a smiling face.

Smileys are usually used as part of a written message, but sometimes a smiley is just sent on its own to say "I am happy with your last message." Smileys are a useful way to show feelings to someone who cannot see the face of person sending the message.

  • A smiley is usually used to show happiness: "I bought a new computer today! :-)"
  • A smiley can show that the sender does not want to hurt a person's feelings: "That was a silly thing to do! :-)"
  • A smiley can show that the sender is joking or being sarcastic: "Don't you think tests in school are really fun? :-)"

From the smiley came other ideas for showing emotions using keyboard symbols:

  •  :-) ... Smiley
  •  ;-)... I'm winking!
  •  :-D ... I'm laughing!
  •  :-( ... I'm frowning!
  •  :-| ... I'm disappointed!
  •  :-o ... I'm surprised!
  •  :'( ... I'm crying!
  •  :-s ... I'm worried!
  • {:-o .. I'm going crazy!
  •  :-P ... I'm poking my tongue out!
  • x-P ... That's disgusting!
    • <:o) .. Let's have a party!

Some people use different symbols, or do not use a nose, etc.

List of Online Smileys

Vertical

  • xs
  •  :-)
  •  :-(
  •  :-D
  •  :-|
  •  :-\
  •  :-o
  •  :'(
  •  :-P
  •  :-]
  •  :-[
  • =)
  • =(
  • =]
  • =[
  • =p
  • =d
  • XD
  • XP
  • c:
  •  :3
  •  :S
  •  :-#
  • xD
  • 3:D
  • >=B
  • 8D
  •  :D)

Horizontal

  • ^_^
  • O_O
  • ó.O
  • T_T
  • -_-
  • >_>
  • >_<
  • ^_-
  • >.<
  • -.-'
  • ^.-
  •  ;_;
  • X_X
  • @_@
  • o,o
  • *<.*
  • *.>*
  • ('_')







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