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Smyrna (Σμύρνη)
Ancient City of Smyrna
(İzmir)
The Agora of Smyrna (columns of the western stoa)
Smyrna is located in Turkey
Smyrna
Smyrna(Izmir)
Coordinates: 38°25′26″N 27°8′34″E / 38.42389°N 27.14278°E / 38.42389; 27.14278Coordinates: 38°25′26″N 27°8′34″E / 38.42389°N 27.14278°E / 38.42389; 27.14278

Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) was an ancient city located at two sites within modern Izmir, Turkey. While the first site, likely to have started as a native foundation, rose to prominence during the Archaic Period as one of the principal ancient Greek settlements in western Anatolia, the second, whose foundation is associated with Alexander the Great, reached metropolitan proportions especially during the period of the Roman Empire, from which time and particularly from after a 2nd century AD earthquake, most of the present-day remains date.

In practical terms, a distinction is often made between Old Smyrna, the initial settlement founded around the 11th century BC, first as an Aeolian settlement, and later taken over and developed during the Archaic Period by the Ionians, and Smyrna proper, the new city moved into from the older one as of the 4th century BC and whose foundation was inspired, and perhaps also initiated, by Alexander the Great. Old Smyrna was located on a small peninsula connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus at the northeastern corner of the inner Gulf of İzmir, at the edge of a fertile plain and at the foot of Mount Yamanlar which had seen the earlier Anatolian settlement commanding the gulf. New Smyrna developed simultaneously on the slopes of the Mount Pagos (Kadifekale today) and alongside the coastal strait immediately below where a small bay existed until the 18th century. The core of the late Hellenistic and early Roman Smyrna forms today the large area of İzmir Agora Open Air Museum at this site. Research is being pursued at the sites of both the old and the new cities in a continuous manner and in a regionalized structure, since 1997 for Old Smyrna and since 2002 for the Classical Period city, in collaboration between İzmir Archaeology Museum and the Metropolitan Municipality of İzmir.[1]

Contents

History

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Etymology

For full explanations on etymology of the city's name, see İzmir

There are several explanations brought forth as regards its name. One of these involve a Greek myth derived from an eponymous Amazon named Smyrna, which was also the name of a quarter of Ephesus, and can also be recognized under the form Myrina, a city of Aeolis. Smyrna is an ancient Greek word for myrrh.[2]

Third millennium to 687 BC

The region was settled at least as of the beginning of the third millennium BC, or perhaps earlier as the recent finds in Yeşilova Höyük suggests. It could have been a city of the autochthonous Leleges before the Greek colonists started to settle along the coast of Asia Minor as of the beginning of the first millennium BC. Throughout antiquity Smyrna was a leading city-state of Ionia, with influence over the Aegean shores and islands. Smyrna was also among the cities that claimed Homer as a resident.[3]

The early Aeolian Greek settlers of Lesbos and Cyme, expanding eastwards, occupied the valley of Smyrna. It was one of the confederacy of Aeolian city-states, marking the Aeolian frontier with the Ionian colonies.

Strangers or refugees from the Ionian city of Colophon settled in the city and finally (traditionally in 688 BC) by an uprising Smyrna passed into their hands and became the thirteenth of the Ionian city-states. Revised mythologies made it a colony of Ephesus[4] In 688 BC the Ionian boxer Onomastus of Smyrna won the prize at Olympia, but the coup was probably then a recent event. The Colophonian conquest is mentioned by Mimnermus (before 600 BC), who counts himself equally of Colophon and of Smyrna. The Aeolic form of the name was retained even in the Attic dialect, and the epithet "Aeolian Smyrna" remained current long after the conquest.

Smyrna's position at the mouth of the small river Hermus at the head of a deep arm of the sea (Smyrnaeus Sinus) that reached far inland and admitted Greek trading ships into the heart of Lydia, placed it on an essential trade route between Anatolia and the Aegean and raised Smyrna during the seventh century BC to power and splendor. One of the great trade routes which cross Anatolia descends the Hermus valley past Sardis, and then, diverging from the valley, passes south of Mount Sipylus and crosses a low pass into the little valley where Smyrna lies between the mountains and the sea. Miletus and later Ephesus were situated at the sea end of the other great trade route across Anatolia and competed for a time successfully with Smyrna; but after both cities' harbors silted up, Smyrna remained without a rival.

The Meles River, which flowed by Smyrna, is famous in literature and was worshiped in the valley. A common and consistent tradition connects Homer with the valley of Smyrna and the banks of the Meles; his figure was one of the stock types on coins of Smyrna, one class of which numismatists call "Homerian"; the epithet Melesigenes was applied to him; the cave where he was wont to compose his poems was shown near the source of the river; his temple, the Homereum, stood on its banks. The steady equable flow of the Meles, alike in summer and winter, and its short course, beginning and ending near the city, are celebrated by Aristides and Himerius. The description applies admirably to the stream which rises from abundant springs east of the city and flows into the southeast extremity of the gulf.

The archaic city ("Old Smyrna") contained a temple of Athena from the seventh century BC.

Lydian period

Map of Smyrna and Other Cities within the Lydian Empire

When the Mermnad kings raised the Lydian power and aggressiveness, Smyrna was one of the first points of attack. Gyges (ca. 687—652 BC) was, however, defeated on the banks of the Hermus, the situation of the battlefield showing that the power of Smyrna extended far to the east. A strong fortress was built probably by the Smyrnaean Ionians to command the valley of Nymphi, the ruins of which are still imposing, on a hill in the pass between Smyrna and Nymphi. According to Theognis (circa 500 BC), it was pride that destroyed Smyrna. Mimnermus laments the degeneracy of the citizens of his day, who could no longer stem the Lydian advance. Finally, Alyattes II (609—560 BC) conquered the city and sacked it, and though Smyrna did not cease to exist, the Greek life and political unity were destroyed, and the polis was reorganized on the village system. Smyrna is mentioned in a fragment of Pindar and in an inscription of 388 BC, but its greatness was past.

Hellenistic period

Agora of Smyrna

Alexander the Great conceived the idea of restoring the Greek city in a scheme that was, according to Strabo, actually carried out under Antigonus (316—301 BC) and Lysimachus (301 BC—281 BC), who enlarged and fortified the city. The ruined acropolis of the ancient city, the "crown of Smyrna," had been on a steep peak about 1250 feet high, which overhangs the northeast extremity of the gulf. Modern Izmir was constructed atop the later Hellenistic city, partly on the slopes of a rounded hill the Greeks called Pagos[5] near the southeast end of the gulf, and partly on the low ground between the hill and the sea. The beauty of the Hellenistic city, clustering on the low ground and rising tier over tier on the hillside, was frequently praised by the ancients and is celebrated on its coins.

Smyrna is shut in on the west by a hill now called Deirmen Tepe, with the ruins of a temple on the summit. The walls of Lysimachus crossed the summit of this hill, and the acropolis occupied the top of Pagus. Between the two the road from Ephesus entered the city by the Ephesian gate, near which was a gymnasium. Closer to the acropolis the outline of the stadium is still visible, and the theatre was situated on the north slopes of Pagus. Smyrna possessed two harbours. The outer harbour was simply the open roadstead of the gulf, and the inner was a small basin with a narrow entrance partially filled up by Tamerlane in 1402 AD.

The streets were broad, well paved and laid out at right angles; many were named after temples: the main street, called the Golden, ran across the city from west to east, beginning probably from the temple of Zeus Akraios on the west slope of Pagus, and running round the lower slopes of Pagus (like a necklace on the statue, to use the favorite terms of Aristides the orator) towards Tepecik outside the city on the east, where probably stood the temple of Cybele, worshipped under the name of Meter Sipylene, the patroness of the city. (name deriving from the nearby Mount Sipylus, which bounds the valley of the city's backlands). The plain towards the sea was too low to be properly drained, and hence in rainy weather the streets of the lower town were deep with mud and water.

At the end of the Hellenistic period, in 197 BC, the city suddenly cut its ties with King Eumenes of Pergamum and instead appealed to Rome for help. Because Rome and Smyrna had had no ties until then, Smyrna created a cult of Rome to establish a bond, and the cult eventually became widespread through the whole Roman Empire. As of 195 BC, the city of Rome started to be deified, in the cult to the goddess Roma. In this sense, the Smyrneans can be considered as the creators of the goddess Roma.

In 133 BC, when the last Attalid king Eumenes III died without an heir, his will conferred his entire kingdom, including Smyrna, to the Romans. They organized it into the Roman province of Asia, making Pergamum the capital. Smyrna, however, as a major seaport, became a leading city in the newly constituted province.

Roman and Byzantine period

As one of the principal cities of Roman Asia,[6] Smyrna vied with Ephesus and Pergamum for the title "First City of Asia."

A Christian church existed here from a very early time, probably originating in the considerable Jewish colony. It was one of the seven churches addressed in the Book of Revelation.[7] Saint Ignatius of Antioch visited Smyrna and later wrote letters to its bishop, Polycarp. A mob of Jews and pagans abetted the martyrdom of Polycarp in AD 153.[6] Saint Irenaeus, who heard Polycarp as a boy, was probably a native of Smyrna.[6]

Polycrates reports a succession of bishops including Polycarp of Smryna, as well as others in nearby cities such as Melito of Sardis. Related to that time the German historian W. Bauer wrote:

Asian Jewish Christianity received in turn the knowledge that henceforth the "church" would be open without hesitation to the Jewish influence mediated by Christians, coming not only from the apocalyptic traditions, but also from the synagogue with its practices concerning worship, which led to the appropriation of the Jewish passover observance. Even the observance of the sabbath by Christians appears to have found some favor in Asia...we find that in postapolstolic times, in the period of the formation of ecclesiastical structure, the Jewish Christians in these regions come into prominence.[8]

In the late second century, Irenaeus also noted:

Polycarp also was not only instructed by apostles, and conversed with many who had seen Christ, but was also, by apostles in Asia, appointed bishop of the Church in Smyrna…always taught the things which he had learned from the apostles, and which the Church has handed down, and which alone are true. To these things all the Asiatic Churches testify, as do also those men who have succeeded Polycarp.[9]

Tertullian wrote circa 208 A.D.

Anyhow the heresies are at best novelties, and have no continuity with the teaching of Christ. Perhaps some heretics may claim Apostolic antiquity: we reply: Let them publish the origins of their churches and unroll the catalogue of their bishops till now from the Apostles or from some bishop appointed by the Apostles, as the Smyrnaeans count from Polycarp and John, and the Romans from Clement and Peter; let heretics invent something to match this.[10]

Hence, apparently the church in Smyrna was one of only two that Tertullian felt could have had some type of apostolic succession. During the mid-third century, however, changes occurred in Asia Minor, and most there became affiliated with the Greco-Roman churches.

When Constantinople became the seat of government, the trade between Anatolia and the West diminished in importance, and Smyrna declined. The Seljuk commander Çaka Bey seized Smyrna in 1084 and used it as a base for naval raids, but the city was recovered by the generals of Alexios I Komnenos. The city was several times ravaged by the Turks, and had become quite ruinous when the emperor John Ducas Vatatzes about 1222 rebuilt it.

Ottoman period

Ibn Batuta found it still in great part a ruin when the homonymous chieftain of the Beylik of Aydın had conquered it about 1330 and made his son Umur governor. It became the port of the emirate. Soon afterwards the Knights of Saint John established themselves in the town but failed to conquer the citadel. In 1402 Tamerlane stormed the town and massacred almost all the inhabitants. The Mongol conquest was only temporary, but Smyrna was resumed by the Turks under Aydın dynasty after which it became Ottoman, when the Ottomans took over the lands of Aydın.

Greek influence was so strong in the area that the Turks called it "Smyrna of the infidels."[11]

The Ottomans continued to control the area, with the exception of the 1919-1922 period, when the city was assigned to Greece by the Treaty of Sevres. A great fire destroyed much of the city just after the conflict.

Agora

Agora of Smyrna

The remains of the agora of Smyrna constitute today the space of İzmir Agora Museum in İzmir's Namazgah quarter, although its area is commonly referred to as "Agora" by the city's inhabitants.

Situated on the northern slopes of the Pagos hills, it was the commercial, judicial and political nucleus of the ancient city, its center for artistic activities and for teaching.

İzmir Agora Open Air Museum consists of five parts, including the agora area, the base of the northern basilica gate, the stoa and the ancient shopping centre.

The agora of Smyrna was built during the Hellenistic era. After a destructive earthquake in 178 AD, Smyrna was rebuilt in the Roman period (second century AD) under the emperor Marcus Aurelius, according to an urban plan drawn by Hippodamos. The bust of the emperor's wife Faustina on the second arch of the western stoa confirms this fact. It was constructed on a sloping terrain in three floors, close to the city center. The terrain is 165 m wide and 200 m long. It is bordered on all sides by porticos. Because a Byzantine and later an Ottoman cemetery were located over the ruins of the agora, it was preserved from modern constructions. This agora is now the largest and the best preserved among Ionian agoras. The agora is now surrounded by modern buildings that still cover its eastern and southern parts. The agora was used until the Byzantine period.

Columns of the Agora of Smyrna

On entering the courtyard, too the left is the western stoa, in the back the basilica and on the right side the Ottoman cemetery. The courtyard was surrounded by porticoes on three sides. The basilica and the western portico were built over an infrastructure of basements with round arches to protect them against future earthquakes. The eastern end and the southern porticoes consisted of a two-floor compounded structure. Beneath the basilica was a covered market place. The design of the basement has a strong resemblance with the crypto-porticus constructions of the western provinces. The monumental entrance at the eastern side was one of the most magnificent and arched structures of the Hellenistic era.

A two-storied stoa, 17.5 m wide, was constructed at the eastern and western side of the agora. Each stoa was divided in three galleries by two rows of columns. Each stoa had an upper story. The stoas were protected from sun and rain by a roof. These impressive structures measured 75 m by 18 m. The southern part of the western stoa has many water channels and large water reservoirs, pointing to the presence of water in the agora.

Excavations

Although Smyrna was explored by Charles Texier in the 19th century and the German consul in İzmir had purchased the land around the ancient theater in 1917 to start excavations, the first scientific digs can be said to have started in 1927. Most of the discoveries were made by archaeological exploration carried as an extension during the period between 1931-1942 by the German archaeologist Rudolf Naumann and Selâhattin Kantar, the director of İzmir and Ephesus museums.[citation needed] They uncovered a three-floor, rectangular compound with stairs in the front, built on columns and arches around a large courtyard in the middle of the building.

New excavations in the agora began in 1996 and are being continued regularly since 2002 under the sponsorship of the Metropolitan Municipality of İzmir. A primary school that was adjacent to agora and that fell victim to a fire in 1980 not having been reconstructed, its space could be incorporated into the historical site. This meant that not only could the area of agora be increased to 16,590 square metres but also new digs could be launched in a previously unexplored zone. The archaeologists and the local authorities, means permitting, are also keenly eyeing a neighbouring multi-storey car park, which is known to cover an important part of the ancient settlement. During the present renovations the old restorations in concrete are gradually being replaced by marble.

The most important result of the new studies has been the discovery of the agora's northern gate. It has been concluded that embossed figures of the goddess Hestia found in these digs were a continuation of the Zeus altar uncovered during the first digs. Statues of the gods Hermes, Dionysos, Eros and Heracles have also been found, as well as many statues, heads, embossments, figurines and monuments of people and animals, made of marble, stone, bone, glass, metal and terracotta. Inscriptions found here list the people who provided aid to Smyrna after the earthquake of 178 AD.

Toponyms

Several American cities have been named after Smyrna. Those include Smyrna, Georgia, Smyrna, Tennessee, Smyrna, Delaware and New Smyrna Beach, Florida.

Notable natives and residents

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Eti Akyüz Levi, Dokuz Eylül University (2003). Paper: "The Agora of İzmir and Cultural Tourism" (in English). The International Committee for Documentation of Cultural Heritage (CIPA), 2003 Antalya Symposium. http://cipa.icomos.org/fileadmin/papers/antalya/114.pdf Paper:. 
  2. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke, iii.14.4 (Adonis), as quoted in Geoffrey Miles, Classical mythology in English literature: a critical anthology 1999:215.
  3. ^ Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece, and Rome. 
  4. ^ Strabo xiv. (633 BC); Stephanus Byzantinicus; Pliny, Natural History v.31.
  5. ^ Simply "the hill".
  6. ^ a b c Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005, article Smyrna
  7. ^ Revelation 1:11 and 2:8-11
  8. ^ Bauer W. Kraft RA, Krodel G, editors. Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity, 2nd edition. Sigler Press, Mifflintown (PA), 1996, pp.87-89
  9. ^ Irenaeus. Adversus Haeres. Book III, Chapter 4, Verse 3 and Chapter 3, Verse 4
  10. ^ Tertullian. Liber de praescriptione haereticorum, circa 208 A.D.
  11. ^ A Modern Crusade in the Turkish Empire retrieved June 10, 2008

Further reading

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SMYRNA (Ismir), in ancient times one of the most important and now by far the greatest of the cities of Asia Minor, has preserved an unbroken continuity of record and identity of name from the first dawn of history to the present time.

1. The Ancient City. - It is said to have been a Lelegian city before the Greek colonists settled in Asia Minor. The name, which is said to be derived from an Amazon called Smyrna, is indubitably Anatolian, having been applied also to a quarter of Ephesus, and (under the cognate form Myrina) to a city of Aeolis, and to a tumulus in the Troad. The Aeolic settlers of Lesbos and Cyme, pushing eastwards by Larissa and Neonteichus and over the Hermus, seized the valley of Smyrna. It was the frontier city between Aeolis on the N. and Ionia on the S., and was more accessible on the S. and E. than on the N. and W. By virtue of its situation it was necessarily a commercial city, like the Ionian colonies. It is therefore not surprising that the Aeolic element grew weaker; strangers or refugees from the Ionian Colophon settled in the city, and finally Smyrna passed into the hands of the Colophonians and became the thirteenth of the Ionian states. The change had taken place before 688, when the Ionian Onomastus of Smyrna won the boxing prize at Olympia, but it was probably then a recent event. The Colophonian conquest is mentioned by Mimnermus (before 600 B.C.), who counts himself equally a Colophonian and a Smyrnaean. The Aeolic form of the name, /piipva, was retained even in the Attic dialect, and the epithet "Aeolian Smyrna" remained long after the conquest. The situation of Smyrna on the path of comir.erce between Lydia and the west raised it during the 7th century to the height of power and splendour. It lay at the head of au arm of the sea, which reached far inland and admitted the Greek trading ships into the heart of Lydia. One of the great trade routes which cross Anatolia descends the Hermus valley past Sardis, and then diverging from the valley passes S. of Mt Sipylus and crosses a low pass into the little valley, about 7 m. long and 2 broad, where Smyrna lies between the mountains and the sea. Miletus, and later Ephesus, situated at the sea end of the other great trade route across Anatolia, competed for a time successfully with Smyrna, but both cities long ago lost their harbours and Smyrna remains without a rival.

When the Mermnad kings raised the Lydian power and aggressiveness Smyrna was one of the first points of attack. Gyges (c. 687-652) was, however, defeated on the banks of the Hermus; the situation of the battlefield shows that the power of Smyrna extended far to the E., and probably included the valley of Nymphi (Nif). A strong fortress, the ruins of whose ancient and massive walls are still imposing, on a hill in the pass between Smyrna and Nymphi, was probably built by the Smyrnaean Ionians to command the valley of Nymphi. According to Theognis (about Soo B.C.), " pride destroyed Smyrna." Mimnermus laments the degeneracy of the citizens of his day, who could no longer stem the Lydian advance. Finally, Alyattes III. (609-560) conquered the city, and Smyrna for 300 years lost its place in the list of Greek cities. It did not cease to exist, but the Greek life and political unity were destroyed, and the Smyrnaean state was organized on the village system (WKeiro nw j .o tiv). It is mentioned in a fragment of Pindar, about Soo B.C., and in an inscription of 388 B.C. A small fortification of early style, rudely but massively built, on the lowest slope of a hill N. of Burnabat, is perhaps a fortified village of this period. Alexander the Great conceived the idea of restoring the Greek city; the two Nemeses who were worshipped at Smyrna are said to have suggested the idea to him in a dream. The scheme was, according to Strabo, carried out by Antigonus (316-301), and Lysimachus enlarged and fortified the city (301-281). The acropolis of the ancient city had been on a steep peak about 1250 ft. high, which overhangs the N.E. extremity of the gulf; its ruins still exist, probably in much the same condition as they were left by Alyattes. The later city was founded on the modern site partly on the slopes of a rounded hill called Pagus near the S.E. end of the gulf, partly on the low round between the hill and the sea. The beauty of the city, clustering on the low ground and rising tier over tier on the hillside, is frequently praised by the ancients and is celebrated on its coins.

The "crown of Smyrna" seems to have been an epithet applied to the acropolis with its circle of buildings. Smyrna is shut in on the W. by a hill now called Deirmen Tepe, with the ruins of a temple on the summit. The walls of Lysimachus crossed the summit of this hill, and the acropolis occupied the top of Pagus. Between the two the road from Ephesus entered the city by the "Ephesian gate," near which was a gymnasium. Closer to the acropolis the outline of the stadium is still visible, and the theatre was situated on the N. slopes of Pagus. The line of the walls on the E. side is unknown; but they certainly embraced a greater area than is included by the Byzantine wall, which ascends the castle hill (Pagus) from the Basmakhane railway station. Smyrna possessed two harbours - the outer, which was simply the open roadstead of the gulf, and the inner, which was a small basin, with a narrow entrance closed by a rope in case of need, about the place now occupied by bazaars. The inner harbour was partially filled up by Timur in 1402, but it had not entirely disappeared till the beginning of the 19th century. The modern quay has encroached considerably on the sea, and the coast-line of the Greek time was about 90 yds. farther S. The streets were broad, well paved and laid out at right angles; many were named after temples: the main street, called the Golden, ran across the city from W. to E., beginning probably from the temple of Zeus Akraios on the W. side of Pagus, and running round the lower slopes of Pagus (like a necklace on the statue, to use the favourite terms of Aristides the orator) towards Tepejik outside the city on the E., where probably the temple of Cybele, the Metroon, stood. Cybele, worshipped under the name of Meter Sipylene, from Mt Sipylus, which bounds the Smyrna valley on the N., was the tutelar goddess of the city. The plain towards the sea was too low to be properly drained and hence in rainy weather the streets were deep with mud and water.

The river Meles,which flowed by Smyrna, is famous in literature and was worshipped in the valley. The most common and consistent tradition connects Homer with the valley of Smyrna and the banks of the Meles; his figure was one of the stock types on Smyrnaean coins, one class of which was called Homerian; the epithet "Melesigenes" was applied to him; the cave where he was wont to compose his poems was shown near the source of the river; his temple, the Homereum, stood on its banks. The steady equable flow of the Meles, alike in summer and winter, and its short course, beginning and ending near the city, are celebrated by Aristides and Himerius. The description applies admirably to the stream which rises from abundant fountains, now known as Diana's bath, E. of the city, and flows into the S.E. extremity of the gulf. The belief that the torrent, almost dry except after rains, which flows by Caravan bridge, is the ancient Meles, flatly contradicts the ancient descriptions.

In the Roman period Smyrna was the seat of a conventus which included S. Aeolis and great part of the Hermus valley. It vied with Ephesus and Pergamum for the title "First (city) of Asia." A Christian church existed here from a very early time, having its origin in the considerable Jewish colony. Polycarp was bishop of Smyrna and was martyred there A.D. 155. The bishops of Smyrna were originally subject to the metropolitan of Ephesus; afterwards they became independent (ai ro?<i aXot), and finally were honoured with metropolitan rank, having under them the bishops of Phocaea, Magnesia ad Sipylum, Clazomenae, Sosandrus (Nymphi?), Archangelus (Temnos?) and Petra (Menemen?).

When Constantinople became the seat of government the trade between Anatolia and the W. lost in importance, and Smyrna declined apace. A Turkish freebooter named Tsacha seized Smyrna in '1084, but it was recovered by the generals of Alexius Comnenus. The city was several times ravaged by the Turks, and had become quite ruinous when the emperor John Ducas Vatatzes about 1222 rebuilt it. But Ibn Batuta found it still in great part a ruin when the famous chieftain Aidin had conquered it about 1330 and made his son Amur governor. It became the port of the Aidin amirate. Soon afterwards the Knights of Saint John established themselves in the town, but failed to conquer the citadel. In 1402 Timur stormed the town and massacred almost all the inhabitants. The Mongol conquest was only temporary, but Smyrna was resumed by the Seljuks of Aidin and has remained till the present day in Mahommedan hands. Until the reign of Abdul Mejid it was included for administrative purposes in the eyalet of Jezair (the Isles) and not in that of Anadoli. The representative of the Capitan Pasha, who governed that eyalet, was, however, less influential in the city than the head of the Kara Osman Oglu's of Manisa (see Manisa). From the early 17th century till 1825, Smyrna was the chief provincial factory of the British Turkey Company, as well as of French, Dutch and other trading corporations. The passages with gates at each end within which most Frank shops in modern Smyrna lie, are a survival of the semi-fortified residences of the European merchants.

2. The Modern City, capital of the Aidin. vilayet, and the most important town of Asia Minor. Pop. more than 250,000, of which fully a half is Greek. It is one of the principal ports of the Ottoman empire, and has a large trade, of which the greater part is with Great Britain. The chief items of export are figs, tobacco, valonia, carpets, raisins and silk, to the value of some three million sterling. The imports are estimated at a million more. About 7000 steamships visit the port annually. Until 1894 the two railways from Smyrna to the interior belonged to British companies; but in 1897 the Smyrna-Alashehr line passed into the hands of a French syndicate, which completed an extension to Afium Kara-hissar and virtually (though not actually) effected a junction with the Anatolian railway system. This line has branches to Burnabat and Soma. The SmyrnaAidin line has been extended to Dineir, and powers have been obtained to continue to Isbarta and Egerdir. It has branches to Buja, Seidikeui, Tireh, Odemish, Sokia, Denizli and Ishekli.

Modern Smyrna is in all but government a predominantly Christian town (hence the Turks know it as giaour Is y nir). There is a large European element (including about Boo British subjects), a great part of which lives in two suburban villages, Burnabat and Buja, but has business premises in the city. The European and Greek quarters rapidly increase, mainly to the N.; while the fine quays, made by a French company, are backed by a line of good buildings. The streets behind, though clean and well kept, are very narrow and tortuous. A fine new Konak (government offices) has been built, and another important new structure is the pier of the Aidin Railway Co. at Point. The development of this railway is the most conspicuous sign of progress.

Smyrna is a headquarters of missions of all denominations and has good schools, of which the International College is the best. There is a British consul-general, with full consular establishment, including a hospital.

See general authorities for Asia Minor, especially the travellers, almost all of whom describe Smyrna. Also B. F. Slaars, Etude sur Smyrne (1868); and W. M. Ramsay, Letters to the Seven Churches (1904) and article in Hastings's Dict. of the Bible (1902).

(W. M. RA.; D. G. H.)


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English

Etymology

From Ancient Greek Σμύρνα (Smurna), a variant spelling of Σμύρνη (Smurnē), the Ionic Greek form of the original Aeolic Greek name Μύῤῥα (Murrhā), Smyrna).

Pronunciation

  • (RP) enPR: zm.îrʹnä, IPA: /zmˈɪɚnɑː/, SAMPA: /zm"I@`nA:/

Proper noun

Singular
Smyrna

Plural
-

Smyrna

  1. (chiefly historical) A port city on the Aegean coast of western Asia Minor founded in circa the 11th century BC on the site of the present-day Turkish city of İzmir.

Meronyms

  • New Smyrna
  • Old Smyrna
  • Smyrna proper

Translations


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Cladus: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Cladus: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Divisio: Ditrysia
Sectio: Cossina
Subsection: Bombycina
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea
Series: Papilioniformes
Familia: Nymphalidae
Subfamilia: Nymphalinae
Tribus: Nymphalini
Genus: Smyrna
Species (2): S. blomfildia - S. karwinskii

Name

Smyrna Hübner, 1823


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Meaning: myrrh

An ancient city of Ionia, on the western coast of Asia Minor, about 40 miles to the north of Ephesus.

The church founded here was one of the seven addressed in the Book of Revelation (Rev 2:8ff).

The celebrated Polycarp, a pupil of the apostle John, was in the second century a prominent leader in the church of Smyrna. Here he suffered martyrdom, A.D. 155.

This article needs to be merged with SMYRNA (Jewish Encyclopedia).
This article needs to be merged with Smyrna (Catholic Encyclopedia).
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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